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Lamongan Islamic University

Abstract: As the term word-formation are dealing with the formation of words. Word
formation process has ten categories are the followings: Coinage, Borrowing,
Compounding, Blending, Clipping, Back Formation, Conversion, Acronym, Inflection
and Derivation. This study aims to classify about kinds of word formation processes and
to know about the most dominant word formation process used in outdoor
advertisement of billboard in lamongan. The researcher found 100 data that included of
word formation processes. The researcher found 14 data from the process of coinage, 8
data from the process of borrowing, 29 data from the process of compounding, 4 data
from the process of blending, 14 data from the process of clipping, 1 data from the
process of back formation, 2 data from the process of derivation, 22 data coming from
process of acronym and 6 data from the process of inflection. Based on the findings,
many of encounter billboards in outdoor advertisements are used English or mixing
between Indonesian and English, for examples; djarum black, quick chicken, surya
phone etc. Then, the researcher make two points of this phenomenon, they are: code
mixing (sosiolinguistic) and language imperialism.

Key words: word formation, advertisement and billboard

Today, there are many kinds of Clipping, Back Formation, Conversion,
advertisement in daily life. Indoor and Acronym, Inflection and Derivation.
outdoor advertisement can be seen As it is known, people are never far
everywhere and every time. Advertisement is from advertisements, products, radio and TV
a form of communication used to persuade an commercials and billboards that clamor for
audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take their attention. People who work hard or go
some action with respect to products, ideas, or around from one place to another is hard to
services. There are two kinds of catch but billboard advertisements catch them
advertisement, indoor and outdoor. Outdoor in every place with effective reach. Billboard
advertisements, which exist in the open air, is one mode of advertising. Billboard requires
can be found in shopping centers, roads, etc. a simple message that can be conveyed
While the indoor one is found in magazines, quickly to passers-by. The designer of the
brochures, newspaper, etc. advertisement must encapsulate the core
message of a campaign on a single page (a
According to Stebbing and Bini very large page).
(2004:18) the function of advertisement is Elden as quoted by Kartopu et al
divided into two, they are: public awareness (2005:1), says that: Billboards are charming
advertisement and persuasive advertising. and attractive advertising vehicles. The
Public awareness advertisement is some meaning universality of the messages, photos
advertisement which give information about and graphics, which are used in billboards are
health or safety or community program important and effective for the perception of
decision made by government. Persuasive the consumer. The Billboards are in the centre
advertising is most advertising tries to of the crowded city, are usually 2x3.5m large.
persuade people to buy product or service. As known, Billboards are short lived and
The language used in advertisements is very lasted advertising vehicles, because they
important for promoting its products. change fastly. the priority objectiveof
Consumers will know and remember the billboard advertisements is: to gather and
product if the advertisers use interesting attract consumers interest and attention.
language in the advertisements. Based on the background, the research
problems can be formulated: 1) What are the
kinds of word formation processes in outdoor
The language uses in advertisements is advertisement of billboard are found in
very importantfor promoting products. Lamongan?, 2) What is the most dominant of
Consumers will know and remember the word formation process used in outdoor
product if the advertisers use interesting advertisement of billboard found in
language in the advertisements. Due to the Lamongan?
reason, the researcher tries to make research
about word formation processes in outdoor Method
advertisement of billboard in Lamongan. The
term „word-formation‟ suggests, it is dealing This study uses descriptive qualitative
with the formation of words. It can say that research, because the researcher tries to
dealing with morphologically complex words. describe the result of study using words. The
For example, employee can be analyzed as researcher is as instrument of the study and
being composed of the verb employ and the billboard as the object of the study.
ending -ee, can be segmented into the
Research location of this study in
smallest parts. This unit is called morphemes.
Lamongan. They are included East Lamongan
(Plag, 2002:12), Word formation process has
in Veteran Street, West Lamongan in Mastrip
ten categories are the followings: Coinage,
Street (made), North Lamongan in Panglima
Borrowing, Compounding, Blending,
Sudirman Street and South Lamongan in

