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1.

WATER PROOFING:-

2. INTRODUCTION:-
Being passage of water in building elements is the biggest problem in
construction field; it is necessary to make the building totally resistant to the
passage of water. This system or product that effectively prevents liquid water
from passing through is called Waterproofing. Waterproofing is an important
activity, which is to be executed with utmost care and supervision.
Waterproofing shall be designed to prevent the water from percolating
through a surface under pressure due to high water table or under gravity due to
seepage.
3. In this chapter each water proofing method is explained as follows:-
• Area where waterproofing is required

• Type of suitable waterproofing

• Stage when waterproofing can be done

• Execution methodology

• Tools required

• Material required

• Protection after execution

4. Water proofing technology to be adopted in various areas

Sl No Area/Project part Methodology


1 Toilets/ Bathrooms/Showers 1.Under tile Waterproofing
2.Bitumen Sheet application
3.Bituminous Emulsion system
2 Balconies and Utilities (Non 1.Under tile Waterproofing
Sunken) 2.Bitumen Sheet application
3.Bituminous Emulsion system

5.
Swimming Pool/Water 1.Under tile waterproofing system
3 bodies (Internal) 2.Cementitious Waterproofing
3.Crystalline Water proofing system
4 Swimming Pool/Water 1.Bituminous Emulsion system
2.Cementitious
bodieswaterproofing
(External) system
RCC Walls in low water 1.Bitumen sheet application system
table areas 2.Bituminous emulsion system
3.Cementitious waterproofing system
5 4.Crystalline waterproofing system
5.WaterImpermeable RCC System (White
Tanking)
6 SSM Walls – in Low water 1.Bitumen Sheet application system
table areas 2.Bituminous Emulsion System

7 RCC Structure in high water1.Water impermeable RCC System (White


table areas Tanking)
2. Bitumen sheet application system (Black
Tanking)

Terrace 1.Bitumen sheet application system


8 2.Cementitious water proofing system
3.Crystalline Water proofing system.

9 Landscape above 1.Bitumen sheet application system


basement 2.Bitumen sheet application
10 Roof Garden 1.Bituminous sheet application system
2.Drain Boards
3.Bituminous emulsion system drain
boards
11 Sloped Roof 1.Cementitious Water proofing
system
2.Crystalline Waterproofing
system
12 Chejjas 1.Mortar Adhesive System.
2.Acrylic water proofing
system
13 External Plaster/ 1.Mortar Adhesive System
Shaft Plaster
6.
7.
1 Cementitious 1. Flexible crack bridging and dirt
4 horizontal resistant
surface on external paint
terrace
1 Planter box 1. Acrylic waterproofing system
5
1 OHT, UG Sump 1. Epoxy food grade coating system
6 - Internal 2. Crystalline waterproofing system
3. Cementitious waterproofing
system
1 Carwash Drain 1. Mortar admixture system
7
1 Expansion 1. Expansion joints (Construction)
8 Joints 2. Expansion joints (Sealing)
3. Expansion joints epoxy bonded
system.
1 Leaking Cracks/ 1. Water swell able infection resin
9 Construction
Joints
2 STP Internal 1. Cementitious waterproofing
0 system
2 UG Sump, STP 1. Bituminous emulsion system
1 External 2. Cementitious waterproofing
system
8. TYPES OF WATERPROOFING:-
1. Under Tile waterproofing
2. Bitumen sheet application system
3. Bituminous emulsion system
4. Cementitious waterproofing system
5. Crystalline waterproofing system
6. Epoxy Food grade coating system
7. Mortar admixture system
8. Acrylic Waterproofing system
9. Water Impermeable RCC System (White Tanking)
10. Bituminous sheet application system (Black Tanking)
11. Expansion joint treatment
9. UNDER TILE WATERPROOFING:-

10. Materials required:-


1. Sealing compound
2. Primer
3.Joint tape
11. Tools required:-
1. Roller brush
2. Putty blade
3. 4” brush
4. Grid blade
5. Mechanical stirrer
12. SURFACE PREPARATION:

• All concealed pipe line work and its packing should be completed.
• Plastering done on walls to plumb, right angle and true alignment.
• SBR (NS) admixed screed completed to specified slope and in true
alignment.
• Wall tiling finished up to-skirting portion.
• Surface cleaned, primed and dry.

