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BMC ASSIGNMENT

GLASS AND GLAZING

SUBMITTED BY :

SARANGI NAIR

17AR09
GLASS
Glass is an amorphous material that lacks a long range periodic
crystalline structure. Glasses can be formed through several
methods but the most common method involves heating raw
materials into a molten liquid and then rapidly cooling the liquid in
such a way that the atoms remain in a randomly arranged atomic
state.

3 Most Common Commercial Glass Types and Their Applications


Glass compositions are engineered to exhibit different physical, chemical, and optical properties.
Different applications demand specific types of glass and manufacturing processes. In commercial
glass manufacturing, several glass compositions are commonly used. We’ll briefly highlight three of
the most common commercial glass compositions, their properties, and typical applications.

Engineering Properties of Glass


1. Transparency

2. Strength

3. Workability

4. Transmittance

5. U value

6. Recycle property
TYPES OF GLASS

WIRED GLASS
Fine twisted hexagonal wire netting or mesh inserted during the
process of rolling
Maybe patterned , smooth rolled or ground and polished.
Used primarily in fire rated windows, doors,skylights and
applications requiring a safety glazing material.
When broken, loose pieces of glass are held by the wire netting.
Thickness : 5 to 7mm
Size : 3300 x 1830mm
Pros/Advantages of Wired Glass:
Wired glass can break through impact, but the fragments of glass stick to the wire mesh and hence help in
preventing a burglary or a theft.
It has high resistance to thermal and electric shock as compared to float glass.
Wired glass is less expensive as compared to other safety glass such as laminated glass, so it is used as a
cheaper fire-rated glass or cheaper safety glass.
Wired glass can also be used in the form of tinted glass and patterned glass. Hence it can also impart
decorative aesthetic to the windows.
Cons/Disadvantages of Wired Glass:
If a clear view is desired, wired glass cannot be used as wires in the glass obstructs and distorts the view.
Wired glass does not have high durability in areas which are exposed to more rain and humidity, as the wire in
the glass will rust eventually.
Application/Uses:
It is widely used in places where nominal fire resistance properties are required.
Wired glass is used in windows and partitions of schools, institutions, public buildings, government offices,
hotels, etc. It is used in roofs, skylights, fire resisting doors and windows.
Wired glass is generally installed in windows of fire escape routes of the structure, to gain time for evacuating
people in case of fire emergencies.
Windows in stairwells and in hallways are prime examples of emergency exits where fire rated wire glass is a
smart addition.
FIBER GLASS
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may
be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet (called a chopped strand mat), or woven into a fabric. The plastic
matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most often based on
thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a
thermoplastic.
Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals
by weight, is non-magnetic, non-conductive, transparent to electromagnetic
radiation, can be molded into complex shapes, and is chemically inert under
many circumstances. Applications include aircraft, boats, automobiles, bath
tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks,
roofing, pipes, cladding, orthopedic casts, surfboards, and external door skins. Fiberglass covers are also
widely used in the water treatment industry to help control odors.
TYPES OF FIBER GLASS
The following classification is known:
1. A-glass: With regard to its composition, it is close to window glass
2. C-glass: This kind of glass shows better resistance to chemical impact.
3. E-glass: This kind of glass combines the characteristics of C-glass with very good insulation to electricity.
4. AE-glass: Alkali resistant glass.
Advantages:
•lightweight, long spans available with a separate structural frame
•high ratio of strength to weight
•good molding ability
•easily installed, can be cut, patched, sanded
•non-corrosive, rot-resistant
Disadvantages:
•ultraviolet sensitive unless surface is coated or pigments are in gel coat
•vapor impermeability may require ventilation detail
APPLICATION
Fiberglass Roofing
 Cooling tower casing Structural Day lighting Panel Features
Natural light transmission
Lasting aesthetics
Reduced energy bills
Maintenance free
LAMINATED GLASS
Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. In the event of breaking, it is held
in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), between its two or
more layers of glass. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and its high strength
prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces. This
produces a characteristic "spider web" cracking pattern when the
impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass. In the case of
the EVA, the thermoset EVA, offers a complete bounding (cross-
linking) with the material whether it is glass, polycarbonate, PET,
or other types of products.
FEATURES
Security : This is the biggest reason why people want to install
laminated glass. It is simply harder to break and therefore more secure.
Safety : In the event that a child in your home throws something that hits your window, it is less likely to break.
Therefore, the child is safer.
Sound reduction : Laminated glass does not allow as much sound to get through as does regular glass,
meaning your home will be quieter because there will be fewer outside sounds getting through.
Protection from adverse weather conditions : People who live in areas that are prone to hurricanes or tornado
can rest assured that the security glass will be less susceptible to wind and hail.
Durability : Security glass windows will need to be replaced less often than regular glass windows. It simply
lasts longer.

