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Nitin 1 / 83

I
NTHEHI
GH COURTOFJ
UDI
CATUREATBOMBAY

ORDI
NARYORI
GINALCI
VILJ
URI
SDI
CTI
ON

I
NITSCOMMERCI
ALDI
VISI
ON

NOTI
CEOFMOTI
ONNO.1
094OF2
019

I
N

COMI
PNO.5
96OF2
019

Ma
ric
oLi
mit
ed, )
Ac
ompa
nyi
nco
rpo
rat
edunde
rIndi
anLa
w,ha
ving )
th
i
tsr
egi
st
ere
dofc
eat7 Fl
oor
,Gr
andePa
ll
adi
um, )
1
75CSTRo
ad,
Kal
inaSa
nta
cruz(
Eas
t) )
Mumb
ai–40009
8 )
..
.Appl
ic
ant
I
NTHEMATTERBETWEEN:
Ma
ric
oLi
mit
ed, )
Ac
ompa
nyi
nco
rpo
rat
edunde
rIndi
anLa
w,ha
ving )
th
i
tsr
egi
st
ere
dofc
eat7 Fl
oor
,Gr
andePa
ll
adi
um, )
1
75CSTRo
ad,
Kal
inaSa
nta
cruz(
Eas
t) )
Mumb
ai–40009
8 )
..
.Pl
ai
nti
f
Ve
rsus
Ab
hij
eetBha
nsa
li )
a
nIndi
anI
nha
bit
ant
,ha
vinghi
saddr
essa
tMumb
ai )
Ma
har
asht
raa
ndha
vinge
mai
laddr
ess )
i
ts
all
abo
utt
heb
ear
d@g
mai
l.
coma
nd )
b
ear
dedc
hok
ra@q
yuk
i.
com )
..
.De
fenda
nt

Mr.
ViragTulzapurka
r,Seni
orAdv
ocateandMr .Hir
enKamod,Advoc
atea
long
wit
hMr
.
Ni
shadNa dk
arni i
/b.Khai
ta
n&Co .f
orthePl
aint
if
Dr
.Ab hi
navCha ndra
chud,Adv
oca
tei/b.Mr.
N. Aminfo
rtheDef
enda
nt.

CORAM: S.J.KATHAWALLAJ.
rd
RESERVEDON:2
3 AUGUST201
9

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Nitin 2 / 83
th
PRONOUNCEDON:1
5 JANUARY,2
020
J
UDGMENT:
INDEX

SR.
NOS. PARTI
CULARS PAGENOS
I FACTS 3
-6
I
I PLAI
NTI
FF’
SSUBMI
SSI
ONS 6
-12
I
II DEFENDANT’
SSUBMI
SSI
ONS 1
2-23
I
V PLAI
NTI
FF’
SREJ
OINDER 23
-34
V DEFENDANT’
SSURREJ
OINDER 3
4-3
5
VI FI
NDI
NGSANDREASONI
NG: 3
5-85
(
i) La
ndi
ngp
age 3
6
(
ii
) St
ory
boa
rd 3
6-48
(
ii
i) De
scr
ipt
io
nbe
lowt
hei
mpug
nedv
ide
o 49
(
iv) La
wond
isp
ara
geme
ntv
is-
a-v
isd
efa
mat
io
n 5
0-5
2

Wh
eth
ert
hed
efe
nda
ntma
def
als
e,ma
lic
iouso
rre
ckl
es
s 5
2-6
8
s
tat
eme
nts
?
(
a)I
nst
anc
eso
fap
par
entf
als
eho
od 5
3-6
0

(
b)Wh
eth
ert
hes
tat
eme
ntswe
rep
ubl
is
hedr
eck
les
sl
yor 6
0-6
6
ma
lic
io
usl
y?/Dued
il
ig
enc
eex
erc
is
edb
yth
eDe
fend
ant

(
c)Wh
eth
ers
pec
ial
dama
gesa
res
ufe
redb
yth
ePl
ai
nti
f?
6
6-6
8
(
v) Ra
tiol
ai
ddo
wnb
yGuj
ara
tCo
-op
era
tiv
evs
.Hi
ndus
tan 6
8-7
0
Un
ile
ver
(
vi) De
fend
ant
’sAnc
il
la
ryDe
fens
es: 7
1-7
9
(
a)Th
eDe
fend
anti
sno
tat
rad
ero
rco
mpe
ti
to
r 7
1

(
b)De
fend
ant
’sus
eofs
tr
ongl
ang
uag
eish
ype
rbo
le/ 7
2
e
xagge
rat
io
n

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Nitin 3 / 83

(
c)De
fend
ant
’sc
lai
mof
hone
stc
ond
uct 7
2-7
4

(
d)Vi
ewe
rsSp
eci
ala
bil
it
ytod
isc
ern 7
4

(
e)Pl
eao
fJus
ti
fca
tio
n/Bo
nna
rdPr
inc
ipl
e 7
4-7
6

(
f)Fr
eed
omo
fSp
eec
handEx
pre
ssi
on/Ar
t.1
9oft
he 7
6-7
9

Co
nst
it
uti
ono
fInd
ia
(
vii
) Ba
lanc
eof
Conv
eni
enc
e 7
9-83

1
. Ther
api
dex
pans
iona
ndc
omme
rci
al
is
ati
ono
ftheI
nte
rne
tha
sbr
oug
htf
ort
hno
vel

l
ega
ldi
sput
eswhi
chc
hal
le
nget
hec
onv
ent
iona
lpr
inc
ipl
esa
ndpr
ece
dent
swhi
ch

a
ppl
ytot
hem.
Thepr
ese
ntma
tte
risa
nex
ampl
eofj
ustt
hat
.

FACTS

2
. Ac
cor
dingt
othePl
ai
nti
f–Ma
ric
oLi
mit
ed,t
hePl
ai
nti
fiso
neo
fthel
eadi
ngpl
aye
rs

i
ntheFa
stMo
vingCo
nsume
rGo
ods(
FMCG)ma
rke
tinI
ndi
a,t
hatma
nuf
act
ure
s

a
ndma
rke
tsi
nte
ral
iapa
cka
gede
dib
leo
il
,edi
bl
eco
conuto
il
,oa
ts,ha
iro
il,b
eaut
y

pr
oduc
tsa
ndo
the
rpe
rso
nal
car
epr
oduc
t(s
)unde
rit
spo
rtf
oli
oofv
ari
ouswe
ll
-kno
wn

a
ndpr
est
igi
ousb
rands
;tha
toneo
fthePl
ai
nti
ffsmo
stwe
ll
-kno
wnt
rade
mar
ksi
s

PARACHUTE unde
rwhi
chi
tma
rke
tsi
nte
ral
iai
tse
dib
lec
oco
nuto
il
;tha
tthe

t
rade
mar
k PARACHUTE i
samo
ngs
tthemo
str
eput
edb
randso
wne
dbyt
he

Pl
ai
nti
f,a
ndt
hepr
oduc
tso
ld unde
rthema
rkPARACHUTE i
skno
wn t
obe

s
yno
nymo
uswi
the
dib
lec
oco
nuto
ilo
fex
cel
le
nta
ndi
mpe
cca
bleq
ual
it
y;t
hatt
he

Pl
ai
nti
fha
sse
cur
edr
egi
st
rat
iono
fit
str
ade
mar
kPARACHUTEb
ear
ingr
egi
st
rat
ion

a
lli
nCl
ass29
;tha
tthePl
ai
nti
fha
sunde
rta
kene
xte
nsi
vepr
omo
tio
nofi
tse
dib
le

c
oco
nuto
ils
oldunde
rtheb
randPARACHUTEi
nva
rio
usme
dia
;tha
tthePl
ai
nti
f

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Nitin 4 / 83

ma
nuf
act
ure
sit
sPARACHUTEo
ili
nac
cor
danc
ewi
tht
hee
xta
ntr
egul
ati
onsa
ndt
he

i
ngr
edi
ent
soft
hes
amea
rec
ompl
ia
ntwi
tht
her
egul
ati
onsi
nfo
rce
;tha
tthePl
ai
nti
f

ha
sal
soo
bta
ine
dne
ces
sar
yli
cens
esunde
rtheFo
odSa
fet
yandSt
anda
rdsAc
t,2006

a
nd ha
sco
mpl
ie
d wi
tht
hepr
ovi
si
onsr
ela
tingt
oing
redi
ent
s,f
ormul
ati
ona
nd

l
abe
ll
ingunde
rthee
xta
ntr
egul
ati
ons
;tha
tthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE e
dib
le

c
oco
nuto
ili
s100%pur
e,na
tur
ala
ndunr
efne
dex
pel
le
rpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
il;whi
chi
s

a
)unr
efne
d;b
)unb
lea
che
dc)no
n-hy
dro
gena
tedd)no
n-de
odo
riz
ede
)wi
tho
ut

s
olv
ent
sand(
f)r
eta
insa
lli
tsna
tur
alnut
ri
ent
s;t
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t-e
dib
le

c
oco
nuto
ilb
ear
ing t
he ma
rk PARACHUTE e
njo
ysi
mme
nser
eput
ati
ona
nd

g
oodwi
lla
mong
stt
heg
ene
ralpub
li
c;t
hati
ntheI
ndi
anma
rke
t,t
hePl
ai
nti
fist
he

ma
rke
tle
ade
rint
hec
ate
gor
yofe
dib
lec
oco
nuto
il
sandho
lds46
.7%o
fthema
rke
t

s
har
einr
espe
cto
fthes
ame
.

2
.1 TheDe
fenda
nti
sa“Yo
uTub
er”/“V-
Blo
gge
r”whoha
shi
sownc
hanne
lti
tl
ed

“Be
arde
dCho
kra
”ont
hepo
pul
arwe
bsi
tewww.
yout
ube
.co
m.Onhi
scha
nne
l,t
he

De
fenda
ntwhoc
lai
mst
oha
veaMa
ste
rsde
gre
einBi
o-Te
chno
log
yfr
omt
heMumb
ai

Uni
ver
si
ty,pr
oduc
esa
ndupl
oadsv
ide
oswhe
rei
nher
evi
ewspr
oduc
tso
fva
rio
us

st
ma
nuf
act
ure
rs.Ono
rab
out1 Se
pte
mbe
r201
8,t
heDe
fenda
ntpub
li
she
dav
ide
o

t
it
led “I
sPa
rac
hut
eCo
conutOi
l100% Pur
e?”.I
nthi
svi
deo
,theDe
fenda
nt

r
evi
ewe
dthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTEc
oco
nuto
il
.Ac
cor
dingt
othePl
ai
nti
f,i
nor

a
boutl
astwe
eko
fJa
nua
ry201
9,t
hePl
ai
nti
fca
mea
cro
sst
heI
mpug
nedv
ide
o

pub
li
she
dbyt
heDe
fenda
nt.I
tist
hePl
ai
nti
ffsc
aset
hati
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deot
he

De
fenda
ntma
kesc
lai
msa
nds
tat
eme
ntswi
thr
ega
rdt
othePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE

e
dib
lec
oco
nutOi
l,whi
cha
ref
al
sea
nduns
ubs
tant
iat
ed.ThePl
ai
nti
fst
ate
stha
tasa

who
le,
theI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
sdi
spa
rag
inga
ndde
nig
rat
ingi
nna
tur
e.

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Nitin 5 / 83

2
.2 ThePl
ai
nti
fthr
oug
hit
sAdv
oca
tess
enta
nema
ilda
ted28th J
anua
ry201
9tot
he

De
fenda
ntwhe
reb
ytheDe
fenda
ntwa
sca
ll
ed upo
ntoc
eas
eand de
sis
tfr
om

pub
li
shi
ngo
rina
nyma
nne
rco
mmuni
cat
ingt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deot
othepub
li
cand

c
all
ingupo
nhi
mtor
emo
vet
heI
mpug
nedVi
deof
roms
oci
alme
dias
it
esi
ncl
udi
nghi
s

Yo
uTub
echa
nne
l.On29th J
anua
ry201
9,t
heDe
fenda
ntr
epl
ie
dtot
hePl
ai
nti
ffs

Adv
oca
tes
fema
ili
nte
ral
iade
fendi
nghi
svi
deoa
nda
lsopr
opo
sedt
ore
-ma
ke/

mo
dif
yand/o
rde
let
epo
rti
onso
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deos
ubj
ectt
oce
rta
inc
ondi
ti
ons

s
tat
edt
her
ei 0th J
n.On3 anua
ry201
9,t
heDe
fenda
nts
enta
not
here
mai
ltot
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsAdv
oca
tess
tat
ingt
hathei
sex
pec
tingar
espo
nsef
romt
hePl
ai
nti
f.On

0th J
3 anua
ry201
9,t
hePl
ai
nti
f,t
hro
ughi
tsAdv
oca
tes
,re
pli
edwi
thaho
ldi
nge
mai
l

s
tat
ingt
hatt
hec
ont
ent
soft
heDe
fenda
ntf
sema
il
swe
reb
eingc
ons
ide
redb
ythe

Pl
ai
nti
fandc
all
edupo
ntheDe
fenda
ntt
ore
mov
etheI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
nthe

st
me
ant
ime
.Vi
dehi
sema
ilda
ted3
1 Ja
nua
ry201
9,t
heDe
fenda
ntr
efus
edt
oco
mpl
y

wi
tht
hea
for
esa
idr
eque
sto
fthePl
ai
nti
fst
ati
ngt
hatheha
dar
ightt
ovo
icehi
s

th
o
pini
on.On 1
1 Fe
brua
ry201
9,t
hePl
ai
nti
ffl
edt
hepr
ese
nts
uita
ndo
n13th

Fe
brua
ry201
9,t
hePl
ai
nti
fma
dea
nappl
ic
ati
onf
orur
genta
d-i
nte
ri
mre
li
efs
.The

De
fenda
ntfl
edi
tsAfda
viti
nRe
ply
;thePl
ai
nti
ffl
edi
tsAfda
viti
nRe
joi
nde
r;a
nd

t
heDe
fenda
ntfl
edaSuppl
eme
nta
ryAfda
viti
nRe
ply
.Si
ncet
hepl
eadi
ngsi
nthe

ma
tte
rwe
rec
ompl
ete
,byc
ons
ento
fbo
tht
hes
ide
s,t
hisCo
urtt
ookupt
heNo
tic
eof

Mo
tio
nfo
rfna
lhe
ari
ng.

2
.3 ThePl
ai
nti
fisi
nte
ral
iapr
ayi
ngf
ori
njunc
tio
nag
ains
ttheDe
fenda
nt,r
est
rai
ning

hi
mfr
om(
i)pub
li
shi
ng o
rbr
oadc
ast
ing o
rco
mmuni
cat
ing t
othe pub
li
cthe

I
mpug
ned Vi
deo
,(i
i)di
spa
rag
ing o
rde
nig
rat
ing t
he Pl
ai
nti
ffs PARACHUTE

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Nitin 6 / 83

COCONUT OI
L pr
oduc
tora
nyo
the
rpr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
fort
hePl
ai
nti
ffs

b
usi
nes
sand(
ii
i)i
nfr
ing
ingt
her
egi
st
ere
dtr
ade
mar
kso
fthePl
ai
nti
f.

PLAI
NTI
FF’
SSUBMI
SSI
ONS:

I
NTENTI
ONTOMALI
GN

3
. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
deoi
sa

t
arg
ete
dat
tac
kdi
rec
teda
gai
nstt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tma
dewi
tha
nat
temptt
o

a
ttr
actmo
rev
iewe
rst
owa
rdshi
svi
deo
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo

pr
ovi
desi
nco
rre
cti
nfo
rma
tio
nandde
cei
vest
hev
iewe
rint
obe
li
evi
ngt
hatt
het
est
s

c
onduc
tedt
her
eins
ubs
tant
iat
ethec
lai
moft
heDe
fenda
ntt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t

i
sofi
nfe
rio
rqua
li
tya
nd/o
risi
nfe
rio
rtoo
the
roi
ls
.

3
.1 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hei
mpug
nedv
ide
oasa

who
lei
sdi
spa
rag
inga
ndde
nig
rat
ingi
nna
tur
e.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heI
mpug
ned

Vi
deoma
li
ci
ous
lypub
li
she
dbyt
heDe
fenda
ntc
ompr
is
eso
fwo
rdsa
ndv
isua
ls,i
n

r
espe
cto
fthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L,whi
cha
ref
al
sei
nna
tur
e

a
ndwhi
chha
veno
tonl
yde
nig
rat
edt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tbuta
lsoc
aus
eda
ndl
ik
ely

t
ofur
the
rca
uses
pec
ialda
mag
etot
hePl
ai
nti
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hats
inc
ethe

De
fenda
ntc
lai
mst
hatc
rea
tio
nandpub
li
cat
iono
fsuc
hvi
deo
sishi
soc
cupa
tio
n/

c
all
inga
nds
our
ceo
fli
vel
iho
od,t
heDe
fenda
ntf
sre
vie
wca
nno
tbee
qua
tedo
rtr
eat
ed

a
tpa
rwi
tha
nyo
the
rre
vie
wpr
ovi
dedb
yano
rdi
nar
yco
nsume
rsi
ncet
hei
nte
nti
ono
f

a
nor
dina
ryc
ons
ume
risno
ttog
ene
rat
evi
ewe
rshi
porhi
tsa
ndc
ons
eque
ntl
yea
rn

r
eve
nue
sfr
omt
hei
mpa
ctc
rea
tedb
ytheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.Hef
urt
hers
ubmi
tt
edt
hat

t
heDe
fenda
ntpr
omo
tesac
ompe
tingpr
oduc
tPURE& SUREo
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
ed

c
oco
nuto
ili
nhi
sImpug
nedVi
deoi
nsub
sti
tut
ionf
ort
hepr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
fand

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Nitin 7 / 83

ur
gest
hev
iewe
rst
ost
opus
ingt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
nts
eek
stopr
omo
tet
woo
the
rco
mpe
tingpr
oduc
tsb
y

pr
ovi
ding l
ink
sfo
r pur
cha
sing t
hes
e pr
oduc
tsf
rom o
nli
ne r
eta
il
erss
ucha
s

www.
ama
zon.
com.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hea
ctso
ftheDe
fenda
ntf
al
lunde
rthe

c
ate
gor
yof‘
comme
rci
ala
cti
vi
ti
esfa
ndno
tag
ene
ralr
evi
ewo
fthepr
oduc
tbya
n

o
rdi
nar
yco
nsume
r.

