Sie sind auf Seite 1von 92

Base Station Antennas

Antenna Theory
Basic Principles for Daily Applications

November 2004

CONFIDENTIAL- Proprietary Information 1 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Dipole

F0 (MHz) λ (Meters) λ (Inches)


30 10.0 393.6
¼λ 80 3.75 147.6
160 1.87 73.8
280 1.07 42.2
460 0.65 25.7
800 0.38 14.8
F0 ¼λ 960 0.31 12.3
1700 0.18 6.95
2000 0.15 5.90

2 One Company. A World of Solutions.


3D View Antenna Pattern

Source: COMSEARCH

3 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Understanding the Mysterious “DB”

“dBd” – Signal strength relative to a dipole in empty space


“dBi” – Signal strength relative to an isotropic radiator
“dB” – Difference between two signal strengths
“dBm” – Absolute signal strength relative to 1 milliwatt
1 mWatt = 0 dBm Note: The
1 Watt = 30 dBm Logarithmic Scale
20 Watts = 43 dBm 10 * log10 (Power Ratio)

“dBc” – Signal strength relative to a signal of known


strength, in this case: the carrier signal
Example: -100 dBc = 100 dB below carrier signal
If carrier is 100 Watt = 50 dBm
-100 dBc = -50 dBm or 0.00001 mWatt
4 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Effect of VSWR
Good VSWR is only one component of an efficient antenna.

Return Transmission Power Power


VSWR Loss (dB) Loss (dB) Reflected (%) Trans. (%)

1.00 ∞ 0.00 0.0 100.0


1.10 26.4 0.01 0.2 99.8
1.20 20.8 0.04 0.8 99.2
1.30 17.7 0.08 1.7 98.3
1.40 15.6 0.12 2.8 97.2
1.50 14.0 0.18 4.0 96.0
2.00 9.5 0.51 11.1 88.9

5 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Shaping Antenna Patterns

Vertical arrangement of properly phased


dipoles allows control of radiation patterns
at the horizon as well as above and below
the horizon. The more dipoles are stacked
vertically, the flatter the vertical pattern is
and the higher the antenna coverage or
“gain” in the general direction of the
horizon.

6 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Shaping Antenna Patterns (cont . . .)
Aperture Vertical Horizontal Stacking 4 dipoles
of Dipoles Pattern Pattern vertically in line changes
the pattern shape
(squashes the doughnut)
Single Dipole and increases the gain
over single dipole.
The peak of the horizontal
or vertical pattern
measures the gain.
The little lobes, illustrated
in the lower section, are
4 Dipoles
Vertically Stacked secondary minor lobes.
GENERAL STACKING RULE:
• Collinear elements (in-line vertically).
• Optimum spacing (for non-electrical tilt) is approximately 0.9λ.
• Doubling the number of elements increases gain by 3 dB, and reduces
vertical beamwidth by half.

7 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Gain

What is it?
Antenna gain is a comparison of the power/field characteristics of a
device under test (DUT) to a specified gain standard.

Why is it useful?
Gain can be associated with coverage distance and/or obstacle
penetration (buildings, foliage, etc).

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. The
reference gain standard must always be specified.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard of +/-1 dB accuracy.

8 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Gain References (dBd and dBi)

! An isotropic antenna is
Isotropic (dBi)
a single point in space Isotropic Pattern Dipole (dBd)
radiating in a perfect Gain
sphere (not physically Dipole Pattern

possible)

! A dipole antenna is one


radiating element
(physically possible)
3 (dBd) = 5.15 (dBi)
! A gain antenna is two or 0 (dBd) = 2.15 (dBi)
more radiating elements
phased together

9 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Principles of Antenna Gain
Omni Antenna Directional Antennas
Side View Top View
-3 dB
0 dBd
0 dBd 60°

-3 dB
+3 dBd 180°

+3 dBd 30° -3 dB

-3 dB

+6 dBd 90°
+6 dBd 15°
-3 dB
-3 dB

7.5°
+9 dBd +9 dBd 45°
-3 dB

-3 dB

10 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Theoretical Gain of Antennas (dBd)
3 dB Horizontal Aperture Typical Length
(Influenced by Grounded Back “Plate”) of Antenna (ft.)
800/900 DCS 1800 Vertical
360° 180° 120° 105° 90° 60° 45° 33° MHzPCS 1900 Beamwidth
λ)
Vertically Spaced (0.9λ

1 0 3 4 5 6 8 9 10.5 1' 0.5' 60°


# of Radiators

2 3 6 7 8 9 11 12 13.6 2' 1' 30°


3 4.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.5 13.5 15.1 3' 1.5' 20°
4 6 9 10 11 12 14 15 16.6 4' 2' 15°
6 7.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 15.5 16.5 18.1 6' 3' 10°
8 9 12 13 14 15 17 18 19.6 8' 4' 7.5°

Could be horizontal radiator pairs for


narrow horizontal apertures.

