Sie sind auf Seite 1von 237

PRODUCTION OF 167 TONNS PER DAY OF AMMONIUM

SULFATE FROM ACID GASE WASTE STREAM

Session 2015-2019

Supervised by
Dr. Saleem Iqbal
Engr. Muhammad Rashed Javed

Group Members
Ahmer Sohail UW-15-Ch.E-BSc-007
Kamran Ahmad UW-15-Ch.E-BSc-009
Humais Roafi UW-15-Ch.E-BSc-031
Waleed bin Shakeel UW-15-Ch.E-BSc-035

Department of Chemical Engineering,


Wah Engineering College,
University of Wah, Wah Cantt.
PRODUCTION OF 167 TONNS PER DAY OF AMMONIUM
SULFATE FROM ACID GASE WASTE STREAM

This report is submitted to the Department of Chemical Engineering, Wah


Engineering College, University of Wah for the partial fulfilments of the requirement
for the

Bachelor of Science
In
Chemical Engineering

Internal Examiner:

Name: ________________

Sign: __________________

External Examiner:
Name: _________________

Sign: __________________

Department of Chemical Engineering


Wah Engineering College,
University of Wah, Wah Cantt
A great life is one, inspired by love and guided by knowledge

- Bertrand Russell
Acknowledgement

All praise for Allah, the Greatest that there ever was, the Greatest that ever will be, The Knower of
all knowledge and the Master of all universe.

The path to this study was not smooth. It contains the fruit of many sleepless nights and doubtful
moments, for this, before anybody else, we would like to thank our Parents for just being there,
becoming a source of moral support and the driving force in this testing times.

We would like to pay gratitude to Dr. Saleem Iqbal and Engr. Muhammad Rashed Javed for
challenging us, supporting us and guiding us to achieve what we thought was unimaginable just a
year before.

We would like to extend our gratitude to our whole faculty of Chemical Engineering, without
their support and devotion. It would not have been possible.

However whatever this manuscript contains, is because of the great and beautiful minds of the past,
who sacrificed their time and hard work to make this world a better place. Our deepest gratitude to
all those Engineers and Scientists who made their name and those who couldn’t.
They may not have been with us today, but their work resonates.
Abstract
The main purpose of this project is to produce Ammonium Sulfate by waste acid gas. The project
report includes discussion of project feasibility, comparison of sulfuric acid manufacturing
processes, and applications of Ammonium Sulfate. The process implied has three sections first one
is the gasification of coal, second one is the absorption section which absorbs acid gasses from
water gas and the third one is the Contact Process which produces 98% sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid
is introduced into an especially build rector usually called as contactor and gaseous stream of
Ammonia is introduced from bottom. Both ammonia and sulfuric acid reacts with each other and
crystals of ammonium sulfate are formed which falls own at the bottom and are collected. These
crystals are then concentrated and dried. Drying is usually done by Flashing. It not only removed
the water content from the product but also removes the exothermic heat of reaction. The main
advantage of this process is that it consumes all the components of water gas achieved from coal
gasification in a safe and environment friendly manner, and provides an alternate method to produce
a profitable fertilizer product.

Ammonium Sulfate provides Nitrogen and Sulfur to Plant. Nitrogen is a macro nutrient for plants,
a basic necessity for them to live and grow. Sulfur is one of the main secondary nutrient but
sometimes referred to as “Fourth Macro Nutrient”, required to condition the soil and provides green
color to leaves. Ammonium Sulfate provides 22.5% Nitrogen and 24% Sulfur. The main application
of Ammonium Sulfate is in agriculture sector. Farmers use ammonium sulfate typically where they
need supplemental Nitrogen and Sulfur to meet the nutritional requirement of growing plants.
Moreover they are used in production of fire retardant materials, DTap vaccines and dry fertilizers.

This report includes material and energy balance, designing along with HAZOP and EIA study.
The description of each equipment with designing is discussed in detail. The cost estimation of this
plant was a major and compulsory portion of this report. The plant cost, operating cost are also
determined along with payback time. The total investment of the plant is 6.69 million $/yr., net
profit is 0.17 million $/yr., and payback period is 7 yr.
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Ammonium Sulfate ..................................................................................................... 2
1.2 History ......................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Physical Properties of Ammonium Sulfate ................................................................. 3
1.4 Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonium Sulfate .................................................... 3
1.5 Industrial Applications ................................................................................................ 4
1.6 Handling of Ammonium Sulfate ................................................................................. 4
1.7 Storage ......................................................................................................................... 4
1.8 Transportation ............................................................................................................. 5
1.9 Production and Consumption in world ....................................................................... 5
1.10 Production and Consumption in Pakistan ................................................................... 6
2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS ....................................................................................... 7
2.1 Manufacturing Process ................................................................................................ 8
2.2 As By-product from Caprolactam ............................................................................... 8
2.3 Gypsum process .......................................................................................................... 9
2.4 Direct neutralization or Synthetic Manufacture ........................................................ 10
2.5 Comparative Study of Processes ............................................................................... 11
2.6 Process Selection ....................................................................................................... 11
2.7 Feed Stock and Feedstock Properties ........................................................................ 14
2.8 Capacity Selection ..................................................................................................... 15
3 MATERIAL BALANCE .................................................................................................. 20
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 21
3.2 Gasifier ...................................................................................................................... 22
3.3 Cyclone separator (CS-101) ...................................................................................... 25
3.4 Knockout Drum (V-201) ........................................................................................... 26
3.5 Absorber (C-201) ...................................................................................................... 27
3.6 Flash drum (C-202) ................................................................................................... 29
3.7 Stripper (C-203) ........................................................................................................ 30
3.8 Furnace (F-301) ......................................................................................................... 31
3.9 Dryer (D-401) ............................................................................................................ 32
3.10 4-Pass Converter (R-401) .......................................................................................... 33
3.11 Absorption Tower (V-401)........................................................................................ 36
3.12 Dilution tank (T-402) ................................................................................................ 37
3.13 Reactor (R-402) ......................................................................................................... 38

i
4 ENERGY BALANCE ...................................................................................................... 39
4.1 Energy Balance ......................................................................................................... 40
4.2 Gasifier ...................................................................................................................... 41
4.3 Waste Heat Boiler (E-101) ........................................................................................ 43
4.4 Heat Exchanger (E-102) ............................................................................................ 45
4.5 Absorber (C-201) ...................................................................................................... 48
4.6 Stripper (C-203) ........................................................................................................ 50
4.7 Furnace ...................................................................................................................... 52
5 EQUIPMENT DESIGN ................................................................................................... 55
5.1 Design of Gasifier ..................................................................................................... 56
5.2 Simulation of Gasifier ............................................................................................... 61
5.2.1 Physical Properties ............................................................................................. 61
5.2.2 Simulation Approach ......................................................................................... 62
5.2.3 Convergence ...................................................................................................... 63
5.2.4 Simulations Results............................................................................................ 64
5.3 Design of 4 Pass Convertor ....................................................................................... 66
5.4 4-Pass Convertor Simulation..................................................................................... 71
5.4.1 Process Description ............................................................................................ 71
5.4.2 Physical Properties ............................................................................................. 71
5.4.3 Simulation Approach ......................................................................................... 72
5.4.4 Simulation Results ............................................................................................. 73
5.5 Design of Furnace ..................................................................................................... 74
5.6 Design of Cyclone Separator..................................................................................... 82
5.7 Design of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101) ....................................................................... 90
5.8 Design of Heat Exchanger (E-102) ........................................................................... 97
5.9 Coal Gas Heat Exchanger (E-102) .......................................................................... 101
5.10 Heat Exchanger (E-401-A)...................................................................................... 106
5.11 Heat Exchanger (E-401-B) ...................................................................................... 111
5.12 Heat Exchanger (E-401-C) ...................................................................................... 112
5.13 Design of Absorber ................................................................................................. 113
5.14 Design of stripper .................................................................................................... 124
5.14.1 Specification Sheet........................................................................................... 133
5.15 Absorber-Stripper Simulation ................................................................................. 134
5.15.1 Components ..................................................................................................... 134
5.15.2 Process Description .......................................................................................... 135
5.15.3 Physical Properties ........................................................................................... 135

ii
5.15.4 Simulation Approach ....................................................................................... 136
5.15.5 Simulation Results ........................................................................................... 137
5.15.6 Composition Profiles ....................................................................................... 138
5.15.7 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 140
5.16 Crystallizer .............................................................................................................. 141
5.17 Sulfuric Acid Reactor .............................................................................................. 145
5.17.1 Components ..................................................................................................... 145
5.17.2 Physical Properties ........................................................................................... 145
5.17.3 Simulation Approach ....................................................................................... 146
5.17.4 Simulations Results.......................................................................................... 146
6 MECHANICAL DESIGN .............................................................................................. 148
6.1 Mechanical Design of Heat Exchanger E-102 ........................................................ 149
6.2 Design Calculations................................................................................................. 149
7 PUMPS & COMPRESSORS ......................................................................................... 154
7.1 Pumps ...................................................................................................................... 155
7.2 Pump (P-201) .......................................................................................................... 156
7.3 Pump Selection........................................................................................................ 156
7.4 Pump Sizing Calculation Steps ............................................................................... 156
7.5 Pump Calculation .................................................................................................... 157
8 COST ESTIMATION..................................................................................................... 162
8.1 Cost Estimation ....................................................................................................... 163
8.2 Capital Investment................................................................................................... 163
8.2.1 Fixed Capital Investment ................................................................................. 163
8.2.2 Working Capital ............................................................................................... 164
8.3 Capital Cost Estimates ............................................................................................ 164
8.4 Cost Indices ............................................................................................................. 164
8.5 Total Cost of Equipment in 2018 ............................................................................ 165
8.5.1 Fluidized Bed Gasifier ..................................................................................... 165
8.5.2 Cyclone Separator ............................................................................................ 165
8.5.3 Cost of Packed Bed Reactor ............................................................................ 165
8.5.4 Cost of Absorber .............................................................................................. 166
8.5.5 Cost of Stripper ................................................................................................ 166
8.5.6 Waste Heat Boiler E-101 ................................................................................. 167
8.5.7 Heat Exchanger E-201 ..................................................................................... 167
8.5.8 Heat Exchanger E-401 A ................................................................................. 168

iii
8.5.9 Heat Exchanger E-401 B ................................................................................. 168
8.5.10 Heat Exchanger E-401 C ................................................................................. 169
8.5.11 Cost of Furnace F-001 ..................................................................................... 169
8.5.12 Cost of Pump.................................................................................................... 169
8.5.13 Cost of Compressor.......................................................................................... 169
8.6 Direct Cost............................................................................................................... 170
8.7 Indirect Cost ............................................................................................................ 171
8.8 Total Production Cost.............................................................................................. 171
8.9 Variable Cost ........................................................................................................... 171
8.9.1 Miscellaneous Material .................................................................................... 172
8.9.2 Utilities............................................................................................................. 172
8.10 Fixed Operating Cost .............................................................................................. 172
8.11 Overhead Charges ................................................................................................... 173
8.12 Profitability Analysis............................................................................................... 173
8.12.1 Selling Price ..................................................................................................... 173
8.12.2 Profit ................................................................................................................ 173
8.12.3 Total Income .................................................................................................... 173
8.12.4 Depreciation ..................................................................................................... 174
8.12.5 Rate of Return .................................................................................................. 174
8.12.6 Payback Period................................................................................................. 174
9 INSTRUMENTATION .................................................................................................. 175
9.1 Objectives of Instrumentation and Control System ................................................ 176
9.2 Types of Control...................................................................................................... 179
9.3 Case Study ............................................................................................................... 180
10 HAZOP STUDY............................................................................................................. 181
10.1 Objectives of HAZOP Study ................................................................................... 182
10.2 HAZOP Study Guide Words and Meanings ........................................................... 182
10.3 Hazard and Operability Studies............................................................................... 182
10.4 What is Hazard and HAZOP? ................................................................................. 183
10.5 When to Perform HAZOP? ..................................................................................... 183
10.6 Why HAZOP carried out? ....................................................................................... 183
10.7 Types of HAZOP .................................................................................................... 183
10.8 Process HAZOP ...................................................................................................... 184
10.9 Success or Failure of HAZOP ................................................................................. 184
10.10 Steps for HAZOP Study .......................................................................................... 186
10.11 HAZOP Study on Reactor (R-001) ......................................................................... 187

iv
11 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ..................................................................................... 189
11.1 Purpose of EIA Procedure ....................................................................................... 190
11.2 Stages of EIA Procedure ......................................................................................... 190
11.3 Managing Environmental and Social Issues ........................................................... 191
11.4 Impacts on people.................................................................................................... 192
11.4.1 Resettlement ..................................................................................................... 192
11.4.2 Employment ..................................................................................................... 192
11.4.3 Population influx .............................................................................................. 192
11.4.4 Traffic .............................................................................................................. 193
11.4.5 Landscape and visual ....................................................................................... 193
11.4.6 Dust .................................................................................................................. 193
11.4.7 Air Emissions ................................................................................................... 194
11.4.8 Noise ................................................................................................................ 194
11.4.9 Local Community Benefits .............................................................................. 194
11.5 Impacts on the natural environment and resources ................................................. 194
11.5.1 Water use ......................................................................................................... 194
11.5.2 Water availability and discharge ...................................................................... 195
11.5.3 Ground conditions ............................................................................................ 195
11.5.4 Biodiversity and ecology ................................................................................. 195
11.6 Health Effects .......................................................................................................... 196
11.7 Potential Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide ............................................................. 196
11.8 Inhalation Exposure Limit of SO2 ........................................................................... 196
11.9 Potential Health Effects of Sulfur Trioxide............................................................. 197
11.10 Inhalation Exposure Limit of SO3 ........................................................................... 197
References .............................................................................................................................. 198
Appendix A ............................................................................................................................ 200
Appendix B ............................................................................................................................ 204
Appendix C ............................................................................................................................ 209
Appendix D ............................................................................................................................ 214
Appendix E ............................................................................................................................ 217
Nomenclature ......................................................................................................................... 222

v
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Ammonium Sulfate Production in World ............................................................... 5
Figure 1.2: Ammonium Sulfate Import in Pakistan ................................................................... 6
Figure 2.1: Synthesis of Ammonium Sulfate as byproduct of Caprolactam ............................. 9
Figure 2.2: Manufacturing of Ammonium Sulfate through Gypsum ...................................... 10
Figure 2.3: Process Flow Diagram of Production of Ammonium Sulfate .............................. 16
Figure 3.1: Gasifier (GR-101).................................................................................................. 22
Figure 3.2: Cyclone separator (CS-101) .................................................................................. 25
Figure 3.3: Knockout Drum (V-201) ....................................................................................... 26
Figure 3.4: Absorber (C-201) .................................................................................................. 27
Figure 3.5: Flash drum (C-202) ............................................................................................... 29
Figure 3.6: Stripper (C-203) .................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.7: Furnace (F-301) ..................................................................................................... 31
Figure 3.8: Dryer (D-401) ........................................................................................................ 32
Figure 3.9: 4-Pass Converter (R-401) ...................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.10: Absorption Tower (V-401) .................................................................................. 36
Figure 3.11: Dilution tank (T-402) .......................................................................................... 37
Figure 3.12: Reactor (R-402) ................................................................................................... 38
Figure 4.1: Energy Flow through gasifier ................................................................................ 41
Figure 4.2: Energy Flow Through E-101 ................................................................................. 43
Figure 4.3: Energy Flow Through E-102 ................................................................................. 45
Figure 4.4: Energy Flow through Absorber (C-201) ............................................................... 48
Figure 4.5: Energy Flow through Stripper (C-203) ................................................................. 50
Figure 4.6: Energy Flow through Furnace (F-301) .................................................................. 52
Figure 5.1: Gasifier (GR-101).................................................................................................. 56
Figure 5.2: Moving Bed Coal Gasifier .................................................................................... 61
Figure 5.3: Simulation Coal Gasification ............................................................................... 62
Figure 5.4: Monsato 4-Pass Reactor (R-401) .......................................................................... 66
Figure 5.5: Approach of Simulating Coal Gasification ........................................................... 72
Figure 5.6: Furnace (F-301) ..................................................................................................... 74
Figure 5.7: Cyclone Separator ................................................................................................. 82
Figure 5.8: Standard Cyclone Dimension ................................................................................ 83
Figure 5.9: Proposed Cyclone .................................................................................................. 88
Figure 5.10: Waste Heat Boiler (E-101) .................................................................................. 90

vi
Figure 5.11: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (E-102) ............................................................. 97
Figure 5.12: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (E-401-A) ........................................................... 106
Figure 5.13: Simulation Flowsheet of absorber and stripper ................................................. 136
Figure 5.14: Aspen Plus simulation flowsheet of Absorber .................................................. 146
Figure 6.1: Mechanical Parts of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger ......................................... 149
Figure 6.2: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (E-102) ............................................................. 149
Figure 7.1: Capacity to Head graph for pumps selection....................................................... 156
Figure 7.2: Rules of Thumb for locating equipment.............................................................. 157
Figure 7.3: Estimation of ED and ES ...................................................................................... 158
Figure 7.4: Tentative efficiencies of standard pumps types .................................................. 159
Figure 7.5: Tentative efficiencies of standard motors types .................................................. 159
Figure 7.6: Standard motor Horsepower ................................................................................ 160
Figure 9.1: Instrumentation and Control on Furnace ............................................................. 180
Figure 10.1: Flow Diagram of Steps for HAZOP Study ....................................................... 186
Figure 11.1: Stages of EIA Procedure ................................................................................... 191