3
.2 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
nti
nhi
svi
deo

i
sspr
eadi
ng a f
al
se me
ssa
ge wi
thr
espe
ctt
othe Pl
ai
nti
ffs PARACHUTE

COCONUTOI
Lins
inua
tingi
nte
ral
iat
hat
:

a
) Thepa
cka
gingo
fthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lisi
nfe
rio
r

a
ndt
hatt
hec
apo
ftheb
ott
leo
fthePARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lisfi
msy
;

b
) Thef
rag
ranc
eoft
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lisv
erys
tro
ng

a
ndi
tsme
ll
ssi
mil
art
oar
ott
enc
oco
nut
;

c
) Thepa
cka
gingo
fthepr
oduc
tdo
esno
tme
nti
ont
heg
radeo
fthec
oco
nutus
ed,

whe
ret
heyha
veb
eene
xtr
act
edf
roma
ndwhi
chc
oco
nuti
tha
sbe
ene
xtr
act
ed

f
rom;

d) Fr
omt
het
est
sco
nduc
tedb
ytheDe
fenda
nt,t
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE

COCONUTOI
Lisi
nfe
rio
rtoo
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edo
il
s;

e
) Thefa
vouro
fPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lsug
ges
tst
hatt
heo
ili
sma
de

f
rompo
orq
ual
it
yco
conut
sori
she
ate
dtoahi
ght
empe
rat
ure
;

f
) ThePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lha
simpur
it
iesa
ndt
hatt
he

s
amea
res
eeno
ncet
heo
ili
sfr
oze
n;

g
) The
rei
sav
astdi
fer
enc
ebe
twe
ent
henut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lueo
fav
irg
inc
oco
nuto
il

a
ndt
hato
fthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L;

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Nitin 8 / 83

h) The a
nti
bac
ter
ial pr
ope
rti
eso
rant
if
ung
alpr
ope
rti
esa
nd nut
ri
ent
sin

PARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lar
ele
ssduet
othepr
oce
ssi
ngi
tunde
rgo
es;

3
.3 Wi
thr
efe
renc
etot
hes
est
ate
ment
s/i
nsi
nua
tio
nsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
nthe

v
ide
o,t
heLd.
Seni
orAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
ted:

a
) Tha
titi
sinc
onc
eiv
abl
etha
ttheDe
fenda
ntwhoc
lai
mst
hathepr
omo
tesPURE

& SUREc
oco
nuto
ils
inc
e‘hec
ons
ume
sithi
mse
lff
,pr
esuma
blyo
nar
egul
ar

b
asi
sand ha
s us
edo
nlyo
ne b
ott
leo
fthe Pl
ai
nti
ffs PARACHUTE

COCONUT OI
Lisi
napo
sit
iont
oma
keab
alds
tat
eme
ntt
hatt
hec
apo
fte
n

b
rea
ks.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hato
nthec
ont
rar
y,t
hePl
ai
nti
fha
sst
ate
dtha
titha
s

r
ece
ive
dtheI
NDI
ASTARPa
cka
gingAwa
rd201
7ac
ros
s12c
ate
gor
ies
;

b
) Tha
ttheDe
fenda
ntf
sins
inua
tio
ntha
tthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tisma
deo
fro
tte
n

c
oco
nut
sisno
tanho
nes
torf
ai
ropi
nio
nandc
anno
tbee
qua
tedi
nanyma
nne
r

o
rfo
rm wi
thahy
per
bol
eora
nex
agg
era
teds
tat
eme
ntno
ttob
eta
kenl
it
era
ll
y.

Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
het
rut
hist
hatt
hea
romao
fthePa
rac
hut
eCo
conuto
ili
s

na
tur
ala
ndc
har
act
eri
st
ico
fCo
pra
;

c
) Tha
tsi
ncet
hepa
cka
gingo
fthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tdo
esno
tme
nti
ont
heg
rade

o
fthec
oco
nutus
ed,
whe
ret
heyha
veb
eene
xtr
act
edf
roma
ndwhi
chc
oco
nuti
t

ha
sbe
ene
xtr
act
edf
rom,t
heDe
fenda
nti
sat
tempt
ingt
oimpl
ytha
tthe
rei
s

s
omei
nfo
rma
tio
nso
ughtt
obec
onc
eal
edb
ythePl
ai
nti
fsi
ncet
hec
oco
nut
s

us
eda
reo
finf
eri
orq
ual
it
y,whi
chi
sfa
ctua
ll
yinc
orr
ect
;

d) Tha
ttheDe
fenda
ntf
ai
lst
ome
nti
ont
hena
tur
eoft
hei
mpur
it
iesi
nthe

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
L.Se
dime
nta
tio
nandpa
rti
cul
at
e

ma
tte
risi
nfa
ctc
har
act
eri
st
icso
fanyc
oco
nuto
il
;

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Nitin 9 / 83

e
) Tha
tthenut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
sme
nti
one
dont
hepr
oduc
tspr
oduc
edb
efo
ret
his

Co
urtdur
ingt
hec
our
seo
fthehe
ari
ngi
ndi
cat
etha
tthe
rei
snos
ubs
tant
ial

di
fer
enc
ebuto
nlyami
norv
ari
anc
eint
henut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
sbe
twe
ent
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tandt
hepr
oduc
tsr
eco
mme
nde
dbyt
heDe
fenda
nti
nhi
s

v
ide
o.

f
) Tha
ttheDe
fenda
nta
dmi
tst
hatt
hePARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Lis

unr
efne
dand t
her
efo
re ha
sno
tunde
rgo
ne a
ny pr
oce
ssi
ng b
utma
kesa

c
ont
radi
cto
ryc
lai
mtha
tthea
nti
bac
ter
ialpr
ope
rti
eso
rant
ifung
alpr
ope
rti
es

a
nd nut
ri
ent
sin PARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Lar
ele
ss due t
othe

pr
oce
ssi
ngi
tunde
rgo
es.

3
.4 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
nto
ughtt
o

ha
vec
onduc
ted pr
ope
rre
sea
rcho
rre
li
edo
nla
bre
por
tsb
efo
rec
omi
ngt
othe

c
onc
lus
iona
ndma
kingt
hev
ide
o.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hel
eas
ttha
ttheDe
fenda
nt

c
oul
dha
vedo
newa
stoha
vec
onduc
tede
nqui
ri
eswi
tht
hePl
ai
nti
ftoa
sce
rta
int
he

t
rut
h/f
act
sbe
for
ema
kingt
hef
al
se,r
eck
les
sanddi
spa
rag
ings
tat
eme
ntsi
ntheVi
deo

s
inc
ethe i
mpr
ess
iong
ive
nbyt
he us
eoff
orc
eful
,de
cis
ivea
nd a
sse
rti
ve

s
tat
eme
nts
/phr
ase
sint
heI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
stha
ttheDe
fenda
nti
sane
xpe
rta
ndha
s

unde
rta
kene
xte
nsi
ver
ese
arc
hont
het
opi
cand/o
risdr
awi
ngc
onc
lus
ionso
nthe

b
asi
sofs
ounda
ndt
hor
oug
hgr
oundwo
rk,
res
ear
che
tc.

3
.5 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
ffur
the
rsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
s

ma
li
cei
sev
inc
edb
ythede
nig
rat
ingr
epl
ie
spo
ste
dbyt
heDe
fenda
nto
nthe

c
omme
ntst
otheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
,suc
hasf
oll
ows
:

a
) “Thi
svi
deowa
sonl
ytob
ringa
war
ene
sst
otheg
ene
ralp
ubl
ico
fthei
nfe
rio
r

q
ual
it
yofp
ara
chut
eco
conuto
il.

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Nitin 10 / 83

b
) “Al
sot
hef
ree
zet
estme
tho
dwa
sonl
ytos
howt
hei
mpur
iti
es.

c
) “Ikno
wthe
rea
rema
nyt
ric
kswhi
chc
omp
ani
esus
etoma
keaf
ool
oft
hep
ubl
ic

a
ndt
hat
’swha
tIa
mbus
ti
ng.

TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntk
newf
ull
y

we
llt
hatt
hec
ont
ent
soft
heI
mpug
nedVi
deoc
ons
ti
tut
edt
het
orto
fma
li
ci
ous

f
al
seho
oda
nds
lande
rofg
oods
;tha
tfo
rthi
sre
aso
ntheDe
fenda
nto
fer
edt
ode
let
e

c
ert
ainpo
rti
onso
fthev
ide
owhe
rehes
oug
htt
oma
keac
ompa
ris
ona
nda
lsoo
fer
ed

t
oma
keac
ompl
ete
lyf
res
hvi
deoa
fte
rar
e-e
val
uat
iono
faf
res
hpr
oduc
toft
he

Pl
ai
nti
f.

Fr
eez
eTe
st–Wr
ongTe
sta
ndWr
ongCompa
ris
on

4
. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heo
nlyt
estc
onduc
tedb
y

t
heDe
fenda
ntt
oco
met
othec
onc
lus
iont
hatPARACHUTECOCONULOI
Lis

i
nfe
rio
rtot
heo
the
roi
list
hato
ffr
eez
inga
ndnoo
the
rte
stwha
tso
eve
rha
sbe
en

c
onduc
tede
ithe
rbyt
heDe
fenda
nto
rthr
oug
hani
nde
pende
ntt
est
ingc
ent
ret
o

a
ctua
ll
yte
stt
heq
ual
it
yoft
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
L.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hea
ll
ege
dte
stc
onduc
tedb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
sawr
ongt
esta
ndt
he

c
ompa
ris
oni
sawr
ongc
ompa
ris
on.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sno
t

c
onduc
teda
ny t
est
s wha
tso
eve
rtoe
val
uat
ethe nut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue o
fthe

Lv
PARACHUTECOCONUT OI i
s-
à-v
isv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ilo
rev
eno
rga
nicc
old

pr
ess
edc
oco
nut(
copr
a)o
ilt
obei
napo
sit
iont
oinf
ert
hatt
hePARACHUTE

COCONUT OI
Lla
cksnut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
s

s
oug
htt
ode
li
ber
ate
lymi
sl
eadt
hec
ons
ume
rsb
yins
ert
ings
udde
ninc
ons
eque
nti
al

r
efe
renc
est
oVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
landi
tsb
ene
ftso
rthedi
fer
enc
esb
etwe
enr
efne
d

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Nitin 11 / 83

o
il
sandunr
efne
doi
lsi
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deowhi
chha
venor
ela
tio
ntot
hea
ll
ege
d

t
est
sco
nduc
teda
ndt
hea
ll
ege
dinf
eri
orq
ual
it
yoft
hePARACHUTECOCONUT

OI
L.

Di
spa
rag
eme
nt

4
.1 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
sma
deo
uta

c
ase pr
ovi
ng t
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sac
tio
nss
ati
sf
yal
ling
redi
ent
stoc
ons
ti
tut
e

di
spa
rag
eme
nt,s
lande
rofg
oods
,and ma
li
ci
ousf
al
seho
od.Her
eli
ed upo
nthe

Ha
lsb
ury
’sLa
wso
fEng
landVo
lume8
,pa
ras27
4,27
5,a
nd27
7atp
age
s13
7,1
38

a
nd1
40,r
esp
ect
ive
ly.

4
.2 Re
lyi
ngupo
nthede
cis
iono
fthi
sCo
ur nHi
ti ndus
tanUni
le
verLi
mit
edv
s.Guj
ara
t

1
Co
-op
era
tiv
eMi
lkMa
rke
tingFe
der
ati
onLt
d& Or
s.,theLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
or

t
hePl
ai
nti
ffur
the
rsub
mit
tedt
hatt
her
eisadi
fer
enc
ebe
twe
ena
nac
tio
nfo
r

de
fama
tio
nanda
nac
tio
nfo
rdi
spa
rag
eme
nt,s
lande
rofg
oods
,ma
li
ci
ousf
al
seho
od

whi
chwa
sco
nsi
der
edb
ythi
sCo
urta
ndi
tha
sbe
enhe
ldt
hatt
hede
fenc
esa
vai
la
blei
n

a
nac
tio
nfo
rpe
rso
nalde
fama
tio
nwo
uldno
tbea
vai
la
blei
nthec
aseo
fana
cti
onf
or

di
spa
rag
eme
nt.

4
.3 Ont
hea
spe
cto
fspe
cia
lda
mag
es,t
heLd.
Seni
orAdv
oca
tea
ppe
ari
ngf
ort
hePl
ai
nti
f

r
eli
edupo
nthec
omme
nta
r nRa
yi tanl
alDhi
raj
lalo
nLa
wofTo
rts22ndEdi
ti
on

1
992(
Rep
rint1
995
)inCha
pte
rXI
Ipa
ge23
4.

4
.4 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hate
veni
fthePl
ai
nti
fisi
napo
sit
iont
ode
mons
tra
tet
hato
ne

c
ust
ome
rha
sbe
enl
osto
rapl
eadi
ngwhi
chde
mons
tra
test
hatt
hea
cti
onwo
uldl
ead

o
rha
sle
dtos
uchda
mag
ewo
ulds
ufc
eands
ati
sf
ythec
rit
eri
aofs
pec
ial
dama
ge.

1
2017 SCC Online Bom 2572

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Nitin 12 / 83

4
.5 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hats
pec
ialda
mag
edo
esno
t

me
ans
pec
iali
nte
rmso
fqua
ntum b
uts
pec
iali
nte
rmso
fthena
tur
eoft
heda
mag
e

whi
chi
ssi
mpl
ic
ite
rmo
net
aryl
osst
hatc
anno
tbev
alue
dandc
ompe
nsa
ted.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heme
ref
actt
hatt
hel
ossc
aus
edc
anno
tbee
val
uat
edi
nmo
net
ary

t
ermsi
ts
elfc
oul
dco
nst
it
ute“s
pec
ial
”da
mag
eandt
hati
tisi
mpo
ssi
bl
etoa
sce
rta
in

t
hena
tur
eoft
heda
mag
eca
use
d.Her
eli
edupo
npa
ra1
0.2o
fthej
udg
mento
fthe

2
De
lhi
Hig
hCo
urti
nthec
as fDa
eo burI
ndi
aLt
dv.
Col
ort
ekMe
gha
lay
aPv
t.Lt
d.

DEFENDANT’
SSUBMI
SSI
ONS:

NoI
nte
nti
ont
oma
lig
n

5
. TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hef
actt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntdi
d

no
tde
let
eadv
ers
eco
mme
ntsa
gai
nsthi
svi
deos
howst
hathea
cte
dbo
nafdet
o

e
duc
atehi
svi
ewe
rs.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hiswa
stoe
nsur
etha
thi
svi
ewe
rswo
uldb
e

a
blet
ose
ehi
svi
deo
,re
adb
otht
hepo
sit
ivea
ndne
gat
ivec
omme
nts
,andde
cidef
or

t
hems
elv
eswhe
the
rtob
eli
evet
he De
fenda
nto
rno
t.He s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
his

e
sta
bli
she
stha
ttheDe
fenda
ntf
sob
jec
tiv
ewa
stoe
duc
atehi
svi
ewe
rs.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntr
espo
nde
dtot
hec
omme
ntpo
ste
dbyo
ne“Ia
mJe
ro”o
nthe

I
mpug
nedVi
deowhe
rei
ntheDe
fenda
nts
tat
ed,i
nte
ral
ia
,tha
tco
mpa
nie e“ma
sus ny

t
ri
cks
”to“ma
keaf
oolo
fth
epub
li
c”.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthei
nst
antc
ase
,the

Pl
ai
nti
fha
sus
edat
ri
cko
fsho
wingawe
tco
conuta
long
sidei
tspr
oduc
tino
rde
rto

f
oolc
ons
ume
rsi
ntot
hink
ingt
hati
tspr
oduc
twa
sde
riv
edf
rom we
tco
conuti
nst
ead

o
fco
pra
.

2
2009 SCC Online Del 3940

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Nitin 13 / 83

5
.1 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ythe

De
fenda
nti
nhi
sImpug
nedVi
deoa
ret
ruea
ndc
ons
ti
tut sb
ehi o
nafd
eopi
nio
n.

5
.2 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nta
lsos
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sofe
rto

de
let
eso
mepo
rti
onso
fhi
svi
deo
,inhi
sre
plyt
othePl
ai
nti
ffsc
eas
eandde
sis
t

no
tic
e,wa
sac
onc
ess
ion/g
oodf
ai
tha
tte
mptma
det
ofna
ll
yse
ttl
ethema
tte
r,no
tan

a
dmi
ssi
ono
fwr
ong
doi
ng.Re
lyi
ngupo
nthi
sCo
urt
fsj
udg
me nDi
nti li
pKuma
rvs
.

3
Ne
wIndi
aAs
sur
anc
e hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hisCo
urtha
dthe
rei
nex
pla
ine
dthe

di
fer
enc
ebe
twe
ena“c
onc
ess
ion”ma
dei
nthec
our
seo
fgo
odf
ai
thne
got
iat
ionsa
nd

a
n“a
dmi
ssi
on”.
Hea
lsor
eli
edupo
ntheSupr
emeCo
urt
fsj
udg
me nMa
nti nag
eme
nt

o
ftheCo
nso
lida
tedCo
feeEs
tat
esv
s.Wo
rk n4.Hes
me ubmi
tt
edt
hatac
onc
ess
ion

ma
dei
nthec
our
seo
ftr
yingt
ose
ttl
eama
tte
rca
nne
verb
eco
nsi
der
edt
obea
n

a
dmi
ssi
on.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sema
ilwa
sno
tan unc
ondi
ti
ona
l

a
dmi
ssi
on,
buto
nlyac
onc
ess
ionma
dei
nor
dert
ose
ttl
ethedi
sput
e.

5
.3 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heho
nes
tyo
ftheDe
fenda
nti
n

ma
kings
uchv
ide
osi
sev
ide
ntf
romt
hec
ommuni
cat
ione
xcha
nge
dbe
twe
eno
ne

c
ompa
ny v
iz.Qr
aaa
nd hi
mse
lf.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hee
mai
lco
rre
spo
nde
nce

b
etwe
ent
heDe
fenda
nta
ndQr
aae
sta
bli
she
stha
ttheDe
fenda
nti
sno
tint
heb
usi
nes
s

o
fta
kingmo
neyf
romCo
mpa
nie
sfo
rendo
rsi
ngt
hei
rpr
oduc
ts/b
randsa
ndo
fme
rel
y

b
eco
mingt
hei
rmo
uthpi
ece
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hiss
howst
hatt
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
de

b
ytheDe
fenda
nti
ntheI
mpug
ned Vi
deo we
reno
tma
dea
ttheb
ehe
sto
fa

c
ompe
tit
or.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sba
nks
tat
eme
ntf
ort
hey
ear201
8

a
nne
xedt
ohi
sSuppl
eme
nta
ryAfda
vits
howst
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
dre
cei
veda

3
(2014) SCC Online Bom 759
4
(1970) 2 LLJ 576

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Nitin 14 / 83

s
um o
fRs
.4,
000/
-o 9th Fe
n1 brua
ry201
8fr
om Qr
aaa
ndt
hather
efunde
dthes
aid

th
s
umt
oQr
aao
n26 Ma
rch201
8.

