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AS 1418.

19—2007
AS 1418.19—2007

Australian Standard®

Cranes, hoists and winches

Part 19: Telescopic handlers


Accessed by R O BIRD AND ASSOCIATES PTY LTD on 31 Jul 2012
This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee ME-005, Cranes. It was approved on
behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 23 July 2007.
This Standard was published on 18 October 2007.

The following are represented on Committee ME-005:

• Association of Consulting Engineers Australia


• Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
• Australian Industry Group
• Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing
• Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
• Construction and Mining Equipment Industry Group
• Crane Industry Council of Australia
• Department for Administrative and Information Services (South Australia)
• Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, WorkSafe Division (WA)
• Department of Labour New Zealand
• Elevating Work Platform Association of Australia
• Engineers Australia
• Vehicle Loading Crane Interests
• Victorian WorkCover Authority
• WorkCover New South Wales

Additional Interests:

• Australian Industrial Truck Association

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 06379.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.
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systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.

Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to


notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
AS 1418.19—2007

Australian Standard®

Cranes, hoists and winches

Part 19: Telescopic handlers

First published as AS 1418.19—2007.


Accessed by R O BIRD AND ASSOCIATES PTY LTD on 31 Jul 2012

COPYRIGHT
© Standards Australia
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 8414 3
AS 1418.19—2007 2

PREFACE
This draft was prepared by the Australian members of the Joint Standards
Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee ME-005, Cranes.
The objective of this Standard is to provide requirements for self-propelled telescopic
handlers that are intended to handle loads using different types of attachments.
In the preparation of this Standard, cognizance was taken of BS EN 1459:1999, Safety of
industrial trucks—Self-propelled variable reach trucks and AS 1418.5—2002, Mobile
cranes.
The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part
of a Standard, whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance.
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3 AS 1418.19—2007

CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 5
1.3 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6
1.4 NEW DESIGNS, INNOVATIONS AND DESIGN METHODS ................................. 8
1.5 DESIGNATION OF TELEHANDLER TYPE............................................................. 9

SECTION 2 DESIGN
2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN .................................................................................................. 11
2.2 LOADINGS............................................................................................................... 11
2.3 SECURITY................................................................................................................ 12
2.4 BRAKES ................................................................................................................... 12
2.5 CONTROLS .............................................................................................................. 12
2.6 POWER SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES .............................................................. 14
2.7 SYSTEMS FOR LIFTING, TILTING, REACHING AND SLEWING ..................... 15
2.8 OPERATOR POSITION ........................................................................................... 18
2.9 STABILITY .............................................................................................................. 19
2.10 OPERATOR PROTECTIVE DEVICES .................................................................... 19
2.11 INDICATING AND LIMITING DEVICES .............................................................. 19
2.12 VISIBILITY .............................................................................................................. 22
2.13 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ........................................................................ 22
2.14 TESTING .................................................................................................................. 24

SECTION 3 INFORMATION FOR USE


3.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 27
3.2 SPECIFIC INFORMATION...................................................................................... 27
3.3 MARKING ................................................................................................................ 28

APPENDICES
A TYPICAL HAZARDS............................................................................................... 32
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B STABILITY TESTS .................................................................................................. 35


C INDUSTRIAL TELEHANDLERS—STABILITY TESTS........................................ 36
D ROUGH TERRAIN TELEHANDLERS—STABILITY TESTS................................ 42
E TELEHANDLERS OPERATING WITH OFFSET LOAD—OFFSET
BY POWERED DEVICES—ADDITIONAL STABILITY TESTS........................... 48
F TELEHANDLERS OPERATING WITH OFFSET LOAD—OFFSET
DETERMINED BY THE UTILIZATION—ADDITIONAL STABILITY TESTS ... 52
G PROCEDURE FOR TESTING STEERING WHEEL KICK-BACK ......................... 56
AS 1418.19—2007 4

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
Cranes, hoists and winches

Part 19: Telescopic handlers

SECT ION 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard applies to self-propelled non-slewing and slewing, not greater than 5° either
side of the longitudinal axis, of seated rider-operated telescopic handlers (hereinafter
referred to as ‘telehandlers’), as defined in Clause 1.3.31, intended to handle loads,
including freely suspended loads, using one of the attachments defined in Clause 1.3.
NOTE: Attachments may be mounted directly on the lifting means or on an auxiliary mast fixed
at the end of the lifting means.
Telescopic handlers with the ability to slew greater than 5° will have to comply with
AS 1418.5 in addition to the requirements of this Standard (excluding the static stability
testing procedures as defined in Clause 2.9 and Appendices B to F).
The use of the term ‘slew’ from hereon refers to those telehandlers that can slew up to five
degrees, except where clearly stated otherwise.
In addition, all telescopic handlers intended to support work platforms will have to comply
with AS 1418.10.
This Standard does not apply to industrial variable reach trucks (‘reach stackers’) designed
to handle series 1 freight containers ≥6 m long with the dimensional and securing
characteristics specified in ISO 668 and ISO 3874.
Telehandlers are also known by a variety of terms, such as ‘variable reach trucks’ and
‘multi-purpose handlers’.
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Two types of telehandlers are covered in this Standard, as follows:


(a) Telehandlers for operation on substantially firm smooth, level and prepared surfaces,
known as ‘industrial telehandlers’.
(b) Rough terrain telehandlers for operation on unimproved natural terrain and disturbed
terrain or areas.
Telehandlers covered by this Standard may be equipped with fork tynes for normal
industrial duties, or attachments for specific applications such as earth-moving buckets and
jibs, and the like. Telehandlers may be equipped with stabilizer/outriggers, axle locking or
lateral levelling devices.
For hazards occurring during construction, transportation, commissioning,
decommissioning and disposal, reference should be made to ISO 12100-2.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


5 AS 1418.19—2007

Telehandlers manufactured to this Standard are designed to operate in a temperature range


of −20°C to +50°C. Telehandlers intended for use in more extreme temperatures shall be
designed accordingly. The instructions shall include precautions to be taken when using the
telehandler at extreme temperatures.
NOTES:
1 Requirements for the safe use of telescopic handlers defined in this Standard are given in
AS 2550.19.
2 Appendix A provides a list of typical hazards associated with telehandlers.

1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


The following documents are referred to in this Standard:
AS
1418 Cranes, hoists and winches
1418.1 Part 1: General requirements
1418.5 Part 5: Mobile cranes
1418.10 Part 10: Elevating work platforms
2294 Earth-moving machinery—Protective structures
2294.2 Part 2: Laboratory tests and performance requirements for roll-over
protective structures
2294.3 Part 3: Laboratory tests and performance requirements for falling-object
protective structures
2294.4 Part 4: Protective structures—Specifications for deflection-limiting volume
2359 Powered industrial trucks
2359.1 Part 1: General requirements
2359.5 Part 5: Control Symbols for operator controls and other displays
2359.7 Part 7: Terminology
2359.9 Part 9: High-lift rider trucks—Overhead guards—Specification and testing
(ISO 6055:2004, MOD)
2359.13 Part 13: Brake performance and component strength
2359.15 Part 15: Fork-arm extensions and telescopic fork arms—Technical
characteristics and strength requirements
2402 Traction batteries—Lead acid
2402.1.1 Part 1.1: Vented cells—Requirements
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2549 Cranes (including hoists and winches)—Glossary of terms


2550 Cranes, hoists and winches—Safe use
2550.19 Part 19: Telescopic handlers
4983 Gas fuel systems for forklifts and industrial engines
AS/NZS
3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
ISO
668 Series 1 freight containers—Classification, dimensions and ratings
2330 Fork-lift trucks—Fork-arms—Technical characteristics and testing
3795 Road vehicles, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry—
Determination of burning behaviour of interior materials
3874 Series 1 freight containers—Handling and securing
6683 Earth-moving machinery—Seat belts and seat belt anchorages—Performance
requirements and tests

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AS 1418.19—2007 6

ISO
21281 Construction and layout of pedals of self-propelled sit-down rider-controlled
industrial trucks—Rules for the construction and layout of pedals
12100 Safety of machinery—Basic concepts, general principles for design
12100-1 Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology
12100-2 Part 2: Technical principles
EN
1175 Safety of industrial trucks—Electrical requirements
1175-1 Part 1: General requirements for battery powered trucks
1175-2 Part 2: General requirements for internal combustion engine powered trucks
1175-3 Part 3: Specific requirements for the electrical power transmission systems
of internal combustion engine powered trucks
12053 Safety of industrial trucks—Test methods for measuring noise emissions
13059 Safety of industrial trucks—Test methods for measuring vibration
European Parliament and Council Directive 2000/14/EC on the approximation of the law of
the Member States, relating to the noise emission in the environment by equipment for use
outdoors

1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Standard, the definitions in AS 2359.7, AS 2549 and ISO 12100-1
and those below apply.
1.3.1 Auxiliary mast
Mast at the end of the telescopic boom intended to reach greater lifting heights.
1.3.2 Axle locking
Mechanism designed to stop oscillation of the rear axle for improving telehandler stability
during stacking and destacking operations.
1.3.3 Bucket
A device intended to carry bulk products such as sand, gravel, coal, etc.
1.3.4 Falling object protective structure (FOPS)
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A device protecting the operator’s position against falling objects.


1.3.5 Fixed attachments
Attachments that are mounted to the telehandler and which require the use of tools to
remove them.
1.3.6 Fixed load
A load directly supported by a rigid lifting attachment, connected to the boom that prevents
it from swinging (e.g., fork tyne or bucket).
1.3.7 Fork extensions
Devices fitted over the forks tynes to increase their length.
1.3.8 Forks
A device with two or more solid fork tynes (hook mounted or shaft mounted) that is fitted
on the carriage and usually spread manually.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


7 AS 1418.19—2007

1.3.9 Forward travel


Forward direction of travel occurs when the load-handling means (e.g., forks) is leading the
travel motion of the telehandler.
1.3.10 Freely suspended load
A load attached to a lifting point via a sling or other means, which allows the load to swing.
1.3.11 Front end of telehandler
The end of a telehandler, which leads the forward direction of travel described in
Clause 1.3.9.
1.3.12 Hoist
A rotating drum and drive train to which a rope is attached and used for lifting loads.
1.3.13 Hook
A lifting point either fixed or via a load hoist line which allows a load to be freely
suspended.
1.3.14 Jib
A device equipped with a hook, which can be attached to the telehandler boom to lift freely
suspended loads.
1.3.15 Lateral levelling
Changing the angular relationship between the chassis and the load axle in order to adjust
the chassis to horizontal when the telehandler is standing on a side slope and to ensure the
boom operates in a vertical plane.
1.3.16 Level
A horizontal plane ±1% gradient.
1.3.17 Load backrest
A device fitted to the back of the fork arm carriage to prevent any part of the load from
falling onto the operator’s position.
1.3.18 Load push-pull
A device enabling the load to be slid forward or backward on the fork tynes.
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1.3.19 Load stabilizer


A device clamping the load vertically and stabilizing it to prevent it from falling.
1.3.20 Luffing (lifting)
Angular movement of the boom or jib in the vertical plane.
1.3.21 Maximum capacity
The maximum load that the telehandler or telehandler/attachment combination is capable of
lifting.
1.3.22 Normal operating position
Position in which the operator will be able to control all functions for driving and load
handling, as defined by the manufacturer.
1.3.23 Pick and carry
The act of travelling with a load.

