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# Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Measurement of R, L and C
Objectives

##  Derive balancing condition for different AC and DC Bridges.

 Determine inductance and resistance of an unknown coil.
 Determine relative permeability of a medium.
 Determine unknown capacitance and relative permittivity of a medium.
 Determine unknown frequency.
 Measure low, medium and high resistances.

Introduction

The most prominent methods for measuring Resistance, Capacitance and Inductance are
Bridge circuits. AC Bridges are used for measurement of Inductance and Capacitance and DC
Bridges are used for measurement for Resistance. AC Bridges are just an extension of
Wheatstone Bridge in which every arm contains an impedance. Bridge Circuits are Null
Detector type of Instruments in which we take reading when the detector shows zero
deflection and in such a condition bridge is said to be balanced.

AC Bridges

Balance condition: ID  0

## Which means that detector should show zero

deflection.
Under Balancing Condition,

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

## Z1 1 Z4 4  Z2 2 Z3 3

Z1 Z4 1  4  Z2 Z3 (2  3 )

Z 2 Z3
Z1  (2  3  4 )
Z4

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## R w : Wagner resistance ; C w : Wagner capacitance

 This connection is used to eliminate stray capacitance existing between the arms of
bridge and ground.
 All bridge circuit are initially connected to the Wagner device and by varying 'R w ' stray
capacitance effect is reduced so that accuracy of bridge circuit for calculation of unknown
component is increased.
 If Stray Capacitance is charged then the voltage across the detector is not equal to
voltage between two arms of bridge and hence the null deflection condition is inaccurate
and so we need to discharge this capacitance before balancing the bridge.

Procedure

## 1. Initially, switch is kept at S1 and by varying R 4 and C 4 bridge is balanced.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

2. Now switch is moved to S 2 and by varying R w , the voltage across stray capacitance is
discharged to the ground.
3. Now switch is moved back to S1 and again R 4 ,C 4 are varied for bridge balance and again
move the switch to S2 varying R w for discharging for voltage. This process is continuous
until detector shows null deflection in either position.

## Quality factor and Dissipation factor

Quality Factor and Dissipation for different connections of Resistance, Inductance and
Capacitance are given below.

## Connection Quality Factor (Q) Dissipation Factor (D)

L R
R L

R L
L R

1 RC
 RC

RC 1
 RC

1
From the table, Q 
D

D = tan where  is called as Loss Angle and D is also called Loss Tangent.

Measurement of Inductance

## 1. Maxwell’s inductance bridge.

2. Maxwell’s LC bridge – Medium Q (1<Q<10)
3. Hay’s bridge- High Q (Q>10)

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

5. Owen’s bridge

## This bridge measures inductance by comparison with a

variable standard self-inductance.

Z1  R1  jL1
Z 2  R 2  jL 2
Z3  R3
Z4  R4

## Under Balancing Condition

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

R 1
 jL1  R 4  R2  jL2  R3

R3
R1
 jL1   R 2  jL 2 
R4

## Comparing Real and Imaginary parts on both sides

R 2R 3 LR
R1  and L1  2 3
R4 R4

## By taking R 2 and L 2 as variables, balance is obtained. Since, R1 andL1 depend on R 2 and L 2

respectively, so faster balance can be obtained by independently varying R 2 and L 2 .

## This bridge is used to measure by comparison with a standard variable capacitance.

Z1  R1  jL1
Z2  R2
Z3  R3
1
Z4 
1
 jC4
R4

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Under Balanced Condition

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

R1  jL1
 R 2R 3
 1 
  j C 4 
 R4 

 1 
R1  jL1  R2R3   jC4 
 R4 

## Comparing Real and Imaginary Parts both sides,

R 2R 3
R1  ; L1  R 2R 3C 4
R4

L1
Q  R 4 C 4
R1

## The Phasor Diagram for this bridge circuit is shown below,

Ic
V3  V4  IRR 4 
wC 4
I2  IR  Ic

Uses

## 1. To measure unknown inductance ( L1 )

2. To measure internal resistance of inductor coil ( R1 )
3. To measure Quality factor of coil ( 1  Q  10 )

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Limitations

##  Not suitable for high Q coil.

L1
Q  High   => C4R 4   (Not practical)
R1

##  Not suitable for low Q coils.

 L 
tan1  1   low  0
 R1 

R 4 C4  0 (Not possible)

Hay’s Bridge

Hay’s Bridge is a modification of Maxwell’s Bridge, it uses Inductor and Capacitor in series
unlike Maxwell’s Bridge where Inductor and Capacitor are connected in parallel.

