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Development and Evaluation of Mathigers: An Educational Software for Teaching and

Learning Integers

A Research Paper
Presented to

The Faculty of Science, Technology and Mathematics (FSTEM)


Philippine Normal Unviversity

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for

Math Research 1

Submitted by:
Culili, Ilyne G.

De Vera, Paolo C.
Inocencio, Jeff Reynolds C.
Montañez, Brenda Nicole

Submitted to:
Dr. Gladys C. Nivera

December 18, 2019


CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

In this era where technology is at a boom, it is but necessary that educators should

realize the need for the change in pedagogy and delivering the concept in a more interactive

and technology friendly activities. In this study, lesson is integrated to technology to make it

more interactive to students. The usual module is now present in an application with various

features like games and assessment. This is to address the changing of time and the needs of

students to maximize the presence of technology, since most of the students enjoy using

technology. By this method, learning mathematics would be fun and engaging for the students

and would also help the teachers adjust to the demand of time.

There is no fast rule in the choice of strategy to be used in the same manner, as there is

no single best strategy of teaching. To a skilled teacher, many of the methods have value, but

there is little reason to believe that the teacher should limit the teaching to only one. It is

because each teaching-learning situation is different from every other and what proves effective

to one teacher may not be so to another. Besides, a teacher who uses only one method is in

danger of developing only one group of skills in his students and only part of his own as a

mentor. A learner who knows only one way of learning will find his own mind. For this reason,

you should be familiar with several ways of handling a teaching-learning situation instead for

only one (Felomina & Sambrano, 1980).

The topic of integers is a very important part of the middle school mathematics

curriculum as it symbolizes a move from concrete to abstract thinking (Lamb and Thanheiser,
2006). According to Cemen (1993), there are several methods or models invented to help assist

students in learning and understanding the ideas or concept behind calculations involving

integers. To name a few, money, number line, balloons and weights, and two-color tiles are

some of them.

Traditionally, students have been required to memorize rules for operations with

integers thus leaving them without the fluency or flexibility to use the mathematics learned in

situations different than those in which they first learned them. Students often get confused

about which rule to follow and are left to rely on their instincts to solve problems dealing with

integers (Bolyard & Moyer-Packenham, 2006).

When students first encounter negative numbers, they are unable to relate them to the

models they have previously made sense of with counting numbers because they cannot “see”

negative numbers. According to Hiebert and Carpenter (1992), the models used to teach

counting numbers and fractions should make sense to students so they can remember rules that

are generalized for performing the operations.

The teaching of integers is an important subject material from the point of view that it

brings together the reality of positive and negative numbers in real world contexts. It is

commonly noted that students have trouble when dealing with positive and negative numbers

and often leads to students not fully understanding how to deal with integers (Dunne, Manton,

Moylan & Colleton, 2018). After conducting the environmental scanning, the group found out

that it is indeed one of the most difficult topics to discuss and it is also difficult for the students

to understand the concept of integer.

Today’s technology standards (International Society for Technology in Education,

2000) challenge teacher education programs across the nation to address the need to produce
computer literate teachers who are confident in their ability to choose and incorporate

instructional technology into their classroom teaching. Findings in the research on integrating

technology into the mathematics classroom by (Mistretta, 2005) revealed that when

appropriately used, computers might serve to improve student mathematics achievement as

well as enhance the overall learning environment of the school. Teachers who received training

in the area of instructional technology were found more likely than those who had not to use

computers in effective ways such as in simulations, applications, and math learning games.

Wenglinsky (2000) stated the positive effects of using instructional technology to nurture

higher order thinking skills in the mathematics classroom. Kerrigan (2002), added that the

benefits of using mathematics software and websites to include promoting students’ higher-

order thinking skills, developing and maintaining their computational skills, introducing them

to collection and analysis of data, facilitating their algebraic and geometric thinking, and

showing them the role of mathematics in an interdisciplinary setting. As a result of such

research, Neiss (2001) reports the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics pinpoints

technology as an essential component of the Pre-K-12 mathematics learning environment,

influencing the mathematics that is taught as well as enhancing students’ learning.

The need for this study is relevant for this time because it allows the teachers integrate

technology in teaching the topic of integers in a more creative and interactive way. The

educational application will also help the students learn on their own but be still guided through

the specialized design and instruction of Mathigers.


Literature Reviews and Literature Studies

Math Framework of Philippine Basic Education

Mathematics is one among the many subjects that is taken until college level. The

Philippine basic curriculum has undergone several revisions over the years. Despite the many

changes to the curriculum, the goals of mathematics education at the basic education level

remain more or less the same, “to provide opportunities for individuals to develop skills and

attitudes needed for effective participation in everyday living and prepare them for further

education and the world of work so that they make worthwhile contributions to the society at

large” (Pascua, 1993). Mathematics has different roles in the Philippine Education, facilitating

participation in the production of knowledge among students, providing way of making sense

of the world and serving a means of communication.

Students today require stronger mathematical knowledge, skills and values to pursue

higher education, to compete and be part of the technologically oriented workforce and to be

informed citizens. It is believed that Mathematics is the gateway to progress. On a national

level, knowledge of mathematics is a valuable tool for social development and

global competitiveness in our changing world. As we develop the mathematical proficiency

and literacy of individual Filipino students, they, in turn, contribute to the skills, values and

collective intellectual resources of the Philippines, increasing our nation’s funds of knowledge.