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AS 1418.19—2007 8

1.3.24 Quick coupler


A structure fitted at the end of the lifting boom to grip and lock interchangeable
attachments without the use of a tool.
1.3.25 Rated capacity of removable attachments
Maximum load (in kilograms) that the attachment is designed to handle in normal operation
under specified conditions.
1.3.26 Rated capacity of telehandler
The load, in kilograms, (depending on lift height H (see Figure 1.5.1), attachment, load
centre distance and reach) permitted by the design, taking into account the stability test
results, which the telehandler is capable of transporting or lifting under specific conditions.
NOTE: Rated capacity is also known as ‘actual capacity’ in some countries.
1.3.27 Rear end of telehandler
The end of a trailing telehandler.
1.3.28 Roll-over protective structure (ROPS)
System of structural members whose primary role is to reduce the possibility of a seat-
belted operator being crushed should the telehandler roll over. Structural members include
any subframe, bracket, mounting, socket, bolt, pin, suspension or flexible shock absorber
used to connect to the telehandler frame, but exclude mounting provisions that are integral
with the machine frame.
1.3.29 Side grabs
A device comprising two plates clamping uniform loads (boxes, cartons, barrels, blocks,
etc.) horizontally.
1.3.30 Stabilizer/outrigger
Extendible mechanical supports used to improve stability of a stationary telehandler.
1.3.31 Telehandler
A mobile, rider-mounted, self-propelled counterbalanced lifting device with a telescopic
boom whose lifting is primarily achieved by luffing and telescoping of the boom.
NOTE: Telehandlers are usually fitted with fork tynes as the standard lifting device but may be
fitted with a variety of attachments, including ones incorporating hoisting mechanisms.
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1.3.32 Wood grab


A device comprising a curved pressing fork arm specially designed for handling logs or
round timber.

1.4 NEW DESIGNS, INNOVATIONS AND DESIGN METHODS


This Standard does not preclude the use of materials, designs, methods of assembly,
procedures, and the like, that do not comply with a specific requirement of this Standard, or
are not mentioned in it, but which can be shown to give equivalent or superior results to
those specified.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


9 AS 1418.19—2007

1.5 DESIGNATION OF TELEHANDLER TYPE


1.5.1 Nominal rated capacity of telehandler with forks
Load (Q) in kilograms, specified by the manufacturer, that the telehandler type is capable of
transporting or lifting in normal operation under specific conditions. It shall be equal to the
maximum load (Q) with centre of gravity at point (G), [where G is the load centre of
gravity positioned in the longitudinal plane that passes through the central point between
the front wheels (see Figure 1.5.1)], which the telehandler is designed to carry on forks at
the standard load centre distance (D) as specified in Clause 1.5.4 and stack at the standard
lift height (H) as specified in Clause 1.5.3.

G
D
g

H
G

FIGURE 1.5.1 PARAMETERS FOR THE DESIGNATION OF THE NOMINAL RATED


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CAPACITY OF THE TELEHANDLER WITH FORK TYNES

1.5.2 Nominal reach (d)


Distance between two vertical parallel planes, one plane tangent to the front of the outside
diameter of the front tyres, the other plane tangent to the curve described by g moving from
position H to its lowest position. Point (g) is the vertical projection of the centre of gravity
(G) onto the plane of the top surface of the fork tyne blades (see Figure 1.5.1).
1.5.3 Standard lift height
Height (H) from the ground to the upper face of the fork blades or to the underside of the
load.
The standard height (H) shall be as follows:
(a) For telehandlers with capacities of 10 000 kg or less ........................................ 3.3 m.
(b) For telehandlers with capacities greater than 10 000 kg..................................... 5.0 m.

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AS 1418.19—2007 10

1.5.4 Standard load centre distance (D)


Distance (D) in millimetres from the centre of gravity (G) of the load measured horizontally
to the front of the fork shanks and vertically to the upper face of the fork blades, as
specified in Table 1.5.4.

TABLE 1.5.4
STANDARD LOAD CENTRE DISTANCE
Standard load centre distance (D),
Rated load (Q), mm
kg
400 500 600 900 1200 1500
<1000 O O R
≥1000 <5000 O R
≥5000 ≤10000 R
>10000 <20000 R R R
≥20000 <25000 R R
≥25000 R R
R = Required
O = Optional
NOTE: Telehandlers may be rated for special applications with load
centres related to those applications.
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© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


11 AS 1418.19—2007

S E C T I O N 2 D E S I G N

2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN


2.1.1 General
The basis of design/classification of the telehandler shall be in accordance with AS 1418.1.
2.1.2 Structure
The basis of design for the telehandler structure shall be in accordance with the loadings
specified in Clause 2.2 and the relevant requirements of AS 1418.1. The magnitude of
locally induced stresses in the areas of the attachment of the boom lugs, trunnions, and the
support bearings of the telescopic boom shall be considered.
2.1.3 Stabilizer/outriggers
Stabilizer/outriggers, where provided, shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Where stabilizer/outriggers are extendible, means shall be provided to securely locate
each stabilizer/outrigger in the retracted position and in each extended position at
which the stabilizer/outrigger is to support the telehandler.
(b) Each stabilizer/outrigger shall be equipped with a footplate that is self-aligning in at
least one plane.
(c) Where the stabilizer/outrigger is power operated, means shall be provided to prevent
loss of support under load.
(d) Where stabilizer/outriggers are horizontally extendible, means shall be provided, by
use of paint marks or other suitable means, to make it clear to the operator when each
stabilizer/outrigger is extended to the correct position to support the telehandler in
conformance with the rated capacity chart.
2.1.4 Counterweights
Means shall be provided to adequately secure all counterweights to the telehandler.
Each detachable counterweight shall be marked with its identification and mass, and
provided with means by which it may be lifted and secured.
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2.2 LOADINGS
2.2.1 General
For design purposes, design loadings shall be not less than the rated capacity (see
Clause 1.3.25 and 1.3.26) multiplied by a hoisting factor (ψ) of 1.15 and a dead load factor
(ϕ) of 1.00.
The lateral loading shall comply with one of the following:
(a) Four percent of the rated capacity at the boom head plus the force on the boom
resulting from a wind velocity of 10 m/s (36 km/h).
(b) Six percent of the rated capacity at the boom head representing all lateral loads.
2.2.2 Load combinations
The telehandler shall be designed to withstand the application of the vector combination of
the loadings that produces the governing design criteria in the part of the telehandler under
consideration (see AS 1418.1).
For example, consideration should be given to the reaction of slewing and wind effects,
which cause lateral loading on stabilizer/outriggers.

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AS 1418.19—2007 12

2.2.3 Wind loads


In-service wind loads and out-of-service wind loads shall be calculated as follows:
(a) In-service wind loads Telehandlers shall be designed for lifting in wind speeds of
10 m/s [36 km/h; see Clause 2.2.1(a)]. Telehandler configurations designed for wind
speeds other than 10 m/s shall have the design wind speed marked on the rated
capacity chart.
(b) Out-of-service wind loads Telehandlers shall be designed to meet strength and
stability considerations when subjected to a minimum wind speed of 15 m/s (54 km/h)
when in the out-of-service configuration. Where appropriate, the designer shall
specify each wind speed limit and any special precautions to be taken by the user.

2.3 SECURITY
2.3.1 Protection against unintended use
The telehandler shall be provided with a device (e.g., a key) that prevents use by
unauthorized persons.
2.3.2 Protection against unintentional start-up
A parking brake shall be provided conforming to the requirements specified in Clause 2.4.
Internal combustion engine powered telehandlers shall be fitted with a device which
prevents the engine being started whilst the transmission is engaged.
All telehandlers, irrespective of their driving mode (torque converter, hydrostatic
transmission, battery powered) shall have a travel control with 3 positions, that is, neutral,
forward travel, reverse travel.
NOTE: In the neutral position the transmission is not engaged.

2.4 BRAKES
Service and parking brakes shall comply with AS 2359.13.
For telehandlers with capacities greater than 50 000 kg, the brakes shall also comply with
AS 2359.13.
Electromechanical brakes shall be applied mechanically and released electrically. They
shall meet the relevant requirements of EN 1175-1.
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Failure of the power supply for automatically acting brakes shall not result in loss of
braking.

2.5 CONTROLS
2.5.1 General
Controls shall, where practicable, be consistent with the telehandler motions being operated
and shall be confined within the plan view outline of the telehandler.
Travel controls on battery-powered telehandlers shall comply with the relevant
requirements of EN 1175-1.
Means shall be provided to prevent powered travel when the operator leaves the normal
operating position. On engine-powered telehandlers, the parking brake and neutral travel
control may be used to satisfy this requirement. Devices on battery-powered telehandlers
shall comply with the relevant requirements of EN 1175-1.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


13 AS 1418.19—2007

2.5.2 Travel and braking controls


2.5.2.1 Pedal-operated travel and braking controls
Pedal-operated travel and braking controls shall be in accordance with ISO 21281.
2.5.2.2 Differential locking pedal
If the telehandler is fitted with a differential lock that is pedal operated, depression of the
pedal shall lock the differential.
2.5.2.3 Hand-operated direction control lever
The movement of a hand-operated direction control lever shall correspond to the required
direction of travel.
2.5.2.4 Manually operated accelerator control lever
The movement of a manually operated accelerator control lever shall be parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the telehandler. Movement of the control lever towards the front of the
telehandler shall increase travel speed.
2.5.2.5 Hand-operated transmission gear change lever
The positions for gear engagement shall be clearly indicated.
2.5.2.6 Hand-operated differential locking lever
If the telehandler is fitted with a hand-operated differential lock, the engaged and
disengaged positions of the lock shall be clearly indicated.
2.5.3 Steering controls
2.5.3.1 General requirements
The steering control shall be easy to grasp and operate. The steering mechanism shall be
designed to ensure a progressive response to the movement of the control.
2.5.3.2 Steering requirements
In the event of an interruption of the power supplied to the steering system (including a
dead engine), it shall be possible to maintain the direction being steered just before the
breakdown until the telehandler is brought to a controlled stop.
For electric telehandlers, the relevant requirements of EN 1175-1 shall be met.
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2.5.3.3 Steering shock limitation


The transmission of shocks from the ground to the steering controls of the telehandler shall
be limited and meet the requirements of Appendix G.
2.5.3.4 Strength
The steering control shall be capable of withstanding an actuating force of 900 N applied in
the normal manner of operation without sustaining any functional damage.
2.5.3.5 Actuating force
The actuating force at the rim of a steering wheel for a stationary telehandler shall not
exceed 250 N when turning lock to lock in 8 s. Compliance with this requirement shall be
verified in a type test of a telehandler, laden or unladen, whichever is the least
advantageous, with the engine at low idle and on a surface as specified in AS 2359.13.

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AS 1418.19—2007 14

2.5.3.6 Steering directions—Steering wheel control


Clockwise rotation of a steering wheel shall steer the telehandler to the right when the
telehandler is travelling in the forward direction. If a reversible control unit or dual controls
are fitted, clockwise rotation of a steering wheel shall also steer the telehandler to the
operator’s right when the telehandler is travelling in reverse with the operator facing in that
direction.
2.5.3.7 Steering direction—Single lever control
On telehandlers for which steering is controlled by means of a single lever controller,
pushing the lever to the right shall cause the telehandler to be steered to the right in the
direction of travel.
2.5.4 Load-handling control
All load-handling controls shall automatically return to neutral when released, thus stopping
all load movements.
The controls for the main functions shall be clearly separated from the driving controls.
They should be located so as to be operated by the operator’s right hand.
The function of the controls shall be clearly and durably marked. When using graphic
symbols, these shall be in accordance with AS 2359.5, and each symbol shall be affixed on
or in close proximity to the control lever to which it applies.
2.5.5 Other controls
2.5.5.1 Stabilizer/outrigger controls
When there are stabilizer/outriggers operated by control levers, these shall be put in place
by a forward motion of the control and shall be withdrawn by a backward motion.
If other control methods are used, they shall follow the same logic.
2.5.5.2 Chassis-levelling control
When there is chassis levelling operated by a control lever, the desired correction shall be
made by moving the control in the lateral plane of the telehandler.
If other control methods are used, they shall follow the same logic.
2.5.5.3 Axle-locking control
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When axle locking is used, operated by a control lever, locking shall be engaged by forward
or downward motion of the control and disengaged by backward or upward motion of the
control.
If other control methods are used, they shall follow the same logic.
2.5.6 Marking
Controls shall be legibly and indelibly marked with graphic symbols in accordance with
AS 2359.5.
All written instructions on the controls shall be in English and SI units.

