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Q.1: Calculate the velocity and discharge the canal shown in figure #1 by using the
given data in below:

Given:

B1 = 2 m
d=1m
n = 0.015 1
Slope = 0.0008 d
1

All dimensions are in cm

Fig#1
1 2 1
Q    A R 3  S 2
n
A  0.5 * (2  4) * 1  3m 2
P  B  2d 2
P  2  2 *1 * 2
P  4.83m
A 3
R   R 
P 4.83
R  0.62
1 2 1
Q  3  0.62 3  0.0008 2
0.015
Q  4.11m 3 / sec
Q 4.11
V  
A 3
V  1.37 m / sec

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 1

Q.2: A concrete trapezoidal retaining wall is shown in the figure below. It retains water
on its vertical face. W ater = 10 KN/m3, Wconcrete = 24KN/m3. Check the stability of the wall
for overturning and sliding.

1m

3m

2m

γ water = 10 KN / m3
γ concrete = 24KN / m3
W = cross section area of wall* γ of substance
1
W1 = (1)(3)(24) = 36 KN/m
2
W2 = (1) (3) (24) = 72 KN/m
W = 36 + 72 108 KN / m
1
Fwater = ( waterl)(h 2 )
2
1
Fwater (10)(3 2 ) => Fwater = 45 KN /m
2
MO (Over turning moment) = Fwater * (H/3)
MO = 45 (3/3) = 45 KNm/m
2 *1
MR = W1 ( )  (W 2)(1  0.5)
3
2 *1
MR = 36 ( )  (72)(1  0.5) = 132KNm/m
3
Check for overturning moment = MR/MO = 132/45 = 2.933 > 1.5 Ok √
SF (Check for sliding) =  *  W/P
(W 1  W 2) (36  72)
SF = 0.6 * = 0.6 * = 1.44<1.5 Ok then not safe
Fwater 45
Since the wall is not stable

Q.3: Its plan to convey 2.5 m3/sec discharge from point A to pint B with a semicircular
canal, design the canal parameters by using below data

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 2

Given:

n = 0.015
Slope = 0.005

R =?

1 2 1
Q    A R 3  S 2
n

A  r2 Figure #1
2
P  r
 2
r
A r
R   R  2  R 
P r 2

1  r 2 1
2. 5    r 2  ( ) 3  0.005 2
0.015 2 2
2
2.5  0.015  2  2 3 8
1
r 3
2
0.005
5
2.5  0.015  2 3 8
1
r 3
2
0.005
r  1.216m

A  1.216 2
2
A  2.321m 2
Q 2. 5
V   V 
A 2.321
V  1.08m / sec

Q.4: Calculate the amount of stone masonry and PCC separately as shown in figure #2

50.00 50.00

Vstone  2(0.5 * 0.8)  (0.8 * 0.5)*100 80.00

90.00
Vstone  160cum 50.00

VPCC  34cum
80.00 100.00
10.00

All Dimension are in cm

L= 100 m
Q.5: What are the important points in survey of canal? Figure #2

 Elevation of Ground level at right side (R.S) of canal.
 Elevation of Bank of canal in R.S.
 Elevation of maximum water level in R.S
 Reading many point from bed of canal (especially take the reading between two
points which have different in elevation
 Elevation of Bank of canal in left side (L.S).
 Elevation of Ground level (L.S).
 Measure the wide of canal by tape, (for check it with reading).

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 4

Q.6: Define the following terms:
a. Hydraulic Jump
b. Moisture content:
c. Flume
d. Weir

a. The Hydraulic jump is a natural phenomenon that occurs when supercritical flow
is force to change to subcritical flow by an obstruction to the flow.
b. Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material
such as soil……..etc is called moisture content.
c. A flume is an open artificial water channel, in the form of a gravity chute that
leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely aside a natural flow.
d. Weir is a structure contracted across a river to raise its water level and divert the
water into the canal.

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 5

Q.7: Design the canal according to the below data

V = critical velocity
n = 0.02
B= 1 m
d = 0.6 m

B = 1m
d = 0.6m B
n = 0.02
V = V critical
V
Fr =
gD
A
g is gravity acceleration = 9.81m/sec, D = hydraulic depth => D = , T is top wide of
T
canal and its equal to B for rectangular canal
B* y
D= = > D = y fro rectangular channel
B
While Fr is equal to 1 then velocity is critical
V
1= => V c = (1) g * y
gD
V c = 9.81* 0.8 => V c = 2.8 m/sec
2 1
1 V *n 2
V= * R 3
* S 2
=> S = ( 2 )
n
R3
A
R=
P
A = 1 * 0.8=> A = 0.8m 2
P = B + 2y => P = 1.5 + 2(0.8)
P = 3.1m
0 .8
R= = 0.258
3 .1
2.8 * 0.02
S= ( 2
)2
3
0.258

S = 0.019

Q = 2.42m 3 /sec

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 6

Q.8: Calculate the velocity and discharge the canal shown in figure #1 by using the
given data in below:

Given:
B2 = 4 m
B1 = 2 m
0.5 m
B2 = 4 m
d1 = 1 m
d2 = 0.5 m
n = 0.02 1m
Slope = 0.0005
B1 = 2 m

1 2 1
Q    A R 3  S 2
n
A  A1  A2
A1  B1 * d 1
A2  B2 * d 2
A1  2 * 1  2m 2
A2  4 * 0.5  2m 2
A  2  2  4m 2
P  B1  ( B2  B1 )  2d 1  2d 2  P  2  (4  2)  2(1)  2(0.5)
P  7m
A 4
R   R 
P 7
R  0.571
1 2 1
Q  4  0.571 3  0.0005 2
0.02
Q  3.079m 3 / sec
Q 3.079
V  
A 4
V  0.769m / sec