The roles of mathematics are not disjoint from one another and more often than not,

are not intertwined and complement one another. Mathematics is indeed worthy of focus,

(Mathematics Framework for Philippine Basic Education).


The purpose of education never changes; only the pedagogy should change according to the

demand of time.

History of Integers

Before there were positive and negative numbers, there were simply numbers. The

notion of positive is only meaningful in contrast with negative. Thus, the history of integers is

largely the history of negative numbers. Negative numbers arose from the operation of

subtraction. Negative numbers, or at least their ancestors, arose as mathematicians. For

centuries, mathematicians struggled to make sense of such numbers by relating them to

quantities. Some real-world situations were amenable to interpretation in terms of positives

and negatives, while in other cases negatives were nonsensical. The integers came to be

recognized as a domain, distinct from other domains such as the natural numbers, and it was

unproblematic for different domains to have different properties (Henley, 1999).

Throughout the time, it was only after considerable conceptual struggles that great

mathematicians such as Descartes and Newton came to accept negatives as numbers. It is no

wonder, then, that children would face difficulties in making sense of negative numbers and

operations involving them. At the same time, however, researchers have found children to be

capable of reasoning about integers in relatively sophisticated ways, even in the lower

elementary grades (Behrend & Mohs, 2006; Bishop, Lamb, Philipp, Schappelle, & Whitacre,

2011; Hativa & Cohen, 1995; Wilcox, 2008)


Existing Models Used in Teaching Integers

Integer is a very important topic for students to learn, due to its usefulness in solving

various problems in daily life (Musser, Burger, & Peterson, 2005: 321) as well as a prerequisite

material for studying other concepts, like Cartesian coordinates (Van de Walle, Karp, & Bay-

Williams, 2008: 426) and algebra (Sheffield & Cruikshank, 1996 in Musser, Burger, &

Peterson, 2005: 321). However, studies showed that many students still consider this topic

difficult. They are often confused to determine the greater numbers and to determine the

direction of movement when performing arithmetic operations (Van de Walle, Karp, and Bay-

Williams, 2008). This often confuse teachers especially to make the learning of integers joyful

and meaningful (Putri, 2011).

The concept of integer is the basis of algebra learning domain in primary school

mathematics teaching and it is considered as an important pre-condition for mathematics

course. Manipulatives can be important tools in helping students to think and reason in more

meaningful ways. By giving students concrete ways to compare and operate on quantities, such

manipulatives as pattern blocks, tiles, and cubes can contribute to the development of well-

grounded, interconnected understandings of mathematical ideas.

Miller (2013) conducted a study of teaching integer addition and subtraction using net

worth (money) concept. Her method centered on the concept of asset and debts that would

result in net worth and consisted of careful unit planning throughout seven days to teach

students into understanding this method. Students were asked to compare net worth in the

beginning, leading to modeling different scenarios using symbols, and finally asked to evaluate

number sentences outside of any context. Miller claimed students understand that taking away

debt is a good thing and will result in a positive effect on net worth. This proved that her
curriculum allowed a clear understanding of the abstract concept of why subtracting a negative

value creates a more positive answer; a concept which many other integer pedagogies break

down and resulted in creating more confusion than clarity amongst students. She concluded

that the idea of the effects of transactions on net worth proved to be one of the most powerful

ideas in communicating operational integer concepts (Miller, 2013).

Having a look from learning aspects, knowledge will be meaningful for students if the

learning process is carried out in a context (CORD, 1999). According to Putri (Putri, 2015), in

learning using context the students would not learn formulas directly. A situation that can be

used as a context to learn the integers is quantity, for example, in golf game and debt credit

(Van de Walle, Karp, and Bay-Williams, 2008). A study of Mukhopadhyay et. al (in Menon

& Gyan, 2012) showed positive responds of students when being presented the topic of integers

in the context of assets and debts.

Contexts for primary school children can be packaged in educative games, because

basically primary school students love to play (Somakim, 2008; Fosnot & Dolk, 2001). During

the lesson, games prove to be very useful for the development of a second world of mental

models (Kaune, et al, 2012). A variety of games has been used in some studies, such as Kaune,

et al. (2013) who used domino games for enhancing sustainability of year 7 math classes in

Indonesia, Muslimin, Putri, & Somakim (2012) who used “congklak” game for learning

subtraction of integers in grade fourth, and Prahmana, Zulkardi, & Hartono (2012) who used

Indonesian traditional games for learning multiplication.


The Use of Technology in Math Instruction

The sixth principle of school mathematics formulated by the National Council of

Teachers in Mathematics (2000) emphasizes the essence of technology in teaching and

learning on the basis of the influence that it has both in how the subject is taught and on how

it enhances student’s learning. The same is said by Suh, Moyer, & Heo (2005) who believe

that technology can play a major role in making sense of mathematics and enhancing

mathematics instruction. In fact, the use of technology in mathematics lessons has provided

students to have positive attitudes, build confidence in their ability to do mathematics,

construct mathematical knowledge, and visualize abstract mathematical concepts according to

the findings of Kersaint (2007).

One of the most recent forms of technology integration in mathematics instruction is

the use of games, which has been formally termed as gamification. According to Ovsyannikova

(2016), games have remarkable motivational power; they utilize a number of mechanisms to

encourage people to engage in them, often without any reward, just for the joy of playing and

the possibility of winning. With the continuing advances in the technological world, the

implementation of game-based tasks in curricula became easy, fast, and flexible. Even

assessment procedures turn into fun activities like Kahoot!