2.6 POWER SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES


2.6.1 Exhaust system
The exhaust system shall be designed so that the health and safety of the operator is not
impaired by temperature rises or exhaust gases. In particular, the exhaust pipe shall have its
outlet arranged to minimize discomfort to the operator.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


15 AS 1418.19—2007

2.6.2 Cooling system


The airflow through cooling system shall be arranged in such a manner that the health and
safety of the operator is not impaired.
2.6.3 Fuel tanks
If a fuel tank is within or contiguous to the engine compartment and if the temperature
could cause ignition of fuel, the tank and/or filling arrangements shall be isolated from the
electrical and exhaust systems by suitable protection such as separate enclosure or baffles.
The tank location and facilities for filling shall be such that spillage or leakage drains to the
ground and not into the engine or operator’s compartment or onto electrical or exhaust
system parts.
Fuel spillage shall not be possible under normal operating conditions.
2.6.4 Access to engine and other compartments
Where there are unguarded moving parts within the engine compartment, access shall only
be possible by means of a key or tool, or by a release handle within an operator’s lockable
cab. The engine cover shall be designed so that a device (or devices) is required to hold it
securely in its open position and prevent uncontrolled closures.
Where access to other components requires the opening of covers, such covers shall require
a device (or devices) to hold the cover securely in its open position and prevent
uncontrolled closure.
Means shall be provided to allow one person to perform routine inspections without using
workshop equipment.
2.6.5 Additional requirements for internal combustion engine-driven telehandlers
using gas fuel systems
Internal combustion engines using gas fuel systems, such as LPG, shall comply with
AS 4983.
2.6.6 Electrical requirements
All electrical systems and equipment shall comply with AS/NZS 3000, EN 1175-1,
EN 1175-2 and EN 1175-3.

2.7 SYSTEMS FOR LIFTING, TILTING, REACHING AND SLEWING


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2.7.1 Chains and wire ropes


2.7.1.1 Chains
When the lifting mechanism (lifting, telescoping) includes a chain or chains, the telehandler
manufacturer shall use only leaf or roller chains that, in relation to the minimum breaking
load certified by the manufacturer of the chain, shall provide a factor K1 , as given by the
following equation:
Min. breaking load for new chain × number of chains
K1 =
Max. capacity of the telehandler + dead weight of the lifting mechanism
where
for telehandlers ≤10 000 kg capacity K1 ≥ 5
for telehandlers over 10 000 kg capacity K 1 ≥ 5 − 0.2 ( Q ′ − 10)
K 1 shall be not less than 4
Q ′ = telehandler maximum capacity, in
tonnes

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AS 1418.19—2007 16

Sheave(s) diameters shall be at least three times the pitch of the chains.
Loads in the chain(s) due to friction in the lifting mechanisms shall be taken into account.
2.7.1.2 Wire ropes
When the lifting mechanism includes one or more wire ropes, the telehandler manufacturer
shall select wire ropes that, in relation to the minimum braking load certified by the
manufacturer of the wire rope, will provide a factor of K 2 as follows:
(a) For lifting and telescoping ....................................................................... at least 6:1.
(b) For hoisting ............................................................................................. at least 4:1.
where
Min. breaking load for new wire rope × number of wire ropes
K2 =
Max. capacity of the telehandler + dead weight of the lifting mechanism
carried by the wire rope (s)
The diameter of the wire rope guide sheaves, measured from the bottom of the groove, shall
be at least 18 times the diameter of the wire rope.
2.7.2 Hydraulic lifting system
2.7.2.1 Load holding
The descent of the load caused by internal leakage in the hydraulic system in the least
favourable load position shall not exceed 150 mm during 10 min with the oil in the
hydraulic system at normal working temperature.
The average forward tilting speed resulting from leakage shall not exceed half a degree per
minute.
2.7.2.2 Maximum load-lowering speed
The maximum permissible load-lowering speed shall be such that, even with the maximum
load in the event of unintentional operation, a sudden drop of the lowering means, the
telehandler shall remain stable.
NOTE: The rear wheels may momentarily lift during such unintentional operation.
2.7.2.3 Limitation of stroke
All movements with limited travel shall be provided with stops to prevent over-travel.
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2.7.3 Hydraulic system


2.7.3.1 Hydraulic circuit
Hoses, piping and all connections shall be capable of withstanding, without bursting, a
pressure at least equal to three times the operating pressure of the hydraulic circuit, as
indicated by the manufacturer.
The hydraulic system shall be designed and installed in such a way that its performance and
reliability are not reduced or its components damaged as a result of external stresses,
vibration or movements of the telehandler or components thereof.
Hoses and piping shall be positioned to avoid physical damage and adverse effects in the
event of bursts, pinholes, or other such occurrences.
The hydraulic system shall be so designed that the oil in circulation is continuously filtered.
2.7.3.2 Pressure-relief valves
All hydraulic systems shall include a device that prevents the pressure in the system from
exceeding a preset safe level.

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17 AS 1418.19—2007

The device shall be so designed and fitted that accidental loosening or adjustment is
avoided and that a tool or key is required to alter the pressure settings.
2.7.3.3 Failure of energy supply or hydraulic circuit
In the case of a fault or interruption of the supply of energy, the design of the hydraulic
installation shall be such that the hydraulic pressure in the system prevents the pump from
functioning as a hydraulic motor.
In the event of a failure in the hydraulic circuit of the load lifting, tilting, telescoping,
stabilizing or lateral levelling system(s) or in the event of failure of the driving power
supply, means shall be provided to maintain the load or telehandler in its position.
The requirement shall be considered to be fulfilled when the maximum descent of the load
is as specified in Clause 2.7.2.1 when failure occurs during load lifting or lowering. The
load shall be immobilized within the limits of functional leakage as specified in this
subclause.
2.7.3.4 Oil filtration
Hydraulic systems shall be protected against hazards due to oil pollution (for example, by
means of a filter or magnet).
2.7.4 Fork tynes
Fork tynes shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with ISO 2330.
Devices (slot, pin, lock, etc.) shall be provided to prevent unintentional lateral displacement
of the fork tynes on the fork carrier.
2.7.5 Fork extensions
Fork extensions shall be positively fixed to the fork tynes and be designed to prevent
accidental disengagement from the fork tynes and be in accordance with the requirements of
AS 2359.15. A rated capacity chart shall be provided.
2.7.6 Fork carriers
Positive stops shall be provided on the fork carrier to prevent lateral disengagement of the
fork tynes from the fork carrier at its extremities. If a fork tyne removal slot is provided at
the bottom of the carrier, it shall not be positioned opposite a slot at the top of the carrier
unless means are provided to prevent the fork tyne from being inadvertently displaced.
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2.7.7 Load-handling attachments


Load-handling attachments shall comply with the following:
(a) Attachments (e.g., clamps, side-shifters, elevators, scoops, etc.) shall be designed and
manufactured in such a way that unintentional lateral displacement and detachment
from the telehandler are prevented.
(b) Clamping devices shall be so designed that clamping pressure is sustained for at least
10 min after the engine has been shut down by means of non-return valves or any
other effective system when the telehandlers control mechanisms are in the neutral
position. In the event of malfunctions in the power supply system for the attachment,
means shall be provided to prevent the load being dislodged or unintentionally
shifted.
(c) Telehandlers equipped with quick couplers, as defined in Clause 1.3.24, for
attachments shall be designed and manufactured in such a way that the locking
devices can be seen by the operator to be correctly engaged into the attachment from
the normal operating position. Means shall be provided to prevent loss of the
attachment in the event of system failure.

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AS 1418.19—2007 18

(d) If an attachment has its own separate hydraulic system, it shall comply with
Clause 2.7.3.
(e) If an attachment has a hydraulic system that is connected to the telehandler hydraulic
system, then the two systems shall be compatible and the combined systems shall
comply with Clause 2.7.3.
(f) Attachments shall be so designed and fitted to the telehandler that, in the normal
operating position, visibility of the roadway by the operator is not reduced.
2.7.8 Load sustainability
Telehandlers shall be designed in such a way that they can be equipped with load-retention
devices such as load backrest extensions and top clamp stabilizer/outriggers. Where fitted,
load backrest extensions shall comply with the requirements of AS 2359.1.

2.8 OPERATOR POSITION


2.8.1 Seat
The seat shall be designed to provide a comfortable position for, and be constructed to
reduce the transmission of vibration to, the telehandler operator and shall fulfil the
following requirements:
(a) Fore and aft seat adjustments shall be provided to allow ready access to controls.
(b) If a weight-adjustable suspension seat is fitted, the adjustment shall cater at least for
weights of 55 to 110 kg.
(c) If a swivelling seat is fitted, swivelling shall be possible in all positions of
adjustment.
(d) The adjustment of the seat shall be possible without the use of tools.
(e) All adjustments shall be clearly and indelibly marked with symbols on the seat-
control devices.
2.8.2 Operator access
Telehandlers shall be designed to permit easy access and egress to minimize the risk of
slipping and falling. Steps, running boards and grab handles shall be provided to ensure a
three-point grip at all heights (that is, one hand and two feet or two hands and one foot).
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Steps may be of open construction but shall have slip-resistant surfaces.


The first step shall be not more than 550 mm from the ground, and succeeding steps shall be
at regular intervals of 250 to 350 mm.
The size of apertures for feet shall be as follows:
(a) Single foot steps .......................................................................at least 160 mm wide.
(b) Double foot steps.............................................................................. at least 320 mm.
(c) All steps ................................................................................... at least 150 mm deep.
The operator compartment floor and any walkways shall have a slip-resistant surface.
2.8.3 Protection from wheels
Telehandlers shall be provided with devices that ensure the protection of the operator, when
in the normal operating position, against contact with the telehandler wheels or against
objects thrown up by the wheels (e.g., mud, gravel, stones or bolts).
NOTE: The protection device for the steered wheels need only cover the wheels in the straight
ahead position.

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19 AS 1418.19—2007

2.8.4 Protection from burning


All parts of the telehandler within reach of the operator in the normal operating position or
when getting into or leaving the operating place shall be insulated or shielded if necessary
so that their surface temperature does not exceed 65°C.
2.8.5 Protection of the operator against crushing, shearing and trapping points
Relative moving parts that are within the operator’s reach in the normal operating position
shall either be adequately guarded (e.g., enclosure, screen, grid, etc.) or be separated by
minimum distances as follows:
(a) Places where the operator’s fingers can be trapped ......................................... 25 mm.
(b) Places where the operator’s hands or feet can be trapped ........................ 100/120 mm.
(c) Places where the operator’s arms or legs can be trapped ......................... 120/180 mm.
2.8.6 Operator restraint
All telehandlers shall be fitted with a safety belt with anchoring points complying with the
requirements of ISO 6683.

2.9 STABILITY
The stability of the telehandler shall be determined by test in accordance with Appendix B,
and Appendices C to F, as applicable.

2.10 OPERATOR PROTECTIVE DEVICES


2.10.1 Protection for the operator on industrial telehandlers
Every industrial telehandler shall be fitted with an overhead guard complying with
AS 2359.9 for the protection of the operator.
The overhead guard shall not hinder the operator while mounting or dismounting the
telehandler.
2.10.2 Protection against falling objects and overturning for rough terrain
telehandlers (FOPS and ROPS)
Rough terrain telehandlers shall be fitted with the following:
(a) A ROPS complying with the requirements of AS 2294.2.
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(b) A FOPS complying with the requirements of AS 2294.3.


The deflection-limiting volume after the tests of resistance against falling objects and
overturning shall comply with the requirements of AS 2294.4.

2.11 INDICATING AND LIMITING DEVICES


2.11.1 General
Indicating and limiting devices described herein shall be fitted in accordance with
Table 2.11.1. The load limits specified in the Table relate to the maximum capacity of the
telehandler with applicable attachment. All displays shall be clearly legible from the
operator’s position. The indicating and limiting devices shall be effective for operation in
an ambient temperature range of −20°C to +50°C.
2.11.2 Motion and performance indicators
2.11.2.1 Longitudinal stability indicator
Whenever the rated capacity based upon longitudinal stability is being approached, the
longitudinal stability indicator shall warn the operator both visually and audibly.