5
.4 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hepr
oduc
tspr
ovi
dedi
nthe

l
ink
sbe
lowt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
reo
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
ila
ndv
irg
in

o
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
ila
nda
ree
acho
the
rfsc
ompe
tit
ors/r
iva
ls.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatwhe
nav
iewe
rcl
ic
kso
noneo
fthe
sel
ink
sandpur
cha
sest
hepr
oduc
t,

t
heDe
fenda
ntr
ece
ive
sac
ommi
ssi
onf
rom Ama
zon.
comb
utno
ttheo
wne
rso
fthe

c
ompe
tingpr
oduc
ts.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthepa
stt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sre
cei
ved

mo
neyf
rom1
3br
ands/c
ompa
nie
stopr
omo
tet
hei
rpr
oduc
tso
nhi
scha
nne
landi
n

s
uchc
ase
s,t
heDe
fenda
ntc
lea
rlyme
nti
onsi
nthev
ide
oit
sel
fori
nthede
scr
ipt
ion

s
ect
iont
othev
ide
o,t
hatt
hev
ide
oisapa
ide
ndo
rse
ment
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
he

De
fenda
ntha
sal
sor
evi
ewe
dtwopr
oduc
tso
fthePl
ai
nti
f,wi
tho
utr
ece
ivi
nga
ny

mo
neyf
romt
hePl
ai
nti
fwhe
rei
n,i
nma
nypa
rts
,hi
sre
vie
w wa
sfa
vour
abl
etot
he

Pl
ai
nti
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
sno
ttheo
nlyv
ide
otha
ttheDe
fenda
nt

ha
spo
ste
d.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
spr
epa
red,o
vert
hey
ear
s,a
bout240

v
ide
os,
ofwhi
ch9
9vi
deo
swe
ref
ort
hepr
oduc
tswhi
chwe
rea
ctua
ll
yre
vie
wedb
ythe

De
fenda
nt.

5
.5 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
s,i
nthepa
st,

po
ste
dli
nkst
obe
tte
ral
ter
nat
ive
sint
hema
rke
twhi
ler
evi
ewi
ngpr
oduc
ts,wi
tho
ut

r
ece
ivi
ngmo
neyf
romt
hes
aidc
ompa
nie
s.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
ha n7th Fe
to brua
ry201
8,

t
heDe
fenda
ntpo
ste
dav
ide
oonYo
uTub
ere
vie
wingapr
oduc
tbyac
ompa
nyc
all
ed

Ur
banGa
bru.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthede
scr
ipt
ions
ect
iono
fthes
aidv
ide
o,t
he

De
fenda
ntpr
ovi
dedal
inkt
otheAma
zonpa
geo
fthePl
ai
nti
ffso
wnpr
oduc
t,

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Nitin 15 / 83

Pa
rac
hut
eHa
irCr
eam;t
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntpo
ste
dthi
sli
nko
nhi
sown,wi
tho
uta
ny

i
nst
ruc
tio
nsf
romt
hePl
ai
nti
f,a
ndwi
tho
utr
ece
ivi
nga
nymo
neyf
romt
hePl
ai
nti
f.

5
.6 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthec
as fHi
eo ndus
tan

Uni
le
verv
s.Guj
ara
tCo
ope
rat
ive(
sup
ra)t
hisCo
urtwa
soft
hev
iewt
hatt
he

s
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
ntwe
ref
al
set
othek
nowl
edg
eoft
heDe
fenda
nta
nd

he
ncema
li
ci
ous
.

Compa
ris
oni
sofCO(
Coc
onutOi
l/Copr
aOi
l)vs
.VCO(
Vir
ginCoc
onutOi
l)/

Ar
tic
lesr
eli
eduponbyt
heDe
fenda
nt

6. TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tisno
t

b
rande
dorma
rke
teda
sbe
ing“c
opr
aoi
l”whi
chi
sho
wsuc
hano
ili
skno
wn.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspa
cka
gingme
rel
yus
est
heg
ene
rict
erm “c
oco
nuto
il

a
ndt
heb
ott
les
howsac
oco
nutwi
thwa
terg
ushi
ngo
ut.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsa
dve
rti
seme
ntss
ugg
estt
hati
tso
ili
sex
tra
cte
dfr
om we
tco
conut
sand

t
her
efo
rei
tf
sco
mpa
ris
onwi
thv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
il/o
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
ili
s

j
ust
ife
d.

6.
1 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
her
ear
ese
ver
als
cho
lar
ly

a
rti
cl
es,pub
li
she
dinr
eput
eds
cie
nti
fcj
our
nal
s,i
nwhi
chc
li
nic
alt
ri
al
sha
ver
eve
ale
d

t
hat“c
opr
aoi
l”i
sinf
eri
ori
nqua
li
tyt
o‘v
irg
inc
oco
nuto
il
f.Her
eli
edupo
nex
tra
cts

a
rti
cl
es,pa
per
sando
the
rsi
mil
arl
it
era
tur
etoc
ompa
rec
opr
aoi
landv
irg
inc
oco
nut

o
il
,i
nthef
oll
owi
nga
rti
cl
es:

a
) “Be
nefc
ialEfe
ct
sofVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lonLi
pi
dPa
rame
ter
sandI
nVi
tr
oLDL

Ox
ida
tio
n”pub
li
she
dint
heJ
our
nalo
fCl
ini
calBi
oche
mis
try(
Vol
.37
)wr
it
ten

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Nitin 16 / 83

b
yK.
G.Ne
vina
ndT.Ra
jamo
hanf
romt
heDe
par
tme
nto
fBi
oche
mis
trya
tthe

Uni
ver
si
tyo
fKe
ral
a;

b
) “Vi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lSup
ple
ment
edDi
etI
ncr
eas
est
heAnt
io
xid
antSt
atusi
nRa
ts”

pub
li
she
dint
heJ
our
nalo
fFo
odChe
mis
try(
Vol
.2006
)wr
it
tenb
yK.
G.Ne
vin

a
ndT.Ra
jamo
hanf
romt
heDe
par
tme
nto
fBi
oche
mis
trya
ttheUni
ver
si
tyo
f

Ke
ral
a;

c
) “Vi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
l:
Eme
rgi
ngFunc
ti
ona
lFo
odOi
l”pub
li
she
dinJ
our
nalTr
end
s

i
nFo
odSc
ie
nce&Te
chno
log(
Vol
.20)wr
it
tenb
yA.
M.Ma
rina
,Y.
B.CheMa
n

a
ndI
.Ami
nfr
omt
heDe
par
tme
nto
fFo
odTe
chno
log
yatt
heUni
ver
si
tyo
f

Put
raMa
lay
sia
;

d) “Sup
ple
ment
ati
ono
fVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lCo
mpa
redwi
thCo
praOi
l,Ol
iv
eOi
land

Sunflo
werOi
lont
heTh
romb
oti
cFa
cto
rsi
nRa
tsa
ndI
nVi
tr
oPl
ate
le
tAggr
ega
tio
n”

pub
li
she
dint
heI
nte
rna
tio
nalJ
our
nalo
fCur
rentRe
sea
rchi
nBi
osc
ienc
esa
nd

Pl
antBi
ol
ogy(
Vol
.3)wr
it
tenb
y Sa
kunt
hal
a Ar
uni
ma a
nd Tha
nka
ppa
n

Ra
jamo
hanf
romt
heDe
par
tme
nto
fBi
oche
mis
trya
ttheUni
ver
si
tyo
fKe
ral
a;

e
) “I
sCo
conutOi
laSup
erf
ood
?”pub
li
she
dbyBBCNe
wswr
it
tenb
yDr
.Mi
cha
el

Mo
sle
y;

f
) “I
sCo
conutOi
lGo
odo
rBa
dfo
rYo
u?”pub
li
she
dbyNe
wYo
rkTi
meswr
it
ten

b
yRo
niCa
rynRa
bina
ndSo
phi
eEg
an;

g
) “Wha
tist
heDi
fer
enc
eBe
twe
en Co
ldPr
ess
ed,Unr
efne
dand‘
Reg
ula
rf

Oi
ls
?”pub
li
she
dont
heb
logNa
tur
all
yne
x.c
om.

6.
2 Re
lyi
ngupo
nthea
for
esa
idl
it
era
tur
e,t
heLd.Adv
oca
tef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lwhi
chi
sac
opr
aoi
li
sas
pec
ieo
f

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Nitin 17 / 83

r
efne
dco
conuto
il
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatDr
.Fi
feha
sgi
vent
hef
oll
owi
nga
dvi
ce5f
or

de
tec
tingg
oodq
ual
it
yoi
l:

“Hi ghq ual


ityvi
rgi
nc oconuto i
ls h
ouldbes nowwh itewh e
ni tissoli
da nd
wa t
erclearwhenli
quid.Ifyouseeanyshadeof y
ell
owo rgrayitisofaninfer
ior
quali
ty.Pu r
ec oc
onuto i
li sc olo
rle
ss.Any d i
scol
orati
oni sa s ig
no f
cont
ami nati
on.Contamina t
ionc anb efrom mo l
do rs moker esi
due…So me
virg
inc oc
onutoil
shaveav e
rystrongfla
vorors mel
l.Th e
sear ealmostal
wa ys
ofpoorqua l
it
y.Thesmellandt a
stecomespri
ma ril
yfromc o
ntami nat
esandno t
coco
nut.Iftheoi
ldoesnottasteandsmelll
ikefre
shcoconutbewa re.
Someo fthe
nasti
estoil
sIhavetast
edwe rest
rongflavo
ureda nddidnottasteli
kecoco
nut.”

6.
3 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
re

t
rue/c
ons
ti
tut
ebo
nafdeo
pini
on.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sst
ate
ment

t
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffso
il“i
sofa
ninf
eri
orq
ual
it
ytoo
the
ror
gani
cco
ldp
res
sedc
oco
nuto
il
s”

i
sab
sol
ute
lyc
orr
ecta
ndi
nac
cor
danc
ewi
tht
hes
cie
nti
fcl
it
era
tur
eandDr
.Fi
fef
s

t
est
sse
touta
bov
e.

6.
4 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatDr
.Fi
fef
ste
stf
orde
ter
mini
ngt
hepur
it
yofc
oco
nuto
ili
sal
so

e
cho
edb
ythePhi
li
ppi
neCo
conutAut
hor
it
y.Her
eli
edupo
napr
ese
nta
tio
noft
he

s
aidPhi
li
ppi
neCo
conutAut
hor
it
y,t
it
led“Fr
eque
ntl
yAs
kedQue
sti
onsOnVi
rgi
n

Co
conutOi
l”a
ndhes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
aida
utho
rit
yha
sopi
nedt
hatv
irg
inc
oco
nut

o
i s“t
li hep
ure
stf
ormo
fco
conuto
il
,wa
terwh
itei
nco
lor
”;t
hati sa“mi
tha ldt
oint
ens
e

f
res
hco
conuta
roma
”(a
ndt
hei
nte
nsi
tyde
pendsupo
nthee
xte
nto
fpr
oce
ssi
ng)
;tha
t

c
opr
ade
riv
edc
oco
nuto
ili
sye
ll
owi
nco
lo nd“h
ra ast
ound
erg
och
emi
calr
efni
ng,

b
lea
chi
nga
ndd
eod
ori
zat
io
npr
oce
ssb
efo
ret
heyc
anb
eftf
orh
uma
nco
nsump
tio
n”;t
hat

c
opr
aoi
l“d
oesno
tco
nta
inVi
tami
nEs
inc
eth
isi
sre
mov
edd
uri
ngf
urt
herp
roc
ess
ingo
fth
e

o
il
”;t
hatc
opr
aoi
loug
htt
obe“o
dor
le
ssa
ndt
ast
el
es
s”;t
haty
ell
owc
olo
uri
sca
use
dby

“Ba
cte
ri
alc
ont
ami
nat
io
noft
hec
oco
nutme
atb
efo
reo
ile
xtr
act
io
n”a
nd“h
ighp
roc
ess

t
emp
era
tur
e”;t
hat“Th
ere
for
e,f
ort
hec
oco
nuto
ilt
obec
ate
gor
ize
dasv
irg
in,i
tsc
ol
or
5
Exhibit J pg.100 to Defendant’s Affidavit in Reply

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Nitin 18 / 83

s
houl
dbewa
terwh
ite
.”;t
hatv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ilc
anb
eus
edno
tme
rel
yinc
ons
umpt
ion

b
uta
lso“Asah
airc
ond
iti
one
r”,“Asab
odyo
ilo
ras
ubs
ti
tut
efo
rmo
is
tur
izi
ngl
ot
io
n”,

e
tc.

6.
5 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatDr
.Fi
fef
ste
stha
sbe
enr
eit
era
tedi
ntheb
logpo
st“7e
sse
nti
also
f

g
oodq
ual
iyc
t o
conuto
il
” pub
li
she
dbyKa
pul
uan.Hef
urt
hers
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nan

a
rti
cl
eent
it
led“Co
conutBa
ninKe
ral
a:He
re’
saSi
mpl
yDo
-At
-Ho
meTe
stt
oCh
eckI
f

th
Yo
urCo
conutOi
lisAd
ult
era
ted” da
ted 1
9 De
cemb
er201
8,pub
li
she
don

t
ime
sno
wne
ws.
co
mst
ate
stha
tifc
oco
nuto
ili
sadul
ter
ate
d,o
the
roi
lswi
llr
ema
ina
sa

s
epa
rat
ela
yero
nto
poft
hes
oli
dife
doi
lonc
etheo
ili
spl
ace
dinar
efr
ige
rat
or.

6.
6 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nta
lsor
eli
ed upo
nana
rti
cl
eti
tl
ed “Th
e

Nut
ri
ti
ona
lBe
neft
sofCo
conut
”pub
li
she
dinLi
veMi
nto
n12thJ
une201
7tos
tat
etha
t

v
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ils
houl
dno
tbeus
edf
orc
ook
ing
.

Di
spa
rag
eme
nt

7
. TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sst
ate
mentt
hat

t
hes
mel
loft
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tisa
ki o“ad
nt rie
dorr
ott
enc
oco
nut
”ishy
per
bol
e/

e
xag
ger
ati
ona
ndno
tme
antt
obet
ake
nli
ter
all
y.Hedr
ewa
nana
log
ywi
tht
hec
aseo
f

6
Ta
taSo
nsLt
d.v
s.Gr
eenp
eac
eInt
erna
tio
nal
&Anr
. ashes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthes
aid

c
aset
heDe
lhiHi
ghCo
urtt
ookav
iewt
hatwhe
nGr
eenpe
acer
efe
rre
dtoTa
taa
sa

“de
mon”,o
rtoi
tsf
ounde
r,Mr
.Ra
tan Ta
ta,a
s“Ra
tty
”,t
hatwa
sjus
ti
fab
le

hy
per
bol
e/e
xag
ger
ati
ona
ndno
tme
antt
obet
ake
nli
ter
all
y.

7
.1 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
ha n Hi
ti ndus
tanUni
le
verv
s.

Guj
ara
tCo
-op
era
tiv
e(s
upr
a)t
hisCo
urtha
she
ldt
hatt
her
ear
ethr
eei
ngr
edi
ent
sto
6
2011 SCC Online Del 466

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Nitin 19 / 83

ma
kingo
utac
aseo
fthet
orto
fdi
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
ods/s
lande
rofg
oods
:(i
)the

s
tat
eme
ntmus
tbef
al
se;(
ii
)thes
tat
eme
ntmus
tha
veb
eenma
dewi
thma
li
ce;a
nd

(
ii
i)t
hePl
ai
nti
fmus
tha
ves
ufe
reds
pec
ialda
mag
e.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatno
neo
fthe

i
ngr
edi
ent
sar
epr
ese
nti
nthei
nst
antc
ase
.

7
.2 Re
lyi
ngupo
nthec
as fDa
eo burI
ndi
aLt
d.(
sup
ra)t
heLd.Adv
oca
tef
ort
he

De
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
sno
tsufe
reda
ny“s
pec
ial
dama
ge”a
ris
ing

o
uto
fthei
mpug
nedv
ide
oandunl
ik
eano
rdi
nar
yca
seo
fde
fama
tio
n,da
mag
etot
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffr
om af
al
se/de
fama
tor
yst
ate
mentc
anno
tbepr
esume
dinc
ase
sinv
olv
ing

t
het
orto
fdi
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
ods
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
sno
tadduc
ed

a
nye
vide
ncewha
tso
eve
rtos
howt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
ssufe
reda
nyda
mag
ear
is
ing

o
uto
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
ssho
wnnopr
ooft
hat

i
tsr
eve
nue
sha
veg
onedo
wns
inc
etheI
mpug
nedVi
deowa
supl
oade
dandt
hes
ame

wa
sar
esul
toft
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heme
ref
actt
hats
ome
body

ha
svi
ewe
dtheI
mpug
nedVi
deodo
esno
tme
ant
hatt
heyha
veb
eeni
nfue
nce
dint
o

r
efus
ingt
obuyt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
deoha
s

b
een“l
ik
ed”o
nlyb
y2,
500v
iewe
rs,whi
chi
sonl
y2.
31%o
ftho
sewhov
iewe
dthe

v
ide
o;t
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fha
sno
tbe
ena
blet
osho
wtha
t2,
500o
fit
scus
tome
rsha
veno
t

b
oug
htt
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
deoha
sbe
en

“di
sl
ik
ed”b
y39
7vi
ewe
rswhi
chs
howst
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
ewe
rsa
rei
nte
ll
ig
ent

a
nddi
sce
rni
ng,a
ndt
heye
xer
cis
ethe
iri
nde
pende
ntj
udg
mentwhe
nthe
yvi
ewt
he

De
fenda
ntf
svi
deo
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
ewe
rsa
rei
nte
ll
ig
enta
nd

c
oll
ege
-educ
ate
dands
eve
ralc
omme
ntswhi
chha
veb
eenpo
ste
dbyv
iewe
rso
nthe

pa
geo
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deos
howt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
svi
ewe
rsha
vev
iewe
dthe

De
fenda
ntf
svi
deowi
thhe
alt
hys
kept
ici
sm.