13. BORE PACKING:

When any PVC pipes are passing through the concrete which is exposed to
water like toilets, bathroom, balconies, tanks etc. water will pass through that
joint as it is weak due to poor bonding between the concrete and the PVC. So,
some special treatment is required to make the joint impermeable. This
treatment is called Bore Packing. The bore packing is done immediately after
the internal plastering and plumbing work so that the area can be tested for
leakage by ponding.

14. The inner sides of the cutouts in the RCC elements should be hacked and
should be free from dust and debris
15. The epoxy bonding agent of approved make shall be mixed thoroughly. .
16. Applied over the hacked surface and to the inner side of the bore hole.
17. The approved non shrinkable compound is mixed with water as per the
manufacturer’s specification
18. Picture only
19. The down take pipes are positioned in the bore hole and packed with non
shrinkable compound
20. Pictures only
21. Pictures only
22. Pictures only
23. Pictures only
24. Pictures only
25. Methodology for Under Tile Water proofing:
Under Tile Waterproofing should start just before floor tiling.
26. Liquid sealing primer is applied on the clean and dry surface and allowed
for drying as per the manufacturer’s instruction.
27. Sealing compound is applied in the corners to fix caulking strip
28. A view of equal division of caulking strip to be placed in the wall & floor
junction
29. Placing of Caulking strip b/n wall & floor junction
30. Placing of Caulking strip in the skirting area beneath the vertical caulking
strip in the corner
31. A view of caulking strip from 3 directions meeting at a junction
32. Application of Sealing coat before fixing the vertical caulking strip over the
2 horizontal strips
33. Fixing the vertical caulking strip over the 2 horizontal strips
34. Fine tuning of vertical caulking strip at the junction without air gaps
35. Application of sealing coat in the hunching portion b/n dry & wet area
36. Placing of caulking strip in the hunching portion b/n dry & wet area
37. Fine tuning of caulking strip at the haunching portion without air gaps
38. Application of sealing coat above the caulking strip
39. Placing of Caulking strip peripherally around the flange
40. Application of Liquid sealing coat to overlap the 2 parallel caulking strip
41. Placing of caulking strip overlapping the other 2 strips
42. Sealing Compound application:-
a) First coat application
1) Application of first coat in the skirting area
43. 2) Removal of masking tape from the EWC
44. 3) Application of sealing coat for getting 0.5mm thickness
45. 4) Application of first coat in the junction of wet & dry area
46. Second coat application
1) Second coat application of Liquid sealing coat on the floor to
get 1mm thickness
47. SECTION VIEW OF UNDER TILE WATERPROOFING
a) Primer coat.
b) First coat of 0.5mm thick.
c) Second coat of 0.5+0.5= 1mm thickness.
48. WATERPROOFING FOR EWC
After waterproofing on the floor, EWC pipe to be properly
filled peripherally with silicon, in order to avoid leakage in that area.

49. 1) Cleaning of V-groove around the EWC


50. 2) Removing the cleaned materials using brush
51. 3) Silicon application around the EWC in the V-groove
52. 4) Fine tuning using soap solution around EWC
53. 5) A finished view of the Silicon around EWC
SUGGESTED BRANDS:
• Sealing Compound - Saniflex, Schomburg
• Liquid sealing compound - Muraxin
• Sealing compound – WPM 002, Ardex
• Boscolastik, Bostik
• Primer – ASO unigrund, Schomburg
• Penetrating primer LF-Murexin
• Primer – WPM 265 Ardex
• Joint tape – Caro FB 200, Schomburg
• Joint sealing tape 27010, Ardex.
54. PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

This should be protected from any damage by executing tile work by


next itself.