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AS 1418.19—2007 20

TABLE 2.11.1
APPLICATION OF LIMITING AND INDICATING DEVICES (see Note 1)
Telehandler with Telehandler with Telehandler with
Item forks or fixed fixed jib/hook wire rope hoist
loads attachment attachments
Longitudinal stability indicator R R (see Note 2) R (see Note 2)
Rated capacity indicator O >3 t R >3 t R
Load indicator O O O
Boom angle indicator R R R
Lateral slope indicator R R R
Drum rotation indicator N/A N/A O
Hoisting limit indicator N/A N/A R (see Note 3)
Telescopic boom length indicator R R R
Wind speed anemometer O O O
Longitudinal stability limiter R ≤3 t R (see Note 2) ≤3 t R (see Note 2)
Rated capacity limiter O >3 t R >3 t R
Maximum capacity limiter O ≤3 t R (see Note 2) ≤3 t R (see Note 2)
Hoisting limiter (see Note 2) N/A N/A R (see Note 3)
Lowering limiter N/A N/A O
Audible warning device R R R
LEGEND:
R = Required
O = Optional
N/A = Not applicable
NOTES:
1 The above designations are the minimum requirements. Devices should be applied with due
consideration for safe operation.
2 Mandatory where a rated capacity limiter is not fitted.
3 Not required where the design provides two-blocking damage protection.

2.11.2.2 Rated capacity indicator


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The rated capacity indicator shall warn the operator both visually and audibly before the
load on the telehandler exceeds the rated capacity.
2.11.2.3 Load indicator
The load indicator system shall measure and display the mass of the load being lifted.
The accuracy of the load-indicating system shall be such that the indicated load is at least
100% of the actual load.
2.11.2.4 Boom angle indicator
The angle indicator shall indicate the angle of the boom to the horizontal at each operating
position. Where the device is electronic, a gravity pendulum angle indicator, with maximum
increments marked at 5°, shall also be fitted.
The display accuracy shall be within 0° to −2.5° from the actual boom angle.
2.11.2.5 Lateral slope indicator
The lateral slope indicator shall be legible by the operator in the normal operating position
and shall indicate when the telehandler is level, or the permitted lateral slope, as specified
by the rated capacity chart.
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21 AS 1418.19—2007

2.11.2.6 Hoist rope drum rotation indicator


The hoist rope drum rotation indicator shall indicate the direction of rotation and relative
speed of the drum.
The device shall indicate hoist rope drum movement by visual, audible or tactile means.
The device shall be able to indicate initial drum rotation when travel has extended to
50 mm.
2.11.2.7 Hoisting limit indicator
When activated, the device shall warn the operator of impending contact between the lower
load block or hook assembly and upper load block, boom or jib point sheave assembly(ies).
The warning shall be both audible and visible to the operator.
The device shall be set to take into account the stopping distance necessary for the hook
boom or jib motion, under normal telehandler operation.
2.11.2.8 Telescopic boom length indicators
The telescopic boom length indicator shall indicate the operating length of the extended
boom. At each marking the display accuracy shall have a tolerance range of 0.1 m.
2.11.2.9 Wind speed anemometer
Where fitted, the anemometer shall be secured to an exposed section of the boom or jib
point with readout readily legible to the operator. The display accuracy shall be ±5% of the
actual wind speed.
2.11.3 Motion and performance limiters
2.11.3.1 Maximum capacity limiter
The maximum capacity limiter shall prevent the telehandler from lifting a load in excess of
110% of the maximum capacity of the telehandler and attachment combination.
2.11.3.2 Longitudinal stability limiter
The longitudinal stability limiter shall restrict further aggravating motion of the telehandler
and thereby limit the actual capacity such that it does not exceed 75% of the longitudinal
tipping load at the corresponding reach (d) (see Figure 1.5.1).
The longitudinal stability limiter shall only be disengaged where one or both of the
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following means are provided.


(a) A mechanism that requires constant pressure to override the limiter and that
automatically reactivates the longitudinal stability limiter after no more than 60 s of
continuous ‘override’ activation.
(b) An automatic mechanism when boom is at an angle <10° above the lowest position of
the boom and extended by no more than 1 m from the fully retracted position. The
longitudinal stability limiter shall be automatically reengaged when either these limits
are exceeded.
2.11.3.3 Rated capacity limiter
The rated capacity limiter shall restrict further aggravating motion of the load so that the
load does not exceed 110% of the rated capacity.
The rated capacity limiter shall continuously take account of all variations to the rated
capacity arising from the configuration of the telehandler or the position of the load, or
both. The rated capacity limiter shall not require any manual resetting or adjustment during
the lifting cycle of the telehandler; that is, the performance of the rated capacity limiter
shall be maintained throughout the lifting cycle, from the time the load is lifted to the time
it is set down, without any manual resetting or adjustment.

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AS 1418.19—2007 22

The rated capacity limiter shall only be disengaged where one or both of the following
means are provided.
(a) A mechanism that requires constant pressure to override the limiter and that
automatically reactivates the rated capacity limiter after no more than 60 s of
continuous ‘override’ activation.
(b) An automatic mechanism when boom is at an angle <10° above the lowest position of
the boom and extended by no more than 1 m from the fully retracted position. The
rated capacity limiter shall be automatically reengaged when either these limits are
exceeded.
2.11.3.4 Motion-limiters
Every motion of the telehandler that has a restriction of movement in the design shall be
provided with a motion-limiter.
Where fitted, each motion-limiting device shall be mounted in a position that takes into
account the stopping distance necessary for that motion. The devices shall not prevent the
telehandler controls being reset to move motions away from the extent of their limits.
Where movement of the jib or boom, or a telescoping movement, can further endanger a
hoist motion that has reached its upper hoist limit, an interlock shall be provided to ensure
that these movements cannot be made before the hook block has been lowered to a safe
position.
Examples of motion-limiters and circumstances where they may be required include the
following:
(a) Hoisting limiter types (e.g., anti two-block system, two-block damage-prevention
device).
(b) Lowering limiter to ensure that at least two turns of rope always remains on the drum.
(c) Boom telescope limiter to prevent the boom telescoping out or in beyond the design
or operational limits.
2.11.4 Audible warning device
A warning device, readily controllable from the operating position, shall be fitted to give
audible warning to personnel in the vicinity of the telehandler.

2.12 VISIBILITY
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The telehandler design shall provide sufficient visibility to enable the operator to carry out
all travel and manoeuvres safely. In order to aid the operator to avoid collisions when
visibility is limited, built-in devices shall be provided (e.g., mirrors, cameras and monitors,
raised or reversible operator position, audible and visual alarms).
Telehandlers shall be so designed that it is possible for a competent person referring to the
manufacturer’s instructions to equip them with an electrical circuit whereby travel lights,
working lights, signal and maintenance lights can be installed to aid visibility.

2.13 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS


2.13.1 Operator’s cab
The following shall apply:
(a) If the overhead guard is replaced by a totally enclosed cab fitted with a
heater/demister, the heater’s air intake shall be connected to a fresh air inlet.
NOTE: Partial recycling of the air is permissible.

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23 AS 1418.19—2007

The demister shall be securely fixed. The hot air shall be capable of being circulated
to demist or defrost all windows in the cab. A device shall be fitted to prevent the
operator from being burnt from direct contact or by hot air.
(b) If a cab is fitted on an industrial telehandler, it shall comply with Clause 2.10.1.
(c) If a cab is fitted on a rough terrain telehandler, it shall comply with Clause 2.10.2.
(d) Provision shall be made for efficient ventilation of the cab. Where it is obtained by
keeping the doors and windows open, these shall be capable of being locked open.
(e) If glass is used in the window apertures, it shall be of the safety type. The windscreen
and rear window shall be fitted with sufficiently large wipers so that the operator has
an adequate view.
(f) The cab shall include at least one door, plus an emergency exit allowing the operator
to escape in another direction.
(g) The cab material and fixing elements shall be resistant to a fire with a maximum
burning rate of 250 mm/min for a sample tested to ISO 3795.
(h) Provisions shall be made for storing the operator’s manual in a position that shall not
impair the normal work of the operator.
2.13.2 Protection during transport, loading and unloading
The following shall apply:
(a) If the manufacturer specifies in the instruction handbook that a telehandler may be
lifted without disassembling, locations for slinging points shall be provided and
clearly indicated on the telehandler.
(b) Lifting points shall be provided to enable partial disassembly of telehandler elements
for the purpose of transportation in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
(c) Securing points (hooks, rings, ears, etc.) shall be provided on the front and rear parts
of the telehandler to enable lashing down of the telehandler for transportation
purposes.
(d) Locations for slinging of removable attachments shall be provided as specified in the
instruction handbook.
NOTE: A dedicated place should be provided for the operating and maintenance instructions.
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2.13.3 Noise emission and vibration


2.13.3.1 Noise emission
The noise emission rate shall be measured using the test method given in EN 12053. Either
the actual value or a figure calculated from measurements performed on identical
telehandlers shall be taken. If the level exceeds 85 dBA, the A-weighted sound power level
emitted by the telehandler shall be measured, using either the EN 12053 test method, or the
2000/14/EC test method. The result shall be recorded.
2.13.3.2 Vibration
Whole body vibration should be measured using the test method given in EN 13059.
The vibration rate transmitted to the operator and the measuring method shall be included in
the instruction handbook. Either the actual value or a figure calculated from measurements
performed on identical telehandlers shall be taken.

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AS 1418.19—2007 24

2.14 TESTING
2.14.1 General
The quality of design and the structural integrity of each custom-made telehandler, and each
model of a serial production telehandler, shall be verified by testing. The structural integrity
of each telehandler shall be verified after making repairs and modifications to load-
supporting components.
The test results shall be used to verify the necessary rated capacity charts.
2.14.2 Tests for telehandlers
Telehandlers shall be tested in accordance with this Clause (2.14). Suitable precautions
should be taken during testing and only those persons directly necessary to carry out the
testing should be in the test area. Tests should include the following:
(a) For each custom or serial model telehandler—
(i) visual inspection;
(ii) performance test;
(iii) static stability test;
(iv) static strength test; and
(v) hoist brake test.
(b) For each subsequent serially produced model telehandler—
(i) visual inspection;
(ii) performance test; and
(iii) hoist brake test.
(c) For each telehandler after repair or modification of load-supporting components—
(i) visual inspection; and
(ii) static strength test.
2.14.3 Preparation for testing in accordance with Appendix B
The telehandler shall comply with the manufacturer’s specification. A visual inspection
shall be carried in accordance with Clause 2.14.4 to ensure that all adjustments and the
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condition of all load-supporting components conform to the operating instructions. The


tyres shall be inflated to the specified operating pressures ±3%. Where applicable, the travel
brakes shall be locked and spring lockouts engaged.
If the telehandler is to be tested on stabilizer/outriggers, the telehandler shall be jacked to a
position where the tyres are clear of the ground, unless some other conditions are required
by the manufacturer’s rated capacity chart. The telehandler shall be levelled laterally, to
within 1% gradient, on a firm supporting surface.
Where the telehandler is rated to operate at other than within 1% gradient, then testing shall
be carried out with the telehandler standing at the designated slope.
For rough terrain telehandlers, when used for pick and carry operations, the rated capacity
chart and testing shall be at a lateral gradient of 8.7%, at the manufacturer’s designated
travel position.

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25 AS 1418.19—2007

Where the telehandler may be equipped with jibs or other attachments, the telehandler (for
testing) shall be equipped with the attachments that produce the greatest stresses (for
strength tests) and least stability (for stability tests). The telehandler, equipped with the
alternative attachments, shall be retested for strength, except where the quality of design of
the attachments has already been established independently (for example, in conjunction
with another telehandler test).
2.14.4 Visual inspection before testing
Visual inspection shall include checking for compliance with specifications and condition
of all vital components such as—
(a) mechanisms, electrical equipment, safety devices, brakes, controls, lighting and
indicating systems;
(b) all guarding;
(c) hooks or other load-handling attachments and their connections;
(d) ropes and their fastenings;
(e) boom and jib connections; and
(f) means of access for operation and maintenance as fitted.
Dismantling of parts is not necessarily included in this inspection; however, opening of
covers provided for the purpose of service and inspection shall be included (for example,
opening of limit switch covers).
The inspection shall verify that all manuals and copies of test certificates of previously
tested components are available.
2.14.5 Performance test
The performance test shall demonstrate the capability of the telehandler to operate in
accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications by handling at least two loads from the
rated capacity chart.
2.14.6 Static stability test
2.14.6.1 Purpose
The purpose of the static stability test is to verify the stability of the telehandler under static
loading conditions.
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2.14.6.2 Procedure
For telehandlers, the test shall be carried out at minimum, maximum and at least one
intermediate working radius, or reach, in the stability area according to the requirements of
Appendix B and Appendices C to F, as applicable.
For slewing telehandlers, the boom shall be located at the least stable position.
2.14.7 Static strength test
2.14.7.1 Purpose
The purpose of this test is to demonstrate the overall structural integrity of the loaded
telehandler.
2.14.7.2 Procedure
Telehandlers shall be tested at 125% of the rated capacity selected from the strength-
governed area of the telehandler’s rated capacity chart.