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Nitin 20 / 83

7
.3 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
nti
sne
ithe
rat
rade
r

/ ma
nuf
act
ure
rno
rar
iva
loft
he Pl
ai
nti
ffsg
oodsa
nd a
ssuc
h,t
he t
orto
f

di
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
ods/s
lande
rofg
oodsdo
esno
tappl
ytohi
m.Re
lyi
ngupo
nthe

j
udg
ment
sin Hi
ndus
tan Uni
le
verv
s.Guj
ara
tCo
ope
rat
ive(
sup
ra)
,Guj
ara
t

7
Co
ope
rat
iveMi
lkMa
rke
tingFe
der
ati
on Lt
d.v
s.Hi
ndus
tanUni
le
verLt
d. a
nd

8
Hi
ndus
tanUni
le
verLt
d.v
s.Ca
vinc
arePv
t.Lt
d. hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatc
our
tsi
nIndi
a

ha
vehe
ldt
hatt
het
orto
fdi
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
ods/s
lande
rofg
oodsa
ppl
ie
sonl
yto

r
iva
lma
nuf
act
ure
rs/t
rade
rs/c
ompe
tit
orso
fthePl
ai
nti
f.

7
.4 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
het
orto
fdi
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
ods/s
lande
rofg
oodsi
sas
pec
ieo
f

l
ib
el/de
fama
tio
nandt
hepl
eao
fjus
ti
fca
tio
nisa
vai
la
blet
otheDe
fenda
nt.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sappe
are
dbe
for
ethi
sCo
urta
nds
tat
edt
hathes
eek
s

t
ota
ket
hepl
eao
fjus
ti
fca
tio
n;t
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sal
some
nti
one
dev
ide
nceb
y

whi
chhewi
lls
ubs
tant
iat
ehi
sca
se.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hisi
ssufc
ienti
nor
dert
o

r
efus
eani
nte
rlo
cut
oryi
njunc
tio
ninf
avo
roft
hePl
ai
nti
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
he

De
fenda
ntha
sal
soe
sta
bli
s d,p
he rimaf
aci
e,t
hathei
sli
kel
ytos
ucc
eeda
tthet
ri
al
.He

r
eli
edo
nthede
cis
iono
fthi
sCo
urti
nthec
as fDr
eo .Ya
shwa
ntTr
ive
div
s.I
ndi
an

9
Ex
pre
ssNe
wsp
ape
rs ,mo
repa
rti
cul
arl
ythes
eco
ndpa
rag
rapho
fthej
udg
ment
,and

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hel
awi
nIndi
aist
hatwhe
reaDe
fenda
ntme
rel
yta
kest
hepl
eao
f

j
ust
ifc
ati
o nd“me
na nti
ons
”ev
ide
nceo
nwhi
chhei
sgo
ingt
ore
lyupo
n,a
nint
eri
m

i
njunc
tio
nmus
tber
efus
ed.

Comme
rci
alSpe
ech/Fr
eedom ofSpe
ech

7
Order dated 13th December 2013 in Appeal No. 340 of 2017 in Notice of Motion (L) No. 690 of
2017 in Suit (L) No. 204 of 2017, Bombay High Court (Division Bench)
8
2010 (44) PTC 270 (Del)
9
Unreported order dated 29th June 1989 in Appeal No. 464 of 1989, Bombay High Court (Division Bench)

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Nitin 21 / 83

8. TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
ha n Hi
ti ndus
tanUni
le
verv
s.

Guj
ara
tCo
ope
rat
ive(
sup
ra)
,thi
sCo
urtha
she
ldt
hat“Anyc
amp
aig
ntoe
duc
atet
he

me
mbe
rso
fth
epub
li
cbyp
lac
ingb
efo
ret
hemt
het
ruea
ndc
orr
ectf
act
s/i
ngr
edi
ent
sus
edi
na

p
rod
ucts
houl
dal
way
sbewe
lc
ome
d.”.Hea
lsor
eli
edupo
ntheDe
lhiHi
ghCo
urt
fs

de
cis
io nDa
ni burI
ndi
a(s
upr
a)a
sunde
r:

4Re
“8. centtrendsh aves hownt hatt hea r
ti
clesevenins ciencej o
urnals
c
o mmentingont heefc ac
yo fg oodsma nufacture
dbylargemul tinati
onal
c
o mpanie
s,a resoughttobesh uto utthroughme di
umo fc
o urts.Wh il
ean
aggri
evedp arty
ssr igh
tt os e
e kr ecoursetol awcannotb eq ue s
ti
oned,
i
nteres
to ft hec onsumerst ok no w mus tb eguarded -e veni ft he
dis
seminationo finf o
rma ti
oni sb ywa yo fana dvertise
me ntwh ich
exagge
ratesthev ir
tuesoft het radersgoods.Publi
cdebatei sgo o
d.Th e
onlycauti
ont hatth edefendant -
trad e
rh astob e
arinmi ndist hathis
advert
ise
me ntdoesfa l
lwithint hefourc or
nersofwhatconstit
utesinlaw
ma l
ici
ousfa l
seh
oo d.Conse q
ue ntl
y ,thecourtsaresl
owt og rantinteri
m
rel
iefifthed ef
enda nthass etupa na r
guab l
ecasethatt heimp ugned
s
ta t
ementi strue.Th ecourtsa reno to r
dinaril
yaf o
rum wh i
chs hould
dete
rminea stowh ethe
rthep l
a intifs
so rthedefe
ndants
sgo odsorservic
es
arebet
ter.

8.
1 Re
lyi
ngupo
ntheSupr
emeCo
urt
fsde
cis
io nR.Ra
ni jag
opa
lvs
.St
ateo
fTa
mil

du10 t
Na heLd.Adv
oca
tef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
houg
hpr
iorr
est
rai
nts

a
rel
ega
linI
ndi
a,t
heyc
ano
nlyb
eimpo
sedi
fthes
tat
utei
ts
elfc
lea
rlypr
esc
rib
esa

pr
iorr
est
rai
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatSe
cti
on40o
ftheFo
odSa
fet
yandSt
anda
rdsAc
t,

2006
,do
esno
timpo
sea
nypr
iorr
est
rai
nts
,i.
e.
,i
tdo
esno
tre
qui
ret
hatape
rso
nmus
t

a
ppr
oac
hthes
tat
uto
rya
utho
rit
ybe
for
ema
kinga
nyc
omme
nta
boutapr
oduc
tand

s
uchar
equi
reme
ntwo
uldi
mpo
sea
nundul
yha
rsha
ndo
ner
ousb
urde
nont
he

f
ree
domo
fspe
echa
nde
xpr
ess
ion.

8.
2 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hef
amo
uspr
inc
ipl
ekno
wna
sBo
nna
rdPr
inc
ipl
einEng
li
shl
awa
s

l
ai
ddo
wni
nthec
as fBo
eo nna
rdv
s.Pe
rry
man11s
tat
ingt
hata
nint
eri
minj
unc
tio
n

10
(1994) 6 SCC 632
11
(1891) 2 Ch 269

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Nitin 22 / 83

s
houl
dno
tbea
war
dedunl
essde
fenc
eofj
ust
ifc
ati
onb
ytheDe
fenda
ntwa
sce
rta
int
o

f
ai
latt
ri
all
eve
l,ha
sbe
ena
dopt
edb
ytheDe
lhi
Hig
hCo
ur nTa
ti taSo
ns(
sup
ra)a
nd

s
ubs
eque
ntl
yinYa
shwa
ntTr
ive
di’
sca
se(
sur
pa)
.Hef
urt
hers
ubmi
tt
edt
ha nTa
ti ta

So
ns(
sup
ra)i
tha
sbe
enhe
ldt
hathy
per
bol
esdono
tco
nst
it
utede
fama
tio
n.

8.
3 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
fisno
tli
kel
ytos
ufe
r

a
nyi
rr
epa
rab
leha
rmi
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
sre
tai
nedo
nYo
uTub
e.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
henumb
ero
fvi
ewso
nthes
aidv
ide
oha
sno
wst
agna
ted;t
hati
tisno
tast
houg
h

t
hev
ide
oisg
oingv
ira
lort
hatmi
ll
io
nso
fvi
ewe
rsa
rev
iewi
ngt
hev
ide
oev
ery
day
.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
her
eisnoi
mmi
nentl
ik
eli
hoo
dofa
nyda
mag
etot
hePl
ai
nti
f.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
two
uldb
epr
efe
rab
lef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
ftopr
epa
rei
tso
wnv
ide
o

c
ount
eri
ngt
hev
ide
ooft
heDe
fenda
nt,
rat
hert
hans
eek
ingt
oimpo
seapr
iorr
est
rai
nt

o
ntheDe
fenda
ntt
hro
ugha
nint
eri
minj
unc
tio
n.I
nsuppo
rto
fhi
ssub
mis
sio
n,he

r
eli
edupo
ntheUSSupr
emeCo
urt
fsde
cis
io nWhi
ni tne
yvs
.Ca
lif
or a12.
ni

8.
4 TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hea
bov
ejudg
mento
ftheUS

Supr
emeCo
urtwa
sre
li
edupo
nbyo
urSupr
emeCo
ur nShr
ti eyaSi
ngha
lvs
.Uni
on

o
fI a13.Hes
ndi ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heSupr
emeCo
urtha
she
ldt
hat“Me
red
isc
uss
io
nor

e
vena
dvo
cac
yofap
art
ic
ula
rca
useh
ows
oev
erunp
opul
ari
satt
heh
ear
tofAr
ti
cl
e19
(1)
(a)
.

I
tiso
nlywh
ens
uchd
isc
uss
io
nora
dvo
cac
yre
ach
est
hel
eve
lofi
nci
te
mentt
hatAr
ti
cl
e19
(2)

k
ick
sin.
” Hef
urt
hers
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
twa
she
ldt
hatt
her
ear
eonl
ysupe
rfc
ial

di
fer
enc
esb
etwe
ent
heU.
S.Co
nst
it
uti
ona
ndt
heI
ndi
anCo
nst
it
uti
oni
nma
tte
rs

g
ove
rni
ngf
ree
domo
fspe
ech,a
ndt
hat“Ame
ri
canj
udg
ment
sha
veg
rea
tpe
rsua
siv
e

v
alueo
nth
eco
nte
nto
ffr
eed
omo
fsp
eec
hande
xpr
ess
io
nandt
het
es
tsl
aidd
ownf
ori
ts

i
nfr
ing
eme
nt.

12
274 U.S. 357 (1927)
13
(2015) 5 SCC 1

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Nitin 23 / 83

PLAI
NTI
FF’
SREJ
OINDER:

9. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fst
ate
dtha
ttheDe
fenda
ntf
sint
ent
ioni
sno
t

me
rel
ytoe
duc
atehi
saudi
enc
eort
oinf
ormt
hema
boutt
hedi
fer
entt
ype
sofc
oco
nut

o
il
sori
tsma
nuf
act
uri
ngpr
oce
sse
sora
dva
nta
gesa
sfa
lse
lyc
lai
medb
ytheDe
fenda
nt.

Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntt
hro
ught
hisI
mpug
nedVi
deos
eek
stoma
li
gnt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
L whi
chi
sappa
rentf
romt
hel
andi
ng

s
cre
eno
fthev
ide
owhi
chs
tat
es,“I
T’SNOTASGOOD ASYOU THI
NK!
!I’
LL

PROVEI
T!!
!!”.

9.
1 Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
ftheDe
fenda
nti
nte
nde
dtoc
rea
tea
neduc
ati
vev
ide
owi
tht
he

c
ons
ume
rfsi
nte
res
tinmi
nda
ndt
obus
tthet
ri
cksus
edb
yco
mpa
nie
stof
ool

c
ons
ume
rs,t
heDe
fenda
nts
houl
dha
vea
ppr
oac
heda
nyi
nde
pende
ntl
abo
rat
oryt
o

c
onduc
tte
stsa
ndt
ogi
vev
eri
fedr
esul
tst
othec
ons
ume
rs.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
he

Fo
odSa
fet
ySt
anda
rdsAc
t,2006i
nSe
cti
on40pr
ovi
desf
orar
eme
dywhe
reb
ya

Pur
cha
serc
anha
veaf
ooda
nal
yse
dbyaFo
odAna
lys
tonpa
yme
nto
faf
eea
ndc
an

r
ece
ivear
epo
rti
nre
spe
cto
fthepr
oduc
tfr
omt
heFo
odAna
lys
t.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hat

t
hef
al
ser
eas
ong
ive
ndur
ingt
hec
our
seo
fthehe
ari
ngf
orno
tta
kingt
hisr
eco
urs
e

wa
shi
ghc
ost
s,whe
rea
s,t
hef
eepr
esc
rib
edf
ort
hepr
oce
dur
eunde
rthes
aidAc
tis

o
nlyRs
.5000/
-.

9.
2 TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sar
gume
nt

t
hathec
oul
dno
tbef
orc
edt
ota
kea
cti
onb
efo
rema
kingac
omme
nts
inc
eitwo
uld

a
mountt
opl
aci
ngapr
iorr
est
rai
nti
smi
spl
ace
dsi
nce
,thei
nte
nti
sno
ttopl
aceapr
ior

r
est
rai
ntb
utt
ote
stt
heb
ona
fde
soft
heDe
fenda
nti
nthec
ont
extt
hatb
ald,f
al
se,

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Nitin 24 / 83

r
eck
les
sandma
li
ci
ouss
tat
eme
ntsha
veb
eenma
dewi
thr
ega
rdt
othePl
ai
nti
ffs

pr
oduc
twi
tho
utduedi
li
genc
e.

Compa
ris
oni
sofCOvs
.VCO

1
0. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hata
spe
rthede
pic
tio
nint
he

I
mpug
nedVi
deo
,thei
mpr
ess
ionwhi
chi
scr
eat
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
stha
ttheo
il

us
edb
ytheDe
fenda
ntf
ort
hepur
pos
eso
fco
mpa
ris
onwi
tht
hePARACHUTE

COCONUTOI
Landf
orpe
rfo
rmi
ngt
het
est
sisac
oldpr
ess
edo
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
il

whi
chi
sal
soma
def
rom Co
pra
.Ho
wev
er,t
heLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
f

po
int
edo
utt
hatt
heDe
fenda
nti
nit
sAfda
viti
nRe
plyha
sst
ate
dtha
ttheheus
ed

“…p
ure
,unr
efne
d,unp
roc
ess
ed,v
irg
in,c
ol
dpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
il
”int
hev
ide
o.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sinf
actpa
sse
dofv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ila
sco
ldpr
ess
ed

o
rga
nico
ili
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
ndpo
ure
dthes
amei
ntheg
las
sma
rke
d

“ORGANI
C”t
ofa
lse
lyde
pic
tandc
rea
tea
nimpr
ess
iont
hato
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edo
il

ma
def
romc
opr
awa
scl
eara
ndt
othe
rea
fte
rdr
awa
ninc
orr
ectc
onc
lus
iont
hatt
he

PARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lwhi
chi
sal
soma
def
romc
opr
awa
sye
ll
owi
sha
nd

he
nceo
finf
eri
orq
ual
it
y.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hema
ter
ialpr
oduc
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

i
sno
tfo
rco
ldpr
ess
edo
rga
nico
il,b
utf
orv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
il
swhi
chi
sano
the
r

c
ate
gor
yal
tog
ethe
r.

1
0.1Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sar
gume
ntt
hatheb
eli
eve
dthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t

wa
svi
rgi
nco
conuto
ilma
def
rom we
tco
conut
sisf
al
la
cio
us.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatunt
il

th
1
3 Oc
tob
er201
7,Fo
odSa
fet
yandSt
anda
rds(
Foo
dPr
oduc
tsSt
anda
rdsa
ndFo
od

Addi
ti
ves
)Re
gul
ati
onso
nlyha
donee
ntr
ywi
thr
espe
ctt
o“Co
conuto
il
s(na
riy
al

t
el)
”whi
chde
fne
dtheo
ila
s“t
heo
ile
xpr
ess
edf
romc
opr
aob
tai
nedf
romt
hek
erne
l

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Nitin 25 / 83

o
fco
cosnuc
if
eranut
s”.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
il
lsuc
hti
met
her
ewa
snoe
ntr
yint
he

r
egul
at
ionswi
thr
espe
ctt
oVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lsa
nda
llc
oco
nuto
il
swhe
the
rco
ld

pr
ess
edo
rex
pel
le
rpr
ess
eda
ndwhe
the
rre
fne
dorno
t,me
antc
oco
nuto
ilma
def
rom

dr
iedc
oco
nuti
.e
.co
pra
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hato
n13thOc
tob
er201
7byt
heFo
odSa
fet
y

a
nd St
anda
rds (
Foo
d Pr
oduc
ts St
anda
rds a
nd Fo
od Addi
ti
ves
) Fo
urt
eent
h

Ame
ndme
ntRe
gul
ati
ons
,201
7(“Food Re
gul
ati
ons2
017
”)a
nent
ry(
1A)wa
s

i
ntr
oduc
edf
or“Vi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
l”a
ndde
fne
das“me
anst
heo
ile
xpr
ess
edf
rom

t
hek
erne
lofCo
cosnuc
if
eranut
sbyme
cha
nic
alo
rna
tur
alme
answi
tho
rwi
tho
utt
he

a
ppl
ic
ati
ono
fhe
at,whi
chdo
esno
tle
adt
oal
ter
ati
ono
ftheo
ila
ndv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
il

i
ssui
tab
lef
orhuma
nco
nsumpt
ioni
nit
sna
tur
als
tat
e wi
tho
utr
efni
ng.
” He

th
s
ubmi
tt
edt
hathe
nce
,af
ter1
3 Oc
tob
er201
7,a
lsoa
llr
efe
renc
est
oCo
conutOi
l

wo
uldme
ano
ilma
def
rom Co
praa
ndas
epa
rat
eca
teg
oryo
fVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lwa
s

c
rea
tedwhi
chwa
sno
tma
def
romc
opr
a.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
l

pr
oduc
tss
pec
ifc
all
yme
nti
ont
hatt
heya
reVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lsb
eca
uset
heya
rea

s
epa
rat
eca
teg
oryunde
rthes
tat
utea
ndc
anno
tbemi
st
ake
nfo
rpr
oduc
tswhi
cha
re

s
olda
s“Co
conutOi
ls
”whi
cha
rema
def
rom dr
iedc
oco
nut–c
opr
a.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
hiso
ughtt
oha
veb
eenk
nownt
otheDe
fenda
nti
fhewa
sane
xpe
rta
shec
lai
ms

t
obe
.

1
0.2TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hede
vic
eoft
woc
oco
nut
s

s
pla
shi
ngo
nthepa
cka
gingo
fPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lisno
tmi
sl
eadi
ngo
r

me
antt
omi
sl
ead.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
aidde
vic
eisno
tade
pic
tio
nofawe
t

c
oco
nutwi
thwa
ters
pla
shi
ngb
uti
sade
pic
tio
nofo
ilb
etwe
ent
hec
oco
nut
s.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
aidde
vic
eiti
sar
egi
st
ere
dtr
ade
mar
koft
hePl
ai
nti
fandt
he

Pl
ai
nti
fise
nti
tl
edt
ous
ethes
ame
.