AREAS OF USAGE:
 Toilets / Bathrooms / Showers (Non Sunken).
 Balconies and utilities (Non Sunken).
 Swimming pools / Water bodies- Internal.
55. BITUMEN SHEET APPLICATION SYSTEM:-

56. MATERIALS REQUIRED:


1. APP membrane
2. Primer
TOOLS REQUIRED:
1.Torch and LPG cylinder
2.Coir brush and steel wire brush
3.Hammer
4.Chisel
5.4” brush
SURFACE PREPARATION :
• Admixed sloped surface screed with sufficient slope
should get completed.
• Hunching – corners and edges rounded ( 4cm to 8 cm dia.)
• Structural surface should be sound, clean and even.
• Surface primed and dry.
• Flange pipes fixed.
57. Clean the surface properly so that three should not be any loose
aggregate and oil.
58. Apply the primer over the surface at coverage of 0.3 kg/sqm.
minimum on a dry surface.
59. Unroll the membrane roll and clean it properly
60. Start heating the membrane
61. SPECIAL ATTENTION :
• Waterproofing to be taken 150 mm above FFL.

• Waterproofing to be taken on the flange inside the pipe.

• APP Overlaps to be terminated towards the slope direction.

• Overlapping should be of 100 mm and it should be

ensured in two layers.


AREAS OF USAGE:
• RCC walls in low water table areas.
• SSM walls in low water table areas.
• Terrace.
• Landscape areas above basement.
• Roof Garden.

62. PROTECTIVE MEASURES

2 Layers of HDPE sheets can be fixed and backfilled with stone free
soil by layers is adopted as protective measures for this type of
waterproofing.
63. BITUMINOUS EMULSION SYSTEM

64. MATERIALS REQUIRED:


• Bituminous Emulsion
• Primer

TOOLS REQUIRED:
• Coir brush and steel wire brush
• Hammer
• Chisel
• 4” brush
SURFACE PREPARATION:
• Admixed slope concrete should get completed to carry out
the emulsion.
• Corners and edges are rounded (4cm to 8cm dia.).
• All flange pipes should be fixed.
• Surface primed and dry.
• Application surface must be cleaned, dry and free from
grease and loose particles. Surface may be damp but not
saturated.
65. PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

2 Layers of HDPE Sheets can be placed and backfilled with


stone free soil in layers.
AREAS OF USAGE :
• Swimming pool/ water bodies external.
• RCC Walls in low water table areas.
• SSM Walls in low water table areas.
• Terrace
• Roof Garden
• UG Sump, STP- External.
SUGGESTED BRANDS:
• Protekt It 206,Fusion
• Sonoshield HLM 5000, Degussa
• Emufal TE, Texsa.
• Cera Bitoplast, CCP
• Nitoproof 100/120, Fosroc

66. CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING SYSTEM


MATERIALS REQUIRED:

• Cementitious compound
• TOOLS REQUIRED:

• Mechanical stirrer
• Vessel for mixing
• Coir brush and steel wire brush
• Hammer
• Chisel
• 4” brush
68. SURFACE PREPARATION:

 Construction joints treated with Cerabond EP, CCP while


construction.
 Pond the surface with water and mark identified weak joint
/ portion.
 Groove to be made along all construction joints, cracks and
weak portions..
 Pressure grouting with grout and with hand pump should be
done wherever leak or dampness is seen.
 Groove packing with modified mortar after application of
bonding coat.
 Structural surface sound, clean and even.
 Corners edges rounded (4 cm to 8 cm dia).

69. picture only.


70. picture only.
71. picture only.
72. picture only.
73. picture only.
74. picture only.
75. METHODOLOGY :

• The Ceralastic compound A is mixed with the clean water in the


proportion of 1: 1 and is poured in to the bucket and the compound B is added slowly and
stirred well to obtain a smooth lump free consistent slurry.

• Apply the well-mixed Ceralatex slurry with brush or broom on to the


prepared surface in minimum two layers.
• Do not apply more than 1.5 mm per layer.

• The next layer can be applied as soon as the proceeding one is


dry enough to be wiped.
• The total thickness of 2 coats of Ceralastic would be 1.5 to
2mm.
• Ceralastic can be applied on dry or damp surfaces. Leave
the coating for 45 min before concrete, ensure concrete within 4
hours.
76. PROTECTIVE MEASURES :

SBR Added plastering can be done for rest of the walls or PCC
can be done in case of floors.