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AS 1418.19—2007 26

2.14.7.3 Requirements
The telehandler shall be considered as complying with this test provided the test load is
safely supported for 10 min without adversely affecting any part of the telehandler.
2.14.8 Hoist brake test
2.14.8.1 Purpose
The purpose of the hoist brake test is to demonstrate the competence of the hoist braking
system.
2.14.8.2 Procedure
A load that generates 110% of the rated line pull shall be hoisted above the ground then
lowered and arrested just clear of the ground. This test may be carried out following the
performance tests at operating temperatures. Unless indicated by the manufacturer, the test
shall be carried out on the top layer of the drum.
2.14.8.3 Requirements
The test shall be considered to be satisfactory when the load is arrested and supported for
5 min without creep, or as the manufacturer specifies.
2.14.9 Inspection after testing
At the completion of all testing, the telehandler structure or repaired load-supporting
component shall be visually and otherwise appropriately examined to determine any
evidence of buckling, permanent deformation, paint cracking, flaking or other indications of
stress beyond the yield point or other evidence of failure.
2.14.10 Record of testing
All pertinent data and observations regarding the inspection and test shall be recorded and
attested to by the competent person observing the tests. A certificate of test in accordance
with this Standard shall be issued upon completion of the tests. This certificate of test may
be issued at the point of manufacture after testing in accordance with this Standard. In
addition, documented evidence in the form of a manufacturer’s test certificate, for
compliance with Appendix C or Appendix D, shall be provided to supplement the testing to
the stability requirements in this Standard.
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27 AS 1418.19—2007

SE C T I ON 3 I N FO RM A T I O N F O R U SE

3.1 GENERAL
Manuals shall be supplied with each telehandler. They shall be in accordance with
AS 1418.1 and shall include the following:
(a) The operator’s manual.
(b) The maintenance manual.
(c) The service record (logbook).
(d) The parts book.
NOTE: Residual risks, as identified in Appendix A, should be included in the manuals.

3.2 SPECIFIC INFORMATION


The information provided shall consist of at least the following:
(a) Information covering the normal use and areas of application of the telehandler:
(i) The prohibited use of the telehandler.
(ii) The prohibited use of the attachments supplied with the telehandler.
(iii) The climatic conditions for which the telehandler is designed.
(iv) Prohibition of operation in hazardous atmospheres for which the telehandler is
not designed.
(b) Information covering the telehandler:
(i) Description of the telehandler, equipment and the attachments supplied for use
with the telehandler.
(ii) Description of the safety installations and warning labels.
(iii) Description of the wheels:
(A) Type of rims for the front and rear wheels.
(B) Brand, types of tyres that can be used, and required inflation pressures.
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(C) Brand, types of cushion or solid tyres permitted as replacement.


(iv) Noise and vibration if measured.
(v) Capacity and performance data of the telehandler.
(vi) Telehandler dimensions.
(vii) The use of the seat belt.
(viii) The adjustment of the operator’s seat.
(c) Information covering the operational use of the telehandler:
(i) The required competencies of the operator and, if applicable, any required
personal protection equipment.
(ii) Measures necessary to control residual risks.
(iii) Daily checks before putting the telehandler into operation.
(iv) The operating controls and operating displays.
(v) Starting, driving and braking of the telehandler.

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AS 1418.19—2007 28

(vi) The handling of loads.


(vii) Travelling on gradients, load bridges and in lifts or hoists.
(viii) Safe parking of the telehandler.
(ix) Special risks in connection with the use of the attachments.
(d) Information covering the installation, servicing and recharging of batteries in the case
of battery-driven telehandlers:
(i) Approved batteries and battery chargers required for recharging purposes.
(ii) Charging the batteries.
(iii) The battery weight and, if provided, compensating weights.
(iv) Safety rules for batteries.
(v) The installation and replacement of batteries.
(e) Information covering the refuelling of combustion-engine-driven telehandlers, to
include the following:
(i) Approved fuels.
(ii) Safe handling of fuels.
(iii) Refuelling operations.
(f) Transportation, commissioning and storage of telehandlers:
(i) Weights and dimensions.
(ii) Transporting, loading and unloading of telehandlers.
(iii) The assembling of telehandlers and mounting of attachments.
(iv) Functional tests.
(v) Commissioning and rendering the telehandler operational.
(vi) Towing of the telehandler and moving of defective telehandlers.
(vii) Shutting down and storing of telehandlers over long periods of time, as
identified by the manufacturer.
(g) Information covering inspection, service and maintenance instructions:
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(i) Competencies required for inspection, service and maintenance operations.


(ii) Type and frequency.
(iii) The specification of consumables and quantity required.
(iv) Spare parts.
(v) The filling of oil, battery, LPG, diesel or other fuels as applicable.
(vi) Drawing and diagrams to help maintenance personnel perform their duties in a
rational manner.

3.3 MARKING
3.3.1 Information plates
3.3.1.1 Telehandlers
Telehandlers shall be marked legibly and indelibly with at least the following:
(a) Name and address of the manufacturer or authorized importer of the telehandler.
(b) Designation of series or type.
© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
29 AS 1418.19—2007

(c) Serial number and year of manufacture.


(d) Unladen mass of the telehandler in working order without removable attachments and
battery for battery-powered telehandlers, but with fork tynes or fixed attachments.
The mass may vary from the figure shown by ±5%.
(e) Maximum capacity.
(f) Rated capacity at the maximum lift height with the load centre distance.
(g) Rated capacities at other lift heights and load centre distances, where applicable.
(h) Rated capacity with each removable attachment at the lift heights and load centre
distances authorized by the manufacturer.
(i) On battery-powered telehandlers, the authorized maximum and minimum masses of
the battery and the voltage value.
(j) Details of the attachments that the telehandler has been designed to use (e.g., work
platform, jib, bucket).
(k) Information covering travelling on gradients.
(l) Compliance with this Standard.
The rated capacities shall be easily readable by the operator in the normal operating
position.
3.3.1.2 Traction batteries
Traction batteries shall bear an identification plate complying with AS 2402.1.1.
3.3.1.3 Removable attachments
Removable attachments shall be marked legibly and indelibly with the following minimum
particulars:
(a) Name and the attachment manufacturer or authorized importer.
(b) Model or type.
(c) Serial number and year of manufacture.
(d) Mass of attachment, which may vary from the figure shown by up to ±5%.
(e) Distance of the centre of gravity of the attachment from its mounting face on the
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telehandler.
(f) Rated capacity.
(g) In the case of hydraulically or pneumatically operated attachments, the maximum
operating pressure recommended by the attachment manufacturer.
(h) The warning:
THE RATED CAPACITY OF THIS ATTACHMENT MAY BE REDUCED—REFER
TO THE RATED CAPACITY CHART FOR THE TELEHANDLER/ATTACHMENT
COMBINATION IN THE CABIN.
3.3.2 Rated capacity chart
Every telehandler shall have a durable rated capacity chart affixed in a prominent position,
easily legible by the operator including information on rated capacity.
Separate rated capacity charts shall be provided to reflect the different operating parameters
for which the telehandler has been designed, including attachments and pick and carry
operations.

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AS 1418.19—2007 30

The rated capacity chart shall include the following:


(a) Manufacturer’s name, model, the part number of the telehandler or other
identification number.
(b) The mass and identifier of each detachable counterweight.
(c) Boom or jib arrangement for which ratings apply.
(d) Set-up configuration, on stabilizer/outriggers, tyres, stationary or pick and carry.
(e) The speeds at which the telehandler may travel with the loads.
(f) Working zone diagram for which the ratings apply.
(g) The degree of side slope and longitudinal gradient applicable to the rated capacity
chart (see Note 1).
(h) Rope and reeving details, diameter, breaking strength, length and construction
specification.
(i) Tyre size, ply rating and pressures for the telehandler duty.
(j) Any special restrictions unique to the use of the ratings of the telehandler.
(k) The mass of the manufacturer’s hook blocks.
(l) The minimum ground and support conditions applicable to the rated capacities.
(m) Minimum boom angle and maximum boom length for a no-load condition for a given
boom configuration and machi0ne set-up.
(n) The in-service wind speed.
(o) Designated pick and carry positions.
NOTES:
1 The rated capacity chart may be combined with the identification plate.
2 For an example of rated capacity chart, see Figure 3.3.2.
3.3.3 Other information
3.3.3.1 Marking of lifting and tie-down points on the telehandler
Locations for lifting and tie-down points on the telehandler shall be clearly indicated.
3.3.3.2 Filling points
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Filling points for fuel and hydraulic oil shall be clearly indicated on the telehandler using
the symbols of AS 2359.5.
3.3.4 Representation of information
Where possible, information shall be represented by symbols. Where the information is
represented in words, it shall be written in plain English. Numerical representation shall be
in metric units.
Symbols shall comply with AS 2359.5.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


Accessed by R O BIRD AND ASSOCIATES PTY LTD on 31 Jul 2012

70˚
LIFTING TRAVELLING
(stationary) (pick & carry) 6

60˚ 5.75 m
With rated load on forks
C

www.standards.org.au
14˚ max. 5 B
50˚

With rated load on forks A

3˚ max
40˚
4
3.72 m
With rated load on forks

30˚
10˚ max. 3

With rated load on forks


31

20˚
5˚ max
2
With rated load on forks
5˚ max.

800 kg
1000 kg
With rated load on forks 10˚

1250 kg
1800 kg
1
2500 kg

Pick & carry information


1 Travel speed with rated load
0.4 m/s walking speed
2 Machine position
boom fully retracted with rated
load no more than 300 mm 0.0˚
above the ground. 0
3˚ max.
-3.0˚
SPECIFICATIONS FOR SAFE USE
-0.5
1 Tyre size (12-16.5 10 ply rating) 4 3 2 1 0
2 Tyre pressure (4.1 bar)
3 In-service wind speed (10 m/s - 36 km/h) 1.3 m
4 Fork load centre (600 mm)
5 Ground conditions:
solid surfaces for both lifting and travelling LOAD CENTRE AT 0.6 m
slope ratings listed above for both configurations 3.44 m
6 Standard used (AS 1418.19)

© Standards Australia
AS 1418.19—2007

FIGURE 3.3.2 EXAMPLE OF RATED CAPACITY CHART


AS 1418.19—2007 32

APPENDIX A
TYPICAL HAZARDS
(Informative)
The lists below are typical hazards of which a designer should be aware when designing a
telehandler. Other potential hazards may exist, which are not shown. These hazards are
applicable in the situations described and could involve risks to persons if not eliminated or
controlled. This list is for information only and is not exhaustive.
Mechanical hazards
• Crushing shearing or entanglement:
• With telehandler lifting mechanism
• Within attachment mechanism
• Between telehandler and obstacles
• Between telehandler and road wheels
• Within engine compartment
• In the telehandler’s articulation area
• Impact by collision:
• When telehandler is being driven
• When telehandler is unattended
• Impact from falling objects
• Due to mechanical failure
• Due to unintended load-carrier movement
• Due to failure or unintended movement of fork tynes or attachments
• Due to unintended movement of load handling means
• Due to unstable or insecure loads
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• When lifting or transporting the telehandler


• High pressure hazard:
• Due to hydraulic hose failure
• Due to excessive hydraulic pressure
• Material ejection from road wheels
• Slip, trip, fall—during access to operator position
Electrical hazards from contact
Thermal hazards for the operator
Noise hazards
• Hearing loss for the operator
• Interference with communication

