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It is interesting to know that steel was not economically made in United States until late in
nineteenth century. However, since steel has become the predominate material for the
construction of bridges, buildings, towers and other structures. Steel exhibits desirable physical
properties that make it one of the most versatile structural materials in use. It has great strength,
uniformity, light of weight, ease of use and many other desirable properties makes it the material
of choice for numerous structures such as steel bridges, high rise buildings, towers and other

Any steel structure is an assemblage of different members such as beam, columns, and tension
members, which are fastened and connected to one another, usually at the member ends. Many
members in steel structures may themselves be made of different components such as plates,
angles, I-beams, or channels. These different components have to be connected properly by
means of fasteners, so that they will act together as a single composite unit. Connections between
different members of a steel framework not only facilitate the flow of forces and moments from
one member to another but also allow the transfer of forces up to the foundation level.
Connections are also required for extending the lengths of different types of members,
connecting steel columns to footings, and for joining two parts of a structure during erection. A
structure is only as strong as its weakest link. Unless properly designed and detailed, the
connections may become weaker then the members being joined. It is desirable to avoid
connection failure before member failure due to the following reasons.

1. A connection failure may lead to a catastrophic failure of the whole structure.

2. Normally, a connection failure is not as ductile as that of a steel member failure.

3. For achieving an economical design, it is important that connectors develop full or a little
extra strength of the members it is joining.

Connection failure may be avoided by adopting a higher safety factor for the joints than the
The behavior of joints or connections is very complex due to the various factors which influence
them, such as geometric imperfections, lack of fit, residual stresses, connection flexibility,
geometric complexity, slipping, and non-linear load deformation characteristics (Owens & Cheal
1989). In bolted or riveted joints, a variety of components such as angle cleats, end plates,
stiffeners, and bolts or rivets are used to transfer and disperse loads from one member to other.
Due to the use of bolts or rivets, discrete rather than continuous load paths are employed to
transfer the loads. The bolts or rivets themselves have complex behavior. Hence, the design of
bolted or rivets themselves have complex behavior. Hence, the design of bolted or riveted joints
is much more complicated and involved than those of the members. Complex design procedures
have been developed in the past to produce more economical and safe connections. But due to
the variety of connections, possible configurations, variability of behavior, and practical
limitations in fabrication and erections, complex design procedures have not been found suitable.
Hence, based on experimental results, past performance (with respect to static and dynamic
loads), and the ductility of steel, many approximations and assumptions are made in the design
of these connections.

Connections become complex when they have to transmit axial and shear forces in addition to
bending moments, between structural members oriented in different directions. A variety of
components such as angle cleats, stiffeners and end plates are used to transfer and also disperse
the loads from one member to another. In particular, bolted connections pose additional
problems because they employ discrete rather than continuous load paths to effect the transfer.
This is in addition to the complex behavior of the bolts themselves. Attempts to develop complex
design procedures which can produce more economical and yet safe connections are rendered
futile by the variety of connection configurations possible and more importantly, the variability
of behavior due to practical limitations in fabrication and erection. Therefore the most rational
philosophy for design would be to base it on simple analysis and use higher load factors for
increased safety. However, it is easier said than done and is fraught with pitfalls unless one
develops a certain insight into the behavior. In structural design, it is a common tendency to
follow a tradition, which has produced satisfactory designs in the past so that one need not worry
about having overlooked some important aspect of behavior. This tendency has crystallized into
some standard connection types for which simplified analysis procedures can be used with great
advantage. The flange and web angle connection is an example of a typical beam-to-column
moment connection. It is important for the novice to become familiar with such connection types
and their advantages/disadvantages, which are described in the subsequent sections of this
chapter. It is also equally important to remember the assumptions made in traditional analysis so
that the elements of the connection are proportioned appropriately. For example, with reference
to the connection, the angles are assumed to be rigid compared to the bolts. However the top
angle will have a tendency to open out while the bottom will have a tendency to close unless
sufficiently thick angles are used.

Standard Connections (a) moment connection (b) simple connection.