11 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Gain vs. Length
25

20

15
Gain (dBi)

10

5
G = log ( 2.2 πλL W )
2
e

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Antenna Length (wavelengths)

65° Az BW 90° Az BW 120° Az BW

12 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Gain vs. Beamwidths
25

20

15
Gain (dBi)

10

5 G = log ( Az29000
EI
)
BW BW

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Elevation Half Power Beamwidth (deg)

65° Az BW 90° Az BW 120° Az BW

13 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Antenna Gain

! Gain (dBi) = Directivity (dBi) – Losses (dB)

! Losses: Conductor
Dielectric
Impedance
Polarization

! Measure Using ‘Gain by Comparison’

14 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Various Radiator Designs

Elements

Dipole 1800/1900/UMTS Diversity (XPol)


Directed Dipole™ Directed Dipole™

Patch 800/900 MHz MAR


Directed Dipole™ Microstrip Annular Ring

15 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Dipoles

Single Dipole Crossed Dipole

16 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Feed Harness Construction

ASP705 DB809 DB589


(And Most Sector Arrays)

Series Feed Center Feed Corporate


(Hybrid) Feed

17 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Feed Harness Construction (cont . . .)

Center Feed
Series Feed (Hybrid) Corporate Feed

Advantages: ! Minimal feed losses ! Frequency ! Frequency


! Simple feed system independent main independent main
lobe direction beam direction
! Reasonably ! More beam
simple feed shaping ability,
system side lobe
suppression
BEAMTILT
Disadvantages: +2°
! Not as versatile as ! Complex feed
+1°


corporate (less system
+1° ASP-705
bandwidth, less
+2°
450 455 460 465 470 MHz
beam shaping)

18 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Feed Networks

! Cable
! Microstripline, Corporate Feeds
– Dielectric Substrate
– Air Substrate

! T-Line Feed and Radiator

19 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Microstrip Feed Lines

! Dielectric Substrate
– Uses ‘printed circuit’ technology
– Power limitations
– Dielectric substrate causes loss (~1.0 dB/m at 2 GHz)

! Air Substrate
– Metal strip spaced above a groundplane
– Minimal solder or welded joints
– Laser cut or punched
– Air substrate cause minimal loss (~0.1 dB/m at 2 GHz)

20 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Air Microstrip Network

21 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Dielectric Substrate Microstrip

Elements

Feedline

22 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Stacking Dipoles
8 Dipoles

1 Dipole 4 Dipoles

2 Dipoles

23 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB812 Omni Antenna
Vertical Pattern

24 One Company. A World of Solutions.


932DG65T2E-M
Pattern Simulation

25 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Main Lobe
What is it?
The main lobe is the radiation pattern 35° Total
lobe that contains the majority portion of Main Lobe
radiated energy.

Why is it useful?
Shaping of the pattern allows the
contained coverage necessary for
interference-limited system designs.

How is it measured?
The main lobe is characterized using a
number of the measurements which will
follow.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.
26 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Half-Power Beamwidth
Horizontal and Vertical
1/2 Power
What is it? Beamwidth
The angular span between the half-power
(-3 dB) points measured on the cut of the
antenna’s main lobe radiation pattern.

Why is it useful?
It allows system designers to
choose the optimum characteristics
for coverage vs. interference
requirements.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from
antenna range testing.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.
27 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Front-To-Back Ratio

What is it?
The ratio in dB of the maximum directivity
of an antenna to its directivity in a
specified rearward direction. Note that on
a dual-polarized antenna, it is the sum
of co-pol and cross-pol patterns.
Why is it useful?
It characterizes unwanted
interference on the backside of the
main lobe. The larger the number,
the better!