AREAS OF USAGE :

 Swimming Pools/ Water bodies- External


 Swimming Pools/ Water bodies- Internal
 RCC walls in low water table areas.
 Terrace.
 Sloped Roof
 OHT, UG Sump Internal

SUGGESTED BRANDS:

• Master seal 550 EL, Degussa


• Ceralastic ,CCP
• Aquafin 2K/M, Schomburg
• Brush bond RFX, Fosroc
77. CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM
78. MATERIALS REQUIRED:
• Crystalline compound
TOOLS REQUIRED:
• Vessel for mixing
• Stirrer
• Brush
SURFACE PREPARATION:
• Surfaces must be clean and sound.
• Remove all oil, dirt, laitance and other contaminants
by water blasting.
79. METHODOLOGY:

• 3 Parts of powder (2 to 2.25 in case of Masterseal) shall be


added to 1 part of clean water and mixed thoroughly with a
slow speed drill equipped with stirring paddle.
 Mix the material upto the quantity which can be consumed
within 20 minutes.
 The mixture can be applied in two coats over the concrete
surface, which shall be made damp using moist curing.
 This can be kept continuously moist for a minimum of 48 hours
using water spray 3 to 4 times daily and the curing shall be carried out for seven days.
80. PROTECTIVE MEASURES :

The protective measures to be adopted for this type of


waterproofing is that SBR admixed protective plaster on the wall of
around 20 mm thick.

AREAS OF USAGE :

 Swimming Pools/ Water bodies- Internal.


 RCC walls in low water table areas.
 Terrace.
 Sloped Roof.
 OHT, UG Sump- External.

SUGGESTED BRANDS:
• Koester NB Grey, Chowglue
• Master Seal 501/502, Degussa
• Cera crystalline crete, CCP

81. EPOXY FOOD GRADE COATING SYSTEM

82. MATERIALS REQUIRED:

• Epoxy food grade compound


• Primer

TOOLS REQUIRED:

• Pressure grouting machine


• Roller
• Sprayer

SURFACE PREPARATION:
• Surfaces must be clean and sound.
• Remove all oil, dirt, laitance and other contaminants
by water blasting.
83. METHODOLOGY :
 Mix the component in the ratio of 1:1 with water until a
homogeneous blend is obtained.
 Wet the surface before the mix is applied to dry concrete.
 Care must be taken to fill voids and pin holing.
 A minimum of 2 coats is recommended.
 When finishing, it is necessary to lay the materials into the
surface to achieve required dry film thickness per coat.
 Allow to cure for 24 hrs.
 Care is ensured that the waterproofing membrane coating is not
damaged.
 At least 3 days cure is necessary before applying final coat.
84. SUGGESTED BRANDS:

• WPM 300 Ardex


• Cerakota EPW, CCP
• Moisture seal, Bostik
• Master seal 180 / SP 120, Degussa
PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

Protective measures not required since the epoxy forms the


hard and smooth surface

AREAS OF USAGE:
 OHT, UG sump-internal
85. MORTAR ADMIXTURE SYSTEM

86. MATERIALS REQUIRED:


• Mortar admixture
TOOLS REQUIRED:
• Vessel for mixing
• Measuring jar
• Straight edge
SURFACE PREPARATION:
• Remove all oil, dirt, laitance and other contaminants using
wire brush.

87. METHODOLOGY:

 Ensure that the absorbent surface such as concrete, brick,


stone etc., is saturated.
• For vertical surfaces, it is preferable to apply Ceralatex SBR modified
mortars in coats to a maximum thickness of 6 mm per
coat, as greater thickness can lead to slumping. However, several
coats can be applied provided suitable formwork is used
max thickness of 6 mm per coats to.
• Level the surface with wooden or steel trowel as explained in
plastering.
• The mixing proportion of latex is 300ml per bag of cement.
88. PROTECTIVE MEASURES :

Admixed Plaster and Screed is the final treatment.