The connector behaviour is assumed to be linearly elastic, whereas in reality, if bearing
Similarly, bolts are used, due to the hole size being larger than the bolt shank some slip is likely
to take place. This slip may be adequate to release the end moment and make the beam behave as
a simply supported one. Therefore it may be advantageous to go for HSFG bolts, which will
behave linearly at least at working loads thereby ensuring serviceability of the connection.
Another simplification commonly used is that the distribution of forces is arrived at, by assuming
idealized load paths. In the simple connection effected through a pair of short web cleats it is
assumed that the bolts connecting the beam web and the angles resist only the shear that is
transferred. However, if the length of the web cleats is comparable to the depth of the beam,
additional shear forces are likely to arise in these bolts due to the eccentricity between the bolt
line and the column face and should be considered in design. Further, if the web cleats are
unduly stiff, they will satisfy equilibrium but the required rotation for the beam end to act as
simply supported may not be possible. Therefore it is important to build ductility into the system
by keeping the angles as thin as possible. The aim of the present chapter is to point out these
aspects, which will lead to good connection designs.


In general, any group of bolts resisting a moment can be classified into either of two cases
depending on whether the moment is acting in the shear plane or in a plane perpendicular to it.
Both cases are described in this section.


It is often required to join structural members along their length due to the available length of
sections being limited and also due to transportation and erection constraints. Such joints are
called splices. Splices have to be designed so as to transmit all the member forces and at the
same time provide sufficient stiffness and ease in erection. Splices are usually located away from
critical sections. In members subjected to instability, the splice should be preferably located near
the point of lateral restraint else the splice may have to be designed for additional forces arising
due to instability effects.

Beam Splices
Beam Splices typically resist large bending moments and shear forces. If a rolled section beam
splice is located away from the point of maximum moment, it is usually assumed that the flange
splice carries all the moment and the web splice carries the shear. Such an assumption simplifies
the splice design considerably. Where such simplification is not possible, as in the case of a plate
girder, the total moment is divided between the flange and the web in accordance with the stress
distribution. The web connection is then designed to resist its share of moment and shear.
A typical bolted splice plate connection . To avoid deformation associated with slip before
bearing in bearing bolts, HSFG bolts should be used. Usually double-splice plates are more
economical because they require less number of bolts. However, for rolled steel sections with
flange widths less than 200 mm, single splice plates may be used in the flange. End-plate
connections may also be used as beam splices.

Column splices

Column splices can be of two types. In the bearing type, the faces of the two columns are
prepared to butt against each other and thus transmit the load by physical bearing. In such cases
only a nominal connection needs to be provided to keep the columns aligned. However, this type
of splice cannot be used if the column sections are not prepared by grinding, if the columns are
of different sizes, if the column carries moment or if continuity is required. In such cases, HSFG
bolts will have to be used and the cost of splice increases. When connecting columns of different
sizes, end plates or packing plates should be provided similar to the beam splice.

Beam-to-column connections can be classified as simple, semi-rigid and rigid depending on the
amount of moment transfer taking place between the beam to the column. Simple connections
are assumed to transfer only shear at some nominal eccentricity. Therefore such connections can
be used only in non-sway frames where the lateral loads are resisted by some alternative
arrangement such as bracings or shear walls. Simple connections are typically used in frames up
to about five storeys in height, where strength rather than stiffness govern the design. Some
typical details adopted for simple connections are shown. The clip and seating angle connection
is economical when automatic saw and drill lines are available. An important point in design is
to check end bearing for possible adverse combination of tolerances. In the case of unstiffened
seating angles, the bolts connecting it to the column may be designed for shear only assuming
the seating angle to be relatively flexible. If the angle is stiff or if it is stiffened in some way then
the bolted connection should be designed for the moment arising due to the eccentricity between
the centre of the bearing length and the column face in addition to shear. The clip angle does not
contribute to the shear resistance because it is flexible and opens out but it is required to stabilise
the beam against torsional instability by providing lateral support to compression flange. The
connection using a pair of web cleats, referred to as framing angles, is also commonly employed
to transfer shear from the beam to the column. Here again, if the depth of the web cleat is less
than about 0.6 times that of the beam web, then the bolts need to be designed only for the shear
force. Otherwise by assuming pure shear transfer at the column face, the bolts connecting the
cleats to the beam web should be designed for the moment due to eccentricity. The end plate
connection eliminates the need to drill holes in the beam. A deep end plate would prevent beam
end rotation and thereby end up transferring significant moment to the column. Therefore the
depth of the end plate should be limited to that required for shear transfer.