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from
antenna range testing. F/B Ratio @ 180 degrees
0 dB - 25 dB = 25 dB
What is Andrew standard?
Each data sheet shows specific performance. In general, traditional dipole
and patch elements will yield 23-28 dB while the Directed Dipole™ style
elements will yield 35-40 dB.
28 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Sidelobe Level

What is it?
Sidelobe level is a measure of a
particular sidelobe or angular
group of sidelobes with Sidelobe Level
respect to the main lobe. (-20 dB)

Why is it useful?
Sidelobe level or pattern
shaping allows the minor lobe
energy to be tailored to the
antenna’s intended use. See
Null Fill and Upper Sidelobe
Suppression.

How is it measured?
It is always measured with respect to the
main lobe in dB.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.

29 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Null Filling

What is it?
Null Filling is an array optimization technique
that reduces the null between the
lower lobes in the elevation plane.
Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical beam-
width (less than 12°), null filling
significantly improves signal intensity in
all coverage targets below the horizon.
How is it measured?
Null fill is easiest explained as the
relative dB difference between the peak
of the main beam and the depth of the
1st lower null.
What is Andrew standard?
Most of Decibel arrays will have null fill of 20-30 dB
without optimization. To earn the label MaxFill™, we expect no less
than 15 and typically 10-12 dB!
30 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Null Fill

Important for antennas with narrow elevation beamwidths.

Null Filled to 16 dB Below Peak


Received Level (dBm)

0
Transmit Power = 1 W
-20
Base Station Antenna Height = 40 m
-40
Base Station Antenna Gain = 16 dBd
-60 Elevation Beamwidth = 6.5°
-80

-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Distance (km)

31 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Upper Sidelobe Suppression
What is it?
Upper sidelobe suppression (USLS) is an array
optimization technique that reduces the
undesirable sidelobes above the main lobe.

Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical
beamwidth (less than 12°), USLS can
significantly reduce interference due to
multi-path or when the antenna is
mechanically downtilted.
How is it measured?
USLS is the relative dB difference
between the peak of the main beam
peak of the first upper sidelobe.

What is Andrew standard?


Most of Andrew’s arrays will have USLS of >15 dB without optimization.
The goal of all new designs is to suppress the first upper sidelobe to
unity gain or lower.

32 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Orthogonality
What is it? δ
The ability of an antenna to discriminate
between two waves whose polarization
difference is 90 degrees.

Why is it useful?
Orthogonal arrays within a single
antenna allow for polarization diversity.
(As opposed to spacial diversity.)
δ))
XPol = 20 log ( tan (δ
How is it measured? δ = 0°, XPol = -∞ dB
The difference between the co-polar δ = 5°, XPol = -21 dB
pattern and the cross-polar pattern, δ =10°, XPol = -15 dB
usually measured in the boresight (the δ =15°, XPol = -11 dB
direction of the main signal). δ =20°, XPol = -9 dB
δ =30°, XPol = -5 dB
What is Andrew standard? δ =40°, XPol =-1.5 dB
Andrew conforms to the industry standard.

33 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Cross-Pol Ratio (CPR)
What is it?
120°
CPR is a comparison of the co-pol vs. cross-pol
pattern performance of a dual-polarized 0

-5

antenna generally over the sector of interest -10

-15

(alternatively over the 3 dB beamwidth). -20

-25

Why is it useful? -30

-35
TYPICAL
It is a measure of the ability of a cross-pol array
-40

to distinguish between orthogonal waves. The


better the CPR, the better the performance of Co-Polarization
polarization diversity. Cross-Polarization
(Source @ 90°)
How is it measured?
120°
It is measured using data collected from antenna
0

range testing and compares the two plots in dB -5

over the specified angular range. Note: in the -10

-15

rear hemisphere, cross-pol becomes co-pol and -20

vica versa. -25

-30 DIRECTED
-35

What is Andrew standard? -40


DIPOLE™
For traditional dipoles, the minimum is 10 dB;
however, for the Directed Dipole™ style
elements, it increases to 15 dB minimum.
34 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Horizontal Beam Tracking
What is it?
120°
It refers to the beam tracking between the two
beams of a +/-45° polarization diversity antenna
over a specified angular range.

Why is it useful? -45° +45°


For optimum diversity Array Array
performance, the beams should
track as closely as possible.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected
from antenna range testing and
compares the two plots in dB over
the specified angular range.

What is Andrew standard?