vii
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Sulfur Percentage Composition of Different Fertilizers ........................................... 2
Table 1.2: Physical Properties of Ammonium Sulfate............................................................... 3
Table 1.3: Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonium Sulfate .................................................. 3
Table 2.1: Comparative Studies of Different Manufacturing Processes.................................. 11
Table 2.2: Coal properties and quality of the probable sites in Pakistan ................................. 14
Table 3.1: Ultimate Analysis of Coal ...................................................................................... 22
Table 3.2: Material Balance on Gasifier .................................................................................. 24
Table 3.3: Material Balance on Cyclone Separator (CS-101) ................................................. 25
Table 3.4: Material Balance on Knockout Drum (V-201) ....................................................... 26
Table 3.5: Material Balance on Absorber (C-201) .................................................................. 28
Table 3.6: Material Balance on Flash Drum (C-202) .............................................................. 29
Table 3.7: Material Balance on Stripper (C-203) .................................................................... 30
Table 3.8: Material Balance on Furnace (F-301) ..................................................................... 31
Table 3.9: Material Balance on Dryer (D-401) ........................................................................ 32
Table 3.10: Material Balance on 1st pass Converter ............................................................... 33
Table 3.11: Material Balance on 2nd pass Converter .............................................................. 34
Table 3.12: Material Balance on 3rd pass Converter ............................................................... 35
Table 3.13: Material Balance on 4th pass Converter ............................................................... 35
Table 3.14: Material Balance on Absorption Tower (V-401).................................................. 36
Table 3.15: Material Balance on Dilution Tank (T-402) ......................................................... 37
Table 3.16: Material Balance on Reactor (R-402) ................................................................... 38
Table 4.1: Thermodynamic Coefficients of components for enthalpy calculation .................. 40
Table 4.2: Gasifier outlet gas enthalpy calculation .................................................................. 42
Table 4.3: Energy balance at Inlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101) ........................................... 43
Table 4.4: Energy balance at outlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101) ......................................... 44
Table 4.5: Energy balance at Inlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-102) ........................................... 46
Table 4.6: Energy balance at Outlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-102) ........................................ 46
Table 4.7: C-201 Inlet Gas Enthalpy Calculation .................................................................... 48
Table 4.8: C-201 Outlet Gas Enthalpy Calculation ................................................................. 49
Table 4.9: Heat of formation coefficients for sulfur oxidation reaction .................................. 52
Table 5.1: Density of Gas ........................................................................................................ 56
Table 5.2: Component Attribution of Coal Used in our Model ............................................... 62
Table 5.3: Blocks Used in the Simulation and their Functions................................................ 63

viii
Table 5.4: The convergence parameters for the Gasifier ......................................................... 63
Table 5.5: feed conditions of coal, steam, and oxygen streams ............................................... 64
Table 5.6: Results at the Outlet of the Gasifier ........................................................................ 65
Table 5.7: Flowrates & Densities of Reaction Components .................................................... 67
Table 5.8: Required Data of Components................................................................................ 68
Table 5.9: Blocks Used in the Simulation and their Functions................................................ 72
Table 5.10: Simulation Results ................................................................................................ 73
Table 5.11: Flowrates of Components ..................................................................................... 76
Table 5.12: Sensible Heat of incoming Air Qa ........................................................................ 77
Table 5.13: Heat Carried Over by Gas Qg ............................................................................... 77
Table 5.14: Flue Gas Composition .......................................................................................... 79
Table 5.15: Partial Pressure Calculations ................................................................................ 79
Table 5.16: Density and Mole Fraction of Gases .................................................................... 83
Table 5.17: Comparison between Packed and Plate Column ................................................ 114
Table 5.18: Comparison between Packed and Plate Column ................................................ 124
Table 5.19: Chemical Species Present in the Process ............................................................ 135
Table 5.20: Blocks Used in Simulation and Their Functions ................................................ 137
Table 5.21: Simulation Results .............................................................................................. 138
Table 5.22: Chemical Species Present in the Process ............................................................ 145
Table 5.23: Simulations Results ............................................................................................ 146
Table 8.1: Total Cost of Equipment’s .................................................................................... 170
Table 8.2: Direct Cost ............................................................................................................ 170
Table 8.3: Indirect Cost.......................................................................................................... 171
Table 8.4: Fixed Operating Cost ............................................................................................ 172
Table 9.1: Measured Process Variables, Devices and Comments ......................................... 177
Table 10.1: HAZOP Study Guide Words and Meanings ....................................................... 182
Table 10.2: HAZOP Study on Furnace .................................................................................. 187
Table 11.1: AEGLs for Sulfur trioxide .................................................................................. 197

ix
CHAPTER 1
1 INTRODUCTION

1
Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Ammonium Sulfate


Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] turned into one of the main and maximum typically used nitrogen
(N) fertilizers for crop production. It is now less common however especially where both N and
sulfur (S) are vital. Its excessive solubility affords adaptability for a number of agricultural
programs.

Formers use ammonium sulfate typically where they need supplemental Nitrogen and Sulfur to
meet the nutritional requirement of growing plants. Since ammonium sulfate incorporates most
effective 21 percent N, different fertilizer resources more focused and reasonable to deal with and
delivery often make a properly choice for N-deficient fields. However, it presents a first-rate supply
of S, which facilitates or drives many vital plant functions, containing protein synthesis.

Because the N2 fraction is present highly within the ammonium form of ammonium sulfate, rice
farmers generally use it to drowned soils, due to the fact that nitrate-based totally fertilizers are a
bad desire due to DE nitrification losses.

Other than Nitrogen, Ammonium Sulfate holds the most amount of sulfur than any other fertilizer.
Although Sulfur is deliberated a secondary nutrient, it is now suitable popular as the 'fourth
macronutrient', beside with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Oil vegetation, legumes, forages
and a few vegetable flora need sulfur in substantial quantities. The most common place fertilizers
holding Sulfur are listed with in the table below:
Table 1.1: Sulfur Percentage Composition of Different Fertilizers

Name Sulfur Percentage Suitability for fertigation

Ammonium Sulfate 24 Suitable

Calcium sulfate (gypsum) 15-18 Not suitable

Magnesium sulfate 16 Not suitable

Potassium sulfate 18 Not suitable

Superphosphate (normal) 14 Not suitable

Potassium magnesium sulfate 22 Suitable

1.2 History
Ammonium sulfate (sometimes abbreviated as AS or AMS) has been made for over a hundred and
fifty years. Firstly, it changed into entire from ammonia launched at some point of manufacturing
coal gasoline (used to mild up cities) or from coal coke used to produce metal. It is prepared from
a reaction of heated ammonia with sulfuric acid. The size of the resulting crystals is determined by
using adjusting the reaction situations. Most of the present demand for ammonium sulfate is met
with the aid of making from by means of-products of various industries. For example, ammonium
sulfate is a by-product in the developed system of nylon. Certain products that include ammonia or
spent sulfuric acid are extensively converted to ammonium sulfate to be used in agriculture. While

2
Chapter 1 Introduction

the colour can range from white to beige, its miles constantly bought as a tremendously soluble
crystal that has fantastic storage residences. The particle size can diverge depending on its meant
cause.
Today, creators make it by reacting sulfuric acid with heated ammonia. To get the crystal size fine
suitable for the application, they control the response conditions by way of screening and drying
the debris till finishing the desired length. Specific materials are used to decrease caking.

1.3 Physical Properties of Ammonium Sulfate


Table 1.2: Physical Properties of Ammonium Sulfate

Formula (NH4)2SO4
Molecular weight 132.14 g/mol
Color White to beige
Specific Gravity of saturated solution 1.2414 at 20oC
pH 5.0
Nitrogen Content 21.2%
Density of Solid at 20oC 1.769 g/cm3
Solubility, g/100g of water
At 0oC 70.6
At 100oC 103.8

1.4 Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonium Sulfate


Table 1.3: Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonium Sulfate

Melting Point 512.2oC


Specific Heat of Solid 0.345 cal/g-oC at 91oC
Specific Heat of Saturated Solutions 0.67 cal/g-oC at 20oC
0.63 cal/g-oC at 100oC
Heat of Crystallization 11.6 kcal/kg from 42% to 1.8%
Heat of Dilution 6.35 kcal/kg from 42% to 1.8%
Thermal Stability Decomposes above 280oC
Solubility, g/100g of water
At 0oC 70.6
At 100oC 103.8

3
Chapter 1 Introduction

1.5 Industrial Applications


1. It is most broadly used in fertilizer industries.

2. In fire retardant materials the compounds’ non-flammable matters assist to withstand


combustion.
3. As a fertilizer the compound lowers the pH stability of the soil despite the fact that
contributing nitrogen that is important for plant growth.
4. It is regularly used in aggregate with other materials, which includes urea, to make dry
fertilizers.
5. It is a good supply of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane
and fiber plants.
6. It is similarly used as a not unusual reason food additive, dough conditioner and food for
yeast.
7. In medicine, ammonium sulfate performs a major function in the increase of vaccines. The
DTaP vaccine, for instance, which continues youngsters from diphtheria, tetanus and
whooping cough, uses ammonium sulfate inside the cleansing manner.
8. Used in rice and jute cultivation.

1.6 Handling of Ammonium Sulfate


Ammonium Sulfate might be dealt with care, although it has no bad results and is thermally very
set up, however it may have oblique health and protection issues.

There may be Ammonium Sulfate dust particles inside the place where it is stored, which if inhaled
can motive breathing issues and for this face mask could be used. In case of too much dust, artificial
ventilators could be used inclusive by Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA).

Otherwise Ammonium Sulfate isn't a carcinogen, non-poisonous and does not irritate clinical
situation upon constant and extended exposure.
Ammonium Sulfate can be burned at high temperatures. Its flash point is 93.3oC (200oF).

Ammonium sulfate non-combustible. This substance itself does no longer burn, however might also
damage upon heating to provide corrosive and toxic fumes.
However if accidently mixed with oxidizers comparable potassium chlorate, potassium nitrate or
potassium nitrite, there may be a burst exposure at some point of hearth. A mixture of ammonium
sulfate and ammonium nitrate can be without difficulty detonated through the usage of potassium
or sodium-potassium alloy.

1.7 Storage
Several factors make contributions to trouble loose garage of ammonium sulfate and specific
fertilizers. First, the product is probably of constant crystal length and include a low percentage of
traces. It needs to be dry and preferably have a less 0.1 percent loose moisture. No free acidity might
be cooled with dry air under managed situation after drying, in the main even as the ambient

4
Chapter 1 Introduction

temperature and humidity are important excessive to cause consequent moisture condensation after
cooling in a bulk storage pile or in sealed bags.

For storage it is required to store in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated
location. Protect against physical damage should be supplied. Isolation from incompatible factors
can insured. Containers of this material may be risky while empty considering the reality that they
recall product residues (dust, solids).

1.8 Transportation
Due to non-toxic, non-corrosive nature of ammonium sulfate, no precise precaution wants to be
taken for its transportation. Ammonium sulfate is generally have to be in market in 50kg bags, that's
transported through street by vans. For transportation best one component is vital to be deliberated
that it does now not get moist alongside the way.

1.9 Production and Consumption in world


Ammonium sulfate is mainly used as fertilizer material, minor quantities are used for non-farming
purposes, as animals feed supplement, for pharma projects, and for flame proofing, mining, tanning,
fermentation, coloring of materials and water treatment. In 2015, 95% of the world production of
ammonium sulfate was using it as nitrogenous fertilizer. Currently ammonium sulfate makes only
5% of the total fertilizer use in the world

World utilization of ammonium sulfate is concentrate in Southeast Asia, China, Central and South
America, Western Europe, and the United States.

Figure 1.1: Ammonium Sulfate Production in World, (UNO)

In recent years, more of the ammonium sulfate production is from the countries which are heavily
industrialized. Most of the ammonium product is being produced as a byproduct of different
processes. Because most of the ammonium sulfate is being produced involuntarily, its production
rate relies on the growth of industry rather than the increase in demand. As a result major increase
in production came in china due to its rapidly growing industry. Though China is still not the biggest

5
Chapter 1 Introduction

producer of the world, but during 2000-2015 its capacity grew 15%, and is forecast to slow down
to 5% in the next 5 years.

In US majority of the ammonium sulfate production as a byproduct of the industry, but it’s market
is matured and is expected to increase only 3% from 2015-2020.

Total consumption in the world per year decreased down to 0.3% per year during 1987-99, but grew
at an exaggerating rate of 2.8% annually during 2000-15, and it is forecast to grow at 2.4% annually
during 2015-20.

1.10 Production and Consumption in Pakistan


Agritech (Formerly Pak-American Fertilizers LTD) was the sole Nitrogenous and the primary
Sulfate fertilizer plant constructed in Pakistan. It was commissioned in 1958 with manufacturing
capability of 50000 MTPA of Ammonium Sulphate based on natural coal & gypsum as uncooked
substances. The performance become better to 90000 MTPA in 1968. In 1973 the plant become
modernized from coal gasification to Natural Gas.
Due to venerable the Ammonium Sulphate Plant operation emerge as uneconomical, consequently
it was estimated and the obtaining older Ammonium Sulphate Plant became changed with new,
State of the Art MW Kellogg’s Process Ammonia & Toyo’s ACES Urea Plant.
Old Ammonium Sulphate plant was closed on June 30, 1997.

At present there is no plant in Pakistan this is producing Ammonium Sulfate at the moment. All the
Ammonium Sulfate has been through imports. There has been a reducing trend of Ammonium
Sulfate imports in Pakistan due to shifting of interest of farmers closer to Urea.

Ammonium Sulfate Import


120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Ammonium Sulfate Import

Figure 1.2: Ammonium Sulfate Import in Pakistan, National Fertilizers Development Centre (NFDC)

As latest as April 2018, there only has been 2000 tons of Ammonium Sulfate imported in the month
of worth Rs. 56841 thousand. The total annual imports in 2016 were 24,721 tonnes of Ammonium
Sulfate.

6
CHAPTER 2
2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS

7
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

2.1 Manufacturing Process


Currently in the world, Ammonium Sulfate is usually produced as the byproduct of different
processes such as production of nylon, in which very huge amount of Ammonium Sulfate is
produced. In fact the yield of Ammonium Sulfate is even greater than actually required product,
which is Caprolactam. However, in order to select the process, some more processes are studied
Manufacturing of ammonium sulfate is usually done by one of the following process

 As by-product from Caprolactam


 Recovery from cock oven
 Direct neutralization
 Gypsum process

2.2 As By-product from Caprolactam


Reaction:
Phenol + (NH2OH)2.H2SO4 + 2NH3 → Cyclohexanone + (NH4)2SO4 + H2O
Cyclohexanone + H2SO4 → Caprolactam + 1/2(NH4)2SO4

Manufacturing:
One of the method of production of Ammonium Sulfate is via manufacturing of Caprolactam.
Cyclohexane is introduced into oxidation chamber at about 165oC and 15 kg/cm2 pressure, it is
oxidized there and is converted into Cyclohexanol. The reaction also yields cyclohexanone. This
cyclohexanone is distilled out of the solution by a series of distillation towers. Cyclohexanol is then
also converted into cyclohexanone in to dehydrogenation tower.

Ammonia for the process is through Habor-Bosch Process. Ammonia is reacted by water and carbon
dioxide in a reactor. The ammonium carbonate is formed is then reacted with gaseous SO2 in
another reactor to form Ammonium Sulfate. Ammonium Sulfate sludge settles at the bottom of
Hydroxyl amine sulfate, which is separated out from the top. The recovered hydroxyl amine sulfate
is reacted with cyclohexanone in another oxidation chamber and hence the process of production
of Caprolactam carries on, the details of which is out of our scope

The waste liquor containing 35% solution of ammonium sulfate is concentrated, and ammonium
sulfate, is recovered by crystallization, centrifuging and drying.
A large amounts of ammonium sulphate - up to 4.5 tonnes/tonne of Caprolactam - are produced by
this procedure. Because ammonium Sulfate is a byproduct in this process, almost all the
development work is concentrating on reducing this byproduct. Recent development of the process
has reduced the production Ammonium Sulfate to only 1.5 tonne/tonne of Caprolactam.

8
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

Figure 2.1: Synthesis of Ammonium Sulfate as byproduct of Caprolactam

2.3 Gypsum process


Raw materials

 Ammonia
 CO2
 Gypsum

Sources of raw material


Ammonia can be synthesized by Haber – Bosch or Modern process and CO2 shall be obtained from
any source.

Reaction
2NH3 + H2O + CO2 → (NH4)2CO3
(NH4)2CO3 + CaSO4 → (NH4)2SO4 + CaCO3
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

Manufacturing
Ammonia is manufactured by Haber process and CO2 is manufactured by heating limestone.
Ammonia is absorbed in water and gaseous CO2 is passed through it at a pressure of about 2 kg/cm2
in a tower that is packed with aluminium rings.
The formed liquor has proportions of about 170 grams of ammonia and 225 grams of CO2 per liter
of water.
Natural anhydrite gypsum is ground to such a size that 90% of the material can pass through a sieve
of mesh size 120. If the gypsum is used from a phosphoric acid plant, formed as a byproduct,

9
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

repulping of cake is done to remove the impurities, and then is washed and dewatered on drum or
disc filters.

Now ground Gypsum is fed into aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate in proper proportions,
in humungous tanks. Reaction of Ammonium Carbonate is done in series of tanks and vessels made
of wood or mild steel, steam coils are provided to provide temperature and agitators for proper
mixing. Ammonia and CO2 is passed through |Gypsum until all of it is converted into Calcium
Carbonate. The calcium carbonate is gathered at the bottom in the cake form which is then washed
and dewatered and dried. Calcium carbonate formed as byproduct is then used as raw material for
cement industries.

Figure 2.2: Manufacturing of Ammonium Sulfate through Gypsum

2.4 Direct neutralization or Synthetic Manufacture


Raw materials
Basis: 1000kg of ammonium sulfate
Ammonia (30%) = 800kg
Sulfuric acid (90%) = 900kg

Sources of raw material


Ammonia can be synthesized by Haber–Bosch or Modern process and Sulfuric acid can be obtained
by contact process

Reaction
2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4

Manufacturing
Ammonium sulfate made with manufactured ammonia is called synthetic ammonium sulfate. The
heat of reaction of anhydrous ammonia and concentrated sulfuric acid obtained by contact process
is very high. Ammonia is introduced into an especially build rector usually called as contactor and

10
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

liquid stream of concentrated sulfuric acid is showered from the top. Both ammonia and sulfuric
acid reacts with each other and crystals of ammonium sulfate are formed which falls own at the
bottom and are collected. These crystals are then concentrated and dried. Drying is usually done by
Flashing. It not only removed the water content from the product but also removes the exothermic
heat of reaction. Water is collected from the top and is condensed and circulate back to be retreat
again and be used in the process.

Due to corrosive nature of Ammonium Sulfate, the parts of machinery handling the slurry form of
Ammonium Sulfate is made up of stainless steel and/or are lined with rubber from the inside. In
order to enhance the size and shape of Ammonium Sulfate crystal, special modifiers are used e.g.
trivalent salts of metals. A very minute quantity of arsenic and phosphorus compounds are also used
to inhibit the corrosion of the process.