Simple beam-to-column connections (a) Clip and seating angle (b) Web cleats (c) Curtailed
end plate

However adequate welding should be provided between end plate and beam web. To ensure
significant deformation of the end plate before bolt fracture, the thickness of the end plate
should be less than one-half of the bolt diameter for Grade 8.8 bolts and one-third of the bolt
diameter for Grade 4.6 bolts. Rigid connections transfer significant moments to the columns and
are assumed to undergo negligible deformations. Rigid connections are necessary in sway frames
for stability and also contribute in resisting lateral loads. In high-rise and slender structures,
stiffness requirements may warrant the use of rigid connections. Examples of rigid connections
are Using angles or T-sections to connect beam flanges to the column is not economical due to
the large number of bolts required. Further, these connections require HSFG bolts for rigidity.
Therefore extended end-plate connections have become the popular method for rigid
connections. It is fairly easy to transfer about 0.7 to 0.8 times the yield moment capacity of the
beam using these connections. Column web stiffening will normally be required and the bolts at
the bottom are for preventing the springing action. These bolts can however be used for shear
transfer. In the case of deep beams connected to relatively slender columns a haunched
connection 6c may be adopted. Additional column web stiffeners may also be required in the
form of diagonal stiffeners or web plates . The general design method including prying action is
explained in the worked example at the end of this chapter. Semi-rigid connections fall between
the two types mentioned above. The fact that most simple connections do have some degree of
rotational rigidity was recognised and efforts to utilise it led to the development of the semi-rigid
connections. They are used in conjunction with other lateral load resisting systems for increased
safety and performance. Use of semi-rigid connections makes the analysis somewhat difficult but
leads to economy in member designs. The analysis of semi-rigid connections is usually done by
assuming linear rotational springs at the supports or by advanced analysis methods, which
account for non-linear moment-rotation characteristics.

Rigid beam-to-column connections (a) Short end plate (b) Extended end
plate (c) Haunched

Beam to beam connections are similar to beam to column connections. Sometimes rigid
connections may be provided for moment continuity between secondary beams. In such cases if
the primary beam is torsionally flexible, then the torsion transferred to it may be ignored.
Typically in simple connections, only web cleats are used because the web of the main beam
cannot take a seating angle. For coplanar top flanges, the top flange of the secondary beam may
have to be coped and checked for block shear in the design calculations. This is further
illustrated in a worked example at the end of this chapter.


Truss connections form a high proportion of the total truss cost. Therefore it may not always be
economical to select member sections, which are efficient but cannot be connected economically.
Trusses may be single plane trusses in which the members are connected on the same side of the
gusset plates or double plane trusses in which the members are connected on both sides of the
gusset plates. It may not always be possible to design connection in which the centroidal axes of
the member sections are coincident. Small eccentricities may be unavoidable and the gusset
plates should be strong enough to resist or transmit forces arising in such cases without buckling.
The bolts should also be designed to resist moments arising due to in-plane eccentricities. If out-
of-plane instability is foreseen, use splice plates for continuity of out-of-plane stiffness


Fatigue is a phenomenon, which leads to the initiation and growth of cracks in a structure under
fluctuating stresses even below the yield stress of the material. The cracks usually initiate from
points where stress concentrations occur. Therefore, it is important to ensure that stress
concentrations are kept to a minimum in structures subjected to fluctuating stresses. Possible
ways of doing this in bolted connections are by using gusset plates of proper shape, drilling holes
more accurately by matching the plates to be connected and using HSFG bolts instead of bearing
type bolts. Another aspect, which has a profound effect on the fatigue performance, is the range
of stress fluctuations and reversal of stress.
By using HSFG bolts, which are pretensioned, stress reversals can be avoided thereby improving
the fatigue performance. However, due to the bearing of the bolt head on the plies, these bolts
exhibit fretting corrosion at the edges of the regions of high bearing pressure.
Fatigue design is usually carried out by means of an S-N curve, which is a plot of the stress range
S versus the number of cycles to failure N on a log-log scale. As the stress range decreases, the
number of cycles to failure rapidly increases and below a certain level known as the endurance
limit, the connection will be able to withstand a sufficiently large number of cycles. The S-N
curve is plotted for various types of connections and used for design. Tension connections using
HSFG perform extremely well under fatigue. Shear connections using HSFG are better than most
welded connections while shear connections using black bolts are inferior to welded connections.