The Andrew beam tracking standard is +/-1 dB
over the 3 dB horizontal beamwidth.

35 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Beam Squint
Horizontal
Boresight
What is it?
The amount of pointing error of a given beam θ/2
Squint
referenced to mechanical boresite. θ
-3 dB +3 dB
Why is it useful?
The beam squint can affect the sector
coverage if it is not at mechanical
boresite. It can also affect the
performance of the polarization
diversity style antennas if the two
arrays do not have similar patterns.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected
from antenna range testing.

What is Andrew standard?


For the horizontal beam, squint shall b less than 10%
of the 3 dB beamwidth. For the vertical beam, squint
shall be less than 15% of the 3 dB beamwidth or
1 degree, whichever is greatest.
36 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Sector Power Ratio (SPR)
120°
What is it?
SPR is a ratio expressed in percentage
of the power outside the desired sector
to the power inside the desired sector
created by an antenna’s pattern.

Why is it useful?
It is a percentage that allows comparison
of various antennas. The better the SPR,
the better the interference performance of
the system.

How is it measured? DESIRED


It is mathematically derived from the UNDESIRED
measured range data.
300
Σ PUndesired
What is Decibel Products standard? SPR (%) =
60
X 100
60
Andrew Directed Dipole™ style antennas have Σ PDesired
SPR’s typically less that 2 percent. 300

37 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Antenna - Based System Improvements
Key antenna parameters to examine closely…
F
DB950 85 Standard 85° Panel Antenna
G
Directed Dipole™
-7dB Roll off -6dB
at -/+ 60°

74° -10 dB 83°

74° points 83°

Horizontal
-16dB Ant/Ant -12dB
Isolation

Next Sector
Ant/Ant
-35dB -18dB
Isolation

120° Cone 60°


Cone of Great Silence with of Silence Area of Poor Silence with
>40dB Front-to-Back Ratio >27dB Front-to-Back Ratio

38 One Company. A World of Solutions.


The Impact:
Lower Co-Channel Interference/Better Capacity & Quality
In a three sector site, traditional Traditional Flat Panels
antennas produce a high degree of
imperfect power control or sector
overlap.
Imperfect sectorization presents
opportunities for:
! Increased softer hand-offs
! Interfering signals
! Dropped calls
65° 90°
! Reduced capacity
ANDREW Directed Dipole™
The rapid roll-off of the lower lobes of the
ANDREW Directed Dipole™ antennas
create larger, better defined “cones
of silence” behind the array.

! Much smaller softer hand-off area


! Dramatic call quality improvement
! 5% - 10 % capacity enhancement
65° 90°
39 One Company. A World of Solutions.
120° Sector Overlay Issues
“On the Capacity and Outage Probability of a CDMA Heirarchial Mobile
System with Perfect/Imperfect Power Control and Sectorization”
By: Jie ZHOU et, al IEICE TRANS FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E82-A, NO.7 JULY 1999

. . . From the numerical results, the user capacities are dramatically decreased as the
imperfect power control increases and the overlap between the sectors (imperfect
sectorization) increases . . .

“Effect of Soft and Softer Handoffs

Percentage of
capacity loss
on CDMA System Capacity”
By: Chin-Chun Lee et, al IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR
TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 47, NO. 3,
AUGUST 1998

overlapping angle in degree


Qualitatively, excessive overlay also
reduces capacity of TDMA and GSM
systems.
40 One Company. A World of Solutions.
System Issues

! Choosing sector antennas


! Downtilt – electrical vs. mechanical
! RET optimization
! Passive intermodulation (PIM)
! Return loss through coax
! Pattern distortion
! Antenna isolation

41 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Choosing Sector Antennas
For 3 sector cell sites, what performance differences can
be expected from the use of antennas with different
horizontal apertures?

Criteria:
! Area of service indifference between adjacent sectors
(“ping-pong” area).
! For comparison, use 6 dB differentials.
! Antenna gain and overall sector coverage.