2.5 Comparative Study of Processes


Comparison of production methods are as follows
Table 2.1: Comparative Studies of Different Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Production of Direct By Gypsum


Processes Caprolactam Neutralization

Ammonia and
Feedstock Cyclohexanone Gypsum Rock
Sulfuric acid
Nature of Feed Stock Liquid Gaseous Solid
Very high yield of Raw material is
Advantages Ammonium Sulfate as waste gas of coal No gaseous emissions
byproduct gasification
Required product is Requires a lot of
Very expensive raw
Disadvantages by product of the unit process to make
material
process Ammonium Sulfate
Studies are going on
Studies going for
to reduce the
State of the Art maximize utilization Very old technology.
production of
of raw materials
Ammonium Sulfate
Hydroxyl Amine
By Product Syn Gas Calcium Carbonate
Sulfate
Environmental No environmental Emission of stack Gypsum dust in the air
Impact Impact gasses due to grinding process

2.6 Process Selection


Due to very high reserves of coal in Pakistan, the most feasible process for production Ammonium
Sulfate in our country would be through Direct Neutralization of waste acid gas.
Some of the other benefits of this process over other processes are

11
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

 It utilizes waste gas of coal gasification or as we usually know them as Off Gas. These off
gasses are either liberated into atmosphere through stack which is an environmental concern
or they are incinerated, consuming a lot of energy.
 Very huge reserves of coal are found in Pakistan. The aim of which is to use that coal for
power generation. This can be done by gasification of coal. This process allows us to fully
maximize the use of our coal reserves and convert into more than one useful products.
 Process involves much matured unit processes about which information is readily available.
Processes such as Gasification, absorption, stripping, and reactors.

Direct Neutralization or Synthetic Manufacturing


In this process the coalfield itself serve as the gasifier, reducing the need of specially designed
gasifier. In underground gasifier the steam and oxygen are fed, they gasify the coal and convert it
into the H2, CO, CO2, H2S, and NH3 gases, these gases when leave the underground gasifier contain
some solid particles. The solid particles are removed by using cyclone. Then the gas is sent for
further process like water gas shift reaction to convert CO into CO2, removal of acid gases,
conversion of H2S into SO2 and SO3, conversion of Sulfuric acid, and then react together with
ammonia to form ammonium sulphate.

Coal Gasifier
Coal gasifier is produced by drilling two wells, one for injection of raw material and other for the
collection of produce gases in result of gasification, special techniques of drilling are used, there
should be a follow link between two wells, so material can flow continuously. The method of
achieving flow between wells is accurate drilling assisted by a target device in the vertical well if
necessary.

The oxygen and steam are injected to gasifier through injection, it reacts with the coal and gasify it
resulting combustible gases which came out to the surface through the production well. The
resulting gases contain some solid particles which are removed by using cyclone. During the
gasification process cavity is formed which reduce the efficiency of the process. In that case fresh
coal is ignited along the injection well, as the cavity grows the roof of the gasifier become weak
and can collapse which result in lateral growth. After that the coal is allowed to burn until the quality
of the gases is doctorates. This lateral formation is an important factor of determining whether
process is economical or not.

Cyclone Separator
When we received the gas from the gasifier, the gas contains some solid particles which are removed
by using high efficiency cyclone separators, in which the gas is moved in circular direction. The
heavy solid particles move in greater radius along the wall due to greater density and are removed
from bottom and gas is collected from top.

Heat Exchangers
The gases from the gasifier came out at high temperatures, so after passing them from cyclone they
are sent to the heat exchange where they exchange heat with water to convert it into steam which is
used as reactant in gasifier, to make the process economical.

12
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

H2S Absorber
After removal of steam in knockout drum gaseous mixture is then passed into the H2S absorber
where H2S is separated by absorbing it in a MDEA/Rectisol solution. Absorbent is added into the
absorber through the top of the column whereas the gaseous mixture is entered through the bottom
of the column. When the contact occurs between absorbent and gaseous mixture H2S gets absorb in
the absorbent and H2S rich solution is obtained from the bottom of the absorber which is then passed
into the stripper in order to recover the absorbent which is again re-entered into the absorber through
the top. After removal of H2S hydrogen obtains from the top of the absorber having some traces of
methane.

Stripper
H2S rich solution obtain from the bottom of the absorber is passed into the stripper here H2S is
removed from the absorbent by applying heat or by applying steam. After removal of H2S absorbent
is recovered which is again passed into the absorber for CO2 separation whereas from the top of the
stripper H2S is obtained which is condensed and stored.

Burner Gas Treatment


Sulfur dioxide gas that is produced by burning with the excess of air in the burner contains
impurities such as carbon dioxide, chlorine, arsenic, Fluorine, nitrogen and some amount of dust.
To stop corrosion from the burner gas it is necessary to dry the air for burning the sulfur and
oxidizing sulfur dioxide until the moisture is removed. In order to obtain high conversion, gases are
cooled up to 425 to 440oC before enter into the first stage of the converter. Between the catalyst
stages gases are cooled through heat exchanger to obtain high conversion.

Reactions
S + O2 SO2 ΔH = -298.3 kJmol-1 at 25oC
SO2 + ½ O2 SO3 ΔH = -98.3 kJmol-1 at 25◦C
SO3 + H2O H2SO4 ΔH = -130 kJmol-1 at 25◦C

Catalytic Convertor
The reaction of SO2 into SO3 is an exothermic and reversible reaction. It is desired to carry the
reaction at a low temperature. At 400oC, equilibrium is advantageous and about 100 percent. The
definite procedure in the contact takes advantage for both the rate and equilibrium. First allow gases
to enter first part of the catalyst stage at about 425 to 440oC, as the reaction proceeds temperature
is increase adiabatically. Reaction rate strongly dependent on the temperature but begins to slow
down as equilibrium is reached. The reaction principally stops when 60 to 70 percent conversion is
achieved at the temperature of about 600oC. Before passing through the remainder of the catalyst
the gas is cool down in the heat exchanger until the temperature becomes 430oC. By using this
procedure 97 to 98 percent yield is obtained and the reaction rate goes fast.

13
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

2.7 Feed Stock and Feedstock Properties


Coal:
Coal is an ignitable arduous rock used as fossil fuel. It primarily consists of carbon (65-95%) carbon
and conjointly contains elements like sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and other hydrocarbon elements. It
formed of under pressure decay of vegetable matter.

Classification of Coal:
Coal are classified into four main types on the basis of amount of carbon it contains, its calorific
value, and moisture content.

 Lignite
 Subbituminous
 Bituminous
 Anthracite.

Coal Resources in Pakistan:


The coal deposit were known before independence, in Pakistan, however its economic value was
highlighted in 1980 once giant reserves of coal were discovered in Lakhra and Sonda areas of Sindh
province. Another huge discovery of coal deposit in Tharparkar makes a quantum increase in the
coal resources of Pakistan. After this Pakistan becomes the 6th richest country in respect of coal
deposits. The total coal resources of Pakistan are estimated to be 185.5 billion tonnes.
Total potential of generating 100,000 MW of electricity for over 200 years.

Coal Properties:
Coal found in Pakistan is mostly Lignite coal, but its reserves are situated in many places, the quality
of coal also differs from each other. Quality of coal from the country’s biggest reserves are as
follows
Table 2.2: Coal properties and quality of the probable sites in Pakistan

Reserve Quantity Moisture Ash Volatile Fixed Sulfur Heating


Location Bn. Ton % Content Matter Carbon % Value
% % % Btu/lb
Thar 175 29.60-55.5 2.9-11.50 23.1-36.6 14.2-34 0.4-2.9 6244-11045
Lakhra 1.328 9.7-38.1 4.3-49 18.3-38.6 9.8-38.2 1.2-14.8 5503-9158
Sonda 7.112 9-48 2.7-52 16.1-44.2 8.9-58.8 0.2-15 5219-13555

Feed Stock Availability


Feedstock for our plant will mainly be from Sonda, it has reasonable large amount of coal reserves.
But the main feature of that coal is that it has very high amount of sulfur content. High amount of
sulfur actually makes a bad quality of coal making it unfit for gasification purposes, for hydrogen
production or for synthesis of natural gas. But for production of Ammonium Sulfate, large amount
of SO2 is required. And for that, coal with high sulfur content would be ideal for use.

14
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process

2.8 Capacity Selection


Currently, there is no plant in Pakistan that is producing Ammonium Sulfate. The only Ammonium
sulfate that is coming in the market is via exports. This poses an impact on the trade of balance of
our country.

Currently the consumption of Ammonium Sulfate is on the low as compared to other fertilizers in
Pakistan due to shift of farmers towards Urea as their main Nitrogenous Fertilizers.
As latest as April 2018, only 2000 tonnes of Ammonium Sulfate is being imported to Pakistan per
month at the cost of Rs.568 Million. The Annual Imports therefor is about 24,071 tonnes.

Our capacity selection is on the basis of Imports of Ammonium sulfate. This way, Pakistan will
become independent in production and it will leave a good impact regarding balancing the trade
deficit.
So to cater the import deficit the capacity of the plant in tonnes per day would be.
= 24,710 tons 1 year = 68 TPD
Year 365 days

According to the world, the consumption of Ammonium Sulfate in the next 5 year will be at a very
slow rate of 2.4%. Extrapolating the same trend for the next 5 years we get.
Tonnes of increase per year = 68 Tonnes*0.24 = 16.47 TPD
For the next five years, increase in consumption will be = 16.47*5 = 82.35 TPD
Plant capacity required after 5 years = 68+82.35 = 150.35 TPD

Plant will be operational for about 330 days only, due to outage for maintenance, to cater that
production loss, our capacity of the plant needs to be = 150.35/ 0.90 = 167.05 TPD

15
Off Gasses
54
To Flare
52
Ammo nia
38
D-401 R-401
39 V-401 50 51 R-402
41
F-301 40 E-401-B
E-401-A 42
43

44 55

E-401-C Cr-401
49 53
Ammo nium Sulfate
45 46
37
35
32 CH 4

31 Water Purified Syn Gas For NH3 Synthesis


47
T-401 T-402 K-201 19 15

36 48 P-403
B-301 P-401
Air
30

29
18
1
V-202 26 25
N2
Air 3
CD-201
24
27
Air 28
K-101 2 Separation
Unit
P-202

21
Steam GR-101

C-203
Coal C-202 17
9
Steam
C-201
7 LPS

CS-101 Rb-201 E-201 20

22 23
E-101 16 14

TX-201
P-201
8
10 K-102 11 12

E-102 V-201
13

Figure 2.3: Process Flow Diagram of Production of Ammonium Sulfate

R-401, R-402 CS-101 C-201 C-202 E-101, E-102 E-201, E-301 K-101, K-102 RB-201 CD-201 CR-401 D-101
Reactor Cyclone Separator Absorber Stripper Heat exchanger Heat exchanger Compressor Reboiler Condenser Crystallizer Dryer
Components Stream Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Carbon - - - - - 5584.38 - - - - - -
Sulfur - - - - - 1424.58 - - - - - -
O2 3038.01 3038.01 - 3038.01 - 483.40 - - - - - -
N2 10058.91 10058.91 10058.91 - - 130.11 79.264 - 79.264 79.26 79.26 79.26
H2 - - - - - 469.16 494.40 - 494.40 494.40 494.40 494.40
H2S - - - - - - 857.55 - 857.552 857.55 857.55 857.55
CO2 - - - - - - 4582.20 - 4582.20 4582.20 4582.20 4582.2
CO - - - - - - 4556.87 - 4556.87 4556.87 4556.87 4556.8
CH4 - - - - - - 265.82 - 265.82 265.82 265.82 265.82
H2O - - - - - 873.74 1401.76 - 1401.76 1401.7 1401.7 1401.7
Steam - - - - 2397.13 - - - - - - -
Ash - - - - - 531.84 345.69 186.14 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52
Slag - - - - - - - 3564.42 - - - -
Temp (oC) 25 25 25 25 233.33 250 970 970 970 250 250 55
Pressure(bar) 1.00 30 30 30 30 1 28.97 28.97 28.78 27.98 32.5 32

17
Components Stream Numbers
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
N2 - 79.26 79.26 - - - - - - - - -
H2 - 494.40 494.40 - - - - - - - - -
H2S - 857.55 0.428 857.12 857.12 - - 857.12 857.12 - - -
CO2 - 4582.2 4353.09 229.11 229.11 229.11 229.11 - - - - -
CO - 4556.8 4556.8 - - - - - - - - -
CH4 - 265.82 265.82 - - - - - - - - -
H2O 1401.62 0.140 - - - - - - - - - -
Selexol - - - 62388.30 62388.30 - - 62388.30 62388.30 71746.52 71746.52 71746.5
o
Temp ( C) 55 55 51 52 51.5 51.5 51.5 51 120 120 120 55
Pressure(bar) 32 32 31.9 32 6 6 31.9 6 2.31 2.31 32 32

Components Stream Numbers


25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
O2 - - - - - 1751.11 1751.11 - 50 549.52 - -
N2 - - - - - 6587.51 6587.51 - 940.47 6587.91 - -
H2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
H2S 857.123 857.123 - - 857.123 - - - - 5.99 5.99 -
SO2 - - - - - - - - 137.5 1602.11 - -
CO - - - - - - - - - - - -
CH4 - - - - - - 94 94 - - - -
H2O 54.21 54.21 54.21 54.21 - - - - 56.25 450.59 450.59 -
H2SO4 - - - - - - - - - - 2470.53 2470.53
Temp (oC) 120 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 460 970 70 70
Pressure(bar) 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.3 1 1 1 1 2.986 2.98 1

18
Components Stream Numbers
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
O2 - 549.52 253.13 253.13 179.43 179.43 162.21 162.21 157.00 - - -
N2 - 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 6587.51 - - -
SO2 - 1602.11 416.55 416.55 121.76 121.76 52.86 52.86 32.04 - - -
SO3 - - 1481.95 1481.95 1850.44 1850.44 1936.55 1936.55 1962.59 - - -
H2O - - - - - - - - - - 534.52 97.18
H2SO4 2470.53 - - - - - - - - - - 4762.17
H2S2O7 - - - - - - - - - 4324.82 - -
o
Temp ( C) 70 420 600 485 485 443 443 430 427 105 70 87
Pressure(atm) 2.98 2.30 2.27 2.23 2.2 2.01 1.73 1.51 1.423 1.325 1.369 1.62

Components Stream Numbers


49 50 51 52 53 54 55
O2 - - - 157.07 - - -
N2 - - - 6587.51 - - -
SO2 - - - 32.04 - - -
SO3 - - - 19.62 - - -
H2O 97.18 - - - - - -
NH3 - - - - - 1900.08 -
H2SO4 4762.17 2381.08 2381.04 - - - -
(NH4)2SO4 - - - - 6414.35 - 6414.35
H2S2O7 - - - - - -
Temp (oC) 87 87 87 85 85 60 35
Pressure(atm) 1.62 1.423 1.20 1 1.20 1.20 1

19
CHAPTER 3
3 MATERIAL BALANCE

20
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.1 Introduction
Material balances are the basis of process design. A material balance is basically the overview of
complete process that tells about the raw materials required for the production of desire product.
Material balance is being done on the process units which set the stream flow rates and
compositions. A material balance calculation gives the good understanding about process. It helps
in study of plant operation, design and any trouble shooting. It tells the performances of process, its
design, feed, raw material. Its helps to check instrument calibrations and to locate sources of
material loss.

Plant Capacity
The production of plant is 53,790 tons/year.

Operating Time
The operating time of plant is 330 day/Year.

Production Rate
Production rate of plant is 167 tons/day.

53,790 Ton 1000 Kg 1 Year 1 Days

Year 1 Ton 330 Days 24 hr

So, the production rate of ammonium sulphate for 330 working days is 6791.67 kg/hour.

Overall Reaction

2NH3 + H2 SO4 (NH4 )2 SO4

Requirement of Reactants
For production of 6791.67 kg/hr of ammonium sulphate, the amount of reactants required are:
NH3 = 1936.93 kg/hr
H2SO4 = 4854.72 kg/hr

In this reaction Ammonia (NH3) is used as limiting reactant. Ammonia to Sulphuric Acid ratio used
is 1:1.23. Ammonium sulfate made with manufactured ammonia is called synthetic ammonium
sulfate. The heat of reaction of anhydrous ammonia and concentrated sulfuric acid obtained by
contact process is very high. Ammonia is introduced into an especially build rector usually called
as contactor and liquid stream of concentrated sulfuric acid is showered from the top. Both ammonia
and sulfuric acid reacts with each other and crystals of ammonium sulfate are formed which falls
own at the bottom and are collected. These crystals are then concentrated and dried. Drying is
usually done by Flashing. It not only removed the water content from the product but also removes
the exothermic heat of reaction. Water is collected from the top and is condensed and circulate back
to be retreat again and be used in the process.