Students can learn mathematics more deeply with the appropriate use of technology

(Dunham and Dick 1994; Sheets 1993; Boersvan Oosterum 1990; Rojano 1996; Groves 1994).

Technology should not be used as a replacement for basic understandings and intuitions; rather,

it can and should be used to foster those understandings and intuitions. In mathematics-

instruction programs, technology should be used widely and responsibly, with the goal of

enriching students’ learning of mathematics. The existence, versatility, and power of


technology make it possible and necessary to reexamine what mathematics students should

learn as well as how they can best learn it. In the mathematics classrooms envisioned in

Principles and Standards, every student has access to technology to facilitate his or her

mathematics learning under the guidance of a skillful teacher.

Studies Conducted on Teaching Integers using various Models

The concept of integer is the basis of algebra learning domain in primary school

mathematics teaching and it is considered as an important pre-condition for mathematics

course. Additionally, this concept symbolizes the transition from concrete thinking to abstract

thinking (Cetin, 2012). In teaching the concept and operations of integers, doing integer

modeling exercises with the help of opposite model also providing meaningful learning by

using the contrast model for addition and subtraction operations is recommended.

Designers of future virtual manipulatives for integer instruction should consider adding

features to the applet that would focus the student’s attention on the purpose of the operation

sign allowing them to make distinctions between, for making sense of integer arithmetic for

example, the dual roles of the minus sign through their work with the virtual manipulatives

(Bolyard & Moyer-Packenham, 2012). Creating various representational forms of models can

help to emphasize the development and critical understanding of integers and integers

operations. Hence, virtual manipulatives gives another way of better understanding to an

excellent forum in which to design and study effective approaches to providing such

experiences.
Manipulatives can be important tools in helping students to think and reason in more

meaningful ways. By giving students concrete ways to compare and operate on quantities, such

manipulatives as pattern blocks, tiles, and cubes can contribute to the development of well-

grounded, interconnected understandings of mathematical ideas (Goh et al., 2017). There are

several methods or models invented to help assist students in learning and understanding the

ideas or concept behind calculations involving integers. To name a few, money, number line,

balloons and weights, and two-colour tiles (Cemen, 1993).

In learning addition and subtraction of integers the research found-out that learning

ability of students is increasing with the help of hands-on counters model. Through with this,

incorporating technologies which is wisely appropriate choice can help students visualize key

concepts with better ease, than the usual form of traditional teaching.

Applications using models makes students life more meaningful. One of the major

objectives in teaching secondary school program in Germany is the developmental of

mathematical modeling skills of students. However, there are still lacked or limited sources of

models in mathematics teaching practices in many countries that led to teachers’ difficulties.

Moreover, using models in mathematics teaching is necessary to motivate the students,

eliminate their fear and anxiety and allow them to develop a positive approach towards

mathematics in addition to its many cognitive benefits such as realizing meaningful learning,

establishing a relation between mathematics and daily life and developing problem solving

skills (Arseven, 2015). In other perspective, meta-analysis suggests that both constructivist

instructional models and improved transmission instructional models have positive effects on

mathematics achievement of Chinese students. The seven frequently used models, inquiry-

based learning, problem-based learning, cooperative learning, autonomous learning, script-


based learning, grouping teaching and variation teaching, all are evidence-based teaching and

learning models. The findings have implications for the debate between constructivist teaching

and transmission teaching, which is extremely important for instructional theory research and

for the educational reform (Xie, Wang, & Hu, 2018).

The increasing use of technology in different schools today is a challenge for everybody

to enhance the quality of instruction through the integration of technology in different

instructions. Along with the changing of time should be the change of instruction for

betterment.

Learning Theories on Educational Soft wares

To provide some background for the discussion of the learning theories in educational

software, there are number of theories supporting the use of educational software in teaching

and learning.

Since the 20th century, some major educational theories, such as Behaviorism,

Cognitivism, Constructivism and Multiple Intelligence, have been widely implemented in

education, greatly linked to the development and utilization of the educational technology. Ivan

Pavlov (1949-1936), Russian biologist and psychologist, innovated behaviorism, Edward

Thorndike (1874-1949), American educator and psychologist of Columbia University and

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990), one of the founders of American new behaviorism,

further developed the behavior theory. Behaviorists believe external stimulation influences

one’s leaning behavior; rewards and punishment can change one’s learning performance.

Researchers and scholars confirmed that Behaviorism has greatly promoted and effectively
implemented in programmatic instruction and has strongly promoted and widely applied in

computing-assisted-instruction and the development of educational technology.

One theory that supports increased access to quality digital learning resources is

the Behaviorist philosophy of learning. According to this philosophy, teaching should

emphasize ways to increase desired behaviors, which can occur

through connectionism or operant conditioning. Connectionism stresses that learners form

associations between sensory experiences and neural impulses often through trial and error

practices. One key component of this theory is that learning should involve practice and

rewards that increase desired behaviors, which is what many educational technology

applications are built around. Many apps serve to increase drill practice such as learning a

foreign language, doing math drills or spelling practice, which all help a student’s overall

learning, (Wardlow, 2016).

Operant conditioning, the other component of behaviorism, refers to training voluntary

responses by the consequences they induce. Apps and other educational technology that

provide incentives for desired behaviors, like earning coins or tokens for correct answers, are

a couple of examples of operant conditioning.