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Nitin 26 / 83

Re
spons
etoAr
tic
lesr
eli
eduponbyt
heDe
fenda
nt

1
1. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hati
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deot
he

De
fenda
ntpur
por
tedt
ode
mons
tra
tet
hef
ree
zet
estb
etwe
eno
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
ed

c
oco
nuto
ila
ndPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Lbo
tho
fwhi
cha
rema
def
rom

Co
pra
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hel
inki
nthede
scr
ipt
iono
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
nda
ll

o
the
rma
ter
ialt
hatha
sbe
enpr
oduc
edo
vert
hec
our
seo
fhe
ari
ngr
ela
test
ovi
rgi
n

c
oco
nuto
ila
ndi
sir
rel
eva
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatno
tas
ing
lea
rti
cl
epr
oduc
edb
ythe

De
fenda
ntme
nti
onst
hatpur
eunr
efne
dor
gani
cco
ldpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
ilo
rthe

unr
efne
dor
gani
cex
pel
le
rpr
ess
edo
ilo
rno
rma
lunr
efne
dex
pel
le
rpr
ess
edc
oco
nut

o
ils
houl
dbec
olo
url
esso
rtha
tac
olo
rat
ions
ugg
est
simpur
it
yori
nfe
rio
rqua
li
ty.

1
1.1TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heo
nlydo
cume
ntt
hatha
s

b
eenpr
oduc
edwhi
chma
kesar
efe
renc
etot
heo
nlyt
estc
onduc
tedb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

v
iz.“f
ree
zet
est
”isa
nint
erne
tne
wsa
rti
cl
eti
tl
ed“Co
conutOi
lBa
ninKe
ral
a:

He
ref
sas
impl
edoa
tho
met
estt
oche
cki
fyo
urc
oco
nuto
ili
sadul
ter
ate
d”.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
tbe
ingane
wspa
pera
rti
cl
ethedo
cume
nti
nno
tadmi
ssi
bl
e;t
hatt
he

s
aidf
ree
zet
esti
spr
esc
rib
edo
nlywi
thav
iewt
oas
cer
tai
nift
her
ear
eanya
dul
ter
ant
s

i
ntheo
il;t
hatt
heo
ili
stob
eco
nsi
der
eda
dul
ter
ate
donl
yifi
tdo
esno
tfr
eez
e,

whe
rea
sint
hei
mpug
nedv
ide
othePARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Loft
hePl
ai
nti
f

a
dmi
tt
edl
yfr
ozec
ompl
ete
lya
ndt
her
ewe
renoo
the
rli
qui
dla
yer
s;a
ndt
hatt
hea
rti
cl
e

ma
kesnome
nti
ono
fthec
olo
uro
ftheo
ilo
ncei
tisf
roz
en.

1
1.2TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hea
rti
cl
eatEx
hib
itJo
fthe

De
fenda
ntf
sRe
ply“He
ali
ngNa
tur
all
yByBe
e”i
stheo
nlya
rti
cl
etha
tha
sbe
en

r
eli
edupo
nint
hede
scr
ipt
iono
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deob
ytheDe
fenda
nta
ndha
sbe
en

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Nitin 27 / 83

he
avi
lyr
eli
edupo
nbyt
heDe
fenda
ntdur
ingt
hec
our
seo
fthehe
ari
ng.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatnoo
the
rar
ti
cl
eorma
ter
ialwha
tso
eve
rha
sbe
enr
eli
edupo
nint
heI
mpug
ned

Vi
deoo
rint
hede
scr
ipt
iont
her
eof
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatno a
rti
cl
eorma
ter
ial

wha
tso
eve
rwa
sre
fer
redb
ytheDe
fenda
ntwhe
nhei
ssue
dar
espo
nset
othec
eas
e

a
ndde
sis
tno
tic
eis
sue
dbyt
hePl
ai
nti
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hata
llt
hea
rti
cl
esno
wso
ught

t
obepr
oduc
eda
rea
naf
ter
tho
ughta
ndy
ets
ucha
rti
cl
es/ma
ter
ial
dono
tpr
ovi
dea
ny

a
ssi
st
anc
etot
heDe
fenda
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hes
aida
rti
cl
eisc
ompl
ete
lyhe
ars
ay

i
nna
tur
eandi
sint
urna
ll
ege
dlyb
ase
donas
our
ce“Co
conutRe
ase
arc
hCe
nte
rbyDr
.

Br
uceFi
fe
,ani
nte
rna
tio
nal
lyr
eco
gni
se
dex
per
tont
heh
eal
tha
ndnut
ri
ti
ona
las
pec
tso
f

c
oco
nuta
ndr
el
ate
dpr
oduc
ts
”.Hes
ubmi
tt
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hes
aidunde
rly
ingr
ese
arc
hofDr
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ithe
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t
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ste
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Lso

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oco
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ess
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oco
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urt
hers
ubmi
tt
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fenda
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ughtt
osug
ges
ttha
tthev
iewo
fDr
.Br
uceFi
fei
suni
mpe
acha
ble
,

t
hePl
ai
nti
fha
spr
oduc
eda
nar
ti
cl
eti
tl
ed“Co
conutOi
l:No
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uref
ora
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oco
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mint
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ook“Th
eCo
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lMi
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le
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chi
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s
ameb
ooks
howni
nthec
rede
nti
aldo
cume
ntspr
oduc
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nt)a
re

i
nco
rre
ct.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatwhi
ls
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sno
tar
gui
ngt
hatDr
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fei
sinf
acta

“s
caml
ord”,t
hisma
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tev
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ntt
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iala
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tis

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ust
if
ythe

de
nig
rat
ings
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eme
ntsi
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.

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Nitin 28 / 83

1
1.3TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hev
era
cit
yofdo
cume
nts

o
vert
hei
nte
rne
tist
hes
amea
sne
wspa
perr
epo
rtswhi
cha
rehe
ars
ayi
nna
tur
eand

a
rei
nadmi
ssi
bl
einl
awe
vena
tana
d-i
nte
ri
mst
age–a
tle
asta
sthes
oleb
asi
sfo
r

r
efus
a fi
lo nt
eri
mre
li
efs
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hema
ter
ial
pro
duc
eda
longwi
tht
hes
uit

i
smo
stl
ypr
ima
rye
vide
ncei
nthef
ormo
foneo
nonec
orr
espo
nde
nceo
rdi
rec
t

e
vide
nce
.Ho
wev
er,t
her
epo
rtsa
nda
rti
cl
eso
fthena
tur
ere
fer
redt
oab
ovewhi
ch

pl
acer
eli
anc
eonf
urt
hero
the
rma
ter
iala
rea
lwa
yshe
ars
ayi
nna
tur
e.Re
li
anc
ewa
s

pl
ace
dupo
ntheSupr
emeCo
urt
fsde
cis
ioni
nthec
as fLa
eo xmiRa
jShe
tty& Or
s.

v
s.St
ateo
fTa
milNa
du14.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hate
vent
houg
htheCo
urt
fsfndi
ngswe
re

i
nthec
ont
exto
fac
rimi
nalpr
oce
edi
nga
fte
rthet
ri
alwa
sco
nduc
ted,t
hepr
opo
sit
ion

o
fla
w wo
ulda
ppl
yir
res
pec
tiv
eofwhe
the
riti
sthea
d-i
nte
ri
mst
ageo
raf
tert
ri
al
.

Si
mil
arl
y,her
eli
edupo
nthej
udg
mento
faDi
vi
si
onBe
ncho
fthi
sCo
urti
nthec
ase

1
5
fSt
o ar(
Indi
a)Li
mit
edv
s.Ze
eEnt
ert
ainme
ntEnt
erp
ris
esLi
mte
d& Or
s. He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthi
sca
set
heCo
urtdi
dno
tpe
rmi
tane
wspa
perr
epo
rtt
ober
eli
ed

upo
nata
nint
eri
mst
agea
sthes
olee
vide
ncet
oat
tac
hli
abi
li
ty.

Di
spa
rag
eme
nt

1
2. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sre
li
anc
eon

t
heBo
nna
rdpr
inc
ipl
eismi
spl
ace
danduna
vai
la
blet
otheDe
fenda
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
he r
eli
anc
eont
he j
udg
eme n Ta
nti ta So
nsLi
mit
edv
s.Gr
een Pe
ace

I
nte
rna
tio
nal& Anr
.(s
upr
a)i
sinc
orr
ect
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heBo
nna
rdpr
inc
ipl
e

i
snol
ong
era
ppl
ic
abl
eandwa
sre
lev
anto
nlyi
nthec
ont
exto
fthej
urys
yst
em

pr
eva
lenti
ntheUni
tedKi
ngdo
m;t
hati
tha
sbe
comer
edunda
nta
fte
rthej
urys
yst
em
14
(1988) 3 SCC 319
15
MANU/MH/2327/2011

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Nitin 29 / 83

ha
sbe
endi
sca
rde
dint
heUni
tedKi
ngdo
m.Re
li
anc
ewa
spl
ace
donav
eryr
ece
nt

Eng
li
shj
udg
me nTa
nti vet
aInv
est
ment
sLt
dvs
.TheFi
nanc
ialRe
por
tingCo
unc
il&

1
6
Or
s. Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthepr
ese
ntc
ase
,st
ate
ment
sma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nta
re

no
thy
per
bol
ico
rrhe
tor
ico
rint
he na
tur
eofe
xag
ger
ati
onb
uta
rea
sse
rti
ve

s
tat
eme
ntsma
dea
sama
tte
roff
act
,al
bei
tfa
lse
lys
o.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hata
ninj
unc
tio
n

wa
sno
tgr
ant
edi
ntheTa
taSo
nsma
tte
rbe
caus
eint
hef
act
soft
hec
aset
he

de
fenda
ntha
djus
ti
fedi
tss
tat
eme
ntso
nse
ver
alc
ount
sass
eto
uti
nva
rio
uspa
rasi
n

t
hej
udg
eme
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatne
ithe
rthef
act
sno
rthepr
inc
ipl
eso
ftheTa
ta

So
nsc
asea
ppl
yint
hepr
ese
ntc
ase
.

1
2.1TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
hea
bil
it
yoft
heI
mpug
ned

Vi
deot
ocr
eat
eani
mpa
ctha
sbe
enmi
si
nte
rpr
ete
dbyt
heDe
fenda
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatno
tal
lvi
ewe
rso
fav
ide
ore
actt
othev
ide
o;t
hatt
hei
mpa
cto
fthev
ide
oha
stob
e

j
udg
edo
ntheb
asi
soft
hel
ik
esa
nddi
sl
ik
est
hatha
vei
nfa
ctb
eeng
ene
rat
eda
ndt
he

r
ati
othe
reo
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hato
ver85
%oft
hev
iewe
rswhoha
ver
eac
tedha
veb
een

i
mpa
cte
dbyt
hev
ide
oand ha
veb
eeni
nfue
nce
dbyt
hef
al
se,mi
sl
eadi
nga
nd

ma
li
ci
ouss
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatnof
urt
here
vide
nce

i
sre
qui
reda
tana
d-i
nte
rim/i
nte
rims
tag
eofs
pec
ial
dama
ge.

1
2.2TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sar
gume
nt

t
hatt
hec
omme
ntso
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deos
eemt
osug
ges
ttha
tthec
ons
ume
rsa
re

e
duc
ate
dco
nsume
rsa
nds
hal
lma
ket
hei
rownde
cis
ioni
sinc
orr
ect
.Int
hisc
ont
exthe

r
eli
edupo
nthi
sCo
urt
fsde
cis
io nGo
ni rba
tsc
howWo
dkaKG v
s.Jo
hnDi
st
il
le
rie
s

1
7
Lt
d. whi
ch,hes
ubmi
tt
ed,de
alswi
thas
imi
la
rar
gume
nta
ndne
gat
esi
tint
he

c
ont
exto
fat
rade
mar
kinf
ri
nge
menta
cti
on.

16
MANU/
UKAD/
021
0/201
8
17
2011 SCC Online Bom 557

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Nitin 30 / 83

1
2.3The Ld.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
he Pl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
he De
fenda
ntha
s

i
nco
rre
ctl
yre
li
edupo
nthej
udg
me nYa
nti shwa
ntTr
ive
di(
sup
ra)
.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
hes
aidj
udg
menti
sre
lat
edt
ope
rso
nalde
fama
tio
nandno
tsl
ande
rofg
oods/

di
spa
rag
eme
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heCo
urtt
her
einhe
ldt
hatb
efo
rea
cce
pti
nga

pl
eao
fjus
ti
fca
tio
n,t
heCo
urt
fsmus
tbep
rimaf
aci
esa
tis
fedt
hatt
hede
fenda
ntma
y

b
einapo
sit
iont
osub
sta
nti
atehi
sca
seo
ntheb
asi
sofma
ter
ial
pro
duc
ed.

1
2.4Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
nthepr
ese
ntc
aset
hema
ter
ial
pro
duc
edi
sde
mons
tra
blya
naf
ter
-

t
houg
hta
nddo
esno
tco
nst
it
utea
nyj
ust
ifc
ati
onwha
tso
eve
rfo
rthes
tat
eme
ntst
hat

a
rema
dewi
thr
ega
rdt
othePARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L.

1
2.5Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heYa
shwa
ntTr
ive
dij
udg
mentha
sbe
enc
ons
ide
redi
nde
tai
land

i
nte
rpr
ete
dbyt
his Co
urti
nthe ma
tte
rofShr
ee Ma
hes
hwa
r Hy
delPo
wer

1
8
Co
rpo
rat
ionLt
dvs
.Chi
tro
opaPa
lit& Anr
. Ther
ele
vante
xce
rpto
fthej
udg
ment

r
eli
edupo
nbyt
hePl
ai
nti
fisr
epr
oduc
edb
elo
w:

“… i ti scle
arthati na nye vent,thep rinci
p l
eso flawi nEng landa ndinI ndia
withr eg a
r dtog ra
n to finte rl
ocutoryr eli
efsi nac ivila cti
on,f orl ibelare
diferent.I nEng la
nd ,t hep rincipleo flawi st hati nc a s
eo fa na cti
o nfor
defama tion,oncethed efenda ntsra isethep l
e ao fjus tifca ti
o na tt heinteri
m
stage
,t hePl ai
ntifwillno tbee nti
tledt oani nterlocut oryi njunction.Top utin
inothe rwo rd
s,inEng land ,ame rep l
eao fjusti
fc ationb yt hed ef
end antwo uld
bes ufc i
enttod e
nyt hep la i
ntifa nyi nteri
mr elief
.Asf ara sI ndiai s
concerned,a shasb eenc l
ea r
lyh eldb yt hiscour tint hej ud gmentsr eferredto
herei
na b o
v e
,specia
llyt hej ud ge
me nto fthisc our ti nt h ec aseo fYe s
h want
Tr i
ved i
….Andt hejud geme nto fAp pe
llateBe nc hd at
e d2 9June1 989wi th
regardt othesamema tterina ppeal,thejud geme nto fth isc ourtin…….I tis
cle
rth atini ndi
aame repleao fjustifcatio
nwo uldno tbes ufc i
entf ordeni a
lof
inte
rimr eli
ef
.Th ed ef
end ant s
,a pa rtfromt akingt hep leao fjustifcati
o nwil
havet os h
o wthatthestateme ntswe rema deb onafd ea ndwe reinp ub l
icinteres
t
andt ha tthed e
fendantsh a dt akent her e
a so
na blep r ec
a ut i
ont oa scertainthe
trut
h ,a ndthatthestateme ntswe reb asedo nsufc ientma terialwh i
chc ouldbe
test
edf ori t
sv e
raci
ty.Th erefor
e,i nI ndiat heCo urti sv e r
ymuc he nti
tledto
scrut
ins ethema t
eri
a ltenderedb yth ed e
fendant ssoa stot estitsvera c
itya ndto
fndo utwh et
herthesaids tatement swe rema deb ona fd ea ndt hatwh etherthey

18
2004(1) MhLJ 382

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Nitin 31 / 83

werei
np ubl
icint
ere
st
.Th e
ref
ore
,inI nd
ia,ev
enatt
heint
erl
oc
uto
rys
tage
,th
e
co
urtisver
ymuc hent
itl
edtol
ookintothemat
eri
alp
roduc
edbyt
hede
fend
ants
f
ort heple
ao fjusti
fcat
io
n,s oa stot e
stit
sver
aci
tywithre
gar
dt oth
e
al
lega
tio
nsalle
gedtobede
famato
ry.”

1
2.6Re
lyi
ngupo
nthej
udg
me n As
nti hwa
niKuma
rSi
nghv
s.UP Pub
licSe
rvi
ce

1
9
Co
mmi
ssi
on&Or
s. ,t
heLd.Adv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heSupr
eme

Co
urtha
sint
hes
aidj
udg
ments
eto
utt
hepr
inc
ipl
eso
ntheb
asi
sofwhi
chr
eli
anc
eon

j
udg
eme
ntsma
ybepl
ace
dinc
our
tpr
oce
edi
ngs
.Iti
she
ldt
her
eint
hatr
eli
anc
eca
nno
t

b
epl
ace
donaj
udg
eme
nto
rafndi
ngc
ont
ai
nedt
her
einwi
tho
utr
efe
renc
etot
he

c
ont
exto
fsuc
hfndi
ngi
nthef
act
soft
hec
aser
eli
edupo
n.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatr
eli
anc
e

upo
naj
udg
eme
nto
the
rwi
set
hana
sab
ovewo
uldb
emi
spl
ace
d.