Laminated glass provides a very strong, yet transparent layer which makes a great alternative for traditional
glass in a variety of uses:
For use in buildings where hurricanes or other natural disasters are a
high risk
As windows for companies or homes at higher risk of break-ins
As display cabinets for valuables, such as jewelry stores
Aquariums or animal enclosures
Glass floors
Glass stairs
Skylights
Glass roofs

GLASS BUILDING BLOCKS


Glass block is an unique building material and was developed in the 1900’s to provide natural light in
manufacturing plants. • It has a dynamic relationship with light—both natural and artificial. As light changes so
do the material’s appearance and the surrounding environment. Basically, glass blocks are architectural
elements which consist of glass. Description • The unit can be hollow or solid and comes in a wide variety of
sizes, dimensions, styles, colors, opacity, and construction depending on the intended application. They come
in individual blocks or pre-assembled panels. • The most commonly used units are square (6-, 8-, or 12-inch
sizes). Rectangular units (4x8-inch and 6x8-inch) are also available, as are bull- nosed edge blocks for finishing
horizontal and vertical panels, and various corner and angular
blocks.
Pros : • Allows Natural Light to Pass • Provides Privacy • Comes in a
Variety of Options • Security • Durability • Provides a Good Thermal
and Sound Insulation • Extremely Resistant • Green Building Credits
• Glass block showers
Con: No Natural Ventilation and Structural Issues
Application and Advantages of Glass Blocks
• Glass block can be used in residential as well as commercial projects, as non-load bearing walls, windows, or
partitions. Popular uses include shower stall walls, interior partitions, sidelights for entry doors, basement
windows and windowless kitchen walls.
• There are numerous advantages in using glass blocks in both residential housing and commercial buildings.
• These materials are considered as a powerful alternative to windows while it can be a part of the walls that
could provide great illumination and insulation.

HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS


Heat-strengthened glass is a heat treated glass which retains the normal properties of ordinary float glass. It is
similar to tempered glass except that the cooling is done slower than toughened glass but faster than
annealed glass.Heat strengthening increases resistance to mechanical and thermal stress up to 130 Degree
Celsius. While Heat Strengthened Glass is twice as strong as annealed glass, its fragmentation pattern is the
same as annealed glass.
CHARACTERSTICS
Heat-strengthened glass provides higher
resistance to thermal stress when compared
to annealed glass.
When producing Heat-strengthened
laminated glass in comparison with Tempered
Laminated glass, Heat-strengthened glass allows the interlayer to laminated glass to adhere more evenly
because of a flatter finish surface.
As against toughened glass, Heat-strengthened glass - with its flatter surface - also results in the facade having
less optical distortions.
This glass is difficult to break compared to ordinary annealed glass, but unlike toughened safety glass, break
typically edge to edge and in fragments.
BENEFITS
Heat-strengthened glass differs from tempered glass in surface compression; its mechanical strength is about 2
times that of annealed glass.
Compared to annealed glass, Heat-strengthened glass has higher thermal stability.
Heat-strengthened glass is 3 times more resistant to thermal stress in comparison to normal annealed glass.
While ordinary annealed glass can withstand up to 40°C, Heat-strengthened glass can withstand a temperature
difference of up to 1500C.
Heat strengthened glass is far less susceptible to spontaneous breakage.
APPLICATIONS
Heat-strengthened glass is popular among design professionals for vertical vision spandrel areas and for
laminated sloped glazing. It is valued for its mechanical strength, which is twice of normal annealed glass,
though half of fully tempered glass.
Heat strengthened glass has a comparatively flatter finish than fully tempered glass. Therefore, it has lesser
optical distortions and can be used in places where high optical quality is required.
It can be used for general glazing where additional strength or resistance is required for mechanical/thermal
loads caused by certain tinted or coated glass. The glass can also be used in high wind load areas, but cannot
be used in any safety glazing applications, due to its breakage pattern similar to annealed glass.
Heat-strengthened glass is widely used in laminated glass for additional strength, such as in overhead and
sloped glazing.