Another theory that supports increased access to digital learning resources is Social

Cognitive theory, which is a formal theory of learning that asserts people learn from observing

others in their social environments. Before technology, students’ access to models were

limited, but now it can increase educators’ abilities to provide models and increase students’

access to models by providing opportunities for all students to observe teachers explain and

demonstrate concepts and skills. Students are no longer bound to just classroom walls, either.
They can easily reach out through computers, tablets, and apps to see instructors around the

globe model different skills and problems.

Self–efficacy, or the belief in one’s own ability to complete tasks and reach goals, is

increased when students are able to watch a model of a skill and then practice it themselves.

One example of how technology is increasing access to this type of learning opportunity is

software programs with already downloaded avatars or recorded teachers that model a desired

skill or behavior, after which the student is provided an opportunity to practice and perform.

Many other types of educational technology can increase students’ access to opportunities to

increase their self-efficacy.

Model-Centered Instruction (Gibbons, 2001), which states that educators should center

all learning activities on models of three types: models of environments, models of cause-effect

systems, and models of human performance. Presentation of general concepts and theories

should be kept to a minimum. Instead, Model- Centered Instruction believes that knowledge is

best learned by exploration of these models.

The Discovery Learning theory (Bruner, 1967) takes a similar approach to Model-

Centered Instruction in that it believes that an exploratory style of learning is best. Discovery

Learning is based on the idea that an individual learns a piece of knowledge most effectively

if they discover it on their own, rather than having it explicitly told to them. This theory

encourages educational approaches that are rich in exploring, experimenting, doing research,

asking questions, and seeking answers. Educational software specifically designed to facilitate

this type of learning—no knowledge is made explicit and it is rather discovered by students

experimenting with different approaches. These types of approaches are generally given as

structured exercises and combined with other teaching methods (such as lectures, readings,
and projects). Including this type of scaffolding has been found to be crucial in making

Discovery Learning maximally effective (Kirschner et al., 2006; Roblyer, 2005).

Along the same lines as the Discovery Learning theory is the Learning Through Failure

theory (Schank, 1997). This theory is based on the assumption that the most memorable lessons

are those that are learned as a result of failure. The theory argues that: (1) Learning through

failure provides more motivation for students to learn, so as to avoid the adverse consequences

that they experience firsthand when they do not perform as taught, and (2) Failure engages

students, as they are motivated to try again in order to succeed. Proponents of the theory argue

that students should be allowed to (and even set up to) fail to encourage maximal learning.

Industrial Revolution and Education 4.0

Shwab (as cited in Hussin, 2018) provides an example that helps understand how the

industrial revolutions changed across time. During the 1st IR, water and steam were used to

mechanize production. During the 2nd IR, electric power was used to create mass production.

During the 3rd IR, electronics and information technology were used to automate production.

The 4th IR is beyond an enhancement of the 3rd IR, in which the advancement of new

technologies blurs the lines between the physical, digital and biological worlds. The new

technologies evolve at exponential pace and there is no historical precedent that marked the

beginning of the evolution, hence being called disruptive technologies. These advancements

are led by the emergence of artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of things, autonomous

vehicles, bio and nanotechnology, 3-D printing, material science, quantum computing and

energy storage according to Diwan (as cited in Hussin, 2018). Idris (2018) described IR 4.0 as
economic and infrastructural advancement brought about by the automation of human

activities through software.

Education 4.0 is a response to the needs of IR4.0 where human and technology are

aligned to enable new possibilities. Fisk (as cited in Hussin, 2018) explains that the new vision

of learning promotes learners to learn not only skills and knowledge that are needed but also

to identify the source to learn these skills and knowledge. Learning is built around them as to

where and how to learn and tracking of their performance is done through databased

customization. Peers become very significant in their learning. They learn together and from

each other, while the teachers assume the role of facilitators in their learning.

There are nine trends related to Education 4.0 (ibid). First, learning can be taken place

anytime anywhere. e-Learning tools offer great opportunities for remote, self-paced learning.

Flipped classroom approach also plays a huge role as it allows interactive learning to be done

in class, while the theoretical parts to be learned outside the class time.

Second, learning will be personalized to individual students. They will be introduced

to harder tasks only after a certain mastery level is achieved. More practices will be provided

if the instructors see a need in it. Positive reinforcements are used to promote positive learning

experience and boost students’ confidence about their own academic abilities.

Third, students have a choice in determining how they want to learn. Although the

learning outcomes of a course are preset by the institutions/bodies in charge of the curriculum,

students are still free to choose the learning tools or techniques that they prefer. Among the

options that lecturers can adopt to enable students to be creative in their learning are blended

learning, flipped classroom and BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) approach.
Fourth, students will be exposed to more project-based learning. Students are required

to apply their knowledge and skills in completing a couple of short-term projects. By involving

in the projects, they are practicing their organizational, collaborative and time management

skills which are useful in their future academic careers.

Fifth, students will be exposed to more hands-on learning through field experience such

as internships, mentoring projects and collaborative projects. The advancement of the

technology enables the learning of certain domains effectively, thus making more room for

acquiring skills that involve human knowledge and face-to-face interaction.

Sixth, students will be exposed to data interpretation in which they are required to apply

their theoretical knowledge to numbers and use their reasoning skills to make inferences based

on logic and trends from given sets of data. The manual part of mathematical literacy will

become irrelevant as computers will perform the statistical analysis and predict the future

trends.

Seventh, students will be assessed differently and the conventional platforms to assess

students may become irrelevant or insufficient. Students’ factual knowledge can be assessed

during the learning process, while the application of the knowledge can be tested when they

are working on their projects in the field.

Eighth, students’ opinion will be considered in designing and updating the curriculum.

