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They are typically made of concrete with rebar reinforcement that has been poured into an
excavated trench. The footing is that part of the structure which allocates the weight of the
structure over a large area. The footing is typically made from concrete so that it can endure
heavy weights.
The purpose of footings is to support the foundation and prevent settling. Footings are especially
important in areas with troublesome soils.
Isolated footing
Footings which are provided under each column independently. They are usually square,
rectangular or circular in section.
Isolated footings are provided where the soil bearing capacity is generally high and it comprises
of a thick slab which may be flat or stepped or sloped. This type of footings are most economical
when compared with the other kind of footings.

Stepped footing:
These types of footings are constructed in olden days now they are outdated. As from the name
its resembling that, footings are stacked upon one another as steps. Three concrete cross sections
are stacked upon each other and forms as a steps. This type of footings are also called as a Step
foundation. Stepped footing is used generally in residential buildings.

Sloped Footing:-
Sloped footings are trapezoidal footings. They are designed and constructed with great care to see
that the top slope of 45 degree is maintained from all sides. When compared the trapezoidal
footing with the flat footing, the usage of concrete is less. Thus, it reduces the cost of footing in
concrete as well as reinforcement.

Shoe or eccentric footing –

Shoe footing is the half cut-out from the original footing and it has a shape of shoe. They are
constructed on property boundary, where there is no provision of setback area. It is constructed at
the corner of the plot when the exterior column is close to the boundary or property line and hence
there is no scope to project footing much beyond the column face.. Column is provided or loaded
at the edges of shoe footing.

Combined footing:-
A footing which has more than one column is called as combined footing. This kind of footing is
adopted when there is a limited space. Due to lack of space we cannot cast individual footing,
Therefore footings are combined in one footing. They are classified into two types based on their

Pile footings:-
A pile is a long vertical load transferring member made of timber, steel or concrete. In pile
foundations, a number of piles are driven in the base of the structure.
They are constructed where excessive settlement is to be eliminated and where the load is to be
transferred through soft soil stratum, where the Soil bearing capacity is sufficient. These types of
footings are provided when the Soil bearing capacity of soil is very weak and the Ground water
table (level) is high. These types of the footings are generally designed on sea shore areas, bridges
to construct pillars, etc.

Footing tie Beam

A grade beam or grade beam footing is a component of a building's foundation. It consists of a

reinforced concrete beam that transmits the load from a bearing wall into spaced foundations such
as pile caps or caissons.

Purpose of Tie Beam

Tie beams are meant to act as a length breaker for the columns to reduce their effective length and
reducing slenderness ratio in case the roof height is bit more.

Column, in architecture, a vertical element, usually a rounded shaft with a capital and a base, which
in most cases serves as a support. A column may also be nonstructural, used for a decorative
purpose or as a freestanding monument.

A column is used to support the weight of the roof and/or the upper floors. Now days, many
columns are used for decorative purposes. A column along with load bearing beams can support
a lot of weight.