Residual stresses and strains are inherent features of steel joints due to differential cooling after
the hot rolling, gas cutting and welding stages. The residual stresses cause premature local
yielding and the residual strains cause distortions and lack of fit.

Connections are normally made either by bolting or welding. Bolting is common in field
connections, since it is simple and economical to make. Bolting is also regarded as being more
appropriate in field connections from considerations of safety. However, welded connections,
which are easier to make and are more efficient, are usually resorted to in shop fabrications.
Bolted Connections
Two types of bolts are used in bolted connection. The most common type is bearing bolts in
clearance holes, often referred to as ordinary bolts or black bolts. They are popular since they are
economical, both in terms of material and installation costs.

The force transfer mechanism under shear. The force is transferred by bearing between the plate
and bolts at the bolt holes. The bolts experience single or double shear depending upon the plate
configuration. The failure may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the
bolt. Undergo some slip even under a small shear, before being able to transfer force by bearing.
This is due to clearance between the bolts and the holes. Such a slip causes increased flexibility
in the lower ranges of load and unexpected joint behaviour in some situations. In such cases high
strength friction grip (HSFG) bolts are used.
In HSFG bolted joints, high strength bolts (8G or 10K grade) are pre-tensioned against the plates
to be bolted together, so that contact pressure is developed between the plates being joined.
When external shear force is applied, the frictional resistance to slip between the plates prevents
their relative slip. These bolted joints achieve higher stiffness in shear because of frictional
resistance between the contact surfaces. Only when the externally applied force exceeds the
frictional resistance between the plates, the plates slip and the bolts bear against the bolt holes.
Thus even after slip, there is a reserve strength due to bearing.
The HSFG bolts are expensive both from material and installation points of view. They require
skilled labour and effective supervision. Due to their efficient force transfer mechanism they
have become very popular recently. Moreover, their performance is superior under cyclic loading
compared to other forms of jointing. This is discussed later

Welded Connections
Welded connections are direct and efficient means of transferring forces from one member to the
adjacent member. Welded connections are generally made by melting base metal from parts to
be joined with weld metal, which upon cooling form the connection. The welded connections in
a majority of the cases may be categorized as fillet weld or butt (or groove) welds.
Fillet welds are made against two surfaces of adjacent plates to join them together. The merits of
the fillet welds are:
• No prior edge preparation is necessary,
• Simple, fast and economical to make, and
• does not require very skilled labour.

The demerits of fillet welds are:

• Not appropriate to transfer forces large in magnitude,
• Poorer performance under fatigue loading, and
• Less attractive in appearance.

Butt welds, are made by butting plate surfaces against one another and filling the gap between
contact surfaces with weld metal, in the process fusing the base metal also together. In order to
ensure full penetration of the weld metal, normally the contact surfaces are cambered to obtain
gap for the weld metal to flow easily. The merits of butt welds are:

• Easily designed and fabricated to be as strong as the member,

• Better fatigue characteristics, compared to fillet welds,
• Better appearance, compared to fillet welds, and
• Easy to detail and the length of the connection is considerably reduced.

The demerits of the butt welds are:

• More expensive than fillet welds because of the edge preparation required, and
• require more skilled manpower, than that required for filled welds.

Riveted Joints
Riveted joints are very rare in modern steel construction practice. The behavior and design of
riveted connections are very similar to bearing type of bolted constructions. Since structural
rivets are driven hot, the rivet shank expands to fill the hole while being driven. Hence, while
calculating rivet strength, the hole diameter and not the nominal rivet diameter is used. Due to
this, the slip in riveted joints is less than in bearing type of bolted joint. Further, in the process of
cooling, the rivet shank length reduces, thereby causing some clamping force, as in HSFG.
Riveting has been traditionally limited to railway bridges in India. However, with the
introduction of HSFG bolts, which are better suited under cyclic loading than rivets, their use is
discontinued even in railway bridges in most countries.