Their inputs help the curriculum designers maintain curriculum contemporariness, up-todate

and usefulness.
Lastly, students will become more independent in their own learning, thus forcing

teachers to assume a new role as facilitators who will guide the students through their learning

process.

The nine trends of Education 4.0 shift the major learning responsibilities from the

instructors to the learners. Instructors should play their roles to support the transition and

should never consider it a threat to the conventional teaching profession

Gamification Techniques in Education

In school education, there is an existing problem about how to relate concepts learned

in math to situations in everyday life. One of the reasons is that it is difficult for teachers to set

appropriate questions to students learning math. For example, when the teacher asks a math

question, students do not think about it in relation to society. Therefore, this study considers

the use of gamification to solve this problem. Gamification, as a concept, is defined as the

techniques used in non-game settings (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011).

Gamification techniques are commonly used in higher education to increase learners’

motivation and engagement in a learning task. Students’ engagement in a gamified learning

activity can result in a better learning outcome (Barata, Gama, Jorge, & Gonçalves, 2013;

Eleftheria, Charikleia, Iason, Athanasios, & Dimitrios, 2013; Kuo & Chuang, 2016). Many

previous studies on gamification have argued that by motivating students through a reward-

based learning method, their learning skills will be enhanced and eventually increase their

learning outcomes (Buckley & Doyle, 2016; Domínguez et al., 2013; Kim, Song, Lockee, &

Burton, 2018).
Improving the motivation and engagement of learners in learning activities is important

for the development of skills and competences. The review of gamification techniques showed

the potential of using gamification techniques in promoting learners’ motivation, engagement,

and performance, mainly by establishing a comparative learning-environment that influence

how a student learn, not necessarily the context in itself. This includes creating a fun statement

among students that encourage them to be more engaged with the learning task, thus increasing

their interest and motivation. Understanding how gamification techniques affect the behavior

of learners can help researchers and instructors to select the suitable techniques for their

students. This understanding is vital for context’s designers where they need to choose the

suitable gamification interventions that can stimulate students during the discussion session.

In addition, it is important for students to be instructed about the application of gamification

approach before they engage in the discussion. Previous studies seem to provide poor guidance

to future researchers about the suitability of gamification techniques for achieving a certain

learning objective. Providing enough knowledge about these issues is vital to understand the

role of gamification in education.

Studies on the Effect of Educational Technology in Teaching Mathematics

Graphical possibilities of software allow students to work with models of different

objects. Students can apply knowledge gained in learning stage while looking for solutions of

different problems. The role of teacher is strongly changed. The teacher is more only of

instructor in the computer-aided education of different subjects, but more manager and
moderator of students. Solving logical problems help develop a logical and algorithmic

thinking by students via modeling and educational computer games, (Majhevora &Gumcaga,

2014).

The result suggests that gaming the system appears to be significantly more frequent in

lessons that are abstract, ambiguous, and have unclear presentation of the content or task, a

finding that coheres with the previous finding that students tend to display confusion shortly

before gaming. The finding that less gaming occurs in lesson with non-task related text in the

problem statement coheres with the previous finding that boredom also precedes gaming,

(Baker, Koedinger and Carvalho, 2009).

Use of technology serves as a motivation for teachers due to the positive outcomes

achieved. Technology leads to teaching that is more effective and this leads to better

performance for the students. Teachers are therefore motivated in their work due to these good

results. Some research on the attitude of teachers to teaching with technology found that most

experienced teachers, with strong mathematics backgrounds were at first half-hearted about

teaching with technology (Pierce & Ball 2009).

The purpose of education never changes, same as the ideas in mathematics. In this

changing time, the only thing we need to change is the pedagogy. The resources before are not

the same resources we have now, and the way students learn before is not exactly the way

students learn now. The change of time and the need to change in pedagogy should happen

simultaneously, the reason why creating something that would improve learning is need and

timely.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The beginning of the 19th Century marked the transition from the traditional way of

producing human basic needs which is either by hand or with the help of work animals to a

more advanced way of production characterized by the use of machines. This transition is now

what we call the Industrial Revolution. According to Idris (2018), with the coming of industrial

revolution, development came to be viewed in terms of separate stages that are primarily

motivated by the discovery of a new power source. Just as the first Industrial Revolution (IR

1.0) was initiated by the creation of the steam engine, the IR 2.0 and IR 3.0 were set in motion

by the invention of electronic power and information technology, IR 4.0 is described to be

more of economic and infrastructural advancement brought about by the automation of human

activities through softwares (ibid).

According to Shwab (as cited in Hussin, 2018), the IR 4.0 is more than just an

enhancement of IR 3.0, in which the advancement of new technologies blurs the lines between

the physical, digital, and biological worlds. The new technologies evolve at exponential pace

and there is no historical precedent that marked the beginning of the evolution, hence being

called disruptive technologies. These advancements are led by the emergence of artificial

intelligence, robotics, the internet of things, autonomous vehicles, bio and nanotechnology, 3-

D printing, material science, quantum computing and energy storage (Diwan, as cited in

Hussin, 2018). The IR 4.0 affects not only the business, governance and the people, it also

affects education as well, thus the name Education 4.0 came to existence.

Education 4.0 is a response to the needs of IR 4.0 where human and technology are

aligned to new possibilities (Hussin, 2018). For this, a revolution in education is essential to
enable people worldwide to harness the opportunities created by the advent of these

technologies.