Z1  R1  jL1
Z2  R2
Z3  R3
1
Z4  R4 
j C 4

Bridge balance

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

 1 
R1
 jL1   R 4    R2R3
jC4 

## R 2R3 R 2R3  jC4 

R  jL1   
1

R4 
1 

 jC R
4 4
 1
 jC4 

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Comparing Real and Imaginary parts

R 2R 3R 4 2C24 R 2R 3C 4
R1  ; L1 
1  R C
2 2
4
2
4
1  2R 24 C24

For balancing of bridge, initially vary R 4 and C4 and then R 2 & R 3 because R1 &L1 contain all
parameters.

Limitation:

##  Balancing of bridge is complicated.

 For calculating R1 & L 1 , frequency of supply must be known.

Anderson’s Bridge

## This bridge is a modification of Maxwell’s Inductance

Capacitance Bridge. Here, self-inductance is measured
in terms of Standard Capacitor. This method is preferred
for precise measurement of self-inductance over
wide range of values.
To convert the bridge to standard form, we need to

## Convert  into Y as shown in the figure below,

rR 4
x
 1 
r  R4  
 jC 

R 4 / jC
y
 1 
R 4  r  
 j C 
r / jC
z
 1 
R4  r  
 j C 

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## The bridge circuit becomes as shown in the adjoining figure,

Z1  R1  r1  jL1
Z2  R2  X
Z3  R3
Z4  Y

## Bridge is balanced when,

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

On simplification we get,

R 2R 3
R1   r1
R4

CR 3
L1  [(R 2  R 4 )r  R 2R 3 ]
R4

## It is used to measure R1 ,L1 for low Q coils more accurately.

Limitations
 Bridge is more complex.
 Shielding of bridge is difficult to reduce the external magnetic field effect.

Phasor Diagram
At balance

VBE  0, ID  0
VAB  VAE  V2  I3r  V1
I2  I3  I4

## VBF  VBE  VEF

I3 I
V3  0   3
C C
V4  V3  I3r

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Steps to draw Phasor Diagram

1. Take I1 as reference
2. V1  I1(R1  r1 )  jI1wL1
3. V3  I1R 3
4. I3  Ic leads V3 by 90
5. I3r isin phase withI3
6. V4  V3  I3r
7. V4  I4R 4 (I4 in phase to V4 )
8. I2  I4  I3
9. V2  I2R 2
10. V  V1  V3  V2  V4

Owen’s Bridge

## This bridge may be used for measurement of inductance

in terms of capacitance.

Z1  R1  jL1
1
Z2  R2 
j C 2
Z3  R3
1
Z4 
j C 4

Bridge balance

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

 1   1 
R 1
 jL1      R2  R
jC2  3
 jC4  

## Comparing real and imaginary parts

C4
R1  R 3 ; L1  R 2R 3C 4
C2

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Modified Owen’s Bridge

This bridge is used for the measurement of Relative Permeability of the core material of a
coil.

N2A
L1  .r
l

L1  R 2R 3C 4

R 2R 3C 4
Hence, r  .l
N2o A

##  L1 from a known capacitance C4 for wide range Q coils.

 Relative permeability of core materials like Fe, Si, Steel and Ni-Fe alloy.

Note:

 In case of air core coil, linear relationship exists between  and I but in case of other coils
like Fe, Si, Steel etc. hysteresis causes non-linear relationship between  and I. This will cause
small residual current even though flux is zero. This DC current is constant for a particular
material.
 Including DC components of current if bridge is balanced produces error in measurement
of unknown r value.
 To compensate this effect an extra DC source is added in modified Owen’s bridge. By
changing resistance ‘r’ the current is injected into the bridge circuit for compensation of DC
current effect.

Solved Examples

Problem: The ac bridge shown in the figure is used to measure the impedance Z. If the
bridge is balanced for oscillator frequency f = 2 kHz, then the impedance Z will be?