Sunan Drajat Street (Demangan). Beside that, super, federal parts and pop mie). 4 data from
the researcher choose some region in the process of blending (furnimart, alfamart,
Lamongan regency which central of bussiness warnet and wartel). 14 data from the process
or province street which many billboards on of clipping (Citra TV, Net and Cafe Sibrul,
it. The location included west Lamongan Ramayana Dept. Store, Oil Mart, Fax, Blue
which covers Babat, Pucuk and Sukodadi. gas, Bakso Mas Bro, Smartfren, Depkominfo,
Then, East Lamongan which covers Deket, Bagas cell, Surya phone, Ciptadent, Resto
and South Lamongan in Tikung district. Kampoeng, Indomie).
In collecting the data, the researcher uses 1 data from the process of back formation
documentation and observation method. The (comforta), 2 data from the process of
real acts for documentation method is taking a derivation (reshare rabbani and professional
picture about billboard as outdoor mild), 22 data from the process of acronym
advertisement in Lamongan. Then, the writer (ATM, LLI, LG, PS 2/3, Depkominfo, IGD,
uses observation field note technique to create T.B anugrah, R.M kaliotik, BNI, BRI, BCA,
the data from source. It helps to make LSC, SG, UD. Assalamu‟alaikum, PT.MBIS,
paragraph descriptive for discussion in this UNISDA, ILF, Madu HMS, V fresh). and 6
case. data from the process of inflection (Carni‟s
Bakery, Zuga‟s Salon, Stars Originals,
The steps to analyze the data are: first, Federal parts, Kebab Kings, D‟master kids
the researcher finds the word formation playground).
process in billboard as outdoor advertisement.
Second, takes a note about the terms. Third, Discussion
classifies the data and describes the word
formation processes. Fourth, analyzis the 1. Discussion based on the firts statement of
word formation used word formation theories. the problem
And the last, the writer presents the result of
As mentioned before, the data can
the study.
be classified into nine categories of word
Findings formation processes. They are; coinage,
borrowing, compounding, blending,
The researcher found 100 data that are clipping, back formation, acronym,
included in word formation processes. Then conversion and derivation. The researcher
she is classifiying them into nine categories, found 100 data that belong to outdoor
They are: 14 data from the process of coinage advertisement of billboard found in
(Aqua, Yong ma, Nokia, Atlas, Indo jeans, Lamongan. Most of data used English or
Promag, Khong guan, Wimcycle, top 1, IRC, mixing between English and Indonesian
Indomie, Xerox, Honda, and Philips). 8 data such as, water block, nippon paint, bella
from the process of borrowing (UD. springbed, surya phone etc. The
Assalamu‟alaikum, Reshare Rabbani, Awam, researcher makes two points of this
Yong Ma, Young Fa, Khong Guan, LLI (Loe phenomenon, they are: code mixing
Lan Ing) and Kebab kings). (sosiolinguistic) and language
Then, 29 data from the process of Code mixing by Meyerhoff
compounding (photocopy, taka paints, nippon (2006:120) generally refers to
paints, water block, bella springbed, western alternations between varieties, or codes,
union, blue gas, bridgestone, stars originals, within a clause or phrase. In other word,
kantor pos, fruit tea, professional mild, code mixing is a condition in which a
magnum blue, score mild, yummy chicken, speaker uses more than one language in a
air asia, good year, quick chicken, yuasa sentence or clause. The mixing is actually
battery, family bakery, platinum ceramics, not necessary, because the words of the
kapal api, fish center, muslim store, djarum
English language in the advertisement compounding “is the most productive
can be replaced with its equivalent in type of word formation process in
Indonesian. Such as in the advertisement, English,” however he argues that “it is
kebab kings can be written as rajanya also perhaps the most controversial one in
kebab. terms of its linguistic analysis.” He
Language Imperialism is a condition develops this idea saying that
that involves the transfer of a dominant “compounding is a field of study where
language to another language. Dominant intricate problems abound, numerous
language in this topic is English as an issues remain unresolved and convincing
international language. Phillipson (1992:7) solutions are generally not so easy to
says that English has been successfully find”.
promoted, and has eagerly adopted in the This brief overview of
gobal linguistic marketplace. He also compounding indicated the importance of
explaines that, English imperialism occurs in this word-formation process for the
two ways; use of media and the use of language of advertising. It is going to be
organizations supporting the development of demonstrated in the analysis of selected
the English language. But the most obvious samples. So word formation processes of
application is the use of electronic and print compounding is the most dominant in
media. Through electronic and print media, outdoor advertisement of billboard found
many Indonesian people swept up and make in Lamongan.
use of English as a thing to be proud.
The development of Indonesian must be
protected from other language interface. Conclusion
Actually, the phenomenon of the use of mixed Based on the result of this study, it can
Indonesian with English has been anticipated be concluded that:
by the government through Undang-Undang 1. There are nine strategies ofword
Nomor 24 Tahun 2009, pasal 3 menyebutkan formation processes in outdoor
”menciptakan ketertiban, kepastian, dan advertisement of billboard in Lamongan.
standarisasi penggunaan bendera, bahasa, They are: coinage, borrowing,
dan lambang negara serta lagu kebangsaan”. compounding, blending, clipping, back
Enforcement of this law should be followed formation, acronym, inflection and
with real applications to protect Indonesian derivation.
from English and others. 2. The process of compounding is the most
According to Crystal (2003:68), dominant among word formation
languages have always died. As cultures have processes in outdoor advertisement of
risen and fallen, so the languages have billboard in Lamongan. It takes 29% of
emerged and disappeared. To anticipate this total data or 29 words from total 100
phenomenon, Indonesians must proud and words found in Lamongan.
learn more about the culture and do
generalization in next generation. Indonesian Suggestion
should be able to make the Indonesian These are some suggestions as the
language has its own prestige in the society. followings:
1. For readers, it is expected to give further
2. Discussion based on the second statement understanding about the material in
of the problem conducting the research that relates to the
From the data above, it can be word formation processes in outdoor
conclude that compounding (29%) is the advertisement of billboard in Lamongan.
most dominant word formation processes 2. For Indonesian nation, they must protect
in outdoor advertisement of billboard in and support the development of
Lamongan. Plag (2002:169) claims that Indonesian. Actually, the phenomenon of
the use of mixed Indonesian with English References
and language imperialism has been
anticipated. Balkafl, E., Akbulut, N., Esin, Kartopu. 2005.
An Evaluate Study of Billboard
Advertisement‟s Attention-Perception
and Design Criterias. General
Journalism Department, Turkey.

Crystal, David. 2003. Language Death.

Cambridge: Cambridge University

Meyerhoff, Miriam. 2006. Introducing

Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge
Taylor and Francis Group.

Phillipson, Robert. 1992. Linguistic

Imperialism. Oxfort University

Plag, Ingo. 2002. Word Formation In English.

Cambridge: Cambridge University

Stebbing and Bini, Monica. 2004. A Resource

for the Teaching and Learning of
English. Melbourne: 45 Buckhurst

Undang-Undang RI nomor 24 Tahun 2009

pasal 3 menyebutkan ”menciptakan
ketertiban, kepastian, dan standarisasi
penggunaan bendera, bahasa, dan
lambang negara sertalagu
kebangsaan. (Online),
24_Tahun_2009, Accessed on 28 May
Accessed on 18 May 2014
Accessed on 18 May 2014