Traditional methods of analysis of connection stresses were based on the following assumptions:
• Connected parts are rigid compared to connectors themselves and hence their deformations
may be ignored
• Connectors behave in a linear-elastic manner until failure.
• Connectors have unlimited ductility.

However, in reality, connected parts such as end plates, angles etc. are flexible and deform even
at low load levels. Further, their behaviour is highly non-linear due to slip, lack of fit, material
non-linearity and residual stresses. Ductility of welds in some orientation with respect to
direction of loads may be very limited, (eg. Transverse fillet welds)
Eventhough truss joints are assumed to be hinged the detailing using gusset plates and multiple
fastener and welding does not represent hinged condition. However, in practice the secondary
moment associated with such a rigid joint is disregarded unless the loading is cyclic.
The complexity and variability in strength of connections require a rational design philosophy to
account for their behaviour. Keeping in view the large number of joints to be normally designed
in a structure and the considerable variability in the design strength, any sophisticated analysis is
neither desirable nor warranted. The design should ensure that equilibrium is satisfied,
slenderness of the elements is consistent with the ductility demand and the deleterious effects of
stress concentration on fatigue strength is considered in cyclically loaded structures. The
following approach is consistent with connection design requirements in most general cases
encountered in practice in statically loaded systems.
The steps to be followed in the proposed rational design approach are enumerated initially. These
are illustrated using a simple framing angle connection between a beam and a column of a
framed building designed to transfer a shear force of V.

Connection classification:-
(a) Classification based on the type of resultant force transferred: The bolted connections are
referred to as concentric connections (force transfer in tension and compression member),
eccentric connections (in reaction transferring brackets) or moment resisting connections (in
beam to column connections in frames). Ideal concentric connections should have only one bolt
passing through all the members meeting at a joint. However, in practice, this is not usually
possible and so it is only ensured that the centroidal axes of the members meet at on

The Moment connections are more complex to analyse compared to the above two types and The
connection is also known as bracket connection and the resistance is only through shear in the
The connection is often found in moment resisting frames where the beam moment is
transferred to the column. The connection is also used at the base of the column where a base
plate is connected to the foundation by means of anchor bolts. In this connection, the bolts are
subjected to a combination of shear and axial tension.
(b) Classification based on the type of force experienced by the bolts: The bolted connections can
also be classified based on geometry and loading conditions into three types namely, shear
connections, tension connections and combined shear and tension connections.

Typical shear connections occur as a lap or a butt joint used in the tension members. While the
lap joint has a tendency to bend so that the forces tend to become collinear, the butt joint requires
cover plates. Since the load acts in the plane of the plates, the load transmission at the joint will
ultimately be through shearing forces in the bolts.
In the case of lap joint or a single cover plate butt joint, there is only one shearing plane, and so
the bolts are said to be in single shear. In the case of double cover butt joint, there are two
shearing planes and so the bolts will be in double shear. It should be noted that the single cover
type butt joint is nothing but lap joints in series and also bends so that the centre of the cover
plate becomes collinear with the forces.
The of single cover plate (lap) joint, the thickness of the cover plate is chosen to be equal to or
greater than the connected plates. while in double cover plate (butt) joint, the combined
thickness of the cover plates should be equal to or greater than the connected plates.
(c) Classification based on force transfer mechanism by bolts: The bolted connections are
classified as bearing type (bolts bear against the holes to transfer the force) or friction type (force
transfer between the plates due to the clamping force generated by the pre tensioning of the