1
2.7TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heb
ala
nceo
fco
nve
nie
nce

i
sent
ir
elyi
nfa
vouro
fthePl
ai
nti
f.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
henumb
ero
fhi
ts/v
iewso
n

t
heI
mpug
nedVi
deoi
ncr
eas
eonada
il
yba
sisa
ndt
hehi
tsha
veno
tst
agna
teda
s

s
oug
htt
obes
ugg
est
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nt.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hate
ver
yvi
si
ttot
hel
ink
s

a
nd/o
rbr
oadc
asto
fthes
amea
nde
achda
yofc
ont
inua
nceo
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deo

ha
sag
ros
slyda
mag
inge
fec
tont
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
L

pr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
fandt
her
eput
ati
ono
fthePl
ai
nti
fandi
tspr
oduc
t.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hatDe
fenda
nti
suna
utho
riz
edl
yus
ingt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsr
egi
st
ere
dma
rk

PARACHUTEi
nthec
our
seo
ftr
adei
nthema
nne
rse
touta
bov
e.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hat

s
uch una
utho
riz
ed us
eoft
hePl
ai
nti
ffsr
egi
st
ere
d ma
rkPARACHUTE i
nthe

I
mpug
nedVi
deot
ake
sunf
ai
radv
ant
ageo
fandi
sco
ntr
aryt
oho
nes
tpr
act
ice
sin

i
ndus
tri
alo
rco
mme
rci
alma
tte
rs.
Hef
urt
hers
ubmi
tt
edt
hats
uchuna
utho
riz
edus
eof

t
hema
rkPARACHUTEi
sde
tri
ment
alt
oit
sdi
st
inc
tiv
echa
rac
tera
ndi
sag
ains
tthe

r
eput
ati
ono
fthema
rk.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hec
ont
inua
tio
noft
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo

19
(2003) 11 SCC 584

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Nitin 32 / 83

wo
uldr
esul
tinf
urt
herl
osso
fcus
tome
rsa
ndl
osso
fre
put
ati
ona
ndg
oodwi
lla
nd

s
pec
ial
dama
get
othePl
ai
nti
f.

Comme
rci
alSpe
ech/Fr
eedom ofSpe
ech

1
3. TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntpr
omo
tes

o
the
rpr
oduc
tsa
nda
lsoi
nvi
teso
fer
sfr
om hi
svi
ewe
rsf
orpa
idc
ons
ult
ati
ons
erv
ice
s

t
hro
ught
he I
mpug
ned Vi
deo
sgi
venb
y hi
mand t
her
efo
re,t
he c
rea
tio
nand

pub
li
cat
iono
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deob
ytheDe
fenda
nti
sint
hena
tur
eofc
omme
rci
al

s
pee
cha
ndi
sno
tme
rel
yane
xpr
ess
iono
ftheDe
fenda
ntf
spe
rso
nal
vie
ws,
opi
nio
nor

c
omme
nt.Re
lyi
ngupo
nthej
udg
me nMa
nti hes
hwa
rHy
del(
sup
ra)
,hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatwhe
nthe
rei
sadi
sput
ebe
twe
ent
wopr
iva
tepa
rti
es,Ar
ti
cl
e19wo
uldha
veno

a
ppl
ic
ati
on.

1
3.1Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hati
tisi
nco
rre
cto
nthepa
rto
ftheDe
fenda
ntt
oar
guet
hatt
hel
awo
f

di
spa
rag
eme
nti
sno
tappl
ic
abl
etohi
mort
hatt
hisi
sno
tac
aseo
ftr
adel
ib
els
inc
ehe

i
sno
tar
iva
ltr
ade
rorc
ompe
tit
or.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntha
sadmi
tt
ed

t
hatma
kinga
ndpo
sti
ngv
ide
oso
nthei
nte
rne
ti.
e.o
nhi
sYo
uTub
echa
nne
l,Be
arde
d

Cho
kra
,ishi
sonl
yso
urc
eofr
eve
nuea
ndt
hatt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deowa
sal
sot
her
efo
re

apa
rto
fhi
soc
cupa
tio
n/c
all
inga
ndc
rea
tedi
nthec
our
seo
fhi
str
ade
.Hes
ubmi
tt
ed

t
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntma
det
heI
mpug
nedVi
deowi
thas
ole
lyc
omme
rci
alpur
pos
eof

g
ene
rat
ingr
eve
nue
,whi
chi
sal
sot
her
eas
onwhyt
heDe
fenda
ntha
scr
eat
eda
llhi
s

o
the
rvi
deo
s.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deowa
sbe
ingmo
net
is
ede
venunt
il

2thFe
1 brua
ry201
9fo
rab
outt
wowe
eksa
fte
rthePl
ai
nti
fha
dis
sue
dtheDe
fenda
nta

c
eas
eandde
sis
tno
tic
e.Hea
lsos
ubmi
tt
edt
hato
ncet
hev
ide
owa
scr
eat
eda
ndus
ed

f
orac
omme
rci
alpur
pos
e,t
hea
mounto
fre
venuei
nfa
ctg
ene
rat
edi
sno
tre
lev
ant
.

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Nitin 33 / 83

TheLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fsub
mit
tedt
hati
nide
nti
calc
irc
ums
tanc
es

20
t
hisCo
urti
nthec
as fMa
eo ric
oLi
mit
edv
s.Vi
vekMi
tt
al ha
sgr
ant
e na
da d
-int
eri
m

i
njunc
tio
nag
ains
ta“Yo
uTub
er”i
nre
spe
cto
fthr
eev
ide
ospub
li
she
dbyhi
m.

1
3.2Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hej
udg
me nHi
nti ndus
tanUni
le
verv
s.Guj
ara
tCo
-op
era
tiv
e

th
(
sup
ra)wa
suphe
ldb
yaDi
vi
si
onb
enc
hoft
hisCo
urtb
yit
sor
derda
ted1
3

De
cemb
er201
8.Her
eli
edupo
nthef
oll
owi
nge
xce
r fDa
pto burv
s.Co
lor
tek(
sup
ra)

whi
ch,
hes
ubmi
tt
ed,
wasr
efe
rre
dbyt
heDi
vi
si
onb
enc
hint
hes
aidc
ase
:

“3
0.TheDe l
hiHi ghCo urtf urt
herh e
ldthatp ro
tecti
o nofArti
cle19 (
1)(
a)is
avai
labletothea dv e
rtisement
.Ho wev er,ifana dver
ti
semente xt
ends
be
yondg reyareasa ndb e
comesaf al
se,mi s
leading,unfai
ro rd ec
ept
ive
adver
tise
me nt
,itwo ul
dc e
rtai
nlynothav ethebeneftofanyprotec
tio
n.It
hasfurtherbeenh eldb yDe lhiHighCo urtt hatwh i
lecomp ari
ngits
pr
o d
uctwitho t
herpr o
d ucts
,theadvert
iserma yo nlyhig
hli
ghtitspos
it
ive
poi
nts,butt h
iscanno tb enegati
vel
yc onstr
u e
dt ome antha tther
eisa
di
sparagementofar iva lprod
uct.Ith asbe e
nf ur t
herhel
dt hatwh i
le
hype
dupa dve
rti
singma yb epermiss
ible,itcanno ttrans
gressthegre
y
area
so fpermis
si
blea sserti
on,andifitd oe
ss o
,th eadver
ti
sermus thave
so
mer easo
na bl
efactual basi
sfort
heassertio
ns oma de.”

DEFENDANT’
SSUR-
REJ
OINDER

1
4. TheLd.Advoc
atef
ort
heDe
fenda
nts
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
hej
udg
me nSt
nti ar(
Indi
a)

Lt
d.(
sup
ra)i
sno
tana
utho
rit
yfo
rthepr
opo
sit
iont
hatne
wspa
perr
epo
rtsc
anno
t,

unde
ranyc
irc
ums
tanc
es,
ber
eli
edupo
natt
hei
nte
rlo
cut
orys
tag
e.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hat

t
oho
ldt
hatne
wspa
perr
epo
rtsc
anno
tber
eli
edupo
natt
hei
nte
rims
tag
ebe
caus
e

t
heya
rehe
ars
aywo
uldme
ant
hatv
irt
ual
lynodo
cume
ntc
anb
ere
li
edupo
nunl
ess

t
hea
utho
roft
hedo
cume
nti
sthede
pone
ntwhoha
sve
rife
dthepl
eadi
ngs
.He

s
ubmi
tt
edt
hata
tthei
nte
rlo
cut
orys
tag
e,t
hec
our
tmus
tco
nfnei
ts
elft
othema
ter
ial

whi
chha
sbe
enb
roug
hto
nre
cor
d,wi
tho
ute
xami
ningwhe
the
rorno
tthes
amei
s

20
Unreported judgment dated 11th April 2018 in Notice of Motion (L) No 809 of 2018 in Commerical IP Suit
(L) No. 441 of 2018

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Nitin 34 / 83

pr
ove
n.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
ode
ter
minewhe
the
rorno
tthe
rei
s“ma
li
ce”i
nac
asei
t

mus
tbea
sce
rta
ine
dwhe
the
rtheDe
fenda
ntma
det
hes
tat
eme
ntk
nowi
ngt
hati
tis

f
al
seo
rwi
thr
eck
les
sdi
sr
ega
rda
stowhe
the
riti
str
ueo
rfa
lse
.Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatt
he

De
fenda
ntwa
sno
tac
tua
tedb
yma
li
ces
inc
eher
efe
rrdi
e nt
era
liat
othet
est

pr
esc
rib
edb
yther
eput
edDr
.Br
uceFi
fei
nev
alua
ti
ngt
hepr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
f.

1
4.1Hes
ubmi
tt
edt
hatMa
hes
hwa
rHy
del(
sup
ra)wa
sde
cide
dco
ntr
ar oYa
yt shwa
nt

Tr
ive
di(
sup
ra)
,andr
ely
ingupo
nthej
udg
ment
sinLa
laShr
iBha
gwa
nvs
.Shr
i

Ra nd21 a
m Cha nd Pa
njuma
lHa
sso
malv
s.Ha
rpa
lSi
ngh22 t
hef
orme
rma
ybe

r
efe
rre
dunde
rRul
e28o
ftheOr
igi
nal
SideRul
eso
fthi
sCo
urt
,tot
heHo
nfb
leChi
ef

J
ust
ice
,fo
rbe
ingr
eco
nsi
der
edb
yal
arg
erb
enc
h.

FI
NDI
NGSANDREASONI
NG:

1
5. Thi
sisno
tac
asewhe
ret
heDe
fenda
nti
sac
ompe
tit
oro
fthePl
ai
nti
f.Ho
wev
er,t
he

De
fenda
nti
sal
sono
tac
tinga
same
mbe
roft
heg
ene
ralpub
li
cwhoi
sex
pre
ssi
nghi
s

unb
ias
edo
pini
on/v
iewo
nthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t.Ev
ide
ntl
y,t
heDe
fenda
nti
sfa
ll
ing

unde
r a na
sce
ntc
ate
gor
yofi
ndi
vi
dua
ls,po
pul
arl
ykno
wn a
s “s
oci
alme
dia

i
nfue
nce
rs”.So
cia
lme
diai
nfue
nce
rsa
rei
ndi
vi
dua
ls who ha
vea
cqui
reda

c
ons
ide
rab
lef
oll
owe
rba
seo
nso
cia
lme
diaa
long
wit
hade
gre
eofc
redi
bi
li
tyi
nthe
ir

r
espe
cti
ves
pac
e.De
pendi
ngo
nthepo
pul
ari
tyo
fthe
irfe
ldo
fex
per
ti
se,t
hei
r

f
oll
owi
ngc
anr
ang
efr
omt
hous
andst
oev
enmi
ll
io
nso
fpe
rso
ns.The
sei
nfue
nce
rs

o
fte
nempl
oyt
heg
oodwi
llt
heye
njo
yamo
ngs
tthe
irf
oll
owe
rs/v
iewe
rst
opr
omo
tea

b
rand,s
uppo
rtac
aus
eorpe
rsua
det
hemt
odoo
romi
tdo
inga
nac
t.Muc
hli
ket
he

pr
ese
ntc
ase
,the
yma
yev
endi
ssua
det
hei
rfo
llo
wer
sfr
om pur
cha
singac
ert
ain

21
AIR 1965 SC 1767
22
AIR 1975 Bom 120

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Nitin 35 / 83

pr
oduc
t.I
nmyv
iew,s
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
rsa
rea
war
eoft
hei
nfue
ncet
heywi
el
d

o
vero
the
raudi
enc
eandt
hatt
hei
rst
ate
ment
sha
veama
gni
feda
ndpr
ofo
undi
mpa
ct

o
nthe
ira
udi
enc
e.I
two
uldno
tgof
art
osa
ytha
tthe
irf
oll
owe
rspl
acec
ert
ai
ntr
usti
n

t
hes
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
rsa
nda
cce
ptt
hei
rst
ate
ment
sasf
act
swi
tho
utmuc
h

s
crut
iny
.Iti
sappa
rent
,tha
tas
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
r,s
ucha
sthepr
ese
ntDe
fenda
nt,

wi
el
dst
hepo
wert
oinfue
ncet
hepub
li
cmi
nd.
Wit
hpo
wera
lsoc
ome
sre
spo
nsi
bi
li
ty.

Idono
tbe
li
evet
hatas
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
rca
nde
li
vers
tat
eme
ntswi
tht
hes
ame

i
mpuni
tya
vai
la
blet
oano
rdi
nar
ype
rso
n.Suc
hpe
rso
nbe
arsahi
ghe
rbur
dent
o

e
nsur
ethe
rei
sade
gre
eoft
rut
hful
nes
sinhi
sst
ate
ment
s.As
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
ris

no
tonl
yawa
reo
fthei
mpa
cto
fhi
sst
ate
mentb
uta
lsoma
kesapur
pos
efula
tte
mptt
o

s
pre
adhi
sopi
nio
ntos
oci
ety/t
hepub
li
c.I
nvi
ewo
fthes
ame
,theDe
fenda
ntha
da

hi
ghe
rre
spo
nsi
bi
li
tyt
oens
uret
hathi
sst
ate
ment
sdono
tmi
sl
eadt
hepub
li
candt
hat

hei
sdi
sse
mina
ti
ngc
orr
ecti
nfo
rma
tio
n.TheDe
fenda
ntf
sre
ckl
ess
nes
sha
samuc
h

g
rea
teri
mpa
cto
nthePl
ai
nti
ffs/i
tspr
oduc
tfsr
eput
ati
ona
sco
mpa
redt
oar
eck
les
s

s
tat
eme
ntb
yano
rdi
nar
yindi
vi
dua
l.

1
6. St
ory
boa
rdo
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
ndt
hede
scr
ipt
iono
fthei
mpug
nedv
ide
oisa
t

Ex
hib
itsH a
ndH-
1tot
hePl
ai
nt,r
espe
cti
vel
y.Thel
andi
ngpa
ge,t
hes
tor
ybo
arda
nd

t
hede
scr
ipt
iono
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deoa
rer
epr
oduc
edhe
reunde
r:

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La
ndi
ngPa
ge

St
oryboa
rd

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Nitin 49 / 83

De
scr
ipt
ionbe
lowt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo

….
.

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Nitin 50 / 83

LAW ONDI
SPARAGEMENTVI
S-A-
VISDEFAMATI
ON:

1
7. TheDe
fenda
ntha
sre
li
edupo
nse
ver
alpub
li
cat
ionsa
ndo
the
rsi
mil
arl
it
era
tur
ewi
th

av
iewt
ojus
ti
fyt
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nta
ndt
oex
pre
sst
hatt
he

De
fenda
ntdi
dno
tdi
spa
rag
ethePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L.Be
for
e

Ipr
oce
ed,i
tisne
ces
sar
ytoc
ons
ide
rthel
awg
ove
rni
ngdi
spa
rag
eme
nto
fgo
odsa
nd

t
her
eli
abi
li
tyo
fthel
it
era
tur
epr
oduc
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nta
tthei
nte
rlo
cut
orys
tag
e.

nHi
I ndus
tanUni
le
verv
s.Guj
ara
tCo
-op
era
tiv
e(s
upr
a)t
hede
fenda
ntt
her
ein,

a
lbe
itt
osuppo
rtadi
fer
enta
rgume
ntt
hant
hatr
ais
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nthe
rei
n,ha
d

s
oug
htt
ore
lyo
nthel
awo
fde
fama
tio
ninas
uitf
ors
lande
rofg
oodsa
ndma
li
ci
ous

pr
ose
cut
ion.Thi
s Co
urto
bse
rve
dtha
tthe l
ega
lre
qui
reme
ntso
fa pe
rso
nal

de
fama
tio
nca
sea
ndt
hato
fma
li
ci
ousf
al
seho
oda
nds
lande
rofg
oodsa
redi
st
inc
tand

di
fer
ent
.Thepl
ai
nti
fthe
rei
nha
dal
sor
eli
edupo
nthepa
rag
raphsf
rom Ha
lsb
ury
’s

La
ws o
fEng
land (
sup
ra)
.The r
ele
vantpa
rag
raphs f
rom t
he j
udg
menta
re

r
epr
oduc
edb
elo
w:

“43
.I th asri
ghtlybee
np oi
ntedoutb ythePlainti
fthatth
elegal
r e
quirement
s
ofap e
rsonaldefamati
o nc as
ea ndth atofma l
ici
ousfals
eho o
da nd
sl
a nderofg o
odsaredis
tinctandd ifer
ent.Ana ct
io
nforslanderofgoods
willl i
ewh e
rethed e
fenda ntfalsel
ya ndma li
cio
usl
yp ubli
sheswo rd
s
concerni
ngt hep l
aint
ifssg oodsa ndwh erethepubli
cat
ionca use
st h
e
plainti
ft osuferspec
iald ama ges
.Pa r
a gr
aphs274,2 7
5,2 77a tpage
s
137,1 38a nd140r es
pecti
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sLa wsofEngland( Fourt
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ume2 8a rei nt h
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d
hereunder:

"Page137Pa ra274-" Mal


ici
ouso rInjuri
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ehood.At
commonlawa nacti
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Nitin 51 / 83

d
amagei
salwa
ysne
ces
sar
y,b
utt
hisr
uleh
asb
eenmo
dife
d
b
yst
atut
e.

Page1 38p ara2 75-" Co mpa r


ison withDe fama ti
on-
Acti
onsf orma l
ic
iousfalsehooda reinac at
egoryo fthe
ir
owna nda r
eq uit
ed i
stinctfroma c
tionsford ef
ama ti
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Theseacti
onsarenotconcernedwithinjurytoreputati
on.In
ana ct
ionford ef
amation,toe st
ab l
is
hc auseofa ct
ion,the
pl
ainti
fmus tp ro
vethatt h
ewo rdsr e
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ma ndbore
ame aningdefamator
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ablis
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ro fg oodso ro t
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ethatth ewords
werefalse
,thattheywerep ubli
shedma l
ici
ousl
ya ndunl e
ss
cov
eredb ythest
atuto
rye xce
p t
ions,thattheycausedspeci
al
dama g
e."