21
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.2 Gasifier
Coal = 9143.95 kg/hr O2 = 2925.04 kg/hr
Mole %
C = 0.58 4
S = 0.15
O2 = 0.05
5
N= 0.01
H2 = 0.04
H2O = 0.09
Ash = 0.05
GR-101

H2O = 3657.58 kg/hr


6

Product Gases = 12115.48 kg/hr


Mole %
N = 0.006
7A H2 = 0.03
H2O = 0.11
H2S = 0.07
CO2 = 0.36
7B CO = 0.36
CH4 = 0.02
Ash = 0.02
Ash + Slag = 3611.06 kg/hr

Figure 3.1: Gasifier (GR-101)

The ultimate analysis of coal used for coal gasification is given below.
Table 3.1: Ultimate Analysis of Coal

Components Mol. %
Coal 100
Moisture 9.2
Ash 5.6
Sulfur 15
Hydrogen 4.94
Nitrogen 1.37
Oxygen 5.09
Carbon 58.8
Total 100

Coal = 9143.95 kg/hr ; Conversion = 60.92 %


Reacted = Coal*Conversion/100 = 5570.49 kg/hr
Unreacted = 9143.95 - 5570.49 = 3573.45 kg/hr

22
Chapter 3 Material Balance

Reaction 1: 𝐂 + 𝐎𝟐 ⟶ 𝐂𝐎𝟐
Conversion = 36.73 %
Reactant required = 1203.20 kg/hr
O2 required = 3208.54 kg/hr
Product CO2 = 4411.74 kg/hr

Reaction 2: 𝐂 + 𝐇𝟐 𝐎 ⟶ 𝐂𝐎 + 𝐇𝟐
Conversion = 57.40 %
Reactant required = 1880.29 kg/hr
H2O required = 2820.44 kg/hr
Product CO = 4387.36 kg/hr
Product H2 = 313.38 kg/hr

Reaction 3: 𝐂 + 𝟐𝐇𝟐 ⟶ 𝐂𝐇𝟒


Conversion = 5.86 %
Reactant required = 191.95 kg/hr
H2 required = 63.98 kg/hr
Product CH4 = 255.93 kg/hr

Reaction 4: 𝐇𝟐 + 𝐒 ⟶ 𝐇 𝟐 𝐒
Conversion = 93 %
Reactant required = 777.08 kg/hr
H2 required = 97.13 kg/hr
Product H2S = 874.22 kg/hr

Raw in
Coal in = 9143.95 kg/hr
Steam in = H2O required in reaction - moisture already present = 2307.96 kg/hr
Oxygen O2 required in reaction = 3208.54 kg/hr
Oxygen already present in coal = 283.53 kg/hr
Oxygen required through air = 2925.004 kg/hr
Moles of oxygen through air = 91.40 kgmol/hr
Air required = 435.26 kgmol/hr
Mass or air = 12609.73 kg/hr

23
Chapter 3 Material Balance

S/c ratio = 0.25


At 0.40 ratio, steam required = 3657.58
Additional Steam = 1349.62

Solids Out:
Unreacted/melted coal = 3373.34 kg/hr
Unreacted sulfur in coal = 58.49 kg/hr
Slag/Char produced = 3431.83 kg/hr
Ash produced = 512.06 kg/hr
Fly Ash (65%) = 332.84 kg/hr

Bottom Ash (35%) = 179.22


Table 3.2: Material Balance on Gasifier

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 6 5 4 7A 7B
kg/hr kg/hr
C 5376.64
S 1371.59
O2 465.42 2925.004
N2 125.27 76.31
H2 451.71 427.44
H2O 841.24 3657.58 1349.62
H2S 874.22
CO2 4411.74
CO 4387.36
CH4 255.93
Ash 512.06 332.84 179.22
Slag 3431.83
Total 15726.54 15726.54

24
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.3 Cyclone separator (CS-101)


Gases = 12115.48 Kg/hr Gases = 11784.11 Kg/hr
9
Mol % Mol %
N = 0.006 7 N = 0.006
H2 = 0.03 H2 = 0.03
H2O = 0.11
CS-101
H2O = 0.11
H2S = 0.07 H2S = 0.07
CO2 = 0.36 CO2 = 0.37
CO = 0.36 CO = 0.37
CH4 = 0.02 CH4 = 0.02
Ash = 0.02 Ash = 0.0001

8
Ash = 331.37 kg/hr

Figure 3.2: Cyclone separator (CS-101)

Efficiency of separator = 99.56 %


Inlet gasses + Ash = 12115.49 kg/hr
Fly ash Content = 332.84 kg/hr
Ash removed by cyclone = 331.37 kg/hr
Ash remaining= 1.46 kg/hr
Table 3.3: Material Balance on Cyclone Separator (CS-101)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 7 9 8
kg/hr kg/hr
N2 76.31 76.31
H2 427.44 427.44
H2O 1349.62 1349.62
H2S 874.22 874.22
CO2 4411.74 4411.74
CO 4387.36 4387.36
CH4 255.93 255.93
Ash 332.84 1.46 331.37
Total 12115.48728 12115.48728

25
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.4 Knockout Drum (V-201)


Gases = 10433.16 kg/hr
Mol %
N = 0.007
14 H2 = 0.04
H2O = 1.2E-5
H2S = 0.08
CO2 = 0.42
CO = 0.42
CH4 = 0.02

Gases = 11784.11 kg/hr


Mol %
N = 0.006
H2 = 0.03 12 V-201
H2O = 0.11
H2S = 0.07
CO2 = 0.37
CO = 0.37
CH4 = 0.02
Ash = 0.0001

13

H2O + Ash = 1350.95 kg/hr


Figure 3.3: Knockout Drum (V-201)

Knock out drum is use to remove the water content from the stream so that it does not dilute the
solvent solution. Along with water, the mesh will also remove all the solids carrying over.
Knockout drum efficiency = 99.99%
Water removed = 1349.48 kg/hr
Water remaining = 0.13 kg/hr
Table 3.4: Material Balance on Knockout Drum (V-201)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 12 14 13
kg/hr kg/hr
N2 76.31 76.31
H2 427.44 427.44
H2O 1349.62 0.13 1349.48
H2S 874.22 874.22
CO2 4411.74 4411.74
CO 4387.36 4387.36
CH4 255.93 255.93
Ash 1.46 0 1.46
Total 11784.11 11784.11

26
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.5 Absorber (C-201)


Product Gases = 9338.66 Kg/hr
Mol %
15 N = 0.008
H2 = 0.04
H2S = 4.68E-5
Selexol = 61372.43 Kg/hr CO2 = 0.44
24 CO = 0.46
CH4 = 0.02

C-201

Product gases = 10433.13 Kg/hr


Mol %
N = 0.007
H2 = 0.04
14 H2S = 0.08
CO2 = 0.42
CO = 0.42
CH4 = 0.02
H2S + CO2 + Selexol = 62466.80 Kg/hr
Mol % 16
H2S = 0.01
CO2 = 0.003
Selexol = 0.98

Figure 3.4: Absorber (C-201)

In absorber H2S is removed from the mixture by absorbing it in Selexol solution because CO2 is in
high amount and is used as a byproduct also we need to purify our product by removing the un-
wanted components. Selexol is used as an absorbing media because its absorption efficiency is very
high as compared to others absorbents.

Selexol Data
Solvent is Selexol and its concentration is 50%.
Density of Selexol = 1030 kg/m3
Cp of Selexol = 0.49 Btu/lb F

Inlet Gas Data


Density of gas = 0.88 kg/m3
Total gas flowrate = 10433 kg/hr

H2S Removal
H2S in the gas = 874.22 kg/hr
Removal of H2S = 99.95 %
H2S removed = 873.78 kg/hr
Volumetric flowrate = 642.48 m3/hr

27
Chapter 3 Material Balance

Solubility of H2S = 32.4 m3/m3 of Selexol


Selexol required = 19.82 m3/hr Selexol
Relative solubility of H2S w.r.t CO2 = 8.87

CO2 Removal
CO2 in gas = 4411.74 kg/hr
With 95% slip, CO2 Absorbed = 220.58 kg/hr
Volume of CO2 absorbed = 116.09 m3/hr
Solubility of CO2 = 3.63 m3/m3 of Selexol
Selexol required = 31.98 m3/hr Selexol

Selexol Required
Total selexol required = 51.8
Mass flowrate = 53367.33 kg/hr
15% Safety factor = 61372.43 kg/hr
Table 3.5: Material Balance on Absorber (C-201)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 14 24 15 16
kg/hr kg/hr
N2 76.31 76.31
H2 427.44 427.44
H2S 874.22 0.43 873.78
CO2 4411.74 4191.15 220.58
CO 4387.36 4387.36
CH4 255.93 255.93
Selexol 61372.43 61372.43
Total 71805.46 71805.46

28
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.6 Flash drum (C-202)


CO2 = 220.58 Kg/hr

18

17 H2S + CO2 + Selexol = 62466.80 Kg/hr


C-202 Mol %
H2S = 0.01
CO2 = 0.003
Selexol = 0.98

20 Mol %
H2S = 0.015
Selexol = 0.985
H2S + Selexol = 62246.2 Kg/hr

Figure 3.5: Flash drum (C-202)

Flash Drum is used to remove all of CO2 from selexol solution. The remaining solution is then
introduced to Stripper to remove the remaining H2S. Due to low selectivity of CO2 in Selexol, the
CO2 automatically strips out of solution when it is introduced in a low pressured vessel.
The whole phenomenon of absorption, stripping and flash drum goes along Henry’s Law.
Table 3.6: Material Balance on Flash Drum (C-202)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream

Components 17 20 18

kg/hr kg/hr

H2S 873.78 873.78

CO2 220.58 220.58

Selexol 61372.43 61372.43

Total 62466.80 62466.80

29
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.7 Stripper (C-203)


H2S Vapors = 873.78 Kg/hr
25

28 21
H2S + Selexol = 62246.21 Kg/hr
H2O + Selexol = 9205.86 Kg/hr
Mol %
Mol % H2S = 0.015
H2S = 0.5 Selexol = 0.985
Selexol = 0.5

C-203

22
Selexol = 70578.30 Kg/hr

Figure 3.6: Stripper (C-203)

We used reboiler which transfer temperature to the solution as well as the water vapors from the
reboiler decrease the partial pressure of H2S above the liquid. Stripping steam at the side strippers
improves the distillation between cuts. It lowers the partial pressure of the H2S, causing additional
hydrocarbon to vaporize. In the bottom of the column it reduces the amount of feed to the vacuum
column.
15% of inlet rate for recirculation through reboiler = 9205.86 kg/hr
50% by weight solution will evaporate water = 4602.93 kg/hr
Remaining selexol solution = 4602. 93 kg/hr
Table 3.7: Material Balance on Stripper (C-203)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream

Components 21 28 25 22

kg/hr kg/hr

H2S 873.78 873.78

H2O 4602.93

Selexol 61372.43 4602.93 70578.30

Total 71452.08 71452.08

30
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.8 Furnace (F-301)


To Flare 33

O2 + N2 = 8500.7 kg/hr
Mole % F-301 S 10 Product Gases = 9374.48 kg/hr
O2 = 0.21 32 34 Mole %
N2= 0.79 H2S = 0.0006
O2 = 0.05
SO 2 = 0.17
H2S = 873.78 kg/hr N2 = 0.71
29 H2O = 0.04

Figure 3.7: Furnace (F-301)

Total air added in furnace= 137.34


Total Oxygen added= 28.84
Total Nitrogen added= 108.5

Reaction: H2S + 1.5 O2 → SO2 + H2O

Conversion= 99.3%
H2S from stripper = 873.7 kg/hr
H2S reacted = 867.6 kg/hr
Oxygen required = 1224.9 kg/hr
SO2 formed = 1633.25 kg/hr
H2O formed = 459.35 kg/hr
Oxygen in outlet gas = 560.2 kg/hr
Table 3.8: Material Balance on Furnace (F-301)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 29 32 34
kg/hr kg/hr
H2S 873.78 6.11
O2 1785.14 560.20
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 1633.25
H2O 459.35
Total 9374.48 9374.48

31
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.9 Dryer (D-401)


O2 + N2 + SO2 = 8909.01 Kg/hr
Mole %
O2 = 0.06
N = 0.75
38
2
SO2 = 0.18

D-401 H2SO4 = 2518.55 Kg/hr


37
Mole %
H2S = 0.002
Product Gases = 9374.48 kg/hr H2O = 0.15
Mole % H2SO 4 = 0.84
H2S = 0.0006
O2 = 0.05
SO 2 = 0.17
N2 = 0.71
H2O = 0.04
35

H2S + H2O + H2SO4 = 2984.02 Kg/hr

Figure 3.8: Dryer (D-401)

Moles of H2S to be removed = 0.17 kgmol/hr


Moles of H2O to be removed = 25.51 kgmol/hr
H2SO4 required to remove = 25.69 kgmol/hr
Mass of H2SO4 to remove = 2518.55 kg/hr
Table 3.9: Material Balance on Dryer (D-401)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 37 40 41 38
kg/hr kg/hr
H2S 6.11 6.11
O2 560.20 560.20
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 1633.25 1633.25
H2O 459.35 459.35
H2SO4 2518.55 2518.55
Total 11893.03 11893.03

32
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.10 4-Pass Converter (R-401)


Product Gases = 8909.01 kg/hr
Mole %
O2 = 0.06 38
N2 = 0.75
SO 2 = 0.18

Gases = 8909.01 kg/hr


Mole % 39
O2 = 0.02
N2 = 0.75 Gases = 8909.01 kg/hr
SO 2 = 0.04 41
40 Mole %
SO 3 = 0.16
O2 = 0.02
N2 = 0.75
Gases = 8909.01 kg/hr SO 2 = 0.01
Mole % 43 R-401 42 SO 3 = 0.21
O2 = 0.01
N2 = 0.75
SO 2 = 0.006
SO 3 = 0.22 44
Product Gases = 8909.01 kg/hr
Mole %
O2 = 0.01
N2 = 0.75
SO 2 = 0.003
SO 3 = 0.22
45
Figure 3.9: 4-Pass Converter (R-401)

Reaction: SO2 + 1/2 O2 → SO3


1st Pass Convertor:
O2 = 560.20
N2 = 6715.55
SO2 = 1633.25
Conversion = 74%
Reactant consumed = 1208.60 kg/hr
O2 Consumed = 302.15 kg/hr
SO3 formed = 1510.76 kg/hr

SO2 left = 424.64 kg/hr


Table 3.10: Material Balance on 1st pass Converter

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 41 42
kg/hr kg/hr
O2 560.20 258.05
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 1633.25 424.64
SO3 0 1510.76
Total 8909.01443 8909.01

33
Chapter 3 Material Balance

2nd Pass Convertor:


O2 = 258.05
N2 = 6715.55
SO2 = 424.64
SO3 = 1510.76
Conversion = 18.4%
Reactant consumed = 300.51
O2 Consumed = 75.12
SO3 formed = 375.64
Total SO3 = 1886.40
O2 left = 182.92

SO2 left = 124.12


Table 3.11: Material Balance on 2nd pass Converter

inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 43 44
kg/hr kg/hr
O2 258.05 182.92
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 424.64 124.12
SO3 1510.76 1886.40
Total 8909.01 8909.01

3rd Pass Convertor:


O2 = 182.92
N2 = 6715.55
SO2 = 124.12
SO3 = 1886.40
Conversion = 4.3%
Reactant consumed = 70.22 kg/hr
O2 Consumed = 17.55 kg/hr
SO3 formed = 87.78 kg/hr
Total SO3 = 1974.19 kg/hr
SO2 left = 53.89 kg/hr

34
Chapter 3 Material Balance

Table 3.12: Material Balance on 3rd pass Converter

inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 44 45
kg/hr kg/hr
O2 182.92 165.36
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 124.12 53.89
SO3 1886.40 1974.19
Total 8909.01 8909.01

4th Pass Convertor:


O2 = 165.36
N2 = 6715.55
SO2 = 53.89739849
SO3 = 1974.196377
Conversion = 1.3%
Reactant consumed = 21.2323085
SO3 formed = 26.54038562
Total SO3 = 2000.736762
SO2 left = 32.66509
Table 3.13: Material Balance on 4th pass Converter

inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 46 47
kg/hr kg/hr
O2 165.3670181 160.058941
N2 6715.553633 6715.553633
SO2 53.89739849 32.66509
SO3 1974.196377 2000.736762
Total 8909.014426 8909.014426

35
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.11 Absorption Tower (V-401)


Product gases = 6928.28 Kg/hr
Mole %
O2 = 0.02
N2 = 0.96 52
SO2 = 0.004
SO3 = 0.002

V-401 H2SO4 = 2427.36 Kg/hr


50

Product gases = 8909.01 Kg/hr


Mole %
O2 = 0.01
N2 = 0.75
SO2 = 0.003
SO3 = 0.22

46
H2S2O7 = 4408.88 Kg/hr

Figure 3.10: Absorption Tower (V-401)

In absorption tower, Sulfuric acid is showered from the top. Sulfur trioxide is soluble in Sulfuric
acid and produces oleum which is extracted from the bottom of dryer

Reaction: 𝐇𝟐 𝐒𝐎𝟒 + 𝐒𝐎𝟑 ⟶ 𝐇𝟐 𝐒𝟐 𝐎𝟕


The efficiency of Absorption Tower to absorb Sulfur trioxide into Sulfuric Acid is 99%
Solubility of SO3 is H2SO4 = 816 g/kg H2SO4
SO3 fed = 2000.73 kg/hr
So3 absorbed = 1980.72 kg/hr
H2SO4 required= 2427.36 kg/hr
H2S2O7 produced= 4408.88 kg/hr
Table 3.14: Material Balance on Absorption Tower (V-401)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 48 53 Off gasses 49
kg/hr kg/hr
O2 160.05 160.05
N2 6715.55 6715.55
SO2 32.66 32.66
SO3 2000.73 20.007
H2SO4 2427.36
H2S2O7 4408.88
Total 11336.37 11337.17

36
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.12 Dilution tank (T-402)


H2S2O7 = 4408.88 kg/hr
46

H2O = 544.91 kg/hr H2SO4 + H2O = 4953.80 kg/hr


47 Mole %
T-402 H2SO4 = 0.98
H2O = 0.02
48

Figure 3.11: Dilution tank (T-402)

Oleum that is obtained from final absorption tower is sent into the dilution tank, where Oleum and
water combines together and form Sulfuric Acid.

Reaction: H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4


Conversion = 98%
H2S2O7 fed = 4408.886458 kg/hr
Water required = 445.8424508 kg/hr
H2SO4 produced = 4854.728908 kg/hr
Water added = 544.9185509 22kg/hr
Concentration = 98.18033122
Table 3.15: Material Balance on Dilution Tank (T-402)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 49 50 51
kg/hr kg/hr
H2S2O7 4408.88
H2O 544.91 99.07
H2SO4 4854.72
Total 4953.80 4953.80

37
Chapter 3 Material Balance

3.13 Reactor (R-402)


NH3 = 252.64 kg/hr

52

H2SO4 = 4854.72 kg/hr


51 R-402

NH3 = 1936.93 kg/hr


54

53

(NH4)2SO4 = 6539.02 kg/hr

Figure 3.12: Reactor (R-402)

Reaction: 𝟐𝐍𝐇𝟑 + 𝐇𝟐 𝐒𝐎𝟒 ⟶ (𝐍𝐇𝟒 )𝟐 𝐒𝐎𝟒

In this reaction Ammonia (NH3) is used as limiting reactant. Ammonia to Sulphuric Acid ratio used
is 1:1.23. Ammonium sulfate made with manufactured ammonia is called synthetic ammonium
sulfate. The heat of reaction of anhydrous ammonia and concentrated sulfuric acid obtained by
contact process is very high. Both ammonia and sulfuric acid reacts with each other and crystals of
ammonium sulfate are formed which falls own at the bottom and are collected. These crystals are
then concentrated and dried. Drying is usually done by Flashing. It not only removed the water
content from the product but also removes the exothermic heat of reaction. Water is collected from
the top and is condensed and circulate back to be retreat again and be used in the process.
Table 3.16: Material Balance on Reactor (R-402)

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream


Components 54 56 55 57
kg/hr kg/hr
H2SO4 4854.72
NH3 1936.93 252.64
(NH4)2SO4 6539.02
Total 6791.66 6791.66

38
CHAPTER 4
4 ENERGY BALANCE

39
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.1 Energy Balance


Energy balance is the calculations of the energy requirements for the process, like the heating,
cooling, temperature, pressure, and enthalpy. Energy is categorized in several forms like kinetic
energy, potential energy, heat energy, electrical energy, mechanical energy. According to law of
conservation of energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. A general equation of conservation
of energy is:

Energy out = Energy in + generation – consumption – accumulation


It is also called 1st law of thermodynamics. The total enthalpy of outlet stream is not equal to inlet
stream if it’s generated or consumed.