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 7

Q.9:
Calculate and find the stability of wall (safety factor of wall) against overturning moment
by the given data.
Given:
Resisting moment of wall is 150 KN*m
3Ton

300cm
Mo = 3000kg x 3m =9000kg m

1kg force = 8.91 Newton G.L

9000kg m = 88290 Newton m = 88.29 KNm
Safety factor = MR/Mo = 150/88.29 = 1.67 Figure #4

Q.10: Find the volume of stone which is for the wall shown in following figure
W
L = 50m

Wide under sloping = 1.6/4 = 0.4

4
W = 1.4-0.3-0.4-0.2 = 0.6

V1 = 0.7x1.4x50 =49 m3
V2 = 0.5x (1+0.6) x1.6x50 =64m3

V total = 113m3

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 8

Q.11: A trapezoidal channel of bottom width 7.5m and side slope of 1:2.5 carries a
discharge of 12 cum with a normal depth of 1m. The elevation at the beginning and end
of the channel is 205 m and 195 m, respectively. Determine the length of the channel if
n=0.02.

B=12.5m

d=1
m
2.5

b=7.5m

1. This is the problem of determination of S.

2. A=1/2*(7.5+12.5)*1= 10m2

Pw=7.5+2.7+2.7=12.9m

𝐴 10
R= = = 0.775𝑚
𝑃𝑤 12.9
𝑄 12
3. 𝑆 = [ 2 ]2 =[ 2 ]=0.028
1/𝑛(𝐴𝑅 3 ) 1/0.02(10∗0.7753 )

E1−E2
4. =𝑆
𝐿

E1−E2 205−195
𝐿= = = 357m
𝑆 0.028

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 9

Q.12: Why do we need concrete testing?
Answer 12: Concrete is tasted to ensure that the material that was specified and
bought is the same material delivered to the job site.

Q.13: What are the most common tests for fresh concrete? Describe the purpose of
each test briefly.
Answer 13: Slump, Air content, unit weight and compressive strength test are the most
common tests for fresh concrete.
Slump: is a measure of consistency, or relative ability of the concrete to flow. If the
concrete can’t flow because the consistency or slump is too low, there are potential
problems with proper consolidation. If the concrete won’t stop flowing because the
slump is too high, there are potential problems with mortar loss through the formwork,
excessive formwork pressures, finishing delays and segregation.
Air content: measures the total air content in a sample of fresh concrete, but does
not indicate what the final in-place air content will be, because a certain amount of air is
lost in transportation, consolidating, placement and finishing.
Unit weight: measures the weight of a known volume of fresh concrete.
Compressive strength: pouring cylinders of fresh concrete and measuring the
force needed to break the concrete cylinders at proscribed intervals as they harden.
According to Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318), as long
as no single test is more than 500psi below the design strength and the averages of
three consecutive tests equals or exceeds the design strength, then the concrete is
acceptable. If the strength tests don’t meet these criteria, steps must be taken to raise
the average.

Q.15: The discharge in the main canal is 420 l/s; it is to be divided among the three
secondary canals in proportion to their command areas.
The command areas of the secondary canals are 90 ha, 120 ha and 180 ha.

Answer 15: The total area commanded by the secondary canals is 90 + 120 + 180 =
390 ha.
The first canal will receive 90/390 of the 450 l/s flow, i.e., (90/360) x 420 = 97 l/s.
The second will get (120/390) x 420 = 129 l/s.
The third will get (180/390) x 420 = 194 l/s.

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 10

Q.16 - find the distance between A and B points as shown in below.

140 m

D C

30°

30m

Flow

Then AB / 140 = tang 30°

AB = 140 * tang 30°

AB = 80.83 m

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 11

Q.17- Calculate the cross sectional area of figure show in below

6m
R + 1)2 + (6/2)2 = (R + 2)2 1m
2m
(R + 1)2 + (3)2 = (R + 2)2

R2 + 2R +1 + 9 = R2 + 4R + 4

4R – 2R = 10 – 4 R
2R = 6
R=3

Total Area = (1/2) (2) (3) (4) = 12m2

3
Tang Φ = ( )
4
Φ = Tang-1 = 36.87°

Θ = 2 Φ = > Θ = (2 * 36.87°)
Θ = 73.74°
Deducted Area = DA =?

360° Π R2

73.74° DA

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 12

Q.18: Calculate and draw the shear moment diagram for the given member as shown in
figure below:

5 ton

4 ton/m

A B
0.5 L
+ ΣmA = Rb(5) – 4(2.5*1.25) - 5(2.5)
Rb = 25/5 5 ton L=5m

Σfy + =0 => Ra +5 -4(2.5) -5

Ra = 10
Va = Ra = 10
Vc1-Va = -4(2.5) => Vc1 = 10-10 = 0
Vc2-Vc1 -5 => Vc2 = 0-5 = -5

Ma = 0
Maximum moment will be located at the center of the member

Mb-MC = -5x2.5 = -12.5

Mb = -12.5+12.5 = 0
+ 2.5m
5
2.5m
+

-
12.5

5m

Collected by: En………t “Jami” 13

Q.19:
Calculate and draw the shear and moment diagram for the given member as shown in
figure in below:
5 ton 5 ton

2m 4 ton/m 2m

A B
L=5m
+ ΣmB = -RA(5) + 4(5) (2.5) + 5(3) + 5(2) = 0
As it seem the load is acting uniform ally, so RA = RB = 75/5
RA = RB = 15 ton

Based on uniformity of load diagram the maximum moment will be located at the center
of the member

15 ton

+ 7 ton
2 ton
A 2 ton B

7 ton -

22 ton-m 15 ton

A B