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Solution: The impedances of various branches are

Z1  R1  500 
 
Z 2  R 2  jL 2  300  j 2 x 2000 x15.91x10 3  300  j199.93  
1 1
Z3  R3   300   300  j199.94  
jC3 
j 2 x 2000 x 0.398 x106 
Z4  Z

## Under Balancing Condition,

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3
500 x Z  300  j199.93300  j199.93
Z  259.94  j0 

Problem: The ac bridge shown in the given figure will remain balanced if impedance Z
consists of

Solution: Z must be Resistance and Capacitance in parallel. Then. This bridge circuit
becomes Maxwell’s Inductance Capacitance Bridge.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Problem: The Ac Bridge shown in the figure is used to measure the quality factor of a coil
which is represented by parallel combination of a resistance RP  and an inductance LP  .
The bridge is balanced at 100 Hz supply frequency. The quality factor of coil is?

Lp  C3R1R 4

##  0.1F  1.26k  500

 63mH
Similarly, at balance the unknown resistance
R1R 4 1.26k  500
RP    8.4k
R3 75
The coil is represented by parallel equivalent, so quality factor is

Rp 8.4k
Q 
Lp 2  100Hz  63mH

 212

## Problem: The a.c bridge shown in the figure is balanced if Z1  100300

Z 2  15000 ; Z 3  250  400 and Z 4 is equal to

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Z2 Z3
Solution: Z 4 
Z1
15000 250  400

100300
 375  700

## Problem: In the bridge shown in the figure

Z1  450

Z 2   300  j600  

Z 3   200  j100  

## The value of unknown impedance Z 4 at balance is?

Solution: We have
Z1  450

Z 2  300  j600  

## And Z3  200  j100 

Under balance Z1 Z3  Z 2 Z 4
450  200  j100   300  j600  Z 4

## 450   200  j100 300  j600 

 Z4
300    600 
2 2

450  10  2  j 3  6 j 
4

Z 4
450  103
10 6  15 j  6   Z 4

Z 4   0  j150  

Measurement of Capacitance

## The following bridge circuits are used for measurement of Capacitance,

1. De Sauty’s bridge
2. Schering bridge

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

De Sauty’s Bridge

## This bridge is simplest as it compares two capacitances

1
Z1  R1  r1 
jC1
1
Z 2  R 2  r2 
jC2
Z3  R3
Z4  R4
Under Balanced Condition,
Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3
 1   1 
 R1  r1   R 4   R2  r2  R
 jC1   jC2  3
Separating real and imaginary parts
R R
C1  4 C2 ; r1  (R 2  r2 ) 3  R1
R3 R4
D= Dissipation factor
D  C1r1

r1  Internal resistance of C1

Schering Bridge

## This bridge is used for measurement of unknown

capacitance and relative permittivity of dielectric
medium between the plates of capacitor.

1
Z1  R1 
jC1
1
Z2 
jC2
Z3  R3
1
Z4 
1
 jC 4
R4

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Under Balanced Condition,

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

 1  R4  R3
 r1     
 jC1   1  jC4R 4  jC2

R 4 C2
C1 
R3
R 3C 4
r1 
C2

## Measurement of Relative Permittivity

If a dielectric of thickness ‘t’ is inserted between plates of Capacitor, then upto distance ‘d’
capacitor is filled with air and for thickness ‘t’ dielectric exists.

o A or A
CaCb 
CAB   d t
Ca  Cb o A or A

d t

o r A
C AB 
t  d r

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

The bridge is balanced under this condition and then values of all components is kept fixed
while dielectric is removed from between the plates of capacitor.

Now, plate of capacitor is moved by a distance x and hence distance between plates of
capacitor becomes (d+t-x) and bridge becomes balanced again under this condition.
o A
C AB 
dtx

Since, values of all components remain same. Hence, Capacitance is same in both cases.
o r A o A

t  d r (d  t  x)

t
r 
tx

t=thickness of dielectric

Metal screen is used around Schering Bridge to reduce the effect of stray capacitance

Measurement of Frequency

If the bridges involve frequency in the balancing condition, then such bridges can be used
for determination of frequency in terms of circuit elements. Such a circuit which is used for
determination of frequency is called as Wien Bridge Oscillator.

