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Application of “Indore composting” for decompostion of solid


Submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement for B.E. in

Civil Engineering


Ashish Bugde

Tejas Thakur

Parag Divekar



Nilesh Aynodkar

Metropolitan Institute of Technology & Managment

University of Mumbai


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1. Name Of Institutes :- Metropolitan Institute of Technology &

2. Name Of Course :- Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering

3. Name Of Project Student :- Ashish Bugde

Tejas Thakur
Parag Divekar

4. Date of Registration :- July 2019

5. Name Of Project Guide :- Nilesh Aynodkar

6. Proposed Title For Project :- Application of “Indore composting” for

decomposition of solid waste

7. Introduction:

The ever increasing urbanization and change in life style has increased the waste load
and there by pollution loads on the urban environment to unmanageable and alarming
proportions. The existing waste dumping sites are full beyond capacity and under unsanitary
conditions leading to pollution of water sources and spreading communicable diseases, foul
smell and odors, release of toxic metabolites, unaesthetic ambiance and eye sore etc.

An important advance in the practice of composting was made at Indore in India by

Howard during the period 1924 to 1926. The traditional procedure was systematized into a
method of composting now known as the "Indore method".

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There are two aspects to the challenge, the social engineering and technology application. The
social engineering deals with the ethics and efficiency for maintaining environment. In the case
of waste management, it is, broadly, the practice of reduce, reuse and recover. The technology
application deals with the improvement of assimilative capacity as well as supportive capacity of

Under present day condition, it becomes very essential to protect environment from further
degradation, develop appropriate technologies for use in recycling various organic waste and to
harness energy thus minimizing environmental stress. The lndore Process is not greatly different

from modern composting processes. Plant wastes,animal manure, limestone or wood ashes to
neutralize acids produced during decay, water, and air were the necessary ingredients .
Plantstalks often were laid in the roadway so cart trafficwould crush them into small pieces,
which wouldcompost more readily. Urine earth (soil that hadabsorbed livestock urine) was
crushed in mortarmills. The preferred method was to make compostin pits 30 × 14 × 2 ft deep,
but in the rainy seasonpits could not be used. The piles were turned andmoistened periodically;
these are still typicalpractices.

The lndore Process became well known because Howard promoted it extensively.
A larges cale composting facility was established at theexperiment station at Indore, and optimal
composting methods were developed after extensive research. Courses were set up to certify
people in composting so that they could instruct others.Howard’s publications on composting
were circulated widely, and the lndore Process was adapted for use in a wide variety of climates
and crops, even for English town wastes.

8. Relevance/Motivation:
Now like incineration and composting. Indore composting is another bio-technique for
converting the solid organic waste into compost. Management of solid waste has become one of
the baiggest problems we are facing today. The rapid increase in the volume of waste is one of
the aspects of the environmental crisis, accompanying recent global development. Most common
practices of waste processing are uncontrolled dumping which causes mainly water and soil

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pollution. Besides dumping or sanitary land filling, the final disposal of solid waste can be
carried out by other methods waste into useful manure by aerobic conversion. Indore composting
improves the soil structure, enhancing soil fertility, moisture holding capacity and in term
increase the crop yield. It becomes an important tool of waste recycling the world over.

Indore composting is environment friendly and cost effective technique for solid waste
management. Indore composting serves two main purposes for the welfare of humans as it helps
in the degradation of solid waste and the cast produced during this process is used as a natural
fertilizer. Indore compost is much better than chemical fertilizer because it is not associated with
any kind of risk. Cow dung and urine are potentially important products that are capable of
transforming garbage into gold.

9. Literature Review:

Nandita M and Arun K.,(2013) Studied vermicomposting is environment friendly

and cost effective technique for solid waste management. Vermicomposting serves two
main purposes for the welfare of humans as it helps in the degradation of solid waste and
the cast produced during this process is used as a natural fertilizer. Vermicompost is much
better than chemical fertilizer because it is not associated with any kind of risk.
Earthworms are potentially important creatures that are capable of transforming garbage
into gold. Eisenia fetida is the most commonly used species of earthworms for
vermicomposting. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process and should be maintained up
to 32°C with the moisture content of 60-80%. Earthworms break down organic matter
and leave behind castings that are an exceptionally valuable fertilizer. Vermicomposting
has many applications in crop improvement such as pathogen destruction, water holding
capacity of soil, improved crop growth and yield, improved soil physical, chemical and
biological properties and production of plant growth regulators.