Enthalpy of Mixtures:
The enthalpy for the mixture is given as: Cp (mixture) = xaCpa+ xbCpb + xcCpc +………….
Table 4.1: Thermodynamic Coefficients of components for enthalpy calculation

Components a b c d
N2 31.15 -1.36E-02 2.68E-05 -1.17E-08
H2 27.143 9.27E-03 -1.38E-05 7.65E-09
H2 O 32.243 1.92E-03 1.06E-05 -3.6E-09
H2 S 31.941 1.44E-03 2.43E-05 -1.18E-08
CO2 19.795 7.34E-02 6.02E-03 1.72E-08
CO 30.869 -1.29E-02 2.79E-05 -1.27E-08
CH4 19.251 5.21E-02 1.20E-05 -1.1E-08
O2 8.106 -3.68E-06 1.75E-05 -1.1E-08
NH3 27.315 2.38E-02 1.71E-05 -1.19E-08
SO2 23.852 6.70E-02 -4.96E-05 1.33E-08
SO3 16.37 1.46E-01 -1.12E-04 3.24E-08

40
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.2 Gasifier
O2 = 2925.04 Kg/hr
T = 75 oC
P = 30 bar

St eam = 3657.58 Kg/hr 5


T = 233.84 oC
P = 30 bar
GR-101

Coal = 9143.93 Kg/hr


T = 75 oC
P = 30 bar

Product Gases = 15726.51 Kg/hr


T = 930oC
P = 30 bar

Figure 4.1: Energy Flow through gasifier

Inlet Stream:
Steam
Saturation temperature = 233.84 C
Specific enthalpy of steam at 30 bar = λ = 2261.452 kj/kg
Steam in = 3657.58 kg/hr
H Steam = 8271447.17 kj/hr

Coal
Coal in = 9143.95 kg
Calorific Value = 6945.5 Btu/lb = 16155.23 kj/kg
H = 147722742.2 kj/hr
H (60.92%) = 89992694.53 kj/hr

Oxygen

Component A b c d
O2 8.106 -3.68E-06 1.75E-05 -1.1E-08

Formula used:
Hi = a*(T-Tref) + b/2*(T2-Tref2) + c/3*(T3-Tref3) + d/4*(T4-Tref4)

41
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

T1 = 75℃

T2 = 25℃

Hi = 478.44 J/mol
Hi = 14.95 kj/kg
Flowrate = 3038.01 kg/hr
H = 45422.58 kj/hr

Total heat input


Hin = CVcoal + Hsteam + HO2
= 156039611.9 kj/hr

Outlet Stream
T1 = 930℃

Tref = 25℃
Hi = a*(T-Tref) + b/2*(T2-Tref2) + c/3*(T3-Tref3) + d/4*(T4-Tref4)
Table 4.2: Gasifier outlet gas enthalpy calculation

Comp. A B c d Flowrate Hi

N2 31.15 -1.36E-02 2.68E-05 -1.17E-08 79.26439 7.98E+04

H2 27.143 9.27E-03 -1.38E-05 7.65E-09 443.9615 5.98E+06

H2 O 32.243 1.92E-03 1.06E-05 -3.6E-09 1401.765 2.70E+06

H2 S 31.941 1.44E-03 2.43E-05 -1.18E-08 907.9967 1.01E+06

CO2 19.795 7.34E-02 6.02E-03 1.72E-08 4582.201 3.66E+08

CO 30.869 -1.29E-02 2.79E-05 -1.27E-08 4556.875 4.64E+06

CH4 19.251 5.21E-02 1.20E-05 -1.1E-08 265.8228 8.93E+05

Total Hout = 381588512.2 kj/hr


ΔQ = Hout - Hin
ΔQ = 225548900.3 kj/hr

42
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.3 Waste Heat Boiler (E-101)

Steam
o
T = 234 C
P = 30 bar

T = 930oC T =250oC
P = 30 bar P = 30 bar

11782.64 kg/hr 5 7 11782.64 kg/hr

E-101

T = 25oC
P = 30 bar
Water

Figure 4.2: Energy Flow Through E-101

At Inlet:
Table 4.3: Energy balance at Inlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101)

Heat Capacity,
Components Flow Rate Cp at 477.5 ℃
Kg/hr KJ/Kg.K
N2 76.31 1.08
H2 427.44 15.12
H2 O 1349.62 2.11
H2 S 874.22 1.12
CO2 4411.74 1.15
CO 4387.36 1.12
CH4 255.93 3.65
Total 11782.64 1.8072

Calculations
T1 = 25 ℃

T2 = 930 ℃

ΔT = 905 ℃

Tmean = 477.5 ℃

Qin = mCpΔT = 11782.64*1.8072*905


Qin = 19270847.73 KJ/hr

43
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

At Outlet
Table 4.4: Energy balance at outlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101)

Heat Capacity,
Components Flow Rate Cp at 137.5 ℃
Kg/hr KJ/Kg.K
N2 76.31 1.04
H2 427.44 14.73
H2 O 1349.62 2.03
H2 S 874.22 1.06
CO2 4411.74 1.05
CO 4387.36 1.08
CH4 255.93 2.96
Total 11782.64 1.71

Calculations
T1 = 25 ℃

T2 = 250 ℃

ΔT = 225 ℃

Tmean =137.5 ℃
Qout = mCpΔT = 11782.64*1.71*225
Qout = 4541589 KJ/hr

Difference
∆Q = Qout – Qin
∆Q = -14729258.5 KJ/hr
∆Q = 14729258.5 KJ/hr

Cooling Water Requirement


t1 = 25 ℃

t2 = 234 ℃

Δt = 209 ℃

tmean = 129.5 ℃

Cp at 129.5 ℃ = 4.2564 KJ/kg.k

t2 = 234 ℃

t3 = 234 ℃

44
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

Δt = 0 ℃

tmean = 234 ℃

Cp at 234 ℃ = 3.615 KJ/kg.k


Latent Heat of vaporization = λ = 1794.2 kJ/kmol
Qlost = Qcold
Qlost = 14729258.5 KJ/hr
Qcold = (mCpΔT)1 + m λ + (mCpΔT)2
Qlost = (mCpΔT)1 + m λ + (mCpΔT)2
m = Qlost/((CpΔT)1 + λ + (CpΔT)2)
m = 14729258.5/(4.2564*209+1794.2)
m = 5488.23 Kg/hr

4.4 Heat Exchanger (E-102)

Water

T = 45oC
P = 30 bar

T =250oC T = 55oC
P = 30 bar P = 30 bar

11782.64 kg/hr 5 7 11782.64 kg/hr

E-102

T = 25oC
P = 30 bar
Water
Figure 4.3: Energy Flow Through E-102

45
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

At Inlet:
Table 4.5: Energy balance at Inlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-102)

Heat Capacity,
Components Flow Rate Cp at 137.5 ℃
Kg/hr KJ/Kg.K
N2 76.31 1.04
H2 427.44 14.58
H2 O 1349.62 4.33
H2S 874.22 1.05
CO2 4411.74 0.99
CO 4387.36 1.06
CH4 255.93 2.71
Total 11782.64 1.66

Calculations
T1 = 25 ℃

T2 = 250 ℃

ΔT = 225 ℃

Tmean =137.5 ℃
Qin = mCpΔT = 11782.64*1.66*225
Qin = 4407708.8 KJ/hr

At Outlet
Table 4.6: Energy balance at Outlet of Waste Heat Boiler (E-102)

Heat Capacity,
Components Flow Rate Cp at 40 ℃
Kg/hr KJ/Kg.K
N2 76.31 1.08
H2 427.44 15.12
H2 O 1349.62 4.19
H2S 874.22 1.12
CO2 4411.74 1.15
CO 4387.36 1.12
CH4 255.93 3.65
Total 11782.64 1.84

46
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

Calculations
T1 = 25 ℃

T2 = 55 ℃

ΔT = 30 ℃

Tmean = 40 ℃

Qout = mCpΔT = 11782.64*1.84*30


Qout = 653653.56 KJ/hr

Difference
∆Q = Qout – Qin
∆Q = -3754022 KJ/hr
∆Q = 3754055 KJ/hr

Cooling Water Requirement


t1 = 25 ℃

t2 = 45 ℃

Δt = 20 ℃

tmean = 35 ℃

Cp at 35 ℃ = 4.17 KJ/kg.k
Qlost = Qcold
Qlost = 3754055 KJ/hr
Qcold = (mCpΔT)
Qlost = (mCpΔT)
m = Qlost/(CpΔT)
m = 3754055/(4.17*20)
m = 44996.5 Kg/hr

47
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.5 Absorber (C-201)


N2 + H2 + CO + CH4 = 9338.66 Kg/hr
T1 = 50
15 P = 30 bar

24

Selexol = 61372.43 Kg/hr


T = 50
P = 30 bar
C-201

14
Product gases = 10433.13 Kg/hr
T1 = 55
H2S + CO2 + Selexol = 62466.80 Kg/hr P = 30 bar
T1 = 53.8 16
P = 30 bar

Figure 4.4: Energy Flow through Absorber (C-201)

Inlet Stream
T1 = 55℃

Tref = 25℃
Table 4.7: C-201 Inlet Gas Enthalpy Calculation

Flowrate Hi
Comp. A B c d
kg/hr Kj/hr
N2 31.15 -1.36E-02 2.68E-05 -1.17E-08 79.26 2.48E+03
H2 27.143 9.27E-03 -1.38E-05 7.65E-09 443.96 1.93E+05
H2 O 32.243 1.92E-03 1.06E-05 -3.6E-09 1401.76 7.89E+04
H2 S 31.941 1.44E-03 2.43E-05 -1.18E-08 907.99 2.76E+04
CO2 19.795 7.34E-02 6.02E-03 1.72E-08 4582.20 1.98E+06
CO 30.869 -1.29E-02 2.79E-05 -1.27E-08 4556.87 1.43E+05
CH4 19.251 5.21E-02 1.20E-05 -1.1E-08 265.82 1.81E+04

Total Hgas, in = 2441536.56 kj/hr

48
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

Outlet Stream
T1 = 50℃

Tref = 25℃
Table 4.8: C-201 Outlet Gas Enthalpy Calculation

Flowrate Hi
Comp. A B c D
kg/hr Kj/hr
N2 31.15 -1.36E-02 2.68E-05 -1.17E-08 79.26 2.06E+03
H2 27.14 9.27E-03 -1.38E-05 7.65E-09 443.96 1.60E+05
H2 S 31.94 1.44E-03 2.43E-05 -1.18E-08 907.99 2.30E+04
CO2 19.79 7.34E-02 6.02E-03 1.72E-08 4582.20 1.62E+06
CO 30.86 -1.29E-02 2.79E-05 -1.27E-08 4556.87 1.19E+05
CH4 19.25 5.21E-02 1.20E-05 -1.1E-08 265.82 1.51E+04

Total Hgas, out = 1943436.978 kj/hr


ΔQ = Hout - Hin
ΔQ = -498099.59 kj/hr

Solvent
Solvent in = 63743.64 kg/hr

T1 = 50℃
Cp wt= 2.051532
T2 = Q/ (m*Cp) + T1

T2 = 53.80℃

49
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.6 Stripper (C-203)


H2S Vapors = 873.78 Kg/hr
TOUT = 145.33
P = 30 bar
25

28 21
H2S + Selexol = 62246.21 Kg/hr
H2O + Selexol = 9205.86 Kg/hr C-203 TIN = 120
TIN = 110
P = 30 bar

22
Selexol = 70578.30 Kg/hr
TOUT = 145.33
P = 30 bar
Figure 4.5: Energy Flow through Stripper (C-203)
Inlet Solution Stream
Solvent in = 64651.18 kg/hr

T1 = 90℃

Tref = 25℃

Tmean = 52.7℃

Cp wt= 2.037318077
Hi = 8561476.76 kj/hr

Heat in from Reboiler


From Water Vapors
Water in = 4780.773144 kg/hr
λ = 2261.452 kJ/kg

T1 = 90℃

T2 = 100℃

Tmean = 95℃

Cp = 4.186 kj/kg.K
50
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

T1 = 100℃

T2 = 120℃

Tmean = 110℃
Cp at 175 = 1.893 kj/kg.K
λ = 2261.452 kJ/kg
QReb, vap = (mCpΔT) 1 + m λ + (mCpΔT) 2
QReb, vap = 4677660.09 kj/hr

From Selexol
Selexol in = 4780.773144 kg/hr

T1 = 120℃

Tref = 90℃

Tmean = 105℃
Cp wt= 2.05 kj/kg.K
QReb, soll = 294237.27 kj/hr

Outlet Stream
H2S vapors
Gas out = 907.54 kg/hr
Cp = 1.044 kj/kg.K

T1 = 145.33℃

Tref = 25℃

Tmean = 85.16℃
Qvap, out =114046.24 kj/hr

Selexol out
Selexol out = 73305.18 kg/hr
Cp = 2.05 kj/kg.K

T1 = 145.33℃

Tref = 25℃

Tmean = 85.16℃
Qsoll, out = 18096988 kj/hr
∆Q = (Qsoll, out + Qvap, out) + (Hi + QReb, vap + QReb, soll); ∆Q = 0

51
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

4.7 Furnace

34
H2S = 873.78 Kg/hr
Product gas es = 9374.48 Kg/hr
T1 = 87 29 F-301 T2 = 1000
P = 30 bar
P = 30 bar

O2 + N2 = 8500.7 Kg/hr
T1 = 100 32
P = 30 bar

Figure 4.6: Energy Flow through Furnace (F-301)

Reaction: H2S + 1/2O2 → SO2 + H2O

Table 4.9: Heat of formation coefficients for sulfur oxidation reaction

Heat of formation In flow Out flow


Components
kj/kg kg/hr kg/hr
H2 S -0.60294118 873.7829335 6.116481

O2 0 1785.147168 560.2063

SO2 -4.6377025 1633.254

H2 O -13.4348008 459.3528

Hydrogen Sulfide in
T1 = 87℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 62℃
T1
Hf 87 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
Hh2s, in = 55791.93 Kj/hr

Oxygen in
T1 = 100℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 75℃
52
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

T1
Hf 87 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
HO2, in = 121032.97 kj/hr

Hydrogen Sulfide Out


T1 = 1000℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 875℃
T1
Hf 1000 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
Hh2s, out = 7762.58 kj/hr

Oxygen Out
T1 = 1000℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 875℃
T1
Hf 1000 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
HO2, in = 605797.142 kj/hr

Sulfur Dioxide Out


T1 = 1000℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 875℃
T1
Hf 1000 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
HSO2, out = 1356440.02 kj/hr

Vapors Out
T1 = 1000℃

Tref = 25℃

∆Tmean = 875℃

53
Chapter 4 Energy Balance

T1
Hf 1000 = m*(Hf 25+ ∫Tref Cp)

H = m*(Hf + CpΔT)
HH2O, in = 1101326.334 kj/hr

Difference
∆Q = Heat of formation of products – Heat of formation of reactants
∆Q = 2894501.443 kJ/hr
This heat of reaction will be provided by burning fuel

Requirement of Fuel
LHV of Natural Gas = 44000 BTU/kg
Fuel required = ∆Q / LHV
Fuel required = 65.78 kg/hr

54
CHAPTER 5
5 EQUIPMENT DESIGN

55
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.1 Design of Gasifier


O2 = 2925.04 Kg/hr
T = 75 oC
P = 30 bar

St eam = 3657.58 Kg/hr 5


T = 233.84 oC
P = 30 bar
GR-101

Coal = 9143.93 Kg/hr


T = 75 oC
P = 30 bar

Product Gases = 15726.51 Kg/hr


T = 930oC
P = 30 bar

Figure 5.1: Gasifier (GR-101)

Physical Properties
Particle Size = 6mm = 0.006m
Density of Gas:
Table 5.1: Density of Gas

Flowrate Density
Component
kg/hr kg/m3
O2 3038.016 0.4
Steam 3798.898 15
Weighted Density (ρf) 8.512419

Density of Coal:
𝜌𝑠 = 1650 kg/m3
𝑆𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = ∅ = 0.75
0.071 0.33
𝑃𝑜𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝐵𝑒𝑑 = 𝜀 = ( ) = 0.459

56
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Minimum fluidization velocity


2
(1 − 𝜀𝑚𝑓 ) 𝜇 𝑢𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝜀𝑚𝑓 ) 𝜌𝑓 𝑢𝑚𝑓 2
(1 − 𝜀𝑚𝑓 )(𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌𝑓 ) 𝑔 = 150 ( 3 ) + 1.75 ( 3 )( )
𝜀𝑚𝑓 ∅ 𝑑𝑝2 𝜀𝑚𝑓 ∅ 𝑑𝑝
1
3 2
∅𝑔(𝜌𝑝 − 𝜌𝑓 )𝜀 𝑑𝑝
𝑢𝑚𝑓 = [ ]
1.75𝜌𝑓

𝜌𝑠 =1650 kg/m3

𝜌𝑓 = 8.51 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

𝜀 = 0.459
Particle diameter = 0.006 m
1
9.8 ∗ (1650 − 8.51) ∗ 0.4593 ∗ 0.006 2
𝑢𝑚𝑓 =[ ]
1.75 ∗ 8.51

𝑢𝑚𝑓 = 0.686 𝑚/𝑠

Terminal velocity

𝐹𝐷 + 𝐹𝐵 = 𝑤 = 𝑚𝑔
1 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
𝐶𝐷 𝜌𝑓 𝑢 + 𝑑𝑝2 + 𝑑𝑝3 𝜌𝑓 𝑔 = 𝑑𝑝3 𝜌𝑝
2 4 6 6

4 𝑑𝑝 𝑔 (𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌𝑓 )
𝑢𝑡 = √
3 𝐶𝑑 𝜌𝑓

For Reynolds number from 1000 ˂ NRe ˂ 200,000, Cd is approximately equal to 0.44

𝑢𝑡 = 5.89 𝑚/𝑠
Operating Velocity
Now we know that the operating velocity should lie between minimum fluidized velocity and
terminal velocity, generally we can use velocities that are 10 to 50 times that of minimum fluidized
velocities.