42 One Company. A World of Solutions.


3 x 120° Antennas
120° Horizontal
Overlay Pattern

Examples:
57° 3 dB VPOL
Low Band
DB874H120
DB878H120

High Band
DB978H120

43 One Company. A World of Solutions.


3 x 90° Antennas
90° Horizontal
43° Overlay Pattern

Examples:
XPOL VPOL
Low Band
DB854DG90 DB842H90
DB856DG90 DB844H90
DB858DG90 DB848G90
DB864H90
DB866H90
High Band
DB932DG90 DB948G85
UMWD-9014 DB978G90
5 dB UMWD-9016 DB980G90
DB982G90

44 One Company. A World of Solutions.


3 x 65° Antennas
24° 65° Horizontal
Overlay Pattern

Examples:
XPOL VPOL
Low Band
DB854DG65 DB842H65
DB856DG65 DB844H65
DB858DG65 DB848H65
CTSDG066513
CTSDG066515
CTSDG066516

High Band
6 dB UMWD-06513 DB948G65
UMWD-06516 DB980G65
UMWD-06517 DB982G65

45 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Beam Downtilt
In urban areas, service and frequency utilization are
frequently improved by directing maximum radiation power at
an area below the horizon.

This Technique:
! Improves coverage of open areas close
to the base station.
! Allows more effective penetration of
nearby buildings, particular high-traffic
lower levels and garages.
! Permits the use of adjacent frequencies
in the same general region.
46 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

! Mechanical downtilt lowers main beam, raises back lobe.

! Electrical downtilt lowers main beam and lowers back lobe.

! A combination of equal electrical and mechanical downtilts


lowers main beam and brings back lobe onto the horizon!

47 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical Electrical

48 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB5083 Downtilt Mounting Kit

DB5083 Downtilt Mounting


Kit is constructed of heavy-
duty, galvanized steel,
designed for pipe mounting
12" to 20" wide panel
antennas.

Correct bracket calibration assumes


a plumb mounting pipe!
Check antenna with a digital level.
49 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical Tilt Causes:


• Beam Peak to Tilt Below Horizon
• Back Lobe to Tilt Above Horizon
• At ± 90° No Tilt

Pattern Analogy: Rotating a Disk

50 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Mechanical Downtilt Coverage
100 90 80 100 90 80
110 70 110 70
120 60 120 60
130 50 130 50

140 40 140 40

150 30 150 30

160 20 160 20

170 10 170 10

180 0 180 0

190 350 190 350

200 340 200 340

210 330 210 330

220 320 220 320

230 310 230 310


240 300 240 300
250 290 250 290
260 270 280 260 270 280

Elevation Pattern Azimuth Pattern

Mechanical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10°

51 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB834H85RF-F
0° Mechanical Downtilt

85°

Quiz: What is the vertical


beamwidth of a 4-element
array?

52 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB834H85RF-F
7° Mechanical Downtilt

93°

53 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB834H85RF-F
15° Mechanical Downtilt

123°

54 One Company. A World of Solutions.


DB834H85RF-F
20° Mechanical Downtilt

Horizontal
3 dB Bandwidth
Undefined

55 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Managing Beam Tilt
For the radiation pattern to show maximum gain in the direction
of the horizon, each stacked dipole must be fed from the signal
source “in phase”. Feeding vertically arranged dipoles “out of
phase” will generate patterns that “look up” or “look down”.
The degree of beam tilt is a function of the phase shift of one
dipole relative to the adjacent dipole.

GENERATING BEAM TILT


Dipoles Fed “In Phase” Dipoles Fed “Out of Phase”

Energy

in ¼λ

e
Phase

t
Wav
Fron
Exciter
Exciter

56 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Electrical Downtilt

Electrical Tilt Causes:


• Beam peak to tilt below horizon
• Back lobe to tilt below horizon
• At ± 90° to tilt below horizon
• All the pattern tilts

“Cone” of the Beam Peak pattern

Pattern Analogy: Forming a cone out of a disk

57 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Electrical Downtilt Coverage
100 90 80 100 90 80
110 70 110 70
120 60 120 60
130 50 130 50

140 40 140 40

150 30 150 30

160 20 160 20

170 10 170 10

180 0 180 0

190 350 190 350

200 340 200 340

210 330 210 330

220 320 220 320

230 310 230 310


240 300 240 300
250 290 250 290
260 270 280 260 270 280

Elevation Pattern Azimuth Pattern

Electrical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10°

58 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Mechanical vs. Electrical Downtilt

350 0 10
340 20
330 30
320 40

310 50

300 60

290 70

280 80

270 90

260 100

250 110

240 120

230 130

220 140
210 150
200 160
190 180 170

59 One Company. A World of Solutions.


VARI-TILT®

With Variable Electrical Beamwidth (VEB),


you can adjust anywhere in 30 seconds.