Bolts used in steel structures are of three types: 1) Black Bolts 2) Turned and Fitted Bolts and 3)
High Strength Friction Grip (The International Standards Organisation designation for bolts, also
followed in India, is given by Grade x.y. In this nomenclature, x indicates one-tenth of the
minimum ultimate tensile strength of the bolt in kgf/mm2 and the second number, y, indicates
one tenth of the ratio of the yield stress to ultimate stress, expressed as a percentage. Thus, for
example, grade 4.6 bolt will have a minimum ultimate strength 40 kgf/mm2 (392 Mpa) and
minimum yield strength of 0.6 times 40, which is 24 kgf/mm2 (235 Mpa). Black bolts are
unfinished and are made of mild steel and are usually of Grade 4.6. Black bolts have adequate
strength and ductility when used properly; but while tightening the nut snug tight (“Snug tight” is
defined as the tightness that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact) will twist off
easily if tightened too much. Turned –andfitted bolts have uniform shanks and are inserted in
close tolerance drilled holes and made snug tight by box spanners. The diameter of the hole is
about 1.5 to 2.0 mm larger than the bolt diameter for ease in fitting. High strength black bolts
(grade 8.8) may also be used in connections in which the bolts are tightened snug fit. In these
bearing type of connections, the plates are in firm contact but may slip under loading until the
hole surface bears against the bolt .The load transmitted from plate to bolt is therefore by
bearing and the bolt is in shear as explained in the next section. Under dynamic loads, the nuts
are liable to become loose and so these bolts are not allowed for use under such loading. In
situations where small slips can cause significant effects as in beam splices, black bolts are not
preferred. However, due to the lower cost of the bolt and its installation, black bolts are quite
popular in simple structures subjected to static loading. Turned and fitted bolts are available from
grade 4.6 to grade 8.8. For the higher grades there is no definite yield point and so 0.2% proof
stress is used. High Strength Friction Grip bolts (HSFG) provide extremely efficient connections
and perform well under fluctuating/fatigue load conditions. These bolts tightened to their proof
loads and require hardened washers to distribute the load under the bolt heads. The washers are
usually tapered when used on rolled steel sections. The tension in the bolt ensures that no slip
takes place under working conditions and so the load transmission from plate to the bolt is
through friction and not by bearing as explained in the next section. However, under ultimate
load, the friction may be overcome leading to a slip and so bearing will govern the design. HSFG
bolts are made from quenched and tempered alloy steels with grades from 8.8 to 10.9. The most
common are the so-called, general grade of 8.8 and have medium carbon content, which makes
them less ductile. The 10.9 grade have a much higher tensile strength, but lower ductility and the
margin between the 0.2% yield strength and the ultimate strength is also lower. The tightening of
HSFG bolts can be done by either of the following methods (IS 4000-..):

1. Turn-of-nut tightening method: In this method the bolts are first made snug tight and then
turned by specific amounts (usually either half or three-fourth turns) to induce tension equal to
the proof load.

2. Calibrated wrench tightening method: In this method the bolts are tightened by a wrench
calibrated to produce the required tension.

3. Alternate design bolt installation: In this method special bolts are used which indicate the bolt
tension. Presently such bolts are not available in India.

4. Direct tension indicator method: In this method special washers with protrusions are used. As
the bolt is tightened, these protrusions are compressed and the gap produced by them gets
reduced reduced in proportion to the load. This gap is measured by means of a feeler gauge,
consisting of small bits of steel plates of varying thickness, which can be inserted into the gap.
Since HSFG bolts under working loads, do not rely on resistance from bearing, holes larger than
usual can be provided to ease erection and take care of lack-of-fit. Typical hole types that can be
used are standard, extra large and short or long slotted. However the type of hole will govern the
strength of the connection


There are several types of bolts used to connect structural members. Some of them are as

• Unfinished bolts or black bolts or C grade bolts ( IS 1363 : 2002 )

• Turned bolts

 Precision bolts or A grade bolts ( IS 1364 : 2002 )

 Semi-precision bolts or B grade bolts ( IS 1363 : 2002 )

• Ribbed bolts

• High strength bolts ( IS 3757 : 1985 and IS 4000 : 1992 )

Its few main types are:-

1. Black Bolts

2. Turned Bolts ( close tolerance bolts )

3. Ribbed Bolts

4. High Strength Bolts also known as HSFG ( high strength friction grip bolts)


The black bolts offer the following advantages over riveted or welded connections:

1. Use of unskilled labour and simple tools.

2. Noiseless and quick fabrication

3. No special equipment/ process needed for installation

4. Fast progress of work

5. Accommodates minor discrepancies in dimensions

6. The connection supports load as soon as the bolts are tightened ( in welds and rivets,
cooling period is involved).
The main drawback of the black bolt is the slip of the joint when subjected to loading. When
large forces are to be resisted, the space required for the joint is extensive. Also precautions such

as the as the provision of special locking devices or the use of pre- loaded high-strength bolts are
required in situations involving fluctuating loads.