𝑔(𝜌𝑝 − 𝜌𝑓 )𝑑𝑝2 𝜀 3
𝑢𝑜 =
150 𝑢 1−𝜀
𝑢𝑜 = 0.823 𝑚/𝑠
Calculation of weight of coal

𝑊𝑠 = ℎ ∗ 𝐴𝑠 ∗ 𝜌𝑠 ∗ (1 − 𝜀)
𝑊𝑠 =Mass of solids in the bed,

57
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝜌𝑠 = Density of solid,

𝐴𝑠 = Cross-sectional area of bed,

ℎ𝑚 = Height of the bed before fluidization

ℎ𝑚 = 8 m

Density of solid = 1650 kg/m3


Bulk density = 865 kg/m3
𝑚̇
Cross sectional area of bed = = 1.259 𝑚2
𝜌𝑠 𝑢𝑜
𝐴𝑠 = 1.259 𝑚2

𝜀 = 0.459

𝑊𝑠 = 8 ∗ 1.25 ∗ 865 ∗ (1 − 0.459)

𝑊𝑠 = 4679.65 𝑘𝑔
Volume of Coal in gasifier
Bulk density of Coal = 865 kg/m3
Weight of catalyst
Volume of coal = Bulk Denisty of catalyst

= 5.41 m3
Safety allowance = 15 %
Volume of coal = 6.22 m3

Volume of gasifier
Voidage = 𝜀 = 0.459
Volume of coal
Volume of gasifier = = 13.54 m3
1−Voidage

Diameter Calculations of gasifier



=6
𝐷

=D
6

D = 1.33 m

Revised Height after Fluidization


ℎ𝑚 = 8 m

𝑢𝑜 = 0.823 𝑚/𝑠

58
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝑢𝑚𝑓 = 0.686 𝑚/𝑠

𝑢𝑏 = 0.7√𝑔 𝐷𝑏

𝐷𝑏 = 0.5 𝑚

𝑢𝑏 = 1.57 𝑚/𝑠
𝑢𝑏 − 𝑢𝑚𝑓
ℎ = ℎ𝑚 ( )
𝑢𝑏 − 𝑢𝑜

ℎ = 9.46 𝑚

Corrected Volume of Gasifier


Dia = D = 1.33 m
Height = 9.46 m
Volume = Height * Dia = 12.61 m3

Space Time
Mass flow rate
Volumetric Flow rate = = 803.169 m3/hr
Density

Volume of gasifier
Space Time = Volumetric flow rate = 0.0157 hr = 56 sec

Space velocity = 1/0.0157 = 63.65 h-1

Pressure Drop calculations


∆𝑝𝑠
= (𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌𝑓 )(1 − 𝜀)𝑔

𝜌𝑠 =1650 kg/m3

𝜌𝑓 = 8.51 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

𝜀 = 0.459
h = 9.46 m
∆𝑝𝑠
= (1650 − 8.51)(1 − 0.459)9.8
9.46
∆𝑝𝑠 = 82328 N/m2 or 0.823 bar

Pressure Drop by Distributer


There is a general rule that pressure drop due to the distributer is around 0.2-0.4 times of pressure
drop due to solid bed

∆𝑝𝑑 = 0.3∆𝑝𝑠

∆𝑝𝑠 = 0.3 ∗ 0.823 𝑏𝑎𝑟

∆𝑝𝑠 = 0.246 𝑏𝑎𝑟

59
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Total Pressure Drop

∆𝑝𝑇 = ∆𝑝𝑑 + ∆𝑝𝑠

∆𝑝𝑇 = 0.823 bar + 0.246 𝑏𝑎𝑟

∆𝑝𝑇 = 1.070 b𝑎𝑟


Specification Sheet

Identification

Item Gasifier (GR-101)

Type Fluidized bed gasifier

Function

To Gasify feed Coal in to Syn Gas

Operating Pressure 30 bar

Operating Temperature 930 oC

Space Time 56 sec

Volume of gasifier (Vg) 12.61 m3

Volume of Coal (Vc) 6.22 m3

Weight of coal 4679.65 kg

Space velocity 63.65 h-1

Diameter of gasifier (D) 1.33 m

Height of gasifier (h) 9.46 m

Pressure drop 1.07 bar

Minimum fluidization velocity 0.686 m/s

Terminal velocity 5.89 m/s

Operating velocity 0.823 m/s

60
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.2 Simulation of Gasifier


Moving bed coal gasifiers are vertical countercurrent reactors in which coal reacts with oxygen and
steam to produce the gas containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4, and other hydrocarbons. Fig. 5.2 shows a
schematic diagram of a moving bed coal gasifier. Coal is fed to the top of the gasifier and moves
downward under the gravity. A preheated mixture of oxygen and steam is introduced at the bottom
of the gasifier and flows upward to react with the coal. As coal descends slowly, four processes will
take place in sequence: coal drying, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and char combustion. Ash and
unreacted char are removed at the bottom by the rotating grate, and the produced gas leaves at the
top. Part of the process steam is produced by a water jacket surrounding the gasification chamber.

Figure 5.2: Moving Bed Coal Gasifier

5.2.1 Physical Properties


In this model, the property method RK-SOAVE is used to calculate the physical properties of mixed
conventional components and CISOLID components. HCOALGEN and DCOALIGT models are
used to calculate the enthalpy and density of non-conventional components, respectively. The
HCOALGEN model requires these three component attributes for nonconventional components:
proximate analysis results (denoted as PROXANAL in Aspen Plus), ultimate analysis results
(denoted as ULTANAL in Aspen Plus), and sulfur analysis results (denoted as SULFANAL in
Aspen Plus). The proximate analysis gives the weight content of moisture, fixed carbon, volatile
matter and ash. The ultimate analysis gives the weight composition of coal in terms of ash, carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur, and oxygen. The sulfur analysis divides the sulfur content into
three types, pyritic, sulfate, and organic sulfur. The DCOALIGT model requires only the two
component attributes ULTANAL and SULFANAL.

61
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Table 5.2 shows the component attributes of coal used in our model, which are from Wen et al. The
enthalpy and density of coal are calculated by the HCOALGEN and DCOALIGT models,
respectively.

For the characterization of the char and ash generated in coal conversion, the same methodology as
above is applied and the same models are used to calculate their enthalpy and density. The results
of proximate, ultimate, and sulfur analyses for the char and ash are determined from the analysis
data of original coal and the amount of gaseous product in terms of mass balance.
Table 5.2: Component Attribution of Coal Used in our Model

Proximate Analysis Ultimate Analysis Sulfur Analysis


Element Wt % Element Wt % Element Wt %
Moisture (W.B) 4.58 C 58.8 Pyritic 0
Fixed Carbon (D.B) 39.16 H 4.94 Sulfate 41.2

Volatile Matter (D.B) 52.72 N 10.57 Organic 58.8

Ash (D.B) 8.12 Cl 0


S 15
O 5.09
Ash 5.6

5.2.2 Simulation Approach


Flowsheet below shows the approach of simulating coal gasification.

Figure 5.3: Simulation Coal Gasification

62
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

The table below shows all the blocks used in the simulation and their functions.

 The gasifier block is used to convert feedstock in to coal gasses.


 The KO1 one block is used to separate out gasses product from the condensing liquid ones.
 Comp 1 block is used to increase the pressure of gases to the required pressure for CO2
removal section.
 E-101 block is used to decrease the temperature of gas and remove the heat of compression
so that the gas is transported into absorber for CO2 removal.
 V-201 block is again used for phase separation

Table 5.3: Blocks Used in the Simulation and their Functions

Block Model Function


Gasifier RStoic The gasifier block is used to convert feedstock in to coal gasses.
KO1 Sep2 The KO1 one block is used to separate out gasses product from the
condensing liquid ones.
Comp1 Comp Comp 1 block is used to increase the pressure of gases to the required
pressure for CO2 removal section.
E-101 block is used to decrease the temperature of gas and remove the
E-101 HeatX heat of compression so that the gas is transported into absorber for CO2
removal.
V-201 Sep2 V-201 block is again used for phase separation

5.2.3 Convergence
The convergence method impacts simulation performance greatly. Inappropriate convergence
methods may result in the failure of convergence or long running time. In this model, the choice of
convergence method for the RStoic reactor called GASIFIER is very important. The convergence
parameters for the GASIFIER block in the example model are summarized in Table 5.4. These are
specified on the sheet Blocks | GASIFIER | Convergence | Integration Loop.

Table 5.4: The convergence parameters for the Gasifier

Items Parameters Setup

Integration parameters Integration convergence tolerance 0.0001

Initial step size of integration variable 1E-8

Maximum step size of integration variable 0.001

Maximum number of integration steps 1E6

Corrector Convergence method Newton

63
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Error tolerance ratio 0.1

Integration error Error scaling method Dynamic

Minimum scale factor 1E-10

5.2.4 Simulations Results


Table 5.5 summarizes the feed conditions of coal, steam, and oxygen streams. For the coal stream,
it includes the flow rate of coal, inlet temperature and pressure, diameter of coal particle, and
velocity of coal particle entering into the gasifier. For the steam stream, it contains the ratio of steam
to coal flow rates, inlet temperature, and pressure. At our feed conditions of 930oC and 30 bar, the
steam enters the gasifier in a superheated state. For the oxygen stream, it includes the ratio of oxygen
to coal flow rates, inlet temperature, and pressure.
Table 5.5: feed conditions of coal, steam, and oxygen streams

Feedstock Parameter Value Unit

Coal Flow rate 76.66 g/s


o
Temperature 250 C

Pressure 30 bar

Diameter of particle 350 µm

Velocity entering into gasifier 3 m/s

Oxygen Ratio of oxygen to coal flow rates 0.866 dimensionless


o
Temperature 250 C

Pressure 30 bar

Steam Ratio of steam to coal flow rates 0.241 dimensionless

o
Temperature 233.3 C

Pressure 30 bar

Based on above input conditions, we get the results at the outlet of the gasifier, as shown in Table
5.6 as Aspen Plus model a. For comparison, the corresponding results of Wen and Chaung’s work
are also shown in the table. From the table, it can be seen that Wen and Chaung’s results are in a
better agreement with experimental data. In our simulation results, the CO and CO2 flow rates and
carbon conversion are somewhat different from the experimental data. The CO flow rate and carbon
conversion are greater than the experimental data. The CO2 flow rate is less than the experimental
data.

64
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

The difference in CO and CO2 flow rates and carbon conversion may be attributed to the higher
temperature in the gasifier calculated by our model. In our model, the temperature at the outlet of
gasifier is 930oC. However, the outlet temperature is 1148 oC in Wen and Chaung’s model. The
increase in temperature of gasifier speeds up the reaction rate of solid carbon and gases, i.e. rate of
reactions, and then makes the carbon conversion in our simulation greater than the experimental
data. The difference in flow rates of CO and CO2 depends on reaction, an exothermic reaction.
Increasing the temperature will make the reaction shift in the backward direction, i.e. increasing the
amount of CO and decreasing the amount of CO2. So, increasing the temperature decreases the
simulated CO2 flow rate and increases the simulated CO flow rate.

Why does our simulation generate the higher temperature in the gasifier? This may be caused by
two points. The first point is the heat of combustion (HCOMB) of coal. In our model, the HCOMB
of coal is calculated by the built in method (Boie correlation) in Aspen Plus due to lack of accurate
experimental data. However, we believe the HCOMB has a significant effect on the enthalpy of
coal. So, the inaccurate HCOMB may make the incorrect enthalpy of coal and then result in the
large departure of gasifier temperature. The second point is the amount of heat loss in the gasifier.
In our work, the model is simulated in an adiabatic mode. In Wen and Chaung’s model, the heat
loss to the environment is considered. Therefore, combining these two points may cause the higher
temperature of the gasifier in our model. In order to further validate our explanation that the
difference in CO and CO2 flow rates and carbon conversion is caused by the higher temperature in
our model, we manually input the HCOMB of coal to match our outlet temperature with Wen and
Chaung’s work.
Table 5.6: Results at the Outlet of the Gasifier

Material
Stream Name Units AIR COAL STEAM GASIFOUT
Description
From GASIFIER
To GASIFIER GASIFIER GASIFIER KO1
Mass Flows kg/hr 12.35 200 40 252.35
CARBON kg/hr 0 58.8 0 5.88
SULFUR kg/hr 0 15 0 1.05
OXYGEN kg/hr 12.35 10 0 3.55194
N2 kg/hr 0 2.06 0 2.06
H2 kg/hr 0 4.94 0 5.24726
H2O kg/hr 0 9.2 40 3.33911
H2S kg/hr 0 0 0 14.827
CO2 kg/hr 0 0 0 12.927
CO kg/hr 0 0 0 87.7602
CH4 kg/hr 0 0 0 15.7075

65
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.3 Design of 4 Pass Convertor


Chemical reactor is the heart of the chemical reaction process. Chemical reactors are containers that
are designed for a chemical reaction to occur inside of them. The design of a chemical reactor deals
with multiple aspects of chemical engineering.
8909.01 Kg/hr 38

R-401
8909.01 Kg/hr 39

41 8909.01 Kg/hr
8909.01 Kg/hr 40

8909.01 Kg/hr 43 42 8909.01 Kg/hr

8909.01 Kg/hr 44

45 8909.01 Kg/hr

Figure 5.4: Monsato 4-Pass Reactor (R-401)

Types of Reactors
There are four main types of reactors

 Batch reactors
 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR)
 Plug Flow Reactor
 Packed Bed Reactor

Selection Criteria
We selected Packed Bed Reactor because of the following reasons,

 They primarily used for gas phase reactions, solid catalyzed reaction.
 They have low operating cost
 Continuous operation
 High conversion /unit mass of catalyst
 Can handle large volume
 For economical production of large amounts of product
 Supported, good thermal stability and long working life

Design steps for Non Isothermal Fixed Bed Reactor


1. Mole Balance
2. Design Equation
3. Rate Law
4. Stoichiometry
5. Energy Balance
6. Combination

66
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Reaction condition
Temperature = 600 ℃
Pressure = 2 atm

Reaction Components
Table 5.7: Flowrates & Densities of Reaction Components

Inlet Stream Outlet Stream Density


Components
kg/hr kg/hr kg/m3
O2 549.52 253.13 0.88
N2 6587.51 6587.51 0.77
SO2 1602.11 416.55 1.7653
SO3 0 1481.95
Total 8739.15 8739.15 0.959

Reaction
SO2 + O2 → SO3
Conversion = X = 74 %

Mole Balance
𝑋𝐴
𝑑𝑋𝐴
𝑊 = 𝐹𝐴𝑜 ∫
0 −𝑟′𝐴

𝑘𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝑆𝑂2 = 25.03
ℎ𝑟
Rate law
𝜃𝑂 −1𝑋 2
1−𝑋 𝑃 2 2 𝜃𝑆𝑂3 − 𝑋 1
−𝑟𝐴′ = 𝑘√ [ 𝑃 −( ) 2]
𝜃𝑆𝑂3 + 𝑋 𝑃𝑜 𝐴𝑜 1 + 𝜖𝑋 1+𝑋 𝑘𝑝

42311
𝑘𝑝 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ − 11.24]
𝑅𝑇
𝑘𝑝 = 9.912 𝑎𝑡𝑚−1

−176008
𝑘 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 [ − (110.1 ln 𝑇) + 912.8]
𝑇
𝑘𝑔 𝑆𝑂2
𝑘 = 7.39 × 10−5
𝑘𝑔𝑐𝑎𝑡 . 𝑠. 𝑎𝑡𝑚

67
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Required Data
Table 5.8: Required Data of Components

Components 𝑭𝒊 𝒚𝒊 𝑷𝒊 𝜽𝒊
O2 17.17267477 0.061889267 0.123779 0.686
N2 235.2684712 0.847893143 1.695786 9.398313
SO2 25.0330536 0.09021759 0.180435 1
SO3 0 0 0 0
Total 277.4741996 1 2

Final Equation
𝑋 𝐹𝑆𝑂2
𝑊= ∫ 𝑋
1 2
0 𝜃 − 𝑋
𝑘√
1−𝑋 𝑃
[ 𝑃
𝑂2 2 − (𝜃𝑆𝑂3 − 𝑋) 1 ]
𝜃𝑆𝑂3 + 𝑋 𝑃𝑜 𝐴𝑜 1 + 𝜖𝑋 1+𝑋 𝑘𝑝2

On putting values and integrating the equation to our required conversion, X = 74%. The weight of
catalyst was found out to be
W = 24394.38 lb = 11088.35 kg

Volume of Catalyst
Bulk density of V2O5= 1250 kg/m3
Weight of catalyst
Volume of coal = Bulk Denisty of catalyst

= 8.87 m3

Volume of Reactor
Particle density of coal = 3360 kg/m3
Bulk density of Coal
Voidage = 1- = 0.627
Particle Density of Coal

Volume of coal
Volume of gasifier = = 23.8 m3
1−Voidage

Diameter of Reactor
πD2 𝐿
Vreactor =
4

L/D = 4
L=4D
πD2 (4𝐷)
Vreactor =
4

68
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

3 Vreactor
D= √ = 1.964 m
π

Height and Area of Reactor


H = 4.D
H = 7.85 m
20% safety allowance in height = 9.43 m
πD2
A=
4

A = 3.033 m3
Space Time
Mass flow rate
Volumetric Flow rate = = 9109.16 m3/hr
Density

Volume of gasifier
Space Time = Volumetric flow rate = 0.002618 hr = 9.42 sec

Space velocity = 1/0.002618 = 382 h-1

Pressure Drop Calculations


Rearranging the Ergun Equation Pressure drop is calculated by the formula,
𝛥𝑃 (1−𝜙)𝐺(1+𝐸𝑋) 150µ(1−𝜙)
= 𝑃 𝑇
[ + 1.75𝐺]
𝐿 ρ0 ( )( )𝑔𝐷𝑃 𝜙3 𝐷𝑃
𝑃𝑂 𝑇𝑂

Φ = 0.37
G = mass flow rate/ Cross sectional area = 317.607 kg/m2.hr
DP = 0.0004 m
ρ= feed density = 0.1223 kg/m3
Vo = 6.098 m/sec
µ = viscosity of feed = 0.000052 kg/m sec
ϵ = 50 to 70%
L = length of reactor = 7.8 m
ΔP = 30397.50 kg/ms2
ΔP = 0.3 atm

69
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification Sheet

Identification

Item 4 – Pass Convertor (R-401)

Type Packed Bed Reactor

Function

To convert SO2 into SO3 by catalytic Oxidation

Operating Pressure 2 atm

Operating Temperature 600 oC

Catalyst Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5

Space Time 9.42 sec

Volume of Convertor (Vg) 23.8 m3

Volume of Catalyst (Vc) 8.87 m3

Weight of Catalyst 11088.5 kg

Space velocity 382 h-1

Diameter of gasifier (D) 1.96 m

Height of gasifier (h) 7.85 m

Pressure drop 0.3 atm

70
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.4 4-Pass Convertor Simulation


Chemical reactor is the heart of the chemical reaction process. Chemical reactors are containers that
are designed for a chemical reaction to occur inside of them. The design of a chemical reactor deals
with multiple aspects of chemical engineering.