AREAS OF USAGE:
 Car wash drain
 Chejjas
 External Plaster / Shaft Plaster

SUGGESTED BRANDS:
• Ceralatex SBR, CCP
• Rheomix, Degussa
89. WATER IMPERMEABLE RCC SYSTEM
(WHITE TANKING METHOD)

90. White tanking method is a process of modifying the concrete to make it


impermeable. The structural elements like shuttering, concrete, reinforcement and
expansion joints should be designed properly to prevent the seepage of water
through concrete.
91 MATERIALS REQUIRED:

1. Ready mix concrete specifically designed by the consultant

2. The admixtures suggested are as follows


a. Rheomac 707, Degussa
b. Rhoebuild SP1i, Degussa
c. Microsilica, Degussa
d. Supaflo 3
92. TYPES OF WHITE TANKING:

• Construction with permissible separation cracks.

 Construction with separation cracks of limited breadth

 Construction with controlled separation cracks.

Construction with Permissible separation cracks

 Cracks are expected to appear.

• Additional reinforcement (Apart from the structural. reinforcement requirement) to


minimize extensive cracks is avoided in that method

• Regular construction joint distances not required to be

maintained.

• Cracks, which appear within 28 days of curing, should be sealed

by pressure grouting.

• If the cracks are appearing in the construction joints, then GI

mesh is fixed and shot-creating is done as per structural engineer


93. Construction with separation cracks of limited breadth

• Concrete may develop cracks due to stress developed by hydration


force, unequal thermal expansion of ingredients.
• In this method, to minimize the cracks, the reinforcement is generally
increased by the consultant.
• By restricting the crack breadth to below 0.1 mm, the crack will close
through carbonization.
• By placing additional reinforcement, extensive cracks can be
minimized in the construction joints.
• This type of construction is suitable for raft foundations.

94. Construction with controlled separation cracks

Allowable breadth of Submerged depth/ Thickness


cracks in mm of structures

< = 0.2 < =2.5


< = 0.15 <=5
< = 0.10 >5

• This system hinders the appearance of uncontrolled


separation of cracks that allows water to enter.
• Avoidance of working stress (resulting from hydration force and
thermal load).
• This kind of construction is a combination of design features,
concrete technology and constructional measures.
• This type of construction is suitable for retaining walls.

95. Concrete shall be carried out as per the methodology instructed in the
Technology Manual and care should be taken as follows:

For Raft foundation:

• Create an even PCC Surface with a uniform level to ensure


similar thickness of the raft foundation.
• Create a smooth surface in the intersection of raft and PCC
(For Eg: Using double layered Polyethylene foils thickness
0.2, 0.3 mm) along the floated PCC Surface.
• Formation of joints or deploying reinforcement to restrict
the crack breadth.
For RCC Retaining Walls:

• The maximum distance between the construction joints should be twice the
height of the retaining wall (For construction with controlled separation cracks).
96. PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

No Protective measures, only a protective coating can be applied to


reduce the surface capillarity.

AREAS OF USAGE:

This type of waterproofing is applied in the areas like:


• RCC Walls in low water table areas.
• RCC Structure in high water table areas.

97. BLACK TANKING METHOD

98. The Black tanking can be defined as sealing the entire surface by means of
a skin like protection over the entire surface as defined in DIN 18195 part 6.

99. MATERIALS REQUIRED :

• APP Bitumen sheet


• Primer

TOOLS REQUIRED:
• Torch and LPG cylinder
• Coir brush and steel wire brush
• Hammer
• Chisel
• 4” brush
SURFACE PREPARATION:
• Corners and edges are rounded
• Structural surface sound, clean and even.
• Surface primed and dry.
100. METHODOLOGY

• PCC and Block work


• Surface Preparation
• Primer Application
• Bitumen sheet application
a. First Layer
b. Second Layer
• Separation and Protection layer
a. Horizontal
b. Vertical
PCC and Block work:
• Excavation been done with suits to prepare the black tanking as in
one horizontal level.
• PCC is made as a smooth surface with power float.
• Block work has to be done along the external face of the retaining
wall footing by giving enough space for the thickness of waterproofing.
• This Block work acts as the torching surface as well as the shuttering
of the retaining wall footing
101. Earth Formation
To make the surface ready for Soling and PCC, levels to be thoroughly checked
with Auto level
102. PCC with Power float finish

103. PCC with power float to get smooth finish for application of primer.
Surface cleaning – Before application of primer over PCC, this will
ensure the proper bonding to the primer with PCC.
104. At the end portions – Block work, plastering and smooth haunching
ensured at the end portions to avoid sharp edge between horizontal and vertical
area.
105. Primer application – Primer to be applied over the cleaned, dried pcc
surface, this primer will ensure the proper bonding with bituminous sheet, while
torching.
106. Bitumen sheet application

Laying of bituminous sheet, first layer – First layer bituminous sheet should be
laid with minimum lap length of 10 cm.