1
Z1  R1 
jC1
1
Z2 
1
 jC2
R2
Z3  R3
Z4  R4

## Under Balancing Condition

Z1Z 4  Z 2 Z3

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

 1   R2 
 R1   R 4    R3
 jC1   1  jC2R2 

## (1  jR1C1 )(1  jC2R 2 )R 4  R 2R 3 ( jC1 )

1 1
 ; f
R1R2C1C2 2 R1R2C1C2

R1 C2 R 3
Condition for Balancing:  
R 2 C1 R 4

If R1  R 2  R ; C1  C2  C

1 R
Then, f  and 3  2
2RC R4

 Wien Bridge is used for measurement of wide range of Frequency in MHz range.
 If input signal contains harmonics, bridge balancing is difficult.

Solved Examples

Problem: A wien- bridge is used to measure the frequency of the input signal. However the
input signal has 10% third harmonic distortion. Specifically the signal is
2sin400t + 0.2sin1200t (with t in sec.) With this input the balance will

(a) Lead to a null indication and setting will correspond to a frequency of 200Hz

## (d) Not lead to null indication

Solution: Since, the input signal contains harmonics, the Wien Bridge cannot be balanced
and it will not lead to null indication.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Problem: The wein’s bridge shown in figure is balanced at a frequency of ______ kHz.

## Solution: The frequency is obtained by following equation

1
f
2 C1R1R 3C3

1

2 5  10 9  4.7  103  10  10 9  10  103
1
  3.283KHz
2 5  10 10  4.7

Measurement of Resistance

Properties of Resistance

## 1. Resistivity must be higher.

2. Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (  ) must be low.
3. Resistance should not change with time
4. It should be independent of supply frequency. The condition for frequency independence
L
is  RC , where L and C are parasitic Inductance and Capacitance in Resistance Model.
R
5. Bifiliar winding is used for reducing the effect of inductance.
6. If the resistance material is combined with other material like ‘Cu’, ‘Al’ etc thermoelectric
emf must be minimum.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Classification of Resistance

## 1. Low resistance: R  1 -Motor, Generator, Transformer Cu winding, earth conductor

resistance
2. Medium resistance: 1  R  100k , electronic equipment
3. High resistance: R>100k  - winding insulation of electrical motor, Generator,
Transformer, cable

## Medium Resistance Measurement

Wheatstone Bridge

## Wheatstone bridge is depicted in the adjoining figure.

It has four resistive arms together with a DC Voltage source
and a null detector which is usually a Galvanometer. The
bridge is said to be balanced when there is no current
through the galvanometer.

## P,Q are called Ratio Arms

R is the unknown resistance
S is the Standard Resistance

## The condition for bridge balancing is RQ  PS

P
R S
Q

Thevenin Equivalent

## The Wheatstone bridge can be redrawn as shown in the

adjoining figure. We need to derive the Thevenin Equivalent
across the Galvanometer.

 P R 
Vth  VB  Vc  V   
P  Q R  S 

 PS  RQ 
Vth  V  
 (P  S)(R  Q) 

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Rth  RBC v 0

PQ RS
R th  
PQ R S

## The Thevenin equivalent looks like as shown in the adjoining figure,

Vth
Ig 
R th  Rg

V(PS  RQ)
Ig 
(P  Q)(R  S)(R th  R g )

Bridge is balanced

Ig  0
PS  RQ  0
PS  RQ

P
R Q
S

Sensitivities

Sensitivity is defined as ratio of small change in output to a small change in Input. Based on
different inputs in Wheatstone Bridge, the following sensitivities are defined,

Current Sensitivity

Si  mm / mA
Ig
 = Deflection of galvanometer in mm

Voltage Sensitivity

Sv  mm / V
Vth

Bridge sensitivity
 V S
SB  mm ; SB  th v
(R / R) R / R

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Assuming that the bridge is initially under balanced condition i.e.

