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Fundamental phases of matter - solid, liquid, gas

 Applying shear to solids causes deformation


 Applying shear to liquid and gases creates flow
 Volume of all three phases changes when shear is applied
 Liquid and gasses cannot be compressed (without special machinery)
 Viscosity - how "sticky" a substance is
o Solids don't have viscosity, only liquids and gases
Fluids
 Fluids are substances that continuously deform under shear stress
 Primary fluids dealt with in the course are water and air (oil in some cases)

Fluid Mechanics
 Concerned with the behaviour of liquids and gases at rest or in motion
 3 categories
o Statics - Fluids at rest
o Kinematics - fluids in motion w/o considering the causes of motion
o Dynamics -

Heat Transfer
 Thermal energy in transfer due to a temperature difference
 Heat always flows from warm to cold

Heat Transfer Mechanisms


 Conduction - requires contact for heat to transfer
o Applies to both solids and liquids
 Convection - Fluid moving on top of a solid or mixing with a liquid
o Heat and mass transfer
 Radiation - heat can be exchanged between any objects, without the need for a medium
o The objects have to be visually in sight of each other for heat transfer to occur
 Phase change (not learned in this course)

Heat Flow Through Time


 Steady state - quantity is not changing with respect to time
 Transient - non-constant flow of energy

Conductive Heat Transfer


 Flow of heat through a material by direct molecular contact
 Most important heat
 q (w) - Heat rate
q' (W/m) - heat rate per unit length
q'' - heat flux, heat rate per unit area
q=q'L
q=q''A
k (W/m K) is the thermal conductivity of the material
 Fourier's law
o Q'' is proportional to -k∇T
o ∇T = dt/dx + dt/dy + dt/dz
 q''cond = -k(dt/dx)=k(ΔT/L)
 qcond = kA(ΔT/L)

Thermal Conductivity, k (W/m K)


 The lower the conductivity, the harder it is to transfer heat
 Conductivity of a material remains constant (assumed for this course)

Example 0.1
q
k = 1.8 W/m K
ΔT = 20-(-20) = 40
Answer = 4800 W

Convective Heat Transfer


 Transfer of heat by the movement or flow of molecules

Convective Heat Transfer

Example 0.2

Radiative Heat Exchange


 Stefan-Boltzmann Law (for an ideal radiator or blackbody)

 Stefan-Boltzmann Law (for an real radiator or greybody)


 Absorptivity

Example 0.3

 Assumptions
o Heat transfer by radiation
o Steady-state
 Analysis
Assume 𝜀 = 0.85
q''rad = 𝜀(sigma)(Ts4 - Tsur4

Tskin = 37C
Tsky = 15C
Abodysur = 1.7m2

Example 1

From <https://photos.google.com/photo/AF1QipPK6Bnj6PWPzxEsmNfPIWPvU1bjWFTiQ5wIyyiY>

 Assumptions
o Steady-state
o Heat transfer through convection and radiation
o a=𝜀 (absorptivity = emissitivity)
 Analysis
o Pipe surface A=πDL
o Qtotal = qconv + qrad
Qtotal = (Ah)(Tp-Tsur)+ A(sigma)(Tp4-Twall4)
Qtotal = (nDL)h(Tp-T

First Law of Thermodynamics