According to Fisk (as cited in Hussin, 2018), there are nine trends related to Education

4.0. One of the trends is the personalization of learning among students wherein they will be

given a harder task only after having achieved a certain level of mastery and the instructor gets

to decide if they need more practices. Positive reinforcements are used to promote positive

learning experience and boost students’ confidence about their own academic abilities.

Another trend that is observed is the teacher’s assumption of the role as a facilitator in a class

rather than an authoritative source of knowledge. In Education 4.0, teachers do more of guiding

students towards learning.

As mentioned earlier, Education 4.0 aims to align humans and technologies to new

possibilities. With the Industrial Revolution 4.0 characterized by the use of softwares, it is but

just fitting that the current education should also explore and make use of it to fullest.

According to Ovsyannikova (2016), technology is an essential tool for learning and given the

currently prevailing trend, the use of it in education is no longer a choice, but a requirement.

She further stated that the use of technology keeps the students engaged and motivated in

learning, even when solving routine tasks, or even memorizing tasks. When it comes to

engaging students in learning, several dynamic mathematics software like GeoGebra as she

puts it, provide a good way to visualize mathematical concepts which foster active, student-

centered learning, and also inquiry-based learning. Regarding motivation, gamification which

is defined as the use of game mechanics, dynamics, and frameworks to promote desired

behaviors (MacMillan, as cited in Ovsyannikova, 2016), keep encourage students to engage in

the lesson. Even assessment procedures became more interesting with the use of mathematics
softwares like SMART Lab Monster Quiz and Kahoot! Moreover, Kersaint (as cited in Leong,

Tengah, & Shahrill, 2017) stated that using technology in mathematics lessons for example,

has provided students to have positive attitudes, build confidence in their abilities to do

mathematics, construct mathematical knowledge, and visualize abstract mathematical

concepts.

The use of technology in classrooms is encouraged as it is supported by Gamified

Learning Theory. This theory is proposed by Richard Landers in 2015 wherein gamification is

defined as the use of game attributes as defined by Bedwell Taxonomy, outside the context of

a game with the purpose of affecting learning-related behaviors or attitudes. These

behaviors/attitudes, in turn, influence learning by one or two processes: by strengthening the

relationship between instructional quality and outcomes (a moderating process) and/or by

influencing directly (a mediating process). According to him, gamification can target a

behavior that we already know affects learning. For example, we already know that students

who spend more time engaging in meta-cognition (thinking about how they learn) tend to have

higher grades. Thus, gamification might be used to increase meta-cognition (e.g., a mobile app

might be used to reward students who “check in” to studying). In addition, gamification can

target a behavior or attitude that makes existing instruction more effective. A teacher might

have a great lesson plan to teach oceanography, but students might be bored. To increase their

interest, the teacher might bring in an interactive demonstration to illustrate key points. In

such cases, the demonstration doesn’t actually teach anything new – it is a type of gamification

intended to increase student engagement. On the other hand, studies conducted by Wright (199)

and Kerrigan (2002), as cited in Rubin, Marcelino, Mortel, & Lapinid (2014) revealed positive

effects on teaching and learning when technology is used to its full potential.
When it comes to integrating technology in education, the use of educational softwares

is encouraged as they fill a need for more personalized, interactive educational experiences for

students and teachers alike (Nagata, 2017). The very reason for this is that educational

softwares integrates multimedia content and provides users a high interactivity level. Several

kinds of educational softwares are known like desktop publishing, tutorial software,

educational games, drill and practice, utility software, and many others.

In this study, the researchers will design an educational software called Mathigers that

combines the features of educational games and assessment-type. Using the idea that

educational games are effective for motivating younger students to learn, the software to be

developed will incorporate various games that would help students to master the lesson. The

assessment-type on the other hand, is based on the some features of existing applications like

Kahoot!.

To conceptualize the development phase and evaluation phase of Mathigers, an I-P-O

model was created (See Figure 1).


INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Results of environmental Phases of


Scanning Developmental Research

1. Analysis
Review of the results
Review of related of the environmental
literature and studies on: scanning, existing
literatures and
• Teaching and studies related, and
learning integers; features of existing
• Use of educational
technology in softwares in
Math Education Mathematics
• Gamification
2. Design
• Theories of
• Validation and
Learning that Developed and
revision content of
Support the use Evaluated Mathigers - An
Mathigers
of Technology Educational Software for
• Designing the overall
Teaching Integers
structure of
Mathigers
Planning of the content
and design of the
3. Development
intended educational
Development of the
software, Mathigers
actual educational
software and
preliminary evaluation
afterwards followed
by revision.

4. Evaluation
Evaluation of
the content,
instructional, and
technical
characteristics of
Mathigers

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study


Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual paradigm of the study. The input box shows the first

phase of the study. In order to come up with educational software that would aid Grade 7

teachers in their instruction and the Grade 7 students in their learning, the researchers first

conducted an environmental scanning. This was done through survey. The results of the

environmental scanning revealed that teachers need the aid of technology in teaching integers

because the said topic is among those Math lessons that they find challenging to teach. With

this, the researchers did a review of related literature and studies on teaching and learning

integers which include the existing models used by teachers to teach integers, the use of

technology in Math Education, Gamification, and Learning Theories that support the use of

technology in instruction. From those studies, students’ difficulties in learning integers were

identified. Computers were then utilized in developing the desired features of the educational

software, which they called Mathigers.