(
emp
has
iss
upp
li
ed)

Page140para2 77-" Slanderofg o


ods-Ana c
tio
nf or
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ande
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eth edef
enda
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44. Thee ntirecontenti


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oryfort hePlainti
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i
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ly
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ion,o rval
ueo fthepro
pert
y

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Nitin 52 / 83

o
fanot
her
,andwh
ichc
aus
esh
ims
pec
iali
njur
yord
ama
ge,
i
sac
ti
onabl
e.
..
"

1
7.1Ha
vingc
lar
ife
dtha
tas
uitf
orde
fama
tio
nst
andso
nas
li
ght
lydi
fer
entf
oot
ingt
hana

s
uitf
ors
lande
rofg
oodsa
ndma
li
ci
ousf
al
seho
ods
ucha
sthepr
ese
nto
ne,t
hes
cope

o
fthel
awa
ppl
ic
abl
etot
hepr
ese
ntdi
sput
ema
ybea
sce
rta
ine
d.I
tca
nbeo
bse
rve
d

t
hatt
hec
rit
eri
atha
tthePl
ai
nti
fmus
tes
tab
li
sht
oma
keo
utac
asef
ors
lande
rof

g
oodsa
ndma
li
ci
ousf
al
seho
od,a
ndt
hede
fens
est
hata
rea
vai
la
blet
oade
fenda
nti
n

s
uchas
uita
redi
st
inc
tfr
om as
uitf
orde
fama
tio
n.Thej
udg
ment
sre
li
edupo
nbyt
he

pa
rti
ess
hal
lbev
iewe
dint
hisc
ont
ext
.Ino
rde
rto ma
keo
uta c
asef
or

di
spa
rag
eme
nt/s
lande
rofg
oodst
hePl
ai
nti
fmus
tsho
wthef
oll
owi
ng:

a
) Tha
ttheDe
fenda
ntf
sst
ate
ment
sar
efa
lse
;

b
) Tha
tthes
aids
tat
eme
ntswe
rema
dea
ndpub
li
she
dma
li
ci
ous
ly/r
eck
les
sly
,

c
) Tha
tthes
aids
tat
eme
ntsc
aus
eds
pec
ial
dama
gest
othePl
ai
nti
f.

WHETHER THE DEFENDANT MADE FALSE,MALI


CIOUS OR RECKLESS

STATEMENTS?

1
8. Thei
ssuewhi
chne
edst
obee
xami
nedi
swhe
the
rtheDe
fenda sp
nti r
imaf
aci
egui
lt
y

o
fma
kingf
al
seo
rma
li
ci
ouso
rre
ckl
essr
epr
ese
nta
tio
nst
ohi
svi
ewe
rsq
uat
he

PARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Loft
hePl
ai
nti
f.I
nor
dert
osuc
cee
d,t
hePl
ai
nti
f

mus
tes
tab
li
sht
hatt
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
dei
nthei
mpug
nedv
ide
owe
ref
al
set
othe

k
nowl
edg
eoft
heDe
fenda
nto
rma
dewi
thr
eck
les
sdi
sr
ega
rdo
fthet
rut
h.The
re

c
anno
tbea
nydo
ubtt
hatt
het
esto
ffa
lsi
tyo
rre
ckl
ess
nes
swo
uldb
ere
li
antupo
nthe

k
nowl
edg
eoft
heDe
fenda
nta
tthet
imeo
fma
kingt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.

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Nitin 53 / 83

I
NSTANCESOFAPPARENTFALSEHOOD

1
9. I
nthede
scr
ipt
iono
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
,theDe
fenda
nts
tat
est
hat“Pa
rac
hut
e

c
oco
nuto
ili
soneo
fthemo
sts
olda
ndmo
stc
ons
ume
dco
conuto
ilsi
nthec
ount
rya
nd

ha
sbe
eni
nthema
rke
tfo
rav
eryl
ongt
ime
.Int
hisv
ide
o,Ib
rea
kdo
wna
llt
het
iny

de
tai
lsa
boutt
hisp
roduc
tandb
ringt
het
rut
htoy
oua
siti
s”.Ho
wev
er,ape
rus
alo
f

t
heI
mpug
nedVi
deos
howst
hats
avea
nde
xce
ptt
hec
olo
uro
fthePl
ai
nti
ffso
ili
nthe

l
iq
uida
ndf
roz
enf
orms
,theDe
fenda
ntha
sno
tme
nti
one
dora
nal
yse
danyo
the
r

de
tai
lso
fthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t.Co
nve
rse
ly,t
heDe
fenda
ntha
somi
tt
edde
tai
lso
f

t
he pr
oduc
ts us
edb
y hi
m t
oco
mpa
re wi
tht
he Pl
ai
nti
ffs PARACHUTE

COCONUTOI
L.

1
9.1Dur
inghi
ssub
mis
sio
ns,t
heLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fpr
oduc
eda

t
abul
ati
ono
fthenut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
soft
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
L

a
ndt
hepr
oduc
tsr
eco
mme
nde
dbyt
heDe
fenda
nti
nhi
svi
deoi
ncl
udi
ngt
heVi
rgi
n

Co
conutOi
lswhi
chhes
tat
edt
obes
upe
rio
rtot
hePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
t.Ape
rus
alo
f

t
hist
abul
at
ions
howst
hatt
henut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
sthe
rei
nar
eal
mos
tide
nti
cal
.The

De
fenda
ntha
sno
tco
nduc
teda
ny i
nde
pende
ntt
est
sto pr
ovet
hatt
her
eisa

s
igni
fca
ntv
ari
anc
eint
henut
ri
ti
ona
lva
lue
soft
hepr
oduc
ts.Ho
wev
er,a
sha
sbe
en

po
int
edo
utb
ythePl
ai
nti
f,t
heDe
fenda
ntdi
d ha
vet
heo
pti
ono
fha
vingt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lana
lys
edunde
rSe
cti
on40o
ftheFo
od

Sa
fet
ySt
anda
rdsAc
t,2006
.Theno
tifc
ati
oni
ssue
dunde
rthes
aidAc
tpr
ovi
dest
hat

i
fther
epo
rto
ftheFo
odAna
lys
ers
howst
hatt
hef
oodpr
oduc
tisno
tinc
ompl
ia
nce

wi
thl
aw,t
hepur
cha
sers
hal
lbee
nti
tl
edt
oac
ompl
eter
efundo
fthef
eespa
idb
y

2
3
hi
m. I
nsuc
hca
ses
,thema
nuf
act
ure
ral
sog
etsaf
ai
roppo
rtuni
tyt
obehe
ard.Ha
d
23
Notification dated 10th June 2016 bearing File No 10/QA/Labcosting/FSSAI/2016 issued by the Food
Safety & Standards Authority of India

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Nitin 54 / 83

t
heDe
fenda
ntr
eal
lyb
eli
eve
dtha
tthepr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
fwa
sinf
eri
ora
nd

unwo
rthya
nd wi
she
dtob
ene
fto
the
rco
nsume
rs,hec
oul
d ha
veut
il
iz
edt
his

s
tat
uto
ryme
cha
nis
m.Tho
ughi
tisno
tco
mpul
sor
yfo
rtheDe
fenda
ntt
oal
way
s

ut
il
iz
ethi
sst
atut
oryme
cha
nis
mbe
for
egi
vi
ngar
evi
ewa
bouta
nypr
oduc
t,ho
wev
er,

i
nthea
bse
nceo
fanypr
ope
rsc
ient
ifco
rempi
ri
calt
estdo
neb
ytheDe
fenda
nt,t
he

us
eofs
uchs
tat
uto
ryme
cha
nis
m wo
uldha
vede
fni
tel
ysho
we heb
dt ona
fde
soft
he

De
fenda
nti
ngi
vi
ngt
hec
orr
ecta
ndt
ruei
nfo
rma
tio
nab
outt
hepr
oduc
t.

1
9.2Thef
al
seho
odo
nthepa
rto
ftheDe
fenda
nti
sal
soe
vide
ntf
romt
heo
nlyt
esti
.e
.


Fre
ezeTe
stfc
onduc
tedb
ytheDe
fenda
ntt
oco
met
othec
onc
lus
iont
hatt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Liso
fani
nfe
rio
rqua
li
ty.Be
for
eI

pr
oce
ed,i
tisne
ces
sar
ytounde
rst
andt
het
ype
sofc
oco
nuto
ila
ndt
hei
rdi
fer
ent

q
ual
it
ies
.Co
conuto
ili
sbr
oadl
ydi
vi
dedi
ntof
oll
owi
ngt
wot
ype
s:

a
) Coc
onutOi
l-(
“CO”)–t
hiso
ili
sma
def
romCopr
a-dr
iedc
oco
nut
s.

 Or
gani
cCoc
onutOi
l-Co
prai
sde
riv
edf
romc
oco
nutg
rownwi
tho
ut

f
ert
il
iz
ersa
ndc
hemi
cal
s.

 Col
dpr
ess
ed–he
atmo
ret
han6
0de
gre
esCe
lsi
usi
sno
tappl
ie
ddur
ing

t
hee
xtr
act
ion.

 Expe
lle
rpr
ess
ed–he
atupt
o90de
gre
esCe
lsi
usma
ybea
ppl
ie
ddur
ing

t
hee
xtr
act
ion.

 Re
fine
dCoc
onutOi
l–Theo
ili
spr
oce
sse
d,de
odo
riz
ed,
ble
ache
det
c.

b
) Vi
rgi
nCoc
onutOi
l(“VCO”)–t
hiso
ili
sma
def
rom We
tCoc
onut
s(k
erne
ls)

a
ndi
sco
ldpr
ess
edi
.e
.he
atmo
ret
han6
0de
gre
esCe
lsi
usi
sno
tappl
ie
ddur
ing

t
hee
xtr
act
ion.

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Nitin 55 / 83

 Vi
rgi
nOr
gani
cCoc
onutOi
l–Co
conutus
edi
sgr
ownwi
tho
utf
ert
il
iz
ers

a
ndc
hemi
cal
s.

1
9.3Food Sa
fet
yand St
anda
rds (
Foo
d Pr
oduc
ts St
anda
rds a
nd Fo
od Addi
ti
ves
)

Re
gul
ati
ons
,201
1ma
deunde
rSe
cti
on9
2(2)
(e)r
eadwi
thSe
cti
on1
6oft
heFo
od

Sa
fet
yandSt
anda
rdsAc
t,2006pr
ovi
dess
tanda
rdsf
orv
ari
etyo
ffo
odspr
oduc
ts.

th
Pr
iort
o13 Oc
tob
er201
7,t
her
ewa
sas
ing
lee
ntr
yint
heRe
gul
ati
onsf
oro
ilsma
de

f
romc
oco
nut
s.Thi
sent
ry,t
it
led“Co
conuto
il(
nar
yalk
ate
l)”,i
sde
fne
dthe
rei
nas

f
oll
ows
:

“2
.2:FATS,OI LSANDFATEMULSI ONS
2.
2.
1OI LS:
1. Co c
o nutoi
l(naryalkatel
)me anstheoilexp
ress
edf r
omcopra
obta
inedfromthekern
elofCocosmucif
eranuts.Itshal
lbecl
ear
and f r
eefro
mr a
ncidi
ty
,s usp
endedo ro t
herfo r
eig
n matte
r,
s
ep a
ra t
edwa t
er,addedcol
ouri
ngo rflavouri
ngs ubs
tanc
es,or
mineraloi
l.
Itshal
lco
nfor
mtot hef
oll
owingsta
nd a
rd s
:— …”

th
On1
3 Oc
tob
er201
7,Fo
odSa
fet
yandSt
anda
rds(
Foo
dPr
oduc
tsSt
anda
rdsa
nd

Fo
odAddi
ti
ves
)Fo
urt
eent
hAme
ndme
ntRe
gul
ati
ons
,201
7ca
mei
ntof
orc
ebyv
irt
ue

o
fthe
irpub
li
cat
ioni
ntheOfc
ialGa
zet
te.
Thi
same
ndme
nti
ncl
ude
dane
wca
teg
ory

o
foi
lma
def
romc
oco
nut
s,t
other
egul
at
ionsi
.
e.Vi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
l.Thede
fni
ti
on

o
fVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lunde
rCl
aus
es1
(A)unde
rthes
aidr
egul
at
ionsi
sre
pro
duc
ed

b
elo
w:

“2
.2:FATS,OI LSANDFATEMULSI ONS
2.
2.1OILS:
1(
A)Vi rginCo c
onutOi lme ansth eoi
lexpre
ssedfromt h eker
n e
lof
Co c
osnuc if
eranutsb yme c
ha ni
calornat uralme answi t
ho r
withouttheappl
ic
ati
ono fheat,wh i
chdoe
sno tle
adt oalte
rati
onof
theoilandvirg
incoc
o nutoili
ss ui
tabl
efo
rh uma nconsump t
ionin
it
sna turalst
atewit
h outrefning.Its
hallbec l
eara ndfreefro
m
ranci
d i
ty,suspe
ndedo ro the
rf ore
ignma t
te r
,s ep
a rat
edwa te
r,
addedc ol
ouri
ngo rflavouri
ngs ubst
ance
s,o rmi neraloilandit
shal
l co
nformtothef
o ll
owingstandard
s,name l
y:— …”

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Nitin 56 / 83

1
9.4ThePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT Oi
lisa
nUnr
efine
dExpe
lle
rpr
ess
ed

Coc
onutOi
landnotVi
rgi
nCoc
onutOi
l.

1
9.5I
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
,theDe
fenda
ntha
sco
nduc
tedas
ing
let
esto
ffr
eez
ingt
wo

o
il
sindi
fer
entt
rans
par
entg
las
seso
fwhi
cho
newa
sthePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE

COCONUT OI
L.Thes
eco
ndg
las
siso
nlyl
abe
ll
e s“o
da rga
nic
”andc
ont
ai
ns

c
oco
nuto
ilwhi
chi
s“wi
tht
heDe
fenda
nt”–“o
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
ilj
ohme
rep
assh
ai”.

Mo
ving f
urt
her
,the De
fenda
ntt
hen ma
keso
bse
rva
tio
nsa
nd po
int
soutt
he

di
fer
enc
eint
hec
olouro
fthet
woo
il
sint
hel
iq
uids
tat
ewhe
rei
nhes
tat
esa
nds
hows

t
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lha
sa‘
yel
lowi
sht
ing
efwhe
rea
s

t
heo
the
ror
gani
cco
conuto
ili
sco
mpl
ete
ly‘
cle
arf
.Thec
olo
uro
fthe
seo
il
sint
he

l
iq
uids
tat
eist
he‘
frs
tthi
ngft
hatv
iewe
rsha
vet
oche
cka
cco
rdi
ngt
otheDe
fenda
nt.

TheDe
fenda
ntne
xtma
keso
bse
rva
tio
nsa
boutt
hes
etwoo
ilswhe
nfr
oze
n.Hes
tat
es

t
hat‘
pur
eor
gani
cco
conuto
il
fsho
uldb
e‘c
ompl
ete
lys
nowwhi
tefi
nco
loura
ndt
hat

i
tsho
uldno
tha
vea
nyk
indo
f‘i
mpur
it
ies
for‘
sta
ins
fwha
tso
eve
r.TheDe
fenda
nt

t
hens
tat
esa
nds
howst
hatwhi
let
heo
the
ror
gani
cco
conuto
ilwhe
nfr
oze
nis‘
pur
e

s
nowwhi
tefi
nco
lour
,thePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lha
s‘da
rke
r

g
rey
ers
hade
ftha
ntheo
the
ror
gani
cco
conuto
ila
ndha
sso
me‘
impur
it
ies
fini
t.

1
9.6I
tispe
rti
nentt
ono
tet
hatt
hro
ugho
utt
hei
nit
ia
lpa
rto
fthev
ide
o,v
iewe
rsa
rene
ithe
r

s
hownno
rto
ldwhi
cho
rwha
tki
ndo
f‘or
gani
ccoc
onutoi
lfi
sbe
ingus
edb
ythe

De
fenda
ntf
orc
ompa
ringi
twi
tht
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
L.

Thr
oug
houtt
hev
ide
owhe
ret
hef
ree
zet
esti
sco
nduc
tedb
ytheDe
fenda
nt,he

c
ons
ist
ent
lyus
esa
nds
howst
hewo
rds“or
gani
ccoc
onutoi
l”f
ort
heo
the
roi
lus
ed

b
ytheDe
fenda
ntf
orc
ompa
ringt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
L.

He
nce
,or
all
yandv
isua
ll
y,t
hec
lea
randuna
mbi
guo
usi
mpr
ess
iong
ive
nbyt
he

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Nitin 57 / 83

De
fenda
ntwhi
les
howi
ng t
he f
ree
zet
esti
stha
tthe De
fenda
nti
sco
mpa
ring

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lwi
ths
omeo
the
r‘o
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
il
f.

No
w,weha
vea
lre
adys
eent
hec
lea
rdi
st
inc
tio
nbe
twe
ena
n‘or
gani
ccoc
onutoi
l’

a
nd‘
vir
ginor
gani
ccoc
onutoi
l’
.Att
hec
osto
fre
pet
it
ion,‘
org
ani
cco
conuto
il
f

ne
ces
sar
il
yme
anst
heo
ilde
riv
edf
rom Co
prawhi
chi
sde
riv
edf
rom ac
oco
nutg
rown

wi
tho
utf
ert
il
iz
ersa
ndc
hemi
cal
swhe
rea
s‘v
irg
ino
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
il
”me
anst
heo
il

de
riv
edf
rom we
tco
conut
-ke
rne
lsg
rownwi
tho
utf
ert
il
iz
ersa
ndc
hemi
cal
s.He
nce
,

t
hev
iewe
rsa
rema
det
obe
li
evet
hatt
hec
ompa
ris
ondo
neb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
s

b
etwe
ent
woo
ilswhi
chb
elo
ngt
othes
amec
ate
gor
yi.
e.‘
org
ani
cco
conuto
ilfa
nd

he
ncea
tthee
ndo
fthet
est
,ifo
neo
ils
howsdi
fer
entr
esul
ttha
ntha
toft
heo
the
r,

ne
ces
sar
yco
ncl
usi
onswo
uldf
oll
ow.Na
tur
all
y,i
fthet
woo
ilsus
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

f
orc
onduc
tingt
hef
ree
zet
estdi
dno
tbe
longt
othes
amec
ate
gor
yi.
e.‘
org
ani
c

c
oco
nuto
il
f,t
hepa
rame
ter
sofc
olo
ura
ndpa
rti
cul
atema
tte
rus
edb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

a
ndt
her
esul
tba
sedt
her
eonwo
uldno
tonl
ybei
nac
cur
ateb
uta
lsoe
rro
neo
us.