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33 AS 1418.19—2007

Vibration hazards
Hazards generated by radiation
Hazards due to substances
• Inhalation of engine exhaust emission
• Fire or explosion:
• From engine fuel systems
• From battery electrolyte
• In hazardous atmospheres
Hazards due to neglect of ergonomic principles
• Unhealthy postures
• Inadequate local lighting
• Stress due to operator discomfort
• Human error:
• During telehandler operation
• Prior to initial use
Hazard combinations
Hazards due to functional disorders
• Hydraulic failure causing load to drop
• Control disorder causing uncontrollable movement
• Unexpected start-up:
• When telehandler is unattended
• Due to unauthorized use
• Due to unintended traction
• Overturn of telehandler:
• During telehandler operation
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• When load handling


• When telehandler is unattended
• Failure of control response
Hazards due to missing or incorrectly positioned safety means
Hazards due to mobility
Inadequate lighting of travelling/work areas
Hazards due to sudden movement, instability, etc., during handling
Inadequate/non-ergonomic design of driving position
• Hazards due to dangerous environments (contact with moving parts, exhaust gases,
etc.)
• Inadequate visibility from driver’s or operator’s position
• Inadequate seat/seating (seat index point)
• Inadequate ergonomic/design/positioning of controls

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AS 1418.19—2007 34

• Starting/moving of self-propelled machinery


• Movement of pedestrian-controlled machinery
Mechanical hazards
• Hazards to exposed persons due to uncontrolled movement
• Hazards due to break up and/or ejection of parts
• Hazards due to rolling over (deflection limiting volume; DLV)
• Hazards due to falling objects (DLV)
• Inadequate means of access
• Hazards caused due to towing, coupling, connecting, transmission, etc.
• Hazards due to batteries, fire, emissions, etc.
Hazards due to lifting
• Lack of stability
• Derailment of machinery
• Loss of mechanical strength of machinery and lifting accessories
• Hazards caused by uncontrolled movement
Inadequate view of trajectories of the moving parts
Hazards caused by lighting
Hazards due to loading/unloading
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© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


35 AS 1418.19—2007

APPENDIX B
STABILITY TESTS
(Normative)

B1 GENERAL
Stability requirements shall apply to the telehandler in all working zones and configurations
as follows:
(a) For stationary operation, the chassis shall be levelled laterally unless otherwise
specified by the manufacturer’s rated capacity chart.
(b) For pick and carry operation, at 8.75% side slope or greater if specified by the
manufacturer. For the purpose of test, the slope of the support surface and the
telehandler chassis shall be on the same slope, that is, the chassis shall not be
levelled.
The stability of the telehandler under static conditions shall be such that the rated capacity
is not greater than the appropriate percentage of the tipping load that has to be applied to tip
the telehandler, as given in Table B1.

TABLE B1
STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LOAD RATING CONDITION
Stability requirement, Stability requirement,
percentage of tipping load percentage of tipping load
Load rating condition
(stationary on wheels (pick and carry)
or stabilizer/outriggers) (see Note 1)
Fixed load (on forks) 75 75
Freely suspended load 75 66.6
(from hook) (see Note 2)
NOTES:
1 Telehandler configured in accordance with the manufacturer’s pick and carry
position.
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2 This percentage allows for a maximum travel speed of 0.4 m/s (walking speed).

B2 STABILITY BY TEST LOADING


A test load of mass equivalent to the rated capacity divided by the stability requirement
given in Table B1 shall be suspended from the telehandler throughout the duration of the
test.
Travel motions shall not be used when under test load.

B3 REQUIREMENTS
The telehandler shall be considered to have complied with the static stability test provided
the test load remains clear of the supporting surface with the telehandler in the tipping
condition.
The tipping condition of a telehandler supporting a load is deemed to have been reached
when the two wheels on the opposite side to the load lose contact with the supporting
surface.

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 1418.19—2007 36

APPENDIX C
INDUSTRIAL TELEHANDLERS—STABILITY TESTS
(Normative)

C1 SCOPE
This Appendix specifies the basic tests for the verification of stability of industrial
telehandlers. It is applicable to telehandlers fitted with fork tynes and/or attachments.
Additional tests are specified for the following:
(a) Telehandlers operating with offset load, offset by powered device (see Appendix E).
(b) Telehandlers operating with offset load, offset determined by the utilization (see
Appendix F).

C2 CONDITIONS OF VALIDITY
The stability tests in this Appendix ensure that the type of telehandler specified has
satisfied the stability requirements when used under the following typical operating
conditions:
(a) Operating (travelling and stacking) on substantially smooth, level and prepared
surfaces.
(b) Travelling with the fork tynes tilted backwards and the load in the lowered retracted
(travelling) position, including up and down modest gradients.
(c) Stacking with the fork tynes substantially horizontal.
(d) Operating with the load centre of gravity (G) approximately on the longitudinal
centre-plane of the telehandler.
Where the operating conditions differ from the normal, reference shall also be made to
Appendix E or Appendix F.

C3 CONDITION OF TEST
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C3.1 Equipment and method


C3.1.1 General
Stability shall be verified by following the principle of the tests described. Any of the
following methods is an applicable verification procedure.
C3.1.2 Verification procedure
C3.1.2.1 Tilting platform
A test platform shall be used. The telehandler under test shall be placed on the platform,
which is initially in the horizontal plane, sequentially in the positions described in
Table C1. For each of the telehandler positions, the platform shall be tilted slowly and
smoothly to the slope indicated in Table C1.
C3.1.2.2 Fixed slope
For telehandlers with a rated capacity equal to or greater than 10 000 kg, fixed slopes, with
inclinations equivalent to the prescribed test slopes, may be used. The slopes surface shall
be smooth and capable of supporting the telehandler mass with no deformation likely to
affect the test results.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


37 AS 1418.19—2007

The telehandler under test shall be driven onto the fixed slopes with boom lowered and
positioned according to Table C1. For each telehandler position, the load shall be elevated
slowly and smoothly to the height indicated in Table C1.
C3.1.2.3 Calculation
Compliance with the specified stability values may be determined by calculation and shall
be verified by test in accordance with Appendix B.
The calculated capacities shall allow for manufacturing variations, differences in items such
as mast or tyres.
C3.1.3 Test completion
C3.1.3.1 General
The telehandler is considered stable if it passed all required tests without overturning. It is
permissible in lateral tests for one of the wheels to lose contact with the platform.
C3.1.3.2 Tests with tilting platform
For the purposes of these tests, the overturning value of the test platform’s slope is that
which, if increased, would produce complete overturning of the telehandler.
C3.1.3.3 Test with fixed slope
For the purpose of T1, T3 and T5 tests, the overturning value is that which, if the
displacement value of the load in the direction of least stable lifting and reach combinations
is increased, would produce complete overturning of the telehandler.
C3.2 Conditions of the telehandler
C3.2.1 General
The tests shall be carried out with the telehandler ready for use without operator (fuel tanks
of engined telehandlers shall be full if stability is thereby reduced; all other tanks shall be
filled to their correct operating levels). The load-carrying means shall be fully equipped
with any protective or supplementary lifting apparatus supplied as original equipment and
the fork tynes, if adjustable for tilt, shall be positioned in accordance with Table C1.
Where applicable, tyres shall be inflated to the pressures specified by the manufacturer, and
where tyre ballast is permitted it shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
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C3.2.2 Lift height for tests simulating travelling


For tests simulating travelling, the upper face of the fork blades at the heels shall be
positioned 300 mm from the ground.
C3.3 Effect of the operator’s weight on stability
The operator shall be represented by a weight (mass) of 90 kg if the stability during a test is
thereby decreased. The weight (mass) shall be secured with its centre of gravity 250 mm
above the operator seat in the compressed condition.
C3.4 Location of the telehandler on the test platform
The specified position of the telehandler on the test platform shall be maintained during
each test.
Wheel rotation shall be prevented by application of the hand brake, or service brakes which
may be secured in the ‘on’ position. Additionally, the wheels may be wedged against the
telehandler frame but in such a way that any axle/frame articulation is not affected.
Chocks or blocks may be used between the wheels and the test platform to prevent the
telehandler sliding out of position. The height of the chocks or blocks shall not exceed 0.1d
(where d = outside diameter of the wheel).

www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 1418.19—2007 38

C3.5 Test load


The test shall be a weight (mass) equivalent to the rated load (Q) acting through a centre of
gravity (G) nominally positioned at the standard load centre distance (D) horizontally from
the front face of the fork shank and vertically from the upper face of the fork blade (see
Figure C1).
The centre of gravity (G) shall be on the longitudinal centre-plane of the telehandler.
If the manufacturer shows other possible ratings at various heights/boom positions on the
rated capacity chart, tests shall be carried out with maximum load at the corresponding
height, as well as with the load corresponding to the maximum height.

FIGURE C1 CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF THE LOAD

C3.6 Safety precautions


Precautions shall be taken to prevent the overturning of the telehandler or the displacement
of the test load during the tests.
Where lashings are used to prevent the telehandler overturning, they shall be sufficiently
supple and arranged with sufficient slack so that no appreciable restriction is imposed on
the telehandler until the overturning movement starts.
Displacement of the test load can be prevented by means such as—
(a) firmly securing to the load carrier; and
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(b) suspending near the ground by means of a rope or chain in such a manner that the
upper end of the suspension means acts at point G where the centre of gravity of a
fixed test load would otherwise be located.

C4 TEST PROCEDURE
The telehandler shall be positioned in accordance with Table C1.
Lateral stability tests shall be carried out in the most unfavourable conditions to the side to
which the telehandler is least stable, taking into account the possible orientation of the
boom.
The MN axis shall be parallel to the XY axis.
Point N is the centre-point of the area of contact between the platform surface and the front
wheel or stabilizer/outrigger nearest to the tilting axis of XY (see Figures C9 and C10,
Table C1).
Point M is the vertical projection onto the platform of the point of intersection between the
centre plane AB of the telehandler and the centre-line of the steering axle.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


39 AS 1418.19—2007

C5 TESTS FOR TELEHANDLERS FITTED WITH ATTACHMENTS


Telehandlers fitted with attachments shall be subjected to the foregoing stability tests,
except where the attachment can bring the centre of gravity of the load out of the
longitudinal centre-plane of the telehandler (see Appendix E or F).
The test load shall be the nominal load at the nominal centre distance specified for the
attachment when used on the telehandler being tested.
The lift heights required in the tests shall be measured between the surface or the tilting
platform and the underside of the load or attachment, whichever is the lesser.
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www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


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© Standards Australia

AS 1418.19—2007
TABLE C1
TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
Test for longitudinal stability Tests for lateral stability
Test No.
T1 T1 T3 T4 T5
Test of stability, when Stacking Travelling Stacking Travelling Stacking
Test load See Paragraph C3.5 See Paragraph C3.5 See Paragraph C3.5 Unladen Unladen
Lift height See Paragraph C3.5 300 mm See Paragraph C3.5 300 mm
Arm position Least stable lifting and Arm in a maximum Least stable lifting and Arm in a maximum Least stable lifting and reach
reach combination retracted position reach combination, retracted position combination with fork in
with fork in horizontal with maximum with fork in horizontal with maximum horizontal position (maximum
position backward lifting position backward tilting and minimum boom extension)
Load centre distance D of test load D of test load D of test load
Stabilizer/outrigger device and/or axle location With/without Without With/without Without Without
Telehandler position on test platform Figures C2, C7 Figures C3 and C7 Figures C4, C9, C10, Figures C5 and C9 Figures C6 and C9

40
and C12 C13 and C14
Rated capacity up 4% 18% 6% (15 + 1.4V*)% 6%
to and including maximum 50%
Slope of test platform 10 000 kg
>10 000 kg 3.5% 18% 6% (15 + 1.4V*)% 6%
<50 000 kg maximum 40%

XY XY
XY XY XY

FIGURE C2 FIGURE C3 FIGURE C4 FIGURE C5 FIGURE C6


www.standards.org.au

(continued)
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www.standards.org.au

TABLE C1 (continued)

Test for longitudinal stability Tests for lateral stability


Test No.
T1 T1 T3 T4 T5
AB = longitudinal centre-plane of telehandler X A
X N N
XY = test platform tilt axis

Y Y
Y M M
B

FIGURE C7 FIGURE C9 FIGURE C10

MN = telehandler axis of original


X A
X N X

41
M
Y Y
Y B

FIGURE C12 FIGURE C13 FIGURE C14

* V = velocity, in kilometres per hour


NOTE: Figure C9 to C14 do not necessarily depict the least stable position on the test platform.