The process box meanwhile shows the second phase of the study. This phase began

with the construction of the content of Mathigers, which is composed of two major categories:

Games and Assessments. Games serve as practice area for students to master the concept of

integers and to practice their skills on the different operations on integers. Assessments on the

other hand are characterized by the use of supply test format and are further categorized into

levels. The three main levels are Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced. Beginner’s Level

covers integers from -10 to 10; Intermediate Level covers integers from -99 to 99; Advanced

Level includes all the elements of the set of negative integers and whole numbers. Sub-levels,

on the other hand use numerical values from 1 to 5 as a ranking method. Sub-level 1 of each

main level focus on addition; sub-level 2 on subtraction; sub-level 3 on multiplication; sub-

level 4 on division; sub-level 5 consists of all the four basic operations.


During the actual use of the application, students cannot advance to the next level

without perfecting the current level they are in. After the construction of the content of

Mathigers, the validation by 3 math experts will follow. The mathematics experts will give a

content validation from adapted validation forms made by Bituin and Calapardo (2016) as cited

by Bugal, et. al (2017). The comments and suggestions of the Mathematics experts will be

carefully considered and made as basis for the revision of the content. The development of

Mathigers followed right after the content revision. A pilot testing of Mathigers will be

conducted thereafter to identify the initial comments and suggestions needed to improve the

said educational software and the latter will be used to do the revision of the educational

software.

After the revision of the educational software, Mathigers will be evaluated by different

groups of experts and students in terms of its content, technical, and instructional design and

quality. The criteria in evaluating the said components were adapted from Bugal, et. al (2017).

The content characteristics refer to the accuracy, organization, comprehensiveness, and

educational value of the items and definitions used in Mathigers. The technical characteristics

meanwhile include the overall design and graphics of the game. The instructional

characteristics refer to the clarity of the mechanics, appropriateness of the level of difficulty,

and its potential as learning and teaching tool on the definition and basic operations on integers.

Evaluation forms from Malang (2004) and Zapata (2004) as cited by Bugal, et. al (2017) was

provided by the researchers. The comments and suggestions will be carefully analyzed and

given consideration for further revision of the educational software.

The output box shows the last phase of the study and shows the development and

evaluation of Mathigers. The final product is the result of the revision based on the evaluation
of the experts and students. It is hoped that the evaluated and revised Mathigers would help

foster mastery on the concept of integers as well as in performing the four basic operations

involving integers.

Statement of the Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the Educational Application

on Integers for Grade Seven students called “Mathigers”.

Specifically, the study aims to:

1. Develop a software application in Integers for Grade Seven.

2. Evaluate Mathigers with respect to its:

a. Content Characteristics

b. Instructional Characteristics

c. Technical Characteristics

3. Revise and finalize the developed Mathigers.


Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be greatly significant to the following:

The Teachers. The developed Mathigers would allow the teachers to learn different

ways in teaching Integers. Aside from the traditional way of teaching Integers, teachers would

be able to cope with the changing of time in which technology is already integrated in teaching.

This kind of technology integration helps them to create a more interactive class and to broaden

their knowledge on the possible use of technology in different topics in mathematics.

The Students. Mathigers would help students become more active and engage in the

lesson. This kind of technology integration also facilitates them to learn on their own. Since

not all students are confident to answer orally or in front of the class, this kind of technology

will at least support them to learn without having the fear of being laughed at.

The Future Researchers. This study can serve as the basis for the future researcher

who would be interested in developing application that would address the need of technology

integration in different branch of mathematics. This can also serve as an inspiration to do a

better and more dynamic application for mathematics.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focuses on the development and evaluation of Mathigers, an educational

software for teaching integers. The respondents of the study are 10 Grade 7 Mathematics

teachers and 50 Grade 7 students enrolled in Mathematics subject taking or at least have taken
the topics on Integer. The schools where the study will be conducted are still not yet

determined. The research data will be obtained in the form of both quantitative and qualitative.

Qualitative through interviews and face to face observation while quantitative data will be

obtain from the analysis of the answer sheet provided by the researcher.

The educational software only caters the topics on Integers specifically the operations

on Integers. The researchers decided to only include the operations on integers due to time

constraint and the order the topic of Integers to be discussed. This educational software is

practically good for the students who are just starting to learn the concept. Along with the use

of this software the teachers’ supervision is still needed since the ones who are primarily using

this are the beginners. This kind of educational software shouldn’t be the only basis in teaching

the lesson in Integers. Other forms of instructions are still needed to maximize the learning of

the students.

Definitions of Terms

To avoid ambiguity, the following terms are defined according to the meanings and

purposes for which they are used in this research.

Educational Software - A type of application software that has the content features adapted

for use by educators or students.

Mathigers - An educational software to help foster mastery of the concept and the

operations on integers among Grade 7 students.


Integers – any number whose absolute value is a whole number.

Gamification - the application of typical elements of game playing (e.g. point scoring,

competition with others, rules of play) to other areas of activity, typically as an online

marketing technique to encourage engagement with a product or service.

CHAPTER II

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter includes the discussion of the following: Research Design, Research

Locale, Sampling of Participants, and Instruments.

Research Design

This study uses developmental research design. Developmental research studies

demonstrate the range of design and development procedures currently available to

researchers. Furthermore, developmental research methodologies facilitate the study of new

models, tools, and procedures so that their effectiveness and efficiency can be reliably

anticipated and also address the pressing problems of this field (Richey & Nelson, 2005). The

nature of developmental research is a more specific understanding of the purpose, focus and

techniques of developmental research itself (Richey, Klein & Nelson, 2014). There are two

categories of developmental research referred to as Type 1 and Type 2. This study is under the

Type 1 category which focused upon a given instructional product, program, process, or tool

that considered the general development principles ( Richey & Nelson, 2005).