60 One Company. A World of Solutions.


ASPD 977
3° Electrical Downtilt

61 One Company. A World of Solutions.


ASPD 977
8° Electrical Downtilt

62 One Company. A World of Solutions.


ASPD 977
Overlay Electrical Downtilt



63 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Remote Electrical Downtilt (RET)
Optimization

ATM
Local PC
ATMS

ATC100 Series

Local PC
ATMS

ATC200-LITE

Local PC

ANMS
Remote ATC200 Series
Locations

Network
Server
64 One Company. A World of Solutions.
“Intermod” Interference
Where?
F1 F3

Tx Rx Tx Rx
F1 F2 F3 F1 F2 F3

RECEIVER-PRODUCED TRANSMITTER-PRODUCED

Tx Tx
F2 F2

F1
F2 F3 F1
Rx
DUP Tx1 F3
F3
C
Tx1
O F2 ELSEWHERE
M
Tx2 Rx3
B Tx2
RF PATH-PRODUCED

65 One Company. A World of Solutions.


PCS A-Band
Product Frequencies, Two-Signal IM

FIM = nF1 ± mF2


Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz
Product Product Product
n m Order Formulae Frequencies (MHz)
1 1 Second 1F1 + 1F2 3875
1F1 – 1F2 15
2 1 Third 2F1 + 1F2 5820
*2F1 – 1F2 1960
1 2 Third 2F2 + 1F1 5805
*2F2 – 1F1 1915
2 2 Fourth 2F1 + 2F2 7750
2F1 – 2F2 30
3 2 Fifth 3F1 + 2F2 9695
*3F1 – 2F2 1975
2 3 Fifth 3F2 + 2F1 9680
*3F2 – 2F1 1900
*Odd-order difference products fall in-band.
66 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Two-Signal IM
Odd-Order Difference Products

Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz


∆F = F1 - F2 = 15
F2 F1
1930 1945
2F2 – F1 2F1 – F2
1915 1960
∆F
∆F ∆F
3F2 – 2F1 3F1 – 2F2
F2 – ∆F F1 + ∆F
1900 1975

2∆F 2∆F

F2 – 2∆F F1 + 2∆F

5th 3rd F2 F1 3rd 5th

Third Order: F1 + ∆F; F2 - ∆F


Fifth Order: F1 + 2∆F; F2 - 2∆F
Seventh Order:: F1 + 3∆F; F2 - 3∆F
“Higher than the highest – lower than the lowest – none in-between”
67 One Company. A World of Solutions.
PCS Duplexed IM

Own Rx Any Rx
Tx Rx Band Band IM Equations
Band Frequency Frequency IM Order IM Order Own Rx Band Any Rx Band

A 1930-1945 1850-1865 11th 5th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1855 =3*Tx(low)-2*Tx(high)=1900

B 1950-1965 1870-1885 11th 7th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1875 =4*Tx(low)-3*Tx(high)=1905

C 1975-1990 1895-1910 11th 11th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900 =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900

68 One Company. A World of Solutions.


A Band IM
11th 9th 7th 5th 3rd
1855 1870 1885 1900 1915 1930 1945

Channel Bandwidth FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan


Block (MHz) Frequencies
C 30 1895-1910, 1975-1990 Note: Some of the original C Block
C1 15 1902.5-1910, 1982.5-1990
C2 15 1895-1902-5, 1975-1982.5 licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were
C3 10 1895-1900, 1975-1980 split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2:
C4 10 1900-1905, 1980-1985 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10MHz).
C5 10 1905-1910, 1985-1990

69 One Company. A World of Solutions.


A and F Band IM
3rd
1895 1935 1975

Channel Bandwidth FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan


Block (MHz) Frequencies
C 30 1895-1910, 1975-1990 Note: Some of the original C Block
C1 15 1902.5-1910, 1982.5-1990
C2 15 1895-1902-5, 1975-1982.5 licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were
C3 10 1895-1900, 1975-1980 split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2:
C4 10 1900-1905, 1980-1985 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10MHz).
C5 10 1905-1910, 1985-1990

70 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Causes of IMD

! Ferromagnetic materials in the current path:


– Steel
– Nickel plating or underplating
! Current disruption:
– Loosely contacting surfaces
– Non-conductive oxide layers between contact surfaces