P R

Q S

P R
 …………….. (1)
PQ R S

If R is change to ( R  R )

 P (R  R) 
Vth  V   
 P  Q (R  S  R) 

From (1)

 R (R  R) 
Vth  V   
 R  S (R  S  R) 

##  R 2  RS  RR  R 2  RS  RR  SR 

 V 
 (R  S)2  (R  S)R 

Assuming R  (R  S)

V.SR
Vth  ……………. (2)
(R  S)

VthS v V.S v
SB   2
( R / R)  R  S2  2RS 
 
 RS 

V.S v
SB 
R S 
   2
 S R 

## Condition for maximum bridge sensitivity

R S P
If  
S R Q
VS v
SB (max) 
4

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Practical Uses

##  Measurement of medium resistance.

 Measurement of non-electrical quantities like temp, vacuum pressure, flow rate of liquid.

## Murray Voltage Loop Test

Murray-Voltage loop test works on the principle of Wheat stone bridge used to measure
fault distance in UG cables.

P R  (2l  x)r

Q S  xr

x=fault distance

## This bridge is based on Wheatstone bridge and

uses a Silde-wire over which a sliding contact
can be moved to vary the resistances
connected in arms R and S.
The resistance per unit length of slide-wire is
r /m
Total length of slide wire is L

## Assuming balancing length is l1

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Under Bridge balancing

P R  l1r

Q S  (L  l1 )r
P R  S  Lr
1 ………………… (1)
Q S  (L  l1)r
Now resistance R and S are reversed and
balancing length changes to l2
P S  l2r

Q R  (L  l2 )r
P S  R  rL
1 ………………….. (2)
Q R  (L  l2 )r

## From (1) and (2)

R  S  rL R  S  rL

S  (L  l1 )r R  (L  l2 )r

S  (L  l1 )r  R  (L  l2 )r

R  S  (l2  l1 )r

## Unknown resistance R is measured by comparing with standard resistance using Carey-

Foster slide Wire Bridge. It is used to measure medium resistance.

Solved Examples

Problem: The reading of high impedance voltmeter V in the bridge circuit shown in the
given figure is __________

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Solution: We have
 10 
VA    10
 20  10 
VA  3.33V

 20 
VB    10
 20  10 
VB  6.66V
So VB  VA  6.66  3.33  3.33V

Problem: The arms of a Wheatstone bridge are shown in the given figure. For the balance
condition, the least tolerance value of R 4 will be?

R1R 4  R2R3

## 10  2% R  10  3%5  5% 

4

In addition and subtraction, absolute values are added up. In multiplication are division,

R4 
100  3% 5  5% 
10  2%
500  8%

10  2%
 50  10%

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Problem: In the circuit shown, when the current through the branch AD is zero, the battery
current IB is ______________ mA

R  120

## R equ  120  80  / 120  80 

 100
1 1
IB    10mA
R equ 100

Voltmeter-Ammeter Method

We can measure resistance by measuring Voltage across the resistance by a Voltmeter and
current through the resistance by an Ammeter and then the measured value of resistance is
given by,

Rm  

## R T  Test or true resistance

R a = Ammeter resistance

R v = Voltmeter resistance

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

The following two connections are possible when it comes to Voltmeter Ammeter method,

Ammeter near R T

## Assume Ammeter Reading = I

Voltmeter Reading = V  I(R T  R a )
Measured Resistance,
V
Rm   R T  Ra
I
Percentage error,
Rm  R T R
% r   100  a  100
RT RT
r is low if R T  R a ; hence this connection is used to measure high R in medium range.

Voltmeter near R T

Ammeter Reading = I  IR  Iv
V V
 
RT Rv
1 I 1 1
  
Rm V R T R v
1 1 1
 
R v Rm R T
R T  Rm 1

RmR T Rv
Rm V R T  Rm
 
R v IR v RT
Rm  R T V
% r   100    100%
RT IR v
Assume R m  R T

RT
% r    100
Rv

## r is low if R T  R v . Hence this connection is used to measure low R in medium range.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Solved Examples

Problem: The set-up in the figure is used to measure resistance R. The ammeter and
voltmeter resistance are 0.01  and 2000 , respectively. Their readings are 2A and 180 V,
respectively, giving a measured resistance of 90 . The percentage error in the measurement
is?