AS 1418.19—2007
© Standards Australia
AS 1418.19—2007 42

APPENDIX D
ROUGH TERRAIN TELEHANDLERS—STABILITY TESTS
(Normative)

D1 SCOPE
This Appendix specifies the basic tests for the verification of stability of rough terrain
telehandlers. It is applicable to telehandlers fitted with fork tynes and/or attachments.
Additional tests are specified for the following:
(a) Telehandlers operating with offset load, offset by powered device (see Appendix E).
(b) Telehandlers operating with offset load, offset determined by the utilization (see
Appendix F).

D2 CONDITIONS OF VALIDITY
The stability tests in this Appendix ensure that the type of telehandler specified has
satisfied stability requirements when used on level ground under the following typical
operating conditions:
(a) Stacking with chassis levelled to 1%.
(b) Travelling with the fork tynes tilted backwards and the load in the lowered retracted
(travelling) position, including up and down minor gradients.
(c) Stacking with the fork tynes substantially horizontal.
(d) Operating with the load centre of gravity (G) approximately to the longitudinal
centre-plane of the telehandler.
Where operating conditions differ from the normal, reference shall also be made to
Appendix E or F.

D3 CONDITIONS OF TEST
D3.1 Equipment and method
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D3.1.1 General
Stability shall be verified by the principles of the tests described in Paragraphs D3.2.1.1
to D3.2.1.3. Any of the following methods is an applicable verification procedure.
D3.1.2 Verification procedure
D3.1.2.1 Tilting platform
A test platform shall be used. The telehandler under test shall be placed on the platform,
which is initially in the horizontal plane, sequentially in the positions described in
Table D1. For each of the telehandler positions, the platform shall be tilted slowly and
smoothly to the slope indicated in Table D1.
D3.1.2.2 Fixed slope
For telehandlers with a rated capacity equal to or above 10 000 kg, fixed slopes, with
inclinations equivalent to the prescribed test slopes, may be used. The slope surface shall be
smooth and capable of supporting the telehandler mass with no deformation likely to affect
the test results.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


43 AS 1418.19—2007

The telehandler under test shall be driven onto the fixed slopes and positioned according to
the table of tests. For each of the telehandler positions, the load shall be elevated slowly
and smoothly to the height indicated in the table of tests.
D3.1.2.3 Calculation
Compliance with the specified stability values may be determined by calculation and shall
be verified by test in accordance with Appendix B.
The calculated capacities shall allow for manufacturing variations and differences in items
such as mast or tyres.
D3.2 Condition of the telehandler
D3.2.1 General
The tests shall be carried out with the telehandler ready for use without operator (fuel tanks
of engined telehandlers shall be full if stability is thereby reduced; all other tanks shall be
filled to their correct operating levels).
The load-carrying means shall be fully equipped with any protective or supplementary
lifting apparatus supplied as original equipment, and the fork tynes, if adjustable for tilt,
shall be positioned in accordance with the table of tests. Where applicable, tyres shall be
inflated to the pressures specified by the manufacturer and where tyre ballast is permitted it
shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
D3.2.2 Lift height for tests simulating travelling
For tests simulating travelling, the upper face of the fork blades at the heels shall be
positioned 300 mm from the ground.
NOTE: For telehandlers greater than 10 t capacity, the above distance increases to 500 mm.
D3.3 Effect of the operator’s weight on stability
The operator shall be represented by a weight (mass) of 90 kg if the stability during a test is
thereby decreased. The weight (mass) shall be secured with its centre of gravity 250 mm
above the operator seat in the compressed condition.
D3.4 Location of the telehandler on the test platform
The specified position of the telehandler on the test platform shall be maintained during
each test.
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Wheel rotation shall be prevented by application of the handbrake or service brakes, which
may be secured in the ‘on’ position. Additionally, the wheels may be wedged against the
telehandler frame but in such a way that any axle/frame articulation is not affected.
Chocks or blocks may be used between the wheels and the test platform to prevent the
telehandler sliding out of position. The height of the chocks or blocks shall not exceed 0.1d
(where d = outside diameter of the wheel).
D3.5 Test load
The test load shall be a weight (mass) equivalent to the rated load (Q) acting through a
centre of gravity (G) nominally positioned at the standard load centre distance (D),
horizontally from the front face of the fork arm shank and vertically from the upper face of
the fork arm blade (see Figure D1).
The centre of gravity (G) shall be the longitudinal centre-plane of the telehandler, except
where a lateral slope correction device is used on test T3, Table D1.
If the manufacturer shows other possible ratings at various heights/boom positions on the
rated capacity chart, tests shall be carried out with maximum load at the corresponding
height, as well as with the load corresponding to the maximum height.

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AS 1418.19—2007 44

FIGURE D1 CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF THE LOAD

D3.6 Safety precautions


Precautions shall be taken to prevent the overturning of the telehandler or the displacement
of the test load during the tests.
Where lashings are used to prevent the telehandler overturning, they shall be sufficiently
supple and arranged with sufficient slack so that no appreciable restriction is imposed on
the telehandler until the overturning movement starts.
Displacement of the test load can be prevented by means such as—
(a) firmly securing to the load carrier; and
(b) suspending near the ground by means of a rope or chain in such a manner that the
upper end of the suspension means acts at point G where the centre of gravity of a
fixed test load would otherwise be located.

D4 TEST PROCEDURE
The telehandler shall be positioned in accordance with Table D1.
Lateral tests shall be carried out in the most unfavourable conditions to the side to which
the telehandler is least stable, taking into account the possible orientation of the boom.
The MN axis shall be parallel to the XY axis.
Point N is the centre point of the area of contact between the platform surface and the front
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wheel nearest to the tilting axis XY (see Figures D9, D10, D11, D13 and D14).
Point M is defined as follows:
(a) For telehandlers with an articulated steering axle, M is the vertical projection onto the
platform of the point of intersection between the longitudinal centre plane AB of the
telehandler and the centre-line of this axle.
(b) For telehandlers with an articulated chassis, M is also the point of the intersection
between the longitudinal centre plane AB of the telehandler and the centre-line of the
steering axle.
Tests T1 and T3 shall be conducted successively with stabilizer/outriggers disengaged and
engaged.
For tests T3, lateral slope correction, if existing and to a maximum of 7% (4°), shall be used
to bring the lifting mechanism as close to vertical as possible on the tilted platform. For
other tests, the lifting mechanism shall be perpendicular to the test platform.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


45 AS 1418.19—2007

D5 TESTS FOR TELEHANDLERS FITTED WITH ATTACHMENTS


Telehandlers fitted with attachments shall be subjected to the foregoing stability tests,
except where the attachment can bring the centre of gravity of the load out of the
longitudinal centre-plane of the telehandler (see Appendix E or F).
The test load shall be the nominal load at the nominal centre distance specified for the
attachment when used on the telehandler being tested.
The lift heights required in the tests shall be measured between the surface of the tilting
platform and the underside of the load or attachment, whichever is the lesser.
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www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


Accessed by R O BIRD AND ASSOCIATES PTY LTD on 31 Jul 2012
© Standards Australia

AS 1418.19—2007
TABLE D1
TEST CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES
Tests for longitudinal stability Tests for lateral stability
Test No.
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Test of stability when Stacking Travelling Stacking Travelling Stacking
Test load See Paragraph D3.5 See Paragraph D3.5 See Paragraph D3.5 Unladen Unladen
Lift height See Paragraph D3.5 300 mm See Paragraph D3.5 300 mm
Arm position Least stable lifting and Arm in a maximum Least stable lifting Arm in a maximum Least stable lifting and
reach combination with fork retracted position and reach retracted position with reach combination with
in horizontal position with maximum combination, with maximum backward fork in horizontal
backward lifting fork in horizontal tilting position (maximum and
position minimum boom
extension)
Load centre distance D of test load D of test load D of test load
Stabilizer/outrigger device and/or axle With/without Without With/without Without Without

46
location
Correction or lateral tilt Without Without With Without Without
Telehandler position on test platform Figures D2, D7 and D12 Figures D3 and D7 Figures D4, D9, D10, Figures D5 and C9, Figures D6, D9, D10
or D8 D11, D13 and D14 D10 or D11 or D11
Rated capacity up to and 7% 22% 12% 50% 10%
Slope of test including 10 000 kg
platform
Above 10 000 kg 6% 22% 10% 45% 10%
NOTE: In the event when only the front
wheels are steering, the telehandler
position for the values T3, T4 and T5 will
be shown in Figure C11, except for the
rear wheels, which will be parallel to the XY XY
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truck axis.
XY XY XY

FIGURE D2 FIGURE D3 FIGURE D4 FIGURE D5 FIGURE D6

(continued)
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www.standards.org.au

TABLE D1 (continued)

Tests for longitudinal stability Tests for lateral stability


Test No.
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
AB = longitudinal centre-place of X 1 A
X 1 A X 1
telehandler
XY = test platform tilt axis A
X N N
MN = telehandler axis of original tilt X N

A J

B
Y Y
M M
B J M
B

Y Y
Y

FIGURE D7 FIGURE D8 FIGURE D9 FIGURE D10 FIGURE D11

47
1 1 A
X A X

X N
N

M
B M B
Y Y

FIGURE D12 FIGURE D13 FIGURE D14


© Standards Australia

AS 1418.19—2007
NOTE: Figures D9 to D14 do not necessarily depict the least stable position on the test platform.
AS 1418.19—2007 48

APPENDIX E
TELEHANDLERS OPERATING WITH OFFSET LOAD—OFFSET BY
POWERED DEVICES—ADDITIONAL STABILITY TESTS
(Normative)

E1 SCOPE
Other requirements specify for the basic tests for the verification of stability under normal
operating conditions. The definition of normal operating conditions is contained in each
relevant requirement.
This Appendix specifies tests that are additional to the tests in Appendix C and Appendix D
when operating conditions are not normal and it is necessary to operate a laden telehandler
fitted with a load handling device such as a side shift, which can displace the load centre of
gravity substantially from the longitudinal centre-plane of the telehandler (see Figure E1).
This requirement does not apply to telehandlers when handling suspended loads that may
swing freely. For such telehandlers, the other relevant requirements of this Standard shall
apply.
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FIGURE E1 DISPLACEMENT OF LOAD CENTRE OF GRAVITY

E2 CONDITIONS OF VALIDITY
When a telehandler is to be used for stacking (depositing or retrieving a load) on level
ground with the load centre of gravity substantially offset the longitudinal centre-plane of
the telehandler by a load-handling device such as a side shift, which may positively
displace the load a predetermined maximum amount, a special purpose capacity rating shall
be determined.
A substantial offset is considered to be as follows:
(a) More than 100 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity up to and including
6300 kg.
(b) More than 150 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity up to and including
10 000 kg.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


49 AS 1418.19—2007

(c) More than 250 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity higher than 10 000 kg up to
20 000 kg inclusive.
(d) More than 350 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity higher than 20 000 kg.
The following stability tests ensure that the type of telehandler specified has satisfactory
stability when used within the special rating and conditions.