71 One Company. A World of Solutions.


System VSWR Calculator
Andrew Corporation
System VSWR Calculator Version 1.8
Frequency (MHz): 850.00 05-Oct-04

Cable Type /
Component Max. Return Cable Cable Insertion Reflections
System Component Component
Used? VSWR Loss (dB) Length (m) Length (ft) Loss (dB) at input
Loss
Yes1 Antenna or Load 1.33 16.98 0.0852
Yes 1 1 Top Jumper 1.07 29.42 LDF4-50A
LDF5-50A2
LDF4-50A 1.22 4.00 0.08 0.0207
No 2 2 Tower Mounted Amp 1.29 17.95 0.20 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 TMA Jumper 1.07 29.42 2 1.22 4.00 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 Top Diplexer 1.29 17.95 0.20 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 Diplexer Jumper 1.07 29.42 2.00 1.22 4.00 0.00 0.0000
Yes 1 1 Main Feed Line 1.11 25.66 1
LDF5-50A 53.34 175.00 2.00 0.0507
No 2 2 Surge Jumper 1.07 29.42 2 1.22 4.00 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 Surge Suppressor 1.07 29.42 0.20 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 Diplexer/Duplexer Jumper 1.07 29.42 2.00 1.22 4.00 0.00 0.0000
No 2 2 Bottom Diplexer/Duplexer 1.29 17.95 0.20 0.00 0.0000
Yes 1 1 Bottom Jumper 1.07 29.42 2.00
LDF4-50A 1.83 6.00 0.12 0.0338

Jumper Cable Types: Estimated System Reflection: 0.1068


1/2 inch Superflexible FoamFSJ4-50B FSJ4-50B Estimated System VSWR: 1.24
1/2 inch Low Density Foam LDF4-50A LDF4-50A Estimated System Return Loss (dB): 19.4

Main Feedline Cable Types: Maximum System Reflection: 0.1904


7/8 inch Low Density Foam LDF5-50A LDF5-50A Maximum System VSWR: 1.47
1 1/4 inch Low Density Foam LDF6-50 LDF6-50 Maximum System Return Loss (dB): 14.4
1 5/8 inch Low Density Foam LDF7-50A LDF7-50A
7/8 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL5-50 VXL5-50 Total Insertion Loss (dB): 2.21
1 1/4 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL6-50 VXL6-50
1 5/8 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL7-50 VXL7-50 Return Loss to VSWR converter Feet to meters converter
Return Loss
7/8 inch Andrew Virtual Air AVA5-50 AVA5-50 VSWR feet meters
(dB)
1 5/8 inch Andrew Virtual Air AVA7-50 AVA7-50 28.00 1.0829 4.00 1.22
No

72 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Pattern Distortions

Conductive (metallic) obstruction in the path


of transmit and/or receive antennas may
distort antenna radiation patterns in a way
that causes systems coverage problems and
degradation of communications services.

A few basic precautions will prevent pattern


distortions.

73 One Company. A World of Solutions.


105° Horizontal Pattern
No Obstacle


330° 30°
105°
+15

+10
+5 880 MHz
300° 0 60°
-5

-10

270° 90°

240° 120° Antenna

210° 150°
180°

74 One Company. A World of Solutions.


105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -10 dB Point


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°


-10 dB Point
3½'
240° 120° Building
Antenna Corner

210° 150°
180°

75 One Company. A World of Solutions.


105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -6 dB Point


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

0° -6 dB Point
'

240° 120° Building
Antenna Corner

210° 150°
180°

76 One Company. A World of Solutions.


105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -3 dB Point

330° 30°

300° 60° 880 MHz

270° 90° -3 dB Point



'
3½ Building
Corner
240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°

77 One Company. A World of Solutions.


90° Horizontal Pattern
No Obstacle


330° +15
30°
+10
+5
300° 0 60°
-5 880 MHz
-10

270° 90°

240° 120°

Antenna
210° 150°
180°

78 One Company. A World of Solutions.


90° Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle at 0°


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

λ
12λ

240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°

79 One Company. A World of Solutions.


90° Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle at 45°


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°
45°


240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°

80 One Company. A World of Solutions.


90° Horizontal Pattern
0.51Diameter Obstacle at 60°


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

60°

240° 120° Antenna

210° 150°
180°

81 One Company. A World of Solutions.


90° Horizontal Pattern
0.51Diameter Obstacle at 80°


330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

80°

240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°

82 One Company. A World of Solutions.


General Rule
Area that needs to be free of obstructions (> 0.57 WL)
Maximum Gain

> 12 WL

3 dB Point
(45°)