TOUGHENED GLASS
Toughened glass or tempered glass is glass that has undergone processes of controlled thermal treatment to
increase its strength. It is four times stronger than normal annealed glass. It is called safety glass because
when it breaks, it shatters into small.Toughened glass is made from annealed glass that has been heated to
approximately 650⁰C and then rapidly cooled. Due to the increased heat treatment and rapid cooling of the
glass, especially between the surface and the inside of the glass, the treatment produces different physical
properties. This results in compressive stress on the surface and improved bending strength of glass.
Before toughening, the glass must be cut to size or pressed to shape.
This is because once it is toughened, it cannot be re-worked on.
Toughened glass is widely used in a number of applications.
Toughened glass is four to five times stronger than annealed glass of
the same size and thickness against impact. Toughened glass has
higher thermal strength and can withstand a high temperature
differential up to 250°C.Toughened glass is considered as safety glass.
It is difficult to break and even in the event of a breakage,
disintegrates into small globules, which are relatively harmless.
CHARACTERSTICS
Toughening does not alter the basic characteristics of glass such as light transmission and solar radiant heat
properties.
After heat treatment, the surface of toughened glass has the same resistance to surface damage as annealed
glass. Toughened glass cannot be cut, drilled or altered.
Heat soak test is recommended to be carried out on Toughened glass that is used for overhead and horizontal
application, to prevent the spontaneous breakage caused due to nickel sulphide inclusion.
BENEFITS
Toughening increases tensile strength, thermal shock resistance and safety of normal glass. It also increases its
heat withstanding capacity. Because of these properties, toughened glass is preferred in applications where
strength, safety and thermal resistance are significant.
APPLICATIONS
Toughened glass is specifically designed for use in areas where there is a high risk of contact and breakage. It
can be used for exteriors and interiors, such as facades, showroom shelves, dividers, shower cabins, doors, etc.
In the automobile industry, toughened glass is commonly used for side lights and back lights.

SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS


LOW EMMISIVITY WINDOWS
In a heating-dominated (cold) climate, the goal is to reflect or reradiate as much heat back into the home, so
the low-E coating should be on the outward-facing surface of the inner pane (Surface C). Outside Inside
Because of its ability to minimize heat gain in hot climates and heat loss in cold climates, a low-E window can
make any home more energy efficient. The frame and other
components will also have a hand in determining overall energy
efficiency, but because glazing takes up the biggest surface area in a
window, its impact is the greatest.
BENEFITS
IMPROVED DAYLIGHTING
BETTER UV PROTECTION
REDUCED CONDENSATION
BETTER COMFORT
It does not enables the heat exchange between the internal and external environment. • It has the
appearance of a colourless float glass, reducing the entrance of heat or cold. • Used in the commercial
refrigerating market and on civil construction, in facades and covers.

SOLAR CONTROL GLASS


Excess heat and glare caused by the sun can be a major source of
discomfort in some indoor environments, especially those with glass
roofs, conservatories or with large glazed areas. The latest double
glazing window solutions for solar control reflect and filter the sun’s
rays, allowing natural daylight into the room, but without
uncomfortable visual glare. Rooms can be kept cooler during sunny
periods, reducing the need for air-conditioning.
A variety of solar control glass solutions are available, depending on the level of solar control needed. The
glass is manufactured by tinting and/or applying a metallic coating. Online coating offers a greater range of
performance and a more neutral appearance for solar protection glass.
Advantages:
Tint - uses its inherent colour to absorb heat
Coating - reflects heat back to the outside
Tint and Coating - absorbs and reflects heat for maximum comfort

VARIABLE TRANSMISSION GLASS


Commonly called smart glass or switchable glass, variable transmittance glass can change from light to dark or
from opaque to transparent and back again when exposed to voltage, light or heat. The catalyst triggers ions
within the glass to align and reduce the amount of light the glass will transmit – the light transmittance of the
glass is variable, depending on the situation, thus the name variable transmittance glass.
BENEFITS
Interior Glass: Control the amount of privacy, light and heat that
enters a space manually or automatically  Switch instantly or dim
anywhere in between.
No need for blinds or curtains.Enable privacy while retaining natural
light
Exterior Glass :Privacy without the need for curtains or blinds . 98%
UV protection  40% solar reduction .Rear projection  Residential home theater display.
APPLICATIONS
Corporate office buildings • Residential • Healthcare facilities • Retail • Transportation

FIRE RESISTANT GLASS


Fire-rated glass is glass that has been designed to minimize the spread of fire and smoke.
The rating of the resistance properties is generally rated in anything from 20minutes to about 4-hours or more.
This is the expected duration of which the glass can effectively prevent the spread.
The glass prevents the transfer of heat, fire, and smoke due to a
intumescent layer betwere the glass panels. When the glass is
heated it's designed to shatter. The shatter "activates" the
intumesceny inner-layer which causes it to expand. It then works
to "repel" heat. The amout of heat it can repel before failing
depends on the chemistry of the entire piece of glass and frame.
Depending on the building's requirements, wire can be added to
the glass to make it a security fire-rated glass. This prevents it
from being broken by force.
BENEFITS
Protects from fire and smoke
Energy conservation
Allows freedom for designs
Ensure safety of tenants
Applications
hospitals
hotels, restaurants
stores, shopping centres
office buildings, computers rooms
industrial buildings, warehouses, laboratories
airports

