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SECTION D

Answer FOUR of the six questions from this section.

1. (a) The function f is of the form


c
f (x) = a + bx + ,
x2 + 1
for some constants a, b and c. Given that f (0) = 5, f (1) = 3 and f (−1) = 5,
find a, b and c.

(b) If x is measured in radians and is such that 0 ≤ x < 2π, solve the
equation
2 sin x + 1
= −1.
cos2 x + 1
What are the solutions if x can be any real number?

2. (a) Given that x > 0, explain why the function loga (x) is not defined
when a ≤ 0 or when a = 1.

(b) Show that, if 0 < a < 1 and

loga (x) < 0,

then x > 1. If a > 1 and


loga (x) < 0,
then what values can x take?

(c) Find all values of x which satisfy the inequality

log2x−1 (8 + 2x − x2 ) < 0.
3. Consider the function given by

f (x) = 3x5 − 25x3 + 60x.

(a) Show that the curve y = f (x) has only one x-intercept and find it.

(b) Find the stationary points of this function and, by giving appropriate
reasons, determine their nature.

(c) Find, giving appropriate reasons, the points of inflection of this function.

(d) Sketch the curve y = f (x) clearly labelling all of the points you have
found.

(e) Find the Cartesian equation of the tangent line to the curve y = f (x)
when x = 0. Does this tangent line intersect with the curve again? If so,
find the x-coordinate(s) of any point(s) of intersection.

4. For 0 ≤ a ≤ 3π/4, let


Z a Z a
cos x sin x
I= dx and J= dx.
0 sin x + cos x 0 sin x + cos x
By considering I + J and I − J, show that

2J = a − ln(sin a + cos a).

In a similar manner, evaluate the integrals:

Z π/2
sin x
(a) dx, where p and q are positive numbers;
0 p sin x + q cos x
Z π/2
sin x + 2
(b) dx.
0 2 sin x + 3 cos x + 13
5. Alchemists Inc. has developed a process which turns lead into gold. This
works by taking a mixture which contains a small amount of gold and a
larger amount of lead and then, over time, the process magically turns the
lead in the mixture into gold. At any time t during the process, the weight
of the lead is xW and the weight of the gold is yW and, at all times, the
total weight of the mixture of lead and gold is W where x and y depend on
t and x + y = 1. The rate at which lead is converted into gold is given by
kW xy where k is a positive constant.

Explain why this process is described by the differential equation


dx
= −kx(1 − x).
dt
Assuming that x(0) = a where 0 < a < 1 is a constant, solve this differential
equation and show that your solution can be written in the form
1
x= ,
1 + D ekt
where D = (1 − a)/a. Hence, find a similar expression for y.

Does all the lead ever completely turn into gold? Justify your answer.

6. In the current market, the risk, r(x, y), of buying x shares in company X
and y shares in company Y is given by

r(x, y) = x2 + y 2 .

Currently, each share in company X costs $5 and each share in company Y


costs $2.

(a) Mr. Risky has at most $20 to spend on shares in the two companies.
(i) Explain, very briefly, why the inequality

5x + 2y ≤ 20,

must hold for any portfolio, (x, y), he wishes to purchase. What
other inequalities must x and y satisfy?
(ii) Indicate on a diagram the region, R, of all points in the xy-plane
that satisfy these inequalities.
(iii) Mr. Risky wants to purchase a portfolio of shares, (x, y), that
maximises his risk. By considering curves of the form

r(x, y) = constant,

on your diagram, find the portfolio that will enable him to do this.

(b) Miss. Safety has at least $20 to spend on shares in the two companies
and wants to purchase a portfolio of shares, (x, y), that minimises her
risk. By using a similar argument to the one above, and assuming that
fractions of shares can be purchased, find the portfolio that will enable
her to do this.

(c) If, instead, Miss. Safety has to buy a whole number of both types of
shares, use your answer from part (b) to deduce the portfolio of shares,
(x, y), she should purchase.