L
W
8
6 dB Point

>
(60°)
L
W
>6

WL > 3 WL 10 dB Point
(80° - 90°)
Antenna
90° horizontal (3 dB) beamwidth

(Example: DB866H90)
83 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Attenuation Provided By Vertical
Separation of Dipole Antennas
70

60

50 z
Hz z z
H
MH MH Hz Hz
Isolation in dB

0 0M 0 M 0 0 M M
20 85 45 16 75 40
40

30

20

10
1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100
(0.3) (0.61) (0.91) (1.52) (3.05) (6.1) (9.14) (15.24)
(30.48)
Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)
The values indicated by these curves are approximate because of coupling which exists between the
antenna and transmission line. Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves
will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas. If values (1) the spacing is measured between
the physical center of the tower antennas and it (2) one antenna is mounted directly above the other, with
no horizontal offset collinear). No correction factor is required for the antenna gains.
84 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Attenuation Provided By Horizontal
Separation of Dipole Antennas
80

z
70 0 MH
200
z
50 MH
60
8
z
MH
Isolation in dB

450
50
z
MH
150
40 Hz
70 M
Hz
50 M z
H
30 30 M

20
10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500 1000
(3.05) (6.1) (9.14) (15.24) (30.48) (60.96) (91.44) (152.4)
(304.8)
Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)

Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves will also provide acceptable
results for gain type antennas if (1) the indicated isolation is reduced by the sum of the antenna gains
and (2) the spacing between the gain antennas is at least 50 ft. (15.24 m) (approximately the far field).

85 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Pattern Distortions

D
a
d

d
tan a =
D
d = D * tan a
tan 1° = 0.01745
for 0° < a < 10° : tan a = a * tan 1°
Note: tan 10° = 0.1763 10 * 0.01745 = 0.1745
86 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Gain Points of a Typical Main Lobe
Relative to Maximum Gain

Vertical
a Beam
a Width= 2 a
(-3dB point)

-3dB point a° below boresight.


-6dB point 1.35 * a° below boresight.
-10 dB point 1.7 * a° below boresight.
87 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Changes In Antenna Performance
In The Presence of:
Non-Conductive Obstructions

FIBERGLASS

DB980H90E-M
PANEL

DIM “A”

88 One Company. A World of Solutions.


Performance of DB980H90 (PCS Antenna)
Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass)

120° FIBERGLASS

DB980H90E-M
PANEL
Horizontal Aperture

110°

DIM “A”
100°

90°

80°
1/4 λ 1/2 λ 3/4 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ

70°
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)


89 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Performance of DB980H90 (PCS Antenna)
Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass)
1.7

FIBERGLASS

DB980H90E-M
1.6 PANEL
VSWR (Worst Case)

1.5
DIM “A”

1.4

1.3

1/4 λ 1/2 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ


1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)
W/Plain Facade W/Ribbed Facade Without Facade
90 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Distance From Fiberglass

0° 90° 330° 30°
102°
330° 30°

300° 300° 60°


60°

270° 270° 90°


90°
-55 -55

-50 -50

-45 -45

-40 -40
240° 240° 120°
120° -35
-35
-30 -30

-25 -25
210° 210° 150°
-20 150° -20
180° 180°

No Fiberglass 3" to Fiberglass


330°

30°
68°

300° 60°

270° 90°
-50
-45
-40
-35
240° 120°
-30
-25
-20
210° 150°
-15
180°

1.5" to Fiberglass
91 One Company. A World of Solutions.
Distance From Fiberglass
0° 0°
330° 30°
77° 330° 30°
112°

300° 60° 300° 60°

270° 90° 270° 90°


-50 -50
-45 -45
-40 -40

240° -35 -35


120° 240° 120°
-30 -30
-25 -25
-20 -20
210° 150° 210° 150°
-15 -15
180° 180°

4" to Fiberglass 0°
6" to Fiberglass
330° 30°
108°

300° 60°

270° 90°
-50
-45
-40

240° -35
120°
-30
-25
-20
210° 150°
-15
180°

9" to Fiberglass
92 One Company. A World of Solutions.