Planning stage is the first phase of developmental research. In this stage, the study

decided to focus on students’ difficulties in learning Integers. The second phase involved the
development. The development stage included the identification of the elements of the

technology game and meeting with programmers. It also includes writing all items that would

make it a technology game.

Validation of the content of the game is the third phase. The validation part of this

research contains all the possible questions that the Mathigers have. The professors will be

validating the content of the research. The last phase is the evaluation of Mathigers. In the

evaluation of the technical characteristics, the three people who are expert on this field will do

the validation. The comments and suggestions given by the experts will be considered before

trying them out to the respondents. The comments and suggestions that would be given will be

used in improving the game’s content and game’s acceptability. After trying out, the

respondents will be asked to answer survey forms to determine their level of satisfaction with

the “Mathigers”. The data gathered will serve as the basis of this study in revising.

Research Locale

The study will be conducted in 2 different schools but the school where it will be

conducted is still not yet determined. The division office is up to decide to which school is

available for the conduct of the study, given the condition that the school should have an

available computer laboratory.

The 3 professors from Philippine Normal University, the 20 teachers and 50 students

and the three IT professionals will be evaluating the content, the instructional acceptability and

the technical features respectively.


Sampling and Participants

This study will utilize a combination of purposive and random sampling. Purposive

sampling will be used in the selection of 2 schools and 3 computer experts. According to

Crossman (2019), a purposive sample is a non-probability sample that is selected based on the

characteristics of a population and the objective of the study. In the context of this research,

the basis for the selection of the schools is the availability of a computer laboratory inside the

school premises while for the computer experts, having a degree related to software application

management and development and an experience in the field of work for at least 2 years. On

the other hand, random sampling will be used in choosing 50 Grade 7 students and 10 Math

teachers from each of the 2 schools purposively selected.

Research Instruments

The researchers will use five instruments in the conduct of this study, which are as

follows: a content validation form, a preliminary survey form, and 3 different evaluation forms

for teacher-evaluators, student-evaluators, and computer experts.

Content Validation Form. This instrument was adapted from the validation forms made by

Bituin and Calapardo (2016) and Bituin. This instrument will be given to 3 mathematics

professors at Philippine Normal University so that all the given expressions to be made as input

of the software will be deemed acceptable and valid.

Preliminary Survey Form. This survey form is self-constructed by the researchers where all

topics for the first quarter of Grade 7 Math are listed, following DepEd’s curriculum guide. In

this form, teachers are asked as to which among those topics they think technological aid would

be most needed.
Evaluation Sheet for Teachers. This evaluation form was adapted from the form made by

Bugal, et. al (2017) and was given to 3 mathematics professors from Philippine Normal

University-Manila for them to rate the overall characteristics of the educational software

developed.

Evaluation Sheet for Students. This evaluation form was adapted from the form made by Bugal,

et. al (2017) and was given to 60 students in total from 3 different participating schools for

them to give their view of the application on the point of view of a learner.

Evaluation Sheet for Computer Experts. This evaluation form was adapted from the study

made by Bugal, et. al (2017) and were given to computer experts for them to assess the

technical characteristics of the educational software developed. The technical characteristics

of the application include the overall graphic design, the quality of user interface, and many

more.

Research Procedure

The first step in the development and evaluation of educational software was the

planning part. Different circumstances of problems in mathematics education were considered.

In this study, the researchers conducted an environmental scanning, which led to integers as

the basis of the study. The researchers use the response of 30 Mathematics teachers as the basis

for choosing the topic. Out of the 30 respondents for environmental scanning, 18 from them

included Integers as one of the topics that is not easy to teach. The respondents particularly

mentioned the operations on Integers as crucial and challenging part to discuss. Using the result
of environmental scanning, the researchers decided to use Integers and the operations on

Integers to be the content of the educational software. In addition, the researchers decided to

focus on students’ misconceptions in performing operations of integers in order for the students

to develop a deeper understanding of the concept. The goal is to create educational software

that would help students enhance their skills on integers. Mathigers is an educational software

consists of 3 categories: Lesson, Games and Assessment. There are four types of games that

can be choose from: Space Bizarre, Aqua Venture, Zombie Invasion and Mountain Climbing,

in which the students need to get a perfect score first in a particular game before proceeding to

the next. Each type of game has different level of difficulty.

In the developmental stage, the researchers write different examples in operations on

integers, which will be used in Mathigers. These given content and examples will be validated

by 3 mathematics experts and to be given to the programmer for the production of the

prototype. Last part of the development was the agreement with the programmers.

The third phase of the study is the evaluation. In this phase the researchers will be

conducting a survey in which the students and the teachers will be evaluating the helpfulness

of the application in teaching and learning Integers. The result of the evaluation will be the

basis for revision and improvement of the study.

Statistical Treatment

To interpret the data effectively the researchers will be using different statistical

treatment.
The collected data from the responses of the mathematics teachers and students and

computer experts will be processed through mean analysis. For the interpretation of the result

of evaluation the researchers will be using the adapted table below by Sicat (2002).

Scale for Interpreting Results

Weight Interpretation

4.51 – 5.00 Highly Acceptable

3.51 – 4.50 Very Acceptable

2.51 – 3.50 Moderately Acceptable

1.51 – 2.50 Slightly Acceptable

1.00 – 1.50 Not Acceptable


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