E3 CONDITION OF TEST
E3.1 Equipment and method
Stability shall be verified by means of the test described hereafter using a test platform that
can be tilted about one side.
The telehandler under test shall be placed on the platform, which is initially in the
horizontal plane under the conditions described in Paragraph E4. The platform shall be
tilted slowly to the slope indicated for that position in the appropriate requirement. The
telehandler is considered stable if it passes the test without overturning.
For the purpose of this test, the overturning value of the test platforms slope is that which,
if increased, would produce complete overturning of the telehandler.
It is permissible in the test for one of the wheels to lose contact with the test platform, and
it is acceptable for the part of the structure or other designed features to make contact with
the test platform.
E3.2 Conditioning of the telehandler
The test shall be carried out with the telehandler ready for use without operator (fuel tanks
of engined telehandlers shall be full if stability is thereby reduced; all other tanks shall be
filled to their correct operating levels). The load-carrying means shall be fully equipped
with any protective or supplementary lifting apparatus supplied as original equipment.
Where applicable, tyres shall be inflated to the pressures specified by the manufacturer, and
where tyre ballast is permitted it shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
E3.3 Effect of the operator’s weight on stability
The operator of rider-controlled telehandlers shall be represented by a weight (mass) of
90 kg if the stability during the test is thereby decreased.
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For seated operator, the weight (mass) shall be secured with its centre of gravity 250 mm
above the operator’s seat in a compressed condition.
E3.4 Location of the telehandler on the test platform
The specified position of the telehandler on the test platform shall be maintained during
each test.
Wheel rotation shall be prevented by application of the hand brake, or service brakes which
may be secured in the ‘on’ position. Additionally, the wheels may be wedged against the
telehandler frame but in such a way that any axle/frame articulation is not affected.
Chocks or blocks may be used between the wheels and the test platform to prevent the
telehandler sliding out of position. The height of the chocks or blocks shall not exceed the
values indicated in Table E1.

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AS 1418.19—2007 50

TABLE E1
HEIGHT OF CHOCKS OR BLOCKS
Outside diameter (d) of the Maximum height of chocks
wheel (mm) or blocks
Up to 250 25 mm
Over 250 0.1 d

E3.5 Test load


The test load shall be a weight (mass) equivalent to the rated load (Q) acting through a
centre of gravity (G), normally positioned at the standard load centre distance (D),
horizontally from the front face of the fork shank and vertically from the upper face of the
fork blade (see Figure E2).
The centre of gravity (G) shall be offset laterally by the maximum amount that it is
anticipated will be encountered in actual operation.
If the manufacturer shows other possible ratings on the rated capacity chart tests shall be
carried out with maximum load at the corresponding heights as well as with the load
corresponding to the maximum heights.

FIGURE E2 CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF THE LOAD


Accessed by R O BIRD AND ASSOCIATES PTY LTD on 31 Jul 2012

E3.6 Safety precautions


Precautions shall be taken to prevent the overturning of the telehandler or the displacement
of the test load during the tests.
Where lashings are used to prevent the telehandler overturning, they shall be sufficiently
supple and arranged with sufficient slack so that no appreciable restriction is imposed on
the telehandler until the overturning movement starts.
Displacement of the test load can be prevented by means such as—
(a) firmly securing to the load carrier; and
(b) suspending near the ground by means of a rope or chain in such a manner that the
upper end of the suspension means acts at point G where the centre of gravity of a
fixed test load would otherwise be located.

E4 TEST PROCEDURE
For industrial telehandlers, as for test T3 of Table C1 of Appendix C.
For rough terrain telehandlers, as for test T3 of Table D1 of Appendix D.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


51 AS 1418.19—2007

E5 TESTS FOR TELEHANDLERS FITTED WITH ATTACHMENTS


Telehandlers fitted with attachments shall be subjected to the foregoing stability tests,
where appropriate.
The test load and its position shall be those specified on the rated capacity chart(s) of the
telehandler fitted with the attachment and used under special conditions, in compliance with
the instructions of the manufacturer.
The lift heights required in the tests shall be measured between the surface or the tilting
platform and the underside of the load or attachment, whichever is the lesser.
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www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 1418.19—2007 52

APPENDIX F
TELEHANDLERS OPERATING WITH OFFSET LOAD—OFFSET
DETERMINED BY THE UTILIZATION—ADDITIONAL STABILITY TESTS
(Normative)

F1 SCOPE
This Appendix specifies tests that are additional to the tests in Appendix C and Appendix D
when operating conditions are not normal and it is necessary to operate a laden telehandler
with the load centre of gravity substantially offset from the longitudinal centre-plane of the
telehandler (see Figure F1).
This requirement does not apply to telehandlers when handling suspended loads that may
swing freely. For such telehandlers, the other relevant requirements of this Standard will
apply.
Other requirements specify for the basic tests for the verification of stability under ‘normal
operating conditions’, where the definitions of ‘normal operating conditions is contained’ in
each relevant requirement.
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FIGURE F1 DISPLACEMENT OF LOAD CENTRE OF GRAVITY

F2 CONDITIONS OF VALIDITY
When a telehandler is to be used for stacking (depositing or retrieving a load) on level
ground with the load centre of gravity substantially offset from the longitudinal centre-
plane of the telehandler by an indeterminate amount caused either by the nature of the load
being handled, or by the load-handling device employed, a special purpose capacity rating
shall be determined.
A substantial offset is considered to be as follows:
(a) More than 100 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity up to and including
6300 kg.
(b) More than 150 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity up to and including
10 000 kg.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


53 AS 1418.19—2007

(c) More than 250 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity higher than 10 000 kg up to
20 000 kg inclusive.
(d) More than 350 mm—for telehandler with a rated capacity higher than 20 000 kg up to
50 000 kg inclusive.
The following stability tests in these requirements ensure that the type of telehandler
specified has satisfactory stability when used within the special rating and conditions.

F3 CONDITION OF TEST
F3.1 Equipment and method
Stability shall be verified by means of the test described hereafter using a test platform that
can be tilted about one side.
The telehandler under test shall be placed on the platform, which is initially in the
horizontal plane (see Paragraph F4). The platform shall be tilted slowly to the slope
indicated for that position in the appropriate requirement. The telehandler is considered
stable if it passes the test without overturning.
For the purpose of this test, the overturning value of the test platform’s slope is that which,
if increased would produce complete overturning of the telehandler.
It is permissible in the test for one of the wheels to lose contact with the test platform, and
it is acceptable for the part of the structure or other designed features to make contact with
the test platform.
F3.2 Conditioning of the telehandler
The test shall be carried out with the telehandler ready for use without operator (fuel tanks
of engined telehandlers shall be full if stability is thereby reduced; all other tanks shall be
filled to their correct operating levels). The load-carrying means shall be fully equipped
with any protective or supplementary lifting apparatus supplied as original equipment.
Where applicable, tyres shall be inflated to the pressures specified by the manufacturer, and
where tyre ballast is permitted it shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
F3.3 Effect of the operator’s weight on stability
The operator of rider-controlled telehandlers shall be represented by a weight (mass) of
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90 kg if the stability during the test is thereby decreased.


For a standing operator the weight (mass) shall be secured with its centre of gravity
1000 mm above the centre of the footplate at the control position.
For seated operator the weight (mass) shall be secured with its centre of gravity 250 mm
above the operator’s seat in a compressed condition.
F3.4 Location of the telehandler on the test platform
The specified position of the telehandler on the test platform shall be maintained during the
test.
Wheel rotation shall be prevented by application of the hand brake or service brakes, which
may be secured in the ‘on’ position. Additionally, the wheels may be wedged against the
telehandler frame but in such a way that any axle/frame articulation is not affected.
It is permissible to use chocks or blocks between the wheels and the test platform to prevent
the telehandler sliding out of position. The height of the chocks or blocks shall not exceed
the values indicated in Table F1.

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AS 1418.19—2007 54

The test load shall be a weight (mass) equivalent to the rated load (Q) acting through a
centre of gravity (G), normally positioned at the standard load centre distance (D),
horizontally from the front face of the fork shank and vertically from the upper face of the
fork blade (see Figure F2).
The centre of gravity (G) shall be offset laterally by the maximum amount that it is
anticipated will be encountered in actual operation.
If the manufacturer shows other possible ratings on the rated capacity charts, tests shall be
carried out with maximum load at the corresponding heights as well as with the load
corresponding to the maximum heights.

TABLE F1
HEIGHT OF CHOCKS OR BLOCKS
Outside diameter (d) of Maximum height of
the wheel (mm) chocks or blocks
Up to 250 25 mm
Over 250 0.1d

FIGURE F2 CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF THE LOAD

F3.5 Safety precautions


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Precautions shall be taken to prevent the overturning of the telehandler or the displacement
of the test load during the tests.
Where lashings are used to prevent the telehandler overturning, they shall be sufficiently
supple and arranged with sufficient slack so that no appreciable restriction is imposed on
the telehandler until the overturning movement starts.
Displacement of the test load can be prevented by means such as—
(a) firmly securing to the load carrier; and
(b) suspending near the ground by means of a rope, chain, etc., in such a manner that the
upper end of the suspension means acts at point G where the centre of gravity of a
fixed test load would otherwise be located.

F4 TEST PROCEDURE
For industrial telehandlers, as for test T3 of Table C1 of Appendix C.
For rough terrain telehandlers, as for test T3 of Table D1 of Appendix D.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


55 AS 1418.19—2007

F5 TESTS FOR TELEHANDLERS FITTED WITH ATTACHMENTS


Telehandlers fitted with attachments shall be subjected to the foregoing stability tests,
where appropriate.
The test load and its position shall be those specified on the rated capacity chart(s) of the
telehandler fitted with the attachment and used under special conditions in compliance with
the instructions of the manufacturer.
The lift heights required in the tests shall be measured between the surface or the tilting
platform and the underside of the load or attachment, whichever is the lesser.
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www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia


AS 1418.19—2007 56

APPENDIX G
PROCEDURE FOR TESTING STEERING WHEEL KICK-BACK
(Normative)

G1 SCOPE
This Appendix applies to self-propelled telehandlers with a capacity equal to or less than
10 000 kg. It provides an objective assessment of the amount of movement at the steering
wheel (described as kick-back) as a result of the steer wheel(s) hitting an obstacle. This test
is not required for telehandlers fitted with non-reactive full power-assisted steering.

G2 TEST ARRANGEMENT
G2.1 General
The test involves driving a subject telehandler in a predetermined manner at a fixed
obstacle and verifying that the resultant reaction at the steering wheel is within defined
limits.
G2.2 Test area
The tests shall be carried out on a substantially flat level surface.
G2.3 Test obstacle
The obstacle (e.g., a kerb) shall be firmly fixed to the ground and be of such a form that the
side presented to the telehandler in the test is substantially vertical and is sufficiently rigid
and robust that, in the event of it becoming deformed, the test results are not adversely
affected. The forward edge of the obstacle may be rounded, provided its radius does not
exceed 30 mm or 30% of the height of the obstacle, whichever is the lesser. The height of
the obstacle shall be 100 mm maximum or 10 mm less then the ground clearance of the
parts of the telehandler which protrude over the obstacle during the test, whichever is the
lesser.
G2.4 Reaction measurement
The reaction at the steering wheel rim, equivalent to one lightly held by an operator, shall
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be simulated by some device such as a 1 kg weight attached by two flexible cords and four
smooth pins (see Figure G1). The tension in both cords shall be equal in order to counteract
deflections in either direction and the weight arranged to move as nearly vertical as
practical.

G3 TEST PROCEDURE
The test is conducted using an unladen telehandler travelling at a speed of approximately
3 km/h, the driving force and contact with the steering wheel is removed immediately
before impact, the obstacle is approached from both sides at an angle of approximately 30°
with the telehandler’s steered wheel(s) leading and in a straight ahead position (see
Figures G2 and G3). Two tests shall be carried out from each side.
NOTE: If the steering wheel reaction is excessive (well outside the acceptable level), the test
weight may jump upwards; it should therefore be restrained to prevent injury to the tester (e.g.,
by a slack tether).

G4 RESULTS
The steering reaction is considered acceptable if during the moment of impact the steering
wheel does not rotate by more than 1/8th of a turn.

© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


57 AS 1418.19—2007

FIGURE G1 ARRANGEMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT

1
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FIGURE G2 OBSTACLE LEFT

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AS 1418.19—2007 58

FIGURE G3 OBSTACLE RIGHT


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© Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


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59

NOTES
AS 1418.19—2007
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AS 1418.19—2007
60

NOTES
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For further information visit www.standards.org.au

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Committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian
Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views
of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest
scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are
updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

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