107. Laying of bituminous sheet, second layer – Second layer laid over first
layer.

108. Laying of first and second layer of bituminous sheet, at the


boundaries – The same first and second layer procedure followed at
boundaries for the vertical lining of bituminous sheet.
108. Horizontal and vertical connecting area – This view shows the connecting
areas of Horizontal and Vertical .The important point is that the minimum
lap length should be 10 cm.
109. PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

Protective screed for the floor area – To protect the water proofing
membrane from the external heat or pedestrian movement…..
110. …….SBR admixed screeding is done on nominal reinforcement
111. Protective screed for walls –Bitu board is placed over the bitumen sheet
113. Backfilling soil

Backfilling soil started with layer by layer with correct compaction (Max.30
cm)
114. SUGGESTED BRANDS:

• 4 mm thick APP Bitumen sheet


• Fusion 800 P, Fusion
• Torchsheild
• Aazil, Chowglue
• Polyplus P, Percept
• Roofseal, Bitumat
• Moply FP, Texsa.

115. EXPANSION JOINT TREATMENT

116. EXPANSION JOINT FILLER BOARDS:

These are closed cell, pre mould, compressive filler boards of


suitable size which are inserted into the expansion joints.

• Permit the structure to expand or contract without


developing the compressive stress along with the defined
expansion joint.
• Excellent to concrete adhesion, extensibility,
weathering and flow.
• It is fixed into position after concreting of one side
along the expansion joint.
• Proper continuation of the successive expansion joint boards
should be ensured.
117. EXPANSION JOINT SEALING:
• It seals the expansion joints vertically and horizontally
and does the following
a. prevents the flow of water
b. prevents ingress of foreign materials and debris.
c. protects the joints filler materials
• It is a flexible material which can be seal expansion
joints upto 50mm wide.
• The expansion joints should have equal and stable joint
flanks which have been primed to enhance bonding with
the flanks.
• The expansion joint board should be removed upto the
desired depth.
• The joint should be properly cleaned using an air blower.
• Backer rod should be placed at the desired depth in the
joint and polysulphide sealant injection should be done
strictly as instructed by the manufacturer.
118. After the sealant is applied, it is trimmed using a suitable tool
and a neat finish is given (generally concave shaped finish).
• This system is generally used for horizontal expansion joints on
terraces and podiums.
• The up stand beam and the cover slab are constructed as per
the structural drawings.
a. the up stand beam is first cast
b. the expansion joint is then fixed into position.
c. Then second up stand beam and the cover slab are cast
over the expansion joint as a monolithic structure.
• The top of the cover slab and exposed area of the stand beam
should be given the same waterproofing treatment, as given on
the top of the terrace / podium (normally bitumen membrane
torch on system).

119. SAFETY PONTS TO BE CONSIDERED:-


During Vertical Bore packing

• The immediate upper floor cutout holes to be closed properly to avoid falling of
materials, water, etc.

• In the immediate lower floor toilet, doors opening to be barricaded to avoid the entry of
any person.

During horizontal bore packing

• Proper firm platform to be provided like stool/table etc, inside the toilet while bore
packing is happening.

• While packing outside or inside the duct, the person should have a firm platform
made using M.S jelly laid over the cup lock or H-frame staging.

• Personnel should wear safety belt and get it hooked to a firm support like props or
building elements.

During waterproof coating


• Ensure the tradesmen adhere to the Personnel protective equipments.

• After completion of waterproofing, door to be provided to avoid


damage for water proof coating.

120. Checklist for Under -Tile Waterproofing


121. Checklist for Under -Tile Waterproofing
122. Checklist for Under -Tile Waterproofing
123. Checklist for Under -Tile Waterproofing

124. DAILY PRODUCTIVITY REPORT