4-Pass convertor is a multi-staged packed bed reactor. Each stage is called a pass and each pass acts
as a separate reactor in the process. It is used for oxidation of SO2 into SO3 for production of sulfuric
acid. Due to the acidic nature of operation the reactor is made up of stainless steel (SS) and is
cladded with rubber from the inside. The reaction is exothermic, hence the temperature of reaction
stream increases as gas passes through each pass of the convertor and the reaction proceeds.

5.4.1 Process Description


Sulfur dioxide and air undergo the catalytic oxidation reaction in the converter. Since the heat
released from the sulfur dioxide oxidation will increase the temperature of the catalysts, the
equilibrium conversion rate will decrease. So the sulfur dioxide conversion process is divided into
4 stages and the temperature of the catalysts in each stage can be kept suitable by stepwise cooling
among the stages. Thus the reaction can get higher conversion and reaction rate.

In the double absorption process, the gas (SO2, air and SO3) from the third converter pass enters the
inter-pass tower. After the generated sulfur trioxide is absorbed, the residual gas (SO2, air) is heated
again and enters into the fourth pass of the converter. The inter-pass absorber removes the SO3 so
the conversion in the fourth pass of the converter is increased. The gas out from the fourth pass of
the converter enters the final absorption column. Stack SO2 concentration is lowered below 500ppm
so the exhaust gas can be discharged to atmosphere.

5.4.2 Physical Properties


The global property method used in this model is ELECNRTL. This option set is used for the
simulations with non-ideal electrolyte solutions. ELECNRTL calculates liquid phase properties
from the Electrolyte-NRTL activity coefficient model. Also, Henry’s Law is used to calculate gas
(SO2, O2, N2 and CO2) solubility in sulfuric acid. The Ideal property method is used for vapor
phase at high temperature in the converter and heater unit operation. The STEAMNBS property
method is used for the steam system (economizers, boiler, and super-heater) unit operations. The
property methods can be modified by creating a new route or entering an existing route ID to modify
an existing route in the Properties | Advanced | Routes form, the table below lists the specification
of this model

71
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.4.3 Simulation Approach


Flowsheet below shows the approach of simulating coal gasification.

Figure 5.5: Approach of Simulating Coal Gasification

The table below shows all the blocks used in the simulation and their functions.

 The RStoic block is used to convert SO2 into SO3.


 The HeatX block is used to cool down gases before re-entering them into next pass of reactor

Table 5.9: Blocks Used in the Simulation and their Functions

Block Model Function


1st Pass RStoic The RStoic block is used to convert SO2 into SO3.

E-401A HeatX The HeatX block is used to cool down gases before re-entering them into
next pass of reactor
nd
2 Pass RStoic The RStoic block is used to convert SO2 into SO3.

E-401B HeatX The HeatX block is used to cool down gases before re-entering them into
next pass of reactor
rd
3 Pass RStoic The RStoic block is used to convert SO2 into SO3.

E-401C HeatX The HeatX block is used to cool down gases before re-entering them into
next pass of reactor
th
4 Pass RStoic The RStoic block is used to convert SO2 into SO3.

72
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.4.4 Simulation Results


This simulation will complete with run status Results Available. Key simulation results are shown
in the following tables
Table 5.10: Simulation Results

Stream Units 1PassIn 1PassOut 2PassIn 2PassOut 3PassIn 3PassOut 4PassIn 4PassOut
From 1ST Pass E401A 2ND Pass E401B 3RD Pass E401C 4TH Pass
To 1st Pass E401A 2ND Pass E401B 3RD Pass E401C 4TH Pass
o
Temp C 410 601 438 485 432 443 427 430
Pressure bar 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Flows kg/hr 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1 8739.1
SO2 kg/hr 1602.1 416.5 416.5 339.9 339.9 325.2 325.2 321.0
SO3 kg/hr 0 1481.6 1481.6 1577.4 1577.4 1595.7 1595.7 1600.9
N2 kg/hr 6587.5 6587. 6587.5 6587.5 6587.5 6587.5 6587.5 6587.5
O2 kg/hr 549.5 253.4 253.4 234.2 234.2 230.6 230.6 229.5

73
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.5 Design of Furnace


Furnace is thermal equipment which preheats the reactor feed to carry out the reaction. It generates
the control heat with the help of flue gases to perform the work. Combustion of fuel is the source
of production of heat in the furnace. In our case, the feed which is elemental sulfur, is preheated
before the reactor to carry out the reaction according to rise the temperature to 2060.6 oF. We are
using the Lobo and Evans method from Process Heat Transfer by D. Q. Kern.

Heat is supplied by combustion gases. Heat produced by combustion gases mainly CO2 is
transferred to the tubes by radiation and convection and the required temperature is achieved.

34
H2S = 873.78 Kg/hr
Product gas es = 9374.48 Kg/hr
T1 = 87 29 F-301 T2 = 1000
P = 30 bar
P = 30 bar

O2 + N2 = 8500.7 Kg/hr
T1 = 100 32
P = 30 bar

Figure 5.6: Furnace (F-301)

Furnace Design Calculations


Methods for heat absorption calculations
There are four common methods for calculating heat absorption in furnace radiant sections that are
given below.
1. Method of Lobo and Evans.
2. Method of Wilson, Lobo, and Hottel.
3. The Orrok-Hudson Equation.
4. Wohlenberg Simplified Method.

We are going to use Lobo and E-vans method for calculating heat absorption in furnace radiation
section. Lobo and Evans method makes the use of the overall exchange factor ‘f’ and a Stefan-
Boltzmann type equation. It has a good theoretical basis and is used extensively in refinery furnaces
design work. It is also recommended for oil or gas fired boilers.

Assumptions
Average heat flux = 525 Btu/lb.ft2
Efficiency = 0.75.
Overall exchange factor = 0.6 .
Temperature of inlet air = 674.6 oF = 357 oC.

74
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Tube length = 35 ft.


Tube Diameters = 5 in.
Center-Center Distance = 8.5 in = 0.708 ft.
Lower heating value = 21500 Btu/lb.

Average Radiant Heat Flux


Radiant heat flux for different stocks is available in the literature for sulfur hydro treated charge
heater average radiant heat flux. Overall exchange factor (ℱ ) is assumed to be 0.6.
𝛴𝑄
= 2 × 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑥
𝛼𝐴𝑐𝑝

𝛴𝑄
= 2 × 525
𝛼𝐴𝑐𝑝

ℱ = 0.6
𝛴𝑄
= 1750
𝛼𝐴𝑐𝑝 ℱ

Where,
Acp = equivalent cold plane surface (ft2)
𝛼 = effectiveness factor

∑Q = heat transferred (Btu/hr)


Tube Surface Temperature depends upon the desired temperature of the fluid lets = Ts
Temperature of the Gases Leaving the Radiant Section = Tg
Process gas outlet temperature in the tube side = 887 oF
Tube surface temperature Ts can be assumed to be = 900 oF
From figure 19.14 of D. Q. Kern, Tg is found out to be = 950 oF

Q  Tg  4
 T 
4 
= 0.173×   - s   + 7×(Tg - Ts )
αA cp f  100   100  

Heat Balance
The heat balance is as follow
Where,
Q = total radiant section duty (Btu/hr)
Qa = sensible heat of entering air (Btu/hr)
Qf = heat liberated by fuel (Btu/hr)

75
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Qw = heat loss through furnace wall (Btu/hr)


Qg = heat leaving the furnace radiant section by flue gases (Btu/hr)

Heat liberated by fuel Qf


Fuel required = 94 kg/hr = 206.8 lb/hr
LHV of fuel = 21500 Btu/lb
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑
𝑄= = 4446200 Btu/hr
𝐿𝐻𝑉
Efficiency = η = 0.75
𝑄
𝑄𝑓 = = 5928266.667 Btu/hr
η
Heat loss through Wall Qw
Heat loss through wall is taken as 2% of Qf, this is a good estimation for design purposes
Qw = 118565.3333 Btu/hr

Air required for burning fuel


CH4 + 2O2 CO2 +2H2O
1 mole Methane required = 2 moles of Oxygen
94 kg fuel/hr = 3.125 kmol fuel/hr
Oxygen required = 6.25 kmol Oxygen/hr = 200 kg Oxygen/hr
Air required = Required Oxygen/0.21 = 952.3809524 kg Air/hr = 2095.238095 lb Air/hr
25% access Air = 2619.047619 lb Air/hr
Table 5.11: Flowrates of Components

Components Kg/hr
CO2 Produced 137.5
H2O Produced 56.25
Unreacted O2 50
N2 940.47

Sensible Heat of incoming Air Qa


T1 = 77oF,

Tref = 60oF

76
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Table 5.12: Sensible Heat of incoming Air Qa

H' m' H
Comp. A B c D
J/mol kj/kg kg/hr Kj/hr
N2 31.15 -0.0135 2.68E-05 -1.2E-08 454.13 14.19 940.47 13346.8
O2 8.106 -3.68E-06 1.75E-05 -1.1E-08 143.82 4.49 250 1123.62

Qa = 14470.47 kj/hr = 13703.54 Btu/hr

Heat Carried Over by Gas Qg

T1 = 77oF

Tref = 60oF
Table 5.13: Heat Carried Over by Gas Qg

H' m' H
Comp. A B C D
J/mol kj/kg kg/hr Kj/hr
CO2 19.795 0.073436 0.00602 1.72E-08 905394.1 26629.2 137.5 3661520
O2 8.106 -3.68E-06 1.75E-05 -1.1E-08 5092.37 159.13 50 7956.84
N2 31.15 -0.01357 2.68E-05 -1.2E-08 13010.39 406.57 940.4 382373.9
H2 O 32.243 0.00192 1.06E-05 -3.6E-09 15646.82 244.48 56.25 13752.08

Total Heat = 4065602.911 kj/hr


Qg = 3850125.957 Btu/hr

Total Heat Content Q


Q = Qf + Qa - Qw - Qg
Q = 1973278.92 Btu/hr

Surface area
Tube Height = 35 ft
OD = 5 in = 0.416666667 ft

Surface area per tube = 𝐴𝑠 = πDL

𝐴𝑠 = 3.14 × 0.4167 × 35

𝐴𝑠 = 45.83 ft2
Number of Tubes
𝑄
Number of tubes (NT) = 𝐴
𝑠

1973278.92
NT = 45.83

77
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

NT = 82 tubes

Equivalent cold plane area surface Acp


Center to center distance = 8.5 in
𝐶2𝐶 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
Acp per tube = × 𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 24.79 ft2
12

To find α
𝐶2𝐶
= 1.7
𝑂𝐷 𝑜𝑓 𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒

α = 0.937
α.𝐴𝑐𝑝
= 23.22
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒

α. 𝐴𝑐𝑝 = 1905.02 ft2

Volume of Furnace
Length
Length = (C2C Distance × 41) + 2 × Clearance from wall

Let clearance from wall to be = 8.5 in


Length = 357 in = 29.75 ft

Width
Width = Tube OD + (2 × Clearance from wall)
Clearance from wall to be = 8.5 in
Width = 22 in = 1.833 ft

Height
Height = Tube height + (2 × Clearance from wall)
Clearance from wall to be = 8.5 in
Height = 36.417 ft

Volume
Volume = Length × Width × Height
Volume = 1986.2256 ft2

Volume of both sections = 2 × 1986.2256 ft2 = 3972.4513 ft2

Refractory Surface

Ar = At - α. 𝐴𝑐𝑝 = 2067.425 ft2

78
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝐴𝑟
= 1.085
α.𝐴𝑐𝑝

Mean Beam Length


23 23
Mean Beam Length = 3 √𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = √3972.45
3

Mean Beam Length = 10.27 ft

Gas Emissivity
Operating Pressure = 1 atm
Let us assume that air at 60 F is 50% saturated.
Per pound of dry air will have moisture = 40 grains
Total air in pounds = 2619.047 lb/hr
Moisture in air = 104761.9048 grains/hr
= 14.9659 lb/hr = 6.80272 kg/hr

Flue Gas Composition


Table 5.14: Flue Gas Composition

Components Flowrate (kg/hr)

CO2 137.5
H2 O 63.0527211
O2 50
N2 940.47619
Total 1191.02891

Partial Pressure Calculations


Operating Pressure = 1 atm
Table 5.15: Partial Pressure Calculations

Components Moles Mole Fraction Partial Pressure


ni xi pi
CO2 3.125 0.07479859 0.074799
H2 O 3.50292895 0.08384452 0.083845
O2 1.5625 0.03739929 0.037399
N2 33.5884354 0.8039576 0.803958
Total 41.7788643 1 1

79
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝑝𝐶𝑂2 = 0.0747

𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 = 0.0838

𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 = 0.7682

𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿 = 0.8611

Emissivity of Gas 𝜺𝑮
At Tg: Tg = 950oF
From Figure 19.12 and 19.13 of D. Q. Kern

𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 = 950

𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿 = 2000


𝑇 4
𝑞𝑏 = 0.173 ( ) = 1409.09
100
At Ts: Ts = 900oF
From Figure 19.12 and 19.13 of D. Q. Kern

𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 = 800

𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿 = 1800


𝑇 4
𝑞𝑏 = 0.173 ( ) = 1135.053
100
% Correction
Percentage Correction is found out from figure 19.12 or 19.13 of D. Q. Kern
𝑝𝐶𝑂2
= 0.4717
𝑝𝐶𝑂2 + 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂

𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 + 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿 = 1.6293

Emissivity of Gas 𝜺𝑮

(𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 + 𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿) − (𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐶𝑂2 𝐿 + 𝑞𝐶𝑂2 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 𝐿) 100 − %


𝑇𝑔 𝑇𝑠
𝜀𝐺 = [ ]( )
(𝑞𝑏 ) 𝑇𝑔 − (𝑞𝑏 ) 𝑇𝑠 100

𝜀𝐺 = 0.55
Overall Exchange Factor 𝓕
Overall Exchange factor ℱ will be found out from figure 19.15 of D. Q. Kern

𝜀𝐺 = 0.55

80
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝐴𝑟
= 1.085
α. 𝐴𝑐𝑝

Exchange factor is found out to be ℱ = 0.68

Check Assumptions
𝛴𝑄
Checking value of 𝛼𝐴𝑐𝑝 ℱ
using above calculated ℱ

𝛴𝑄 𝐵𝑡𝑢
= 1523.27
𝛼𝐴𝑐𝑝 ℱ ℎ𝑟. 𝑓𝑡 2

If Ts remains same = 900oF


Tg becomes = 940oF

This indicate that more duty will be performed, since our duty Q = 1973278.92 Btu/hr, cools the
gas down to 950oF, but according to assumed average flux, gasses will be cooled down to 940oF.
For final iteration Tg will be taken = 945oF
At this gas temperature the furnace duty becomes = Q = 2015880 Btu/hr
2015880−1973278.92
Error = × 100
2015880

Error = 2.1%

Specification Sheet

Identification
Item Furnace (F-301)
Type Rectangular Furnace
Function
To Combust H2S and form Sulfur Dioxide
Number of Tubes 82
Height of Furnace 36.41 ft
Length of Furnace 29.75 ft
Width of Furnace 1.833 ft
Mean Beam Length 10.27 ft
OD of Tube 5 1n.
C-C Distance 8.5 in
Refractory Surface 2067 ft2
Cold Plane Surface 1905 ft2

81
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.6 Design of Cyclone Separator


Gases = 11784.11 Kg/hr
Gases = 12115.48 Kg/hr
9

7
CS-101

8
Ash = 331.37 kg/hr
Figure 5.7: Cyclone Separator
General Design Procedure
1) Select either the high efficiency or high throughput design, depending on the performance
required.
2) Estimate the number of cyclones needed in parallel.
3) Calculate the cyclone diameter for an inlet velocity of 9-27m/s. Scale the other cyclone
dimensions from Figures.
4) Calculate the scale up Factor.
5) Calculate the cyclone performance and overall efficiency (recovery of solids).if unsatisfactory
try a smaller diameter.
6) Calculate the cyclone pressure drop and, if required, select a suitable blower.
Design Consideration
1) Calculate Volumetric Flow rate of entering steam

2) Calculate Inlet Duct area

3) Calculate diameter of Cyclone

4) Find out required no. of cyclone

5) Calculate total height of single cyclone

6) Calculate outlet duct area

7) Calculate dust exit diameter

8) Find out Scaling Factor to scale up standard cyclone

9) Pressure Drop Calculation

82
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Selection of Cyclone
Standard cyclone are in two types according to their efficiency and throughout. We have selected
high efficiency cyclone because our process demands maximum removal of solid particles from the
gaseous steam out from the gasifier.

Design Calculation of Cyclone Separator

Figure 5.8: Standard Cyclone Dimension

(a) High Efficiency Cyclone (b) High Throughput Cyclone

Density of Gases
Table 5.16: Density and Mole Fraction of Gases

Component Density Mole Fraction


Ash 540 kg/m3 0.003
H2o 5.399 kg/m3 0.121
CO2 8.95 kg/m3 0.162
CO 5.698 kg/m3 0.254
CH4 3.2638kg/m3 0.025
N 5.699 kg/m3 0.008
H2 0.5998 kg/m3 0.385
H2S 6.933 kg/m3 0.037

Density = (540*0.003) + (5.399*0.121) + (8.95*0.162) + (5.698*0.254) + (3.2638*0.025) +


(5.699*0.008) + (0.5998*0.385) + (6.933*0.037) = 6.16 kg/m³

83
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

No of Cyclone Required
Flow rate of the gas entering = 12583.58 kg. /hr
Volumetric flow rate = mass/density
Volumetric flow rate = 12583.58/6.16 = 2042.78 m3/hr
Volumetric flow rate = 2042.78/3600 = 0.5674 m3/sec
Standard velocity taken in cyclone is = u = 9-27 m/s
We use, 18 m/s

Inlet Duct area


Area = Volumetric Flow rate / Velocity
= 0.5674 / 18
Area = 0.03152 m2

Dc
From the Figure
Duct area= 0.5Dc × 0.2 Dc
Duct area = 0.03152
Dc = 0.5614m

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 Dc = 0.203 m

No of cyclone = Dc proposed/Dc standard


= 0.5614/0.203
= 2.865
No of cyclone = 3

Calculation for Single Cyclone


Flow rate of the gas entering per cyclone=12583.58/3=4194.52 kg /hr
Volumetric flow rate = mass/density
Volumetric flow rate per Cyclone= 4194.52/6.16 = 680.92 m3/hr
Volumetric flow rate per Cyclone= 0.1891 m3/sec

Inlet Duct area


Area= Volumetric Flow rate / Velocity
Area = 0.1891/18 = 0.0105 m2
Duct area = (0.5*Dc)*(0.2*Dc)

84
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Duct area = 0.0105 m2


Dc = 0.3240 m

Dimensions of Cyclone
Total Height:
From the figure.