SELF CLEANING GLASSES


Self-cleaning glass is a specific type of glass with a surface that keeps itself free of dirt and grime.
The field of self-cleaning coatings on glass is divided into two categories: hydrophobic and hydrophilic. These
two types of coating both clean themselves through the action of
water, the former by rolling droplets and the latter by sheeting water
that carries away dirt. Hydrophilic coatings based on titania (titanium
dioxide), however, have an additional property: they can chemically
break down absorbed dirt in sunlight.
The self-cleaning glass is visual identical to the normal glasses.
• It ensures a clear vision in all the situations, even on rainy days; and
the self-cleaning layer is integrated to the glass and because of this has a
high level of durability, and do not wear out over the time.
• It shall be applied always in the external part of the buildings like facades, covers, windows, doors, balconies
and other in highly polluted areas

GLAZING
Glazing are referred to the panels that are fixed into the aluminum or other types of frames to curtain wall
construction. Commonly, there are various techniques which can be used in the construction or placement of
glazing panels; glaze panels might be glass or other materials.

SINGLE GLAZING
A single glazed window is constructed using a single pane of glass. This means that the only thing separating
your home from the outside environment, is that pane of glass. Typical window glass ranges from 3mm to
10mm, which doesn’t provide adequate insulation. A single glazed window can be up to 20 times less efficient
than an insulated wall when it comes to energy loss or storage.
BENEFITS
Do not always require newer frames
Suitable for hot and tropical climate
DRAWBACK
Lack of Insulation.
No Noise protection.
Not sturdy.

DOUBLE GLAZING
Double glazed windows consist of 2 glass
panes. The space in between the 2 glass
panes is either filled with inert gas or a
tight vacuum. Due to the presence of this
space, an extra level of insulation is
provided.
BENEFITS
Proper Insulation.
Energy Efficient
No condensation
Reduction of Noise. Higher margin of
safety.Aesthetically Appealing.

TRIPLE GLAZING
Triple glazing is effectively three panes of glass separated by argon gas, this means it has an extra layer of glass
to insulate your home over double glazing. This extra layer makes it more difficult for heat to escape allowing
you to maintain the temperature in your home.
The air gaps in triple glazing are too small to allow the air to circulate and therefore prevent heat transfer by
convection. Because the argon gas is a poor conductor, it reduces the rate of heat loss through the window.
Triple glazed windows pros and cons
Most energy efficient glazing option
Boasts the lowest U-value of any domestic window
Better acoustic performance & more sound insulation
Extremely durable and stronger than double glazing
Harder to break into & provides extra security
More expensive than double glazing
GLAZED CURTAIN WALL
A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, utilized only
to keep the weather out and the occupants in. Since the curtain wall is non-structural, it can be made of
lightweight materials, thereby reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, an
advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry
any structural load from the building other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers lateral wind loads
that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the
building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, absorb sway induced by wind and
seismic forces acting on the building, withstand wind loads, and support its own dead load weight forces.
FUNCTIONS
Elimination of Water Penetration
Air impermeability
Resistance to wind, thermal and acoustic action
Solar levels
BENEFITS
Keeping Out Air and Water
Reducing Building Sway
Slowing the Spread of Fire
Thermal Efficiency
Appearance and Attractiveness

SKYLIGHTS
A skylight (sometimes called a rooflight) is a light-transmitting structure that forms all or part of the roof space
of a building for daylighting purposes.
Glass units typically include at least one low emissivity (Low-E) coating applied to one or more glass surfaces to
reduce the U-factor and especially SHGC by suppressing radiant heat flow. Many varieties of Low-E coatings
also reduce daylight potential to different degrees. High purity inert gas is frequently used in the space(s)
between panes, and advances in thermally efficient glass spacing
and supporting elements can further improve thermal performance
of glass-glazed skylight assemblies.
BENEFITS OF SKYLIGHTS
Rooftop windows and skylights can give a number of advantages to
homeowners. They can increase the overall value (equity) of your
home, and they can solve certain issues in stuffy, cold or dark
rooms.
Adding natural light (and solar heating) to your spaces
Letting in fresh air and better ventilation
Saving on energy costs (electric and heating)
Aesthetic changes add to the resale value
Natural views and “adding space” to a room
DISADVANTAGES OF SKYLIGHTS
Every cosmetic change to your home has potential disadvantages and skylights are no exception. As
professionals who have installed numerous skylights for homeowners, we can tell you that many of the
drawbacks come from poor (or uneducated) decisions before the skylight is installed.
Investing in poor quality equipment without solid warranties
Choosing the placement of your skylight without proper consultation
Hiring a service professional without experience in skylight installations
Doing it yourself (no offense to those hardcore DIY-ers out there)
Cost to replace or repair a bad installation