Though the material cost of HSFG bolts are about 50% higher than black bolts and require
special workmanship for installation, they provide the following advantages.

• HSFG bolts do not allow any slip between the elements connected, especially in close
tolerance holes, thus providing rigid connections.

• Due to the clamping action, load is transmitted by friction only and the bolts are not
subjected to shear and bearing.

• Due to the smaller number of bolts, the gusset plate sizes are reduced.

• Deformation is minimized.

• Noiseless fabrication, since the bolts are tightened with wrenches.

• The possibility of failure at the net section under the working loads is eliminated.

• Since the loads causing fatigue will be within proof load, the nuts are prevented from
loosening and the fatigue strength of the joint will be greater and better than welded and
riveted joints.

• Unlike riveted joints, few persons are required for making the connections.

No heating is required and no danger of tossing of bolt. Thus, the safety of the workers is

• Alterations, if any are done easily than in welded or riveted connections.

Fig. typical load-deformation behaviour of different types of fasteners.

However, bolting usually involves a significant fabrication effort to produce the bolt and
associated plates or cleats. In addition, special procedures are required to ensure that the
clamping actions required for pre-loaded friction-grip joints are achieved. The connections with
HSFG bolts may not be as rigid as a welded connection.

• Bearing type connection- A connection made using bolts in ‘ snug-tight’ condition, or

rivets where the load is transferred by bearing of bolts or rivets against plate inside the
bolt hole.

• Braced member- A member in which the relative transverse displacement is effectively

prevented by bracing.

• Characteristic load ( Action )- The value of specified load ( Action ), above which not
more than a specified percentage of samples of corresponding load are expected to be

• Characteristics Yield/Ultimate stress- The minimum value of stress, below which not
more than a specific percentage ( usually 5 % ) of corresponding stresses of samples
tested are expected to occur.

• Design load/Factored Load- A load value obtained by multiplying the characteristic load
with a load factor.

• Edge distance- Distance from the centre of a fastener hole to the nearest edge of an
element measured perpendicular to the direction of load transfer.

• End distance- Distance from the centre of a fastner hole to the edge of an element
measured parallel to the direction of load transfer.

• Gauge- The spacing between adjacent parallel lines of fastners, transverse to the
direction of load/stress.

• Imposed ( Live) Load- the load assumed to be produced by the intended use or
occupancy including distributed, concentrated, impact , vibration and snow loads but
excluding, wind, earthquake and temperature loads.

• Pitch- the centre-to-centre distance between individual fastners in a line, in the direction
of load/stress.

• STEP 1.- If not given assume dia. & type of bolt.

• STEP 2.- Thickness of cover plate

For single cover butt joint

Thickness of cover plate =9/8*t

For double cover butt joint

Thickness of each cover plate =5/8*t

• STEP 3.- Find bolt value

Vdsb = fub/√3 Ymv * ŋn*Anb

Bolt value is least strength of one bolt in shearing & bearing. Taking smaller of the above two.

Total No. of bolt = N=F/Bv

• STEP 4.- If F is not given than find by

F = 0.9fu/Yml *b*t

• STEP 5.- Now arrange the bolts in single, double or triple riveted as per width of plate.

• STEP 6.- Find gauge distance of the bolt by using following formula =>
0.9 fu(g-d)t/ Yml ≤ ŋ*Bv

n = 1,2,3,……….for single, double….. bolted

• STEP 7.- Find efficiency of joint

X = P/Po * 100

X = (g-do)/g *100

Reffered codes :-

• IS : 800-2007

• IS : 875 ( part 1)

• IS : 875 ( part 2)

• IS : 875 ( part 3)