Farrell. M.,(2009) Studied municipal solid waste (MSW) commonly known as trash
or garbage, refuse or rubbish is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are

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discarded by the public. The term municipal solid waste (MSW) describes the stream of
solid waste generated by households, commercial establishments, industries and
institutions. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a common name for a very heterogeneous
mixture of wastes of residential, commercial, sometimes industrial, and urban origin.
MSW consist of different organic and inorganic fractions such as food, vegetables, paper,
wood, plastic, glass, metals, and other inert materials. MSW consists of everyday items
such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps,
newspapers, appliances, paint and batteries. It does not include medical, commercial and
industrial hazardous or radioactive wastes, which must be treated separately. Despite the
variability in its composition, organic content constitutes the highest percentage of solid

Nambhau H Katre.,(2012) Studied that the recycling of the vegetable waste through
aerobic composting by NADEP method is a simple method to process and operate which
is nuisance free, environmental friendly, aesthetically good looking, economical in long
term and socially acceptable as the final product has good fertilizer value. al.,(2010), Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization.

Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But, the increasing amount
of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish.
Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and
incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes
energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by
incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF).
Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative
equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Household surveys are done
in six divisions of Eluru Municipal Corporation, A.P, India and per capita waste for the
corporation is estimated. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the
pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by vermi’s which
converts the bed into vermi compost.

10. Objectives:

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The proposed work is based on the following objectives.

1) To develop lab-scale model of indore compost pit.

2) To carry out performance evaluation study for indore composting pit with varying solid waste

3) To carry out characterization of compost manure.

11. Scope:

There are a lot of ill effects of chemical fertilizers; due to that organic farming is a better
option. As the name suggest organic farming it includes the use of organic manure, green
manures, composts, bioinoculants, biofertilizers and so on to provide nutrients to the plants.
Composting is a slow process hence indore composting increases the rate of formation of organic
manure and known as rapid composting. Indore composting plays vital role in organic farming.
Hence indore composting can be used for organic wastes to yield compost at a faster rate for
organic farming.

12. Methodology:

The methodology will be adopted as follows:

1.To develop indore composting pits for different type of solid waste.
2.Design data for indore composting unit shall be developed based on results obtained from
experimental studies.

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13. Facilities Available and Requirements: The entire instruments required for project
are available in Department of Civil Engineering, Metropolitan Institute Of Technology And
Management (MITM).

14. Expected Date of Completion: - March- 2020

15. Approximate Expenditures: - Rs 10,000/-

16. Name of the Sponsor: - None

17. References: -
1. Nandita Mehta,and Arun Karnwal.,”Solid waste management with the help of
vermicomposting and its applications in crop improvement” Journal of Biological Earth
Science,Vol No.3,Issue No.1,(2013),pp:8-16.

2. Singh, R., Pradhan, K.,"Determination of nitrogen and protein by Kjeldahl method", In:
Forage Evaluation Science. Pvt. Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, (1981),p. 23-25.

3. Nambhau H Katre., “Use of vegetable waste through aerobic composting of village Bamhani,
district:- Gondia (Maharashtra state), India, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2012, p. 135-142.

4. CPCB,"Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB),” Management of Municipal Solid Wastes”,

Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India,(2000).

5. Walkey, J.A. and Black, I.A.,"Estimation of organic carbon by the chromic acid titration
method", Soil Science, 37, (1934), pp-29–38.

6. J.Sudhir Kumar.,, Venkata Subbiah.K., Prasada Rao.P.V.,”Management of municipal solid

waste by Vermicompost-A case study of Eluru” International journal of Environmental Science,
Volume 1,(2010), pp 82-90.

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Submitted by Project Guide

Ashish Bugde Nilesh Aynodkar

Tejas Thakur

Parag Divekar

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