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CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
PLATING ON PLASTICS Æ POP

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


A WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS…

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


PLASTICS FOR METALLIZATION

PA others
PP
3% 2%
3%

ABS
50%
ABS/PC
42%

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


STAGES FOR METALLIZATION OF PLASTIC

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


PRETREATMENT : CLEANING

This stage improves the wettability


of the parts and decreases the
surface energy

Before : contact angle > 90 deg After cleaning : contact angle < 90 deg
CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
FIRST IMPORTANT STEP : ETCHING

Strong oxidizing solution


At high temperature 65-70°C

CONVENTIONNAL
40%CrO3 40%H2SO4

2003 COVENTYA
Patent : Silken process
6% CrO3 + Catalyst
65% H2SO4 2014 COVENTYA
KMnO4
H3PO4 solution

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


SEM device : QUANTA FEG 250 - FEI
XFlash 6130 - Brüker

ETD
GSED
HIGH
ESEM
VACUUM
Up to <1.2 10-2 Pa
2600 Pa
STEM II

400 Pa 10 Pa

GAD CBS
LOW 130 Pa
TE
VACUUM
SE LFD
BSE
CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
SEM PICTURES OF ABS

ABS is a dispersion of nodules of butadiene in a styrene


/acrylonitrile copolymer matrix

Ra= 25 nm

During oxidation stage : First nodules of butadiene are oxidized


then more or less the matrix

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


SEM PICTURES AFTER ETCHING ON ABS

Ra= 240 nm
CONVENTIONNAL
40%CrO3 40%H2SO4

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


SEM PICTURES AFTER ETCHING ON ABS

Ra= 48 nm
2003 COVENTYA
patent: SILKEN Process
6% CrO3
65% H2SO4

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


SEM PICTURES AFTER ETCHING ON ABS

Ra= 78 nm
2014 COVENTYA
KMnO4
H3PO4 solution

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


Cr VI reducing : NEUTRAL

Reducing solution
Hydrate hydrazine, Ascorbic acid,

Chromic acid : CrO3

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


Cr VI reducing : NEUTRAL

Reducing solution
CrVI is reduced into CrIII

Easier to rinse and avoid contamination for next steps


CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
FIRST THIN LAYER : CATALYST

PdSn colloid
( <10 nm diameter)
stabilized in hydrochloride acid

The colloidal particles diffuse into the microscopic


porosity present on the plastic surface and are
chemically adsorbed.

Nanosizer ZS- Malvern

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


TIN OXIDATION : ACCELERATOR

Oxidizing solution
Sn2+ is oxidized into Sn4+
and « liberates » Palladium as metal

Sn IV precipitates Pd (0) remains


in the solution Sn IV in the porosities

There is about 0.08 mg/dm² of Palladium on the surface


CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
FIRST METAL LAYER : Nickel or Copper

Electroless Processes
The plastic part becomes
CONDUCTIVE

For Ni, sodium hypophosphite For Cu, formaldehyde is used


is used as the reducing agent. as the reducing agent.

Nickel Copper

ABS
ABS

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


LEVELING LAYER : Copper

Electrolytic process
Cu deposit levels the surface to
ensure the brightest finish

CuSO4
Sulfuric acid
Organic additives :
Base Cathode
Brightener Cu++ + 2e- Æ Cu
Leveler
Current density : 2-3 A/dm²

Thickness :
up to 25 µm Hull cell
CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
CROSS SECTION – EDX phases analysis

Electrolytic Copper

Electroless Nickel

ABS

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


Example : Layers for automotive industry

High corrosion resistance and wear resistance

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


Example : Cross section

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


FINAL CHROME DEPOSIT
Under layer Ni effect

Mate

Satin

Bright

White Cr Dark Fume Cr

Good resistance to shock, wear and decorative aspect


CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
Aspect of under layer : SATIN Nickel
+ -
Part
Ni

The bathes contain an emulsion of micelles of surfactant.


Based on the cloud point of the surfactant.
CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS
QUALITY CONTROL

Sratch test (ASTM-B571)

90° Peel test (ASTM B 533-85)

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


QUALITY CONTROL

Pits

Salt spray test ( NaCl spray) or Cass Test ( NaCl +Cuproacetic spray)

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS


POP video – INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

http://www.coventya.com/bibliotheque-technique/decoration/videos-et-autres-supports-de-communication/

http://www.coventya.com/technical-information/decoration/videos-and-other-media/

CL/COVENTYA/ SEMPA 2015 PLATING ON PLASTICS