V 180
Solution: Current through Voltmeter =   0.09 A
R V 2000

## Current through load = IL  I  IV  2  0.09  1.91A

V 180
True Value of Resistance = R T    94.24 
IL 1.91

Rm  R T 90  94.24
% r   100   100  4.5%
RT 94.24

Substitution Method

## Initially, the switch is connected at A

Let current I = I1

By KVL

## Now, the switch is moved to B

Let current I = I2
By KVL
V  I2 (Rh  Rg  S) …………….. (2)

(1) = (2)
(2)

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

I1(R n  R g  R T )  I2 (R h  R g  S)
I2
RT  (R  R g  S)  (R h  R g )
I2 h

If I1  I2

RT  S

Ohmmeter

It measures the resistance placed between its leads and this resistance is indicated by a
mechanical meter movement which operates on electric current. The meter has an internal
voltage source to create necessary current to operate the movement.

## There are two basic constructions of Ohmmeter:

Series Ohmmeter

Here, test resistance is connected in series with Voltage source and hence it is called as
Series Ohmmeter.
R1 = current limiting resistor
R 2 = Zero adjustment meters

The maximum current flows through the ammeter when test resistance is zero and minimum
current when test resistance is infinity and hence Full Scale Deflection appears when test
resistance is zero.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

Shunt Ohmmeter

In this meter, maximum current flows through the Ammeter when Test Resistance is infinity
and minimum current flows when test resistance is zero. Hence, Full Scale Deflection is
observed when Test Resistance is infinity.

## 1. Ammeter is calibrated in terms of resistance in the ohmmeter

2. A constant voltage source is used.
3. Series ohmmeter is used to measure high resistance in medium scale and shunt
ohmmeter is used to measure low resistance in medium range.

Solved Examples

Problem: A shunt type ohmmeter is shown in the figure. With R x disconnected, the meter
reads full scale. ‘S’ represents the meter current as a fraction of full scale current with R x
Rx
connected such that, S 
R x  Rp
The value of Rp is given by?

## Solution: With R x disconnected, the full scale current

The new current can be obtained as
E
IT 
R R
R1  m x
Rm  R x

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## From current division rule,

E  Rx 
INew   
R R  Rm  R x 
R1  m x
Rm  R x

ER z

R1 Rm  R x   RmR x
ER x
From (1) 
R1 Rm  R x   RmR x

Rx  E 
  
R x  R p  R1  R m 

R1Rm
Rp 
R 1
 Rm 

## Measurement of Low Resistance

When measuring low resistances by general methods that we have seen till now then
resistance of connecting leads may alter the value of measured resistance. This is due to the
fact that resistance of connecting leads is comparable to the resistance under measurement.
So, we need to devise special techniques for measurement of low resistances:

## Here, we have two bridges one inside the other and

hence it is called as Double Bridge.

## P,Q are called as Outer Ratio Arms

p,q are called as Inner Ratio Arms
R is the unknown resistance
S is the standard resistance

## To apply the Balancing condition for Wheatstone

Bridge we need to convert this structure into
Wheatstone Bridge form. This can be done by
converting the inner  to Y

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## The resistance of equivalent Y circuit are given as,

pr
x
(p  q  r)
qr
y
(p  q  r)
pq
z
(p  q  r)

After the conversion the bridge structure looks like as shown below,
Under Balanced Condition of the bridge,

P Rx

Q Sy

Substitute x and y

P qr  P p 
R S   
Q p  qr Q q

P p
If 
Q q

## p, q = Inner ratio arms

S = standard resistance

R = test resistance

 Kelvin double bridge is most practical used for low resistance up to micro-ohm range. It is
used to measure winding resistance of transformers, generators, motors and each conductor
resistance.
 Reversible switch is used to reduce the effect of thermoelectric emf produced at the
junctions.

Note: Potentiometer is also used for measurement of Low Resistances and that section is
covered in Chapter-5.

Measurement (Measurement of R,L and C)

## Direct deflection method

In this method, we apply a voltage across an Insulation and record the values of Voltage
across Insulator and leakage current through it. The ratio of two readings will give the value
of Insulation Resistance.

R

## Loss of charge method

Here, we charge a capacitor initially and then discharge it using a resistance whose value is
to be measured. Then we record capacitor voltages at different instants of time to determine
the value of Resistance.
The voltage across the capacitor as a function of time is,
Vc  Vet/RC
V
et/RC 
Vc
t V
 ln  
RC  Vc 
t
R
V
C ln  
 Vc 
0.4343t
R where t is in sec
V
C log10  
 Vc 