1
9.7Att
hispo
int
,Imus
timme
dia
tel
yre
fert
otheAfda
viti
n Re
plyfl
edb
ythe

De
fenda
ntwhe
rei
ntheDe
fenda
ntha
sst
ate
dthef
oll
owi
ng:

“d
. Ih
avet
her
eaf
te
rse
toutt
her
esul
tso
fano
bse
rva
tio
nal
,sc
ie
nti
fc,
e
mpi
ri
calt
es
tIc
ond
uct
edmy
sel
f,b
etwe
ent
hePl
aint
if’
spr
oduc
tand
a
not
herp
rod
uctwh
ichwa
spur
e,unr
efne
d,unp
roc
ess
ed,v
irg
in,c
ol
d-
p
res
sedc
oco
nuto
il
…”
(
Empha
sisSuppl
ie
d)

1
9.8Thea
bov
est
ate
mentma
dei
ntheRe
plywa
sal
soc
onfr
meddur
ingt
hehe
ari
ngb
ythe

Ld.Adv
oca
tea
ppe
ari
ngf
ort
heDe
fenda
nt.I
tist
her
efo
ree
vide
ntt
hatt
heo
the
r


org
ani
cco
conuto
il
fus
edb
ytheDe
fenda
ntf
orc
onduc
tingt
hef
ree
zet
esta
nd

c
ompa
ringwi
tht
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lwa
sinf
actno
tan

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Nitin 58 / 83


org
ani
cco
conuto
il
fata
ll
.Wha
ttheDe
fenda
ntha
dus
edf
ort
hef
ree
zet
esta
ndt
o

c
ompa
ret
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lwa
sinf
act‘
vir
ginc
oco
nut

o
il
f.I
tthe
ref
oreb
eco
mese
vide
ntt
hatt
hec
lea
randuna
mbi
guo
usi
mpr
ess
iong
ive
n

b
ytheDe
fenda
nti
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deowhi
les
howi
ngt
hef
ree
zet
estt
hathewa
s

c
ompa
ringt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Lwi
th‘
org
ani
cco
conut

o
il
fwa
sfa
lse
.

1
9.9Theque
sti
onwhi
chi
sofpa
ramo
unti
mpo
rta
ncei
swhe
the
rthes
aidi
mpr
ess
ionwa
s

g
ive
nbyt
heDe
fenda
ntk
nowi
ngi
ttob
eco
mpl
ete
lyf
al
seo
rwhe
the
ritwa
sami
st
ake

o
nthepa
rto
ftheDe
fenda
nt.TheDe
fenda
ntha
sne
ithe
rpl
eade
dno
rar
gue
dtha
tit

wa
sami
st
ake
.Int
ere
sti
ngl
y,whe
nthi
sano
mal
ywa
spo
int
edo
ut,t
heLd.Adv
oca
te

f
ort
heDe
fenda
ntha
s,i
nfa
ct,t
ri
edt
ojus
ti
fyt
hec
ompa
ris
ondo
neb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

b
etwe
ent
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE COCONUT OI
Land‘
vir
ginc
oco
nuto
il
f

dur
ingt
hef
ree
zet
estb
yst
ati
ngt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntwa
sjus
ti
fedi
nco
mpa
ringt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Ltov
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ils
inc
ethePl
ai
nti
ffs

PARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lisno
tbr
ande
dorma
rke
teda
s“Co
praOi
l”a
nd

t
hati
tspa
cka
gings
howswe
tco
conut
sandus
est
het
erm‘
coc
onuto
ilf
.Ifndt
his

e
xpl
ana
tio
ntob
era
the
ras
toundi
ng.
Iwi
ll
tur
ntot
heme
rit
soft
hes
aidj
ust
ifc
ati
oni
n

ab
it,b
utb
efo
ret
hat
,as
sumi
ngt
hatt
heDe
fenda
ntf
sjus
ti
fca
tio
nfo
rco
mpa
ringt
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lwi
thv
irg
inc
oco
nuto
ili
sco
rre
ct,ho
w

do
est
hate
xpl
ai
norj
ust
if
ythee
vide
ntf
al
ser
epr
ese
nta
tio
nma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
ntt
o

i
tsv
iewe
rsi
nthei
nit
ia
lpa
rtso
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deowhe
ret
heDe
fenda
ntha
s

c
ons
ist
ent
lys
tat
edb
otho
ral
lya
ndv
isua
ll
ytha
ttheo
ilus
edf
orc
ompa
ris
oni
nthe

f
ree
zet
esti
s‘o
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
ilf
.Ont
hec
ont
rar
y,t
hev
eryj
ust
ifc
ati
ong
ive
nby

t
heDe
fenda
ntpr
ove
stha
tthei
mpr
ess
iong
ive
nbyt
heDe
fenda
nti
ntheI
mpug
ned

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Nitin 59 / 83

Vi
deo whi
les
howi
ng t
he f
ree
zet
estt
hathe wa
sco
mpa
ring t
he Pl
ai
nti
ffs

PARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lwi
th‘
org
ani
cco
conuto
il
fwa
sfa
lset
ohi
sown

k
nowl
edg
e.

1
9.1
0Iti
sno
tandc
anno
tbet
hec
aseo
ftheDe
fenda
ntt
hathedi
dno
tkno
wthedi
fer
enc
e

b
etwe
en‘
vir
gino
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
ilfa
nd‘
org
ani
cco
conuto
il
f.I
ntheI
mpug
ned

Vi
deo
,af
terma
kings
omeo
bse
rva
tio
nsa
bouto
rga
nicc
oldpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
il
s,t
he

De
fenda
nts
pec
ifc
all
yme
nti
onst
hef
oll
owi
ngi
nthel
at
terpa
rto
ftheI
mpug
ned

Vi
deo
:

“Bu
tify
ouwa
nta
nev
enh
igh
erg
rad
eofc
oco
nuto
il
,th
eny
oumus
tgof
or
s
ome
thi
ngc
all
edv
irg
ino
rga
nicc
ol
dpr
ess
edc
oco
nuto
il
…”
Emp
( has
isSuppl
ie
d)

I
tist
her
efo
ree
vide
nt t
hatt
he De
fenda
nt ha
s pur
pos
elya
nd k
nowi
ngl
y

mi
sr
epr
ese
nte
dtot
hev
iewe
rst
hathewa
sco
mpa
ringt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTE

COCONUTOI
Lwi
th‘
org
ani
cco
conuto
il
fwhe
ninr
eal
it
yhewa
sco
mpa
ringi
twi
th


vir
ginc
oco
nuto
il
f.

1
9.1
1Now,t
urni
ngt
otheme
rit
soft
hej
ust
ifc
ati
ong
ive
nbyt
heDe
fenda
nt,a
fte
r13th

Oc
tob
er201
7,t
heFo
odRe
gul
ati
ons201
7int
roduc
edas
epa
rat
eca
teg
oryo
fco
conut

o
ilb
eing-Vi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
l.Af
tert
hes
aida
mendme
nt,i
tiss
pec
ifc
all
yme
nti
one
d

o
nthepa
cka
gingo
fev
eryVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
ltha
tthes
amei
sVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
land

i
nthea
bse
nceo
fsuc
hla
bel
li
ng,t
hepr
oduc
tisa
ssume
dtob
eCo
conutOi
l.I
nsho
rt,

o
rdi
nar
yco
conuto
il(
whi
chi
sno
tvi
rgi
nco
conuto
il)i
sno
tre
qui
redt
ome
nti
ont
hat

t
hes
amei
sma
deo
uto
fco
prab
uti
tiss
ufc
ientf
ort
hemt
oonl
yme
nti
on‘
coc
onut

o
il
font
hei
rpr
oduc
t.TheDe
fenda
ntwhoc
lai
mst
obea
nex
per
tori
sas
sume
dto

ha
vemo
rek
nowl
edg
eint
hefe
ldt
hana
nor
dina
ryc
ust
ome
rinv
iewo
fhi
mbe
inga

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Nitin 60 / 83

s
oci
alme
diai
nfue
nce
r,c
oul
dha
vee
asi
lyc
hec
kedf
ort
hisdi
fer
enc
eandwo
uldha
ve

c
onc
lude
dtha
tthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tisi
nfa
ctc
oco
nuto
ila
ndno
tvi
rgi
nco
conuto
il
.

Fur
the
r,as
impl
ese
arc
hont
hei
nte
rne
two
ulde
li
ci
ttha
tthePl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tis

ma
def
romc
opr
a.Thei
nfo
rma
tio
nisf
ree
lya
vai
la
blei
nthepub
li
cdo
mai
n.The

Pl
ai
nti
fha
sno
tco
ntr
ave
nte
dFSSAIpa
cka
gingr
egul
ati
onso
ranyo
the
rre
gul
ati
on

whi
chi
mpo
sea
nyl
ia
bil
it
yupo
nthePl
ai
nti
ftos
tat
etha
titi
sus
ingc
opr
ato

ma
nuf
act
urei
tso
il
.Thede
vic
eofc
oco
nut
swi
thwa
ters
pla
shi
ngi
sat
rade
mar
koft
he

Pl
ai
nti
fwhi
cht
hePl
ai
nti
fise
nti
tl
edt
ous
eini
tsa
dve
rti
seme
ntsa
ndpa
cka
ging
.The

r
egi
st
rat
ionc
ert
ifc
atei
nre
spe
cto
fthi
str
adema
rki
satEx
hib
itB-
8tot
hePl
ai
nt.

He
nce
,ev
eno
nme
rit
s,t
hej
ust
ifc
ati
ong
ive
nbyt
heDe
fenda
nti
ser
rone
ous
.

WHETHER THE STATEMENTS WERE PUBLI


SHED RECKLESSLY OR

MALI
CIOUSLY?/DUEDI
LIGENCEEXERCI
SEDBYTHEDEFENDANT

2
0. I
nor
dert
oas
cer
tai
nwhe
the
rthes
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
yDe
fenda
ntwe
rema
li
ci
ouso
r

r
eck
les
s,i
tisi
mpo
rta
ntt
oco
nsi
dert
her
ese
arc
hdo
nea
ndt
hec
aut
ione
xer
cis
edb
y

t
heDe
fenda
ntBEFOREma
kingt
heI
mpug
nedVi
deo
.So
meo
fthes
tat
eme
ntsma
de

b
ytheDe
fenda
nta
rer
epr
oduc
edhe
reunde
r:

a
) Ont
hel
andi
ngs
cre
en:“I
T’SNOT ASGOOD ASYOU THI
NK!
!I’
LL

PROVEI
T!!
!!#BEARDEDCHOKRA”;

b
) “… i
tsme
ll
ssi
mil
art
oadr
iedo
rro
tte
nco
conut
.”

c
) “… t
ohwhoe
kye
ll
owi
sht
intder
ahaha
i”

d
) “Butwhog
las
sji
skea
ndha
rma
inep
ara
chut
eco
conuto
ild
ala
ahuv
aha
i,us
ke

a
ndha
raa
pde
khs
akt
eha
itho
dei
mpur
iti
esha
in.
Iti
sofad
ark
erg
rey
ers
hade

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Nitin 61 / 83

t
hant
heo
rga
nicc
oco
nuto
ila
ndk
aafc
lea
rlya
apk
oimp
uri
ti
eso
osg
las
ske

a
ndha
rdi
khnewa
alihe
in.

e
) “Wos
oli
dif
ybhib
ara
bars
ena
hihuaha
i”

f
) “… par
achut
eoi
liso
fani
nfe
rio
rqua
lit
ytoo
the
ror
gani
cco
ldp
res
sedc
oco
nut

o
ils
.”

g
) “Joy
ell
owc
olo
urt
ha,i
tsho
wst
hati
twa
she
ate
dtoahi
ghe
rte
mpe
rat
ure
.Jo

s
tro
ngc
oco
nutf
alv
ourha
i,j
ost
rongc
oco
nutf
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old

p
res
sedc
oco
nuto
il.

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Nitin 62 / 83

2
0.1Fur
the
r,I
ntheI
mpug
nedVi
deo
,theDe
fenda
ntha
sma
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eoff
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eful
,de
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a
nda
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rti
ves
tat
eme
nts/phr
ase
ssuc
hasf
oll
ows
:

 “Iwi
llpr
ovei
t”;

 “br
ingt
het
rut
htoyou”;

 “ve
rdi
ct”

Byus
eofs
uchf
orc
eful
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ase
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ipt
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iz.“Ho
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Do Yo
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li
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n t
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log

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ual
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ree
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or‘
Coc
onutOi
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rtha
tdi
sco
lour
ati
on/

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Nitin 63 / 83

y
ell
owi
sht
inti
n‘Co
conutOi
lfo
ras
tro
ngs
mel
lin‘
Coc
onutOi
lfi
sas
igno
f

i
nfe
rio
rit
y.Thea
rti
cl
eal
mos
tex
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lypr
ovi
despa
rame
ter
sfo
rga
ugi
ngt
heq
ual
it
y

o
f‘Vi
rgi
nCoc
onutOi
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ndt
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tse
eho
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anb
eappl
ie
dtot
he

Pl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT Oi
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chi
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efe
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ell
owc
olo
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etha
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or,i
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cl
e,

a
ppl
ie
sonl
ytoVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lasi
tst
ats“Hi
e ghq
ual
it
yvi
rgi
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ils
houl
dbe

s
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utt
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ror

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ual
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hePl
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ffsPARACHUTECOCONUT OI
Lisi
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pid

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rame
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tr
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gre
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ion”.Heha
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sor
eli
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nthea
rti
cl
es“I
sCo
conutOi
la

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Nitin 64 / 83

Supe
rfo
od?
”and“I
sCo
conutOi
lGo
odo
rBa
dfo
rYo
u?”o
nthi
ssub
jec
t.The

De
fenda
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acti
nsi
nua
tedt
hec
aus
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rthedi
fer
enc
esb
etwe
ent
hePl
ai
nti
ffs

PARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Landt
heVi
rgi
nCo
conutOi
lsuc
hast
heo
doura
nd

c
olo
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othepo
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bi
li
tyt
hatt
hePl
ai
nti
ffsPARACHUTECOCONUTOI
Lisma
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f
rom po
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ual
it
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tte
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om ab
arepe
rus
alo
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vant

e
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li
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ter
iali
tappe
arst
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ont
ent

t
her
eini
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ons
ist
entwi
tht
hes
tat
eme
ntsma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nti
ntheI
mpug
ned

Vi
deo
.

2
0.3TheDe
fenda
ntha
sre
pro
duc
edt
hea
for
esa
idl
it
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tur
eina
nat
temptt
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ti
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s

s
tat
eme
ntsa
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rut
h.Ido
nfts
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li
cat
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per
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pr
oduc
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fenda
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se.
Theq
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urti
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t
heDe
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aw ac
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ris
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c
oco
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uldt
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De
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aid

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eno
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s
tat
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esta
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amet
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.

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0.4I
nhi
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ons
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spe
rso
nalo
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on;ho
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er,hedi
dno
tre
fert
oanyr
ese
arc
hora
ny

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Nitin 65 / 83

o
the
rma
ter
iale
veni
nthi
sema
il
.Thel
it
era
tur
edo
esno
tsuppo
rtt
het
estpur
por
ted

b
ytheDe
fenda
nta
ndt
huswo
uldb
eofnoa
ssi
st
anc
etot
heDe
fenda
nt.

2
0.5I
nte
res
ti
ngl
y,t
heLd.Se
nio
rAdv
oca
tef
ort
hePl
ai
nti
fha
spr
oduc
eda
nar
ti
cl
eti
tl
ed

“Co
conutOi
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t
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“SCAMLORD”a
nds
tat
est
hatt
heus
eso
fco
conuto
ilpr
esc
rib
edb
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mint
heb
ook

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conutOi
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chi
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ameb
ooks
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rede
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al

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ial
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ere
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ust
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rat
ing

s
tat
eme
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mpug
nedVi
deo
.

2
0.6Whi
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re

no
tre
lev
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nvi
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hatt
hes
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kingwe
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Ltode
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li
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dbyt
heDe
fenda
nta
ret
rueo
rtha
t

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Nitin 66 / 83

a
nyr
eas
ona
blepe
rso
nco
uldo
ntheb
asi
sofs
ucht
esto
rar
ti
cl
esha
veb
eli
eve
dtha
tthe

s
tat
eme
ntsc
ons
ti
tut
ethet
rut
hort
hatt
her
eisar
eas
ona
blepo
ssi
bi
li
tyo
fthe

s
tat
eme
ntsb
eingb
eli
eve
dtob
etr
ue.TheI
mpug
nedVi
deoma
deb
ytheDe
fenda
nt

t
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sofma
li
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tyi
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ngt
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stt
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r
equi
reme
ntst
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utac
asef
ordi
spa
rag
eme
nt/s
lande
rofg
oodsa
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ate
din

pa
rag
raph1
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rei
nab
oveha
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WHETHERSPECI
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2
2. Thefna
lcr
it
eri
afo
rthePl
ai
nti
ftof
ulfl
ist
hati
tsufe
reds
pec
ial
dama
ge.
TheDe
lhi

Hi
ghCo
urtha
she
l nDa
di burv
s.Co
lor
tek(
sup
ra)t
hatt
oca
lcul
at
espe
cia
lda
mag
e

t
heCo
urtmus
tst
epi
ntot
hes
hoe
sofar
eas
ona
blea
ndpr
ude
ntma
nanda
sse
sst
he

i
njur
yca
use
dbyt
hei
mpug
nedma
ter
ial
.Ina
nIPs
uitf
ori
nfr
ing
eme
nto
ftr
adema
rk

o
rpa
ssi
ngo
f,t
hei
njur
ysufe
redb
ythepl
ai
nti
fthe
rei
nma
ybeg
aug
edf
romt
he

pr
oft
sac
crue
dbyt
hei
nfr
ing
erf
romt
hes
aleo
fthei
nfr
ing
ingpr
oduc
ts.Ho
wev
er,

t
hes
amepr
inc
ipl
esdono
tappl
ytoac
asef
ordi
spa
rag
eme
nt/s
lande
rofg
oods
.In

s
uchc
ase
sther
eput
ati
ono
fthepl
ai
nti
ffspr
oduc
tisi
mpa
cte
dwhe
reb
yit
scus
tome
rs

a
rei
nduc
edt
ono
tpur
cha
set
hepr
oduc
toft
hepl
ai
nti
f.I
tisi
mpo
ssi
bl
etopr
eci
sel
y

a
sce
rta
inho
w ma
nyc
ust
ome
rs,a
sar
esul
toft
hedi
spa
rag
inga
cti
on/s
lande
rof

g
oods
,ha
ver
efr
aine
dfr
om pur
cha
singt
hepr
oduc
toft
hePl
ai
nti
f.Ho
wev
er,o
ne

ne
edno
tgof
arf
romt
heDe
fenda
ntf
scha
nne
ltos
eet
hei
mpa
cto
ftheI
mpug
ned

Vi
deo
.Thec
omme
ntso
nthepa
geo
ftheI
mpug
nedVi
deos
how anumb
ero