Total height = 1.5×𝐷c + 2.5×𝐷c


Dc= 0.3240 m
Total Height = 1.5(0.3240) + 2.5(0.3240)
Total Height = 1.296 m

Outlet Duct Area


From the figure

Do = 0.5×𝐷c
Dc = 0.3240 m
Do =0.162 m

Area
Ao = π * (Do/2)2
Do = 0.162m
Ao = 0.0206 m2

Exit Duct Diameter


From the Figure
Duct exit diameter = 0.375 * Dc
Dc = 0.3240 m
Duct dia = 0.1215
Calculation of Scaling Factor:
0.5
d 2  DC 2  Q1 p1 u2 
3

   * * * 
d1  DC1  Q2 p2 u1 
 
Dc2 = Diameter of cyclone= 0.3240m
Dc1 = Diameter of standard cyclone=0.203 m
Q1 = Standard flow rate= 223 m3/h

85
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Q2 = Volumetric flow rate per cyclone= 2042.78m3/h

Δ𝝆𝟏 = standard solid-fluid =2000 kg/m3

Δ𝝆2 = particle density= 675.4 kg/m3

𝝁1 =standard viscosity =0.018 mNs/m2(cp)

𝝁𝟐 =gas viscosity = 0.0245 (mNs/m2)

By putting these values.


0.5
d 2  DC 2  Q1 p1 u2 
3

   * * * 
d1  DC1  Q2 p2 u1 
 
Scaling Factor = [(0.3240/0.203)3 * (223/2042.78) * (2000/675.4) * (0.0245/0.018) ]0.5
Scaling Factor=1.5

Number of Effective Turns


Using relation:
1 𝐿𝐵 + 𝐿𝐶
𝑁 = (𝐻) × ( )
2

Dc=0.3240 m
Height=H= 0.5* Dc = 0.162 m
Lb = 1.5*Dc = 0.486m
Lc = 2.5*Dc = 0.81 m
No of Effective turns = 4

Gas Residence Time


Using Relation
T = Path Length / Speed
3.14 × 𝐷𝑐 × 𝑁
𝑇=( )
𝑉1
V1=18 m/s
T=0.226 sec

Particles drift velocity


Using Relation
Vt=W/T
W=0.2*(DC)

86
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

W=0.2*(0.3240)
W=0.0648 m
Vt=0.0648/0.226
Vt=0.2867 m/s

Pressure Drop Calculation:

p f  2  2  2r   
P  u1 1  2  t  1   2u2 
2

203    re   

Where

Cyclone pressure drop = P = millibar

Gas density, p f = 4.16kg/m3

Inlet duct velocity, = u1 = 18 m/s

Exist duct velocity = u2 =, Volumetric Flow Rate/Area of exist Pipe

Volumetric Flow Rate for one cyclone=0.5674m/sec


Area of exist Pipe=0.0206 m2
U2=0.5674/0.0206
U2=27.54 m/s

  W 
rt   Dc    
  2 

rt = (0.3240-(0.0648/2))
rt = 0.2916m
re = 0.5*Dc
= 0.5*0.3240
= 0.162 m

 = Factor from figure 10.47

ψ= Parameter in figure 10.47 given by

As
  fC
A1
Friction factor f C = taken as 0.005 for gases

87
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Surface area of cyclone exposed to the spinning fluid, = As =Dc*h*π

As= 0.3240*1.296*3.14=1.3184 m2

Area of inlet duct= A1 =,0.5*Dc*0.2*Dc

A1= 0.5*0.3240*0.2*0.3240=0.01049m2
Radius Ratio=Rt/Re=2
ψ= 0.628
φ=0.95
Pressure Drop=4.16/203*[(18)2*[1+2*(0.9)2*(3)]+(2)(27.52)]
Pressure Drop=142 millibar
Pressure Drop= 0.142bar
Proposed Cyclone
0.162 m

0.01 m

0.48 m

0.32 m

0.81 m

0.12 m

Figure 5.9: Proposed Cyclone

88
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification sheet

Item: Cyclone Separator


Item No: CS -101
No. required: 03
Function: To remove ash, from mixture of gases
Operation: Continuous

Design Data:
Inlet Duct Area 0.03152 m2 Scaling Factor 1.55

Diameter 0.3240 m Number of Effective Turns 4

Total Height 1.296 m Gas Residence Time 0.226 sec

Outlet Duct Area 0.0206 m2 Particles drift velocity 0.2867 m/sec

Outlet Duct Dia 0.162 m Pressure Drop 0.142 bar

89
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.7 Design of Waste Heat Boiler (E-101)


Steam = 5488 kg/hr
T = 234oC
P = 29.94 bar

Gases In = 11782.64 kg/hr Gases Out = 11782.64 kg/hr


T = 930oC T = 250oC
8 P = 29.96 bar
P = 30 bar 9

Water = 5488 kg/hr


T = 25oC
P = 30 bar
Figure 5.10: Waste Heat Boiler (E-101)

Calculations:
Exchanger:

Shell side Tube Side


ID = 19.25 inch Number of tubes, Length = 132, 16 ft
Baffle Space = 3.85 inch OD, BWG, Pitch = 1 inch, 16, 1.25 Inch
Passes = 1 Passes = 2

Water:
Flow rate = m = 12099 lb/hr (5488 Kg/hr)
Inlet temp = 77 F (25 oC)
Vaporization temperature = 453 F (234 oC)
Outlet temp = 453 F (234 oC)
Steam produced = 12099.5 lb/hr (5488.2 Kg/hr)
To prevent the total vaporization in the shell, the total liquid entering the vaporizer will be…
Liquid entering the vaporizer = 12099/0.8 lb/hr = 15124 lb/hr
Liquid entering the vaporizer = 15124 lb/hr ( 6860 kg/hr)

The vapor should then disengage from the liquid in the drum and the excess liquid return to the
pump suction for recombination with 12099 lb/hr of new feed.
The water separated from vapors in steam drum = 15124-12099
The water separated from vapors in steam drum = 3024 lb/hr
Thus for every 12099 lb/hr of BFW coming from storage at 77oF, 3024 lb/hr at 453.2 ◦F (234 oC)
will also mix with it so that the inlet temperature will be 152 oF (66.8 oC).

90
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Outlet gases of Furnace


Flow rate = m = 25976.28 lb/hr (11782.64 kg/hr)
Inlet temp = T1 = 1706 ◦F (930 oC)
Outlet temp = T2 = 482 ◦F (250 oC)
Tmean = 1094 ◦F (590 oC)
Specific Heat Cp weighted = 0.439 Btu/(lb.F)
Qlost = m*Cp*∆T = 13969652 Btu/hr

Step 1: Heat Balance


(1). Preheat:
Enthalpy of water at 152 ◦F = 122.6 Btu/lb
Enthalpy of water at 453 ◦F = 434 Btu/lb
qp = Total flow entering the vaporizer*(Enthalpy at 453 F - Enthalpy at 152 F)
qp = 4705653.2 Btu/hr

(2). Vaporization:
Enthalpy of water vapors at 453 ◦F = 1200.Btu/lb
Enthalpy of water at 453 ◦F = 434 Btu/lb
qv = steam generated*(enthalpy of steam at 453 F - enthalpy of water at 453 F)
qv = 9263997 Btu/hr
Total heat in Water/saturated steam = Q = qp + qv
Q product gases = Q cold = 13969652 btu/hr
Subscript p and v indicates preheating and vaporizing

Step 2: LMTD
i. (∆t)p = LMTD = ((T1-t2)-(T2-t1))/ln((T1-t2)/(T2-t1))
T1 = 1706 F (930 oC)
o

T2 = 482 oF (250 oC)


t1 = 152 ◦F (68.8 oC)
t2 = 452 ◦F (234 oC)
(∆t)p = LMTD1 = 692 oF

91
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

ii. (∆t)v = LMTD ((T1-t2)-(T2-t1))/ln((T1-t2)/(T2-t1))


T1 = 1706 F (930 oC)
o

T2 = 482 oF (250 oC)


t1 = 452 ◦F (234 oC)
t2 = 452 ◦F (234 oC)
(∆t)v = LMTD2 = 325 oF
qp/(∆t)p =6805
qv/(∆t)v = 28555
qp/(∆t)p + qv/(∆t)v = 35360

Weighted ∆t:
Q/[(qp/(∆t)p + qv/(∆t)v] = 395 oF

Step 3: Average temperature


Tav = (T1+T2)/2 = 1095 oF
tav1 = (t1+t2)/2 = 303 oF for preheat
tav2 = (t1+t2)/2 = 452 oF for vaporization

Trail: Assume UD (range = 50-75)


Btu
UD Assumed = 70 (h)(ft2 )(F)

Q
A = UD∆T = 505 ft2

Tube specification:
At 1 in OD and 16 BWG
Surface per lin ft = at = 0.2618 ft2
A
Number of tubes = N = L∗at = 120.5

Select number of tubes, shell ID and passes at 1 in. OD tubes on 1.25 in. (square pitch).
Corrected number of tubes = N = 132
Number of passes = n = 2
Shell ID = 19.25 in.
Corrected area and overall heat transfer coefficient, UD:
Area = A = N × L × at = 552 ft2
Q Btu
UD = A∆T = 64 (h)(ft2 )(F)

92
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

For Preheating:
Step 4: Tube side, Hot fluid Shell side, Cold fluid
at = 0.594 inch2 as = ID*C'B/144PT
at = Nt*at/144n C' = tube pitch - OD of tube
= 0.27225 ft2 C' = 0.25
as = 0.1059 ft2

Step 5: Gt=W/at Gs = w/as


Flow rate = W = 25976 lb/hr Flow rate = 12512 lb/hr
Gt = 95413 lb/hr.ft2 Gs = 118148.35 lb/hr.ft2
Step 6: At Tt = 1094 oF (590 oC) At Ts = 303 oF (152 oC)

Viscosity = 0.335 cp Viscosity = 0.18 cp


µ = 0.081 lb/ft.hr µ = 0.442 lb/ft.hr

D = 0.87 in = 0.0725 ft D = 0.99 inch = 0.0825 ft

Ret=DGt/µ = 85327 Res = DGs/µ = 27372

Step 7: jH = 460 jH = 85
Step 8: At 1094 oF At 303 oF
k = 0.053 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft) k = 0.38 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft)
c = 0.44 Btu/lb.F c = 1.00 Btu/lb.F
µ = 0.08 lb/ft.hr µ = 0.45 lb/ft.hr
(cµ/k)1/3 = 0.88 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft) (cµ/k)1/3 = 1.05 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft)
Øs = 1 (for non-viscous fluids) Øs = 1 (for non-viscous fluids)

Step 9: hio = jH*k/D*Øs*(cµ/k)1/3 ho = jH*k/D*Øs*(cµ/k)1/3


= 296 Btu/hr.ft2.F = 419 Btu/hr.ft2.F

Step 10: Clean overall coefficient for preheating Up


Up = (hio*ho)/(hio+ho)
Up =173.2 Btu/hr.ft2.F

Clean surface require for preheating Ap


Ap=qp/Up(∆t)p = 39.26 ft2

93
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Vaporization at 452 oF
Viscosity = µ = 0.016 cp = 0.04 lb/ft.hr
D = 0.99 inch = 0.0825 ft
Res = DGs/µ = 296271
Step 7/: jH = 330
Step 8/: At 452 oF
k = 0.0145 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft)
c = 0.86 Btu/lb.F µ = 0.04 lb/ft.hr
(cµ/k)1/3 = 1.35 Btu/hr.ft2(F/ft)
Øs = 1 (for non-viscous fluids)

Step 9/: hio = jH*k/D*Øs*(cµ/k)^1/3 ho = jH*k/D*Øs*(cµ/k)^1/3


= 296 Btu/hr.ft2.F = 78 Btu/hr.ft2.

Step 10: Clean overall coefficient for vaporization Uv:


Uv = (hioho)/(hio+ho) = 62 Btu/hr.ft2.F
Step 11: Av=qv/Uv(∆t)v = 462 ft2
Step 12: Total Clean surface
Ac = Ap + Av = 502 ft2

Step 13: Weighted clean overall coefficient Uc


Uc = ƩUA/Ac = 70.5

Step 14: Design overall Coefficient:


Surface/lin ft of tube = 0.2618
Total surface = No of tubes*Length of tubes*surface/lin ft of tubes
Total surface = 552.9 ft2
UD=Q/[A*∆t] = 64

Check for maximum flux:


A total 502 ft2 are required of which 162 ft2 is used for vaporization. For the total surface required
552.9 ft2 will be provided.
It can be assumed that the surface provided for vaporization is
(Av/Ac)*Total surface = 509 ft2
The flux Q/A is = qv/A* = 18177 Btu/hr.ft2

94
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Step 15: Dirt Facter


Dirt Factor = Rd = (Uc-UD)/(Uc*UD) = 0.001 hr.ft2.F/Btu

Pressure Drop
Tube side, Hot fluid Shell side, Cold fluid
Step 1: Preheat:
Ret = DGt/µ = 85327 Res = DGs/µ = 27372
f = 0.0015 ft2/in2 f = 0.0021 ft2/in2
Specific volume = s = 0.95

Step 2: Length of preheat zone:


1 𝑓𝐺 2 𝐿𝑛
∆Pt = 2 5.22∗1010 ∗𝐷𝑠Øt Lp = LAP/AC = 1.25 ft
12𝐿𝑃
∆Pt = 0.6 psi No. of crosses, N+1 = = 3.9
𝐵

∆Pt = 0.04 bar Specific volume of H2O at 302 oF is:


S = 0.0164 ft3/lb
s = 0.975, Ds = 1.6 ft
𝑓𝐺𝑠 2 𝐷 (𝑁+1)
𝑆
∆P = 5.22∗1010 = 0.67 psi
∗𝐷 𝑆 𝑠Ø𝑆
Vaporization:
Step 1/: Res = DGs/µ = 296271
f = 0.0012
Step 2/: Length of vaporization zone
Lv = 14.8 ft
12𝐿𝑃
Step 3/: No. of crosses, N+1 = = 46
𝐵

Density = 0.0306 lb/ft3


Density of water at outlet = 62.5 lb/ft3
s of outlet mixture = 0.0006

s mean = 0.5
𝑓𝐺𝑠 2 𝐷 (𝑁+1)
𝑆
∆P = 5.22∗1010 = 0.045 psi
∗𝐷 𝑆 𝑠Ø𝑆

∆Ptotal = 0.067 + 0.92 = 0.99 psi


∆Ptotal = 0.07 bar

95
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification Sheet

Waste heat Boiler (E-101)


Identification: Vaporizer E-101 Date: 27-January-2019
No. required: 1 By: Group-1
Function: To utilize the extra heat in output gases by generating steam

Operation: Continuous
Type: 1-2 horizontal heat exchanger
Btu
Heat duty: 13969652 Outside area 552 ft2
h

TUBE SIDE: Tubes: 1 in. OD. 16 BWG


Fluid handled: Product Gases (Hot) 132 number of tubes each 16 ft long
Flow rate: 25976 lb/h Passes: 2
Temperature: 1706 to 482 ℉ Pitch: 1 in square
Pressure drop: 0.6 psi
SHELL SIDE: Shell: 19.25 in dia.
Fluid handled: BFW Water (Cold) Passes: 2
Flow rate: 12099 lb/h Baffles spacing: 3.85 in
Temperature: 77 to 452 ℉
Total Pressure drop: 0.99 psi
Btu Btu
UD assumed: 70 UD calculated: 64 (h)(ft2 )(F)
(h)(ft2 )(F)

(Btu) Calculated dirt factor


Uc calculated: 70.5 (h)(.ft2) (F)
(h)(ft2 )(F)
Rd: 0.001 Btu

96
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.8 Design of Heat Exchanger E-102:


T = 25
P = 1 bar
H2O = 44996.5 kg/hr

T = 250 T = 55
P = 30 bar 11 12 P = 30 bar
Product Gases = 11782.64 kg/hr Product Gases = 11782.64 kg/hr

E-102
T = 25
P = 1 bar
H2O = 44996.5 kg/hr

Figure 5.11: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (E-102)

Design calculations
Process conditions required
Hot fluid: T1, T2, W, c, s, µ, k
Cold fluid: t1, t2, w, c, s, µ, k For the exchanger the following data must be known

Shell side (Water) Tube side (Product Gases)


ID =19.25 inches . Number and Length= 132, 16 ft.
Baffle Spacing (B) = 3.85 in. OD, BWG, Pitch= 1 in, 16, 1.25 in square.
Passes = 1 Passes = 2

Step-1: Heat Balance:


Q = WC(T1 − T2) Q = wc(t2 − t1)
Btu Btu
Q = 3560418 Q = 3560418
h hr

Step-2: True LMTD:


(T1−t2)−(T2−t1)
LMTD = T1−t2 =164 oF
ln( )
T2−t1

t2−t1 T1−T2
S = T1−t1 = 0.88 R= = 9.75
t2−t1

FT =0.95

∆t true = LMTD × FT =156 F

97
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Step-3:
As the viscosity of both streams are less than 1 cp therefore we use average temperature instead of
caloric temperature:
Tav = 306 F
tav = 95 F

Trail: Assume UD (range = 2-50)


Btu
UD = 45 (h)(ft2 )(F)

Q
A = UD∆T = 508 ft2

Tube specification:
At 1 in OD and 16 BWG
Surface per lin ft = at = 0.2618 ft2
A
Number of tubes = N = L∗at = 121.3

Select number of tubes, shell ID and passes at 1 in. OD tubes on 1.25 in. (square pitch).
Corrected number of tubes = N = 132
Number of passes = n = 2
Shell ID = 19.25 in.
Corrected area and overall heat transfer coefficient, UD:
Area = A = N × L × at = 552 ft2
Q Btu
UD = A∆T = 41 (h)(ft2 )(F)

Step-4: Shell side Tube side


Flow area: Flow area:
as = Ds×C×B/144 at = (Nt×at')/144 × n
as = 0.102 ft2 at= 0.272 ft2

Step-5: Mass velocity: Mass velocity:


Gs = W/as Gt = w/at
Gs=963725 lb/h.ft2 Gt= 95412 lb/h.ft2

µ = 10.09 lb/h.ft µ = 0.94 lb/h.ft


De = 0.99 ft D = 0.87 (Fig 10)
D = 0.0725 ft

98
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Step-6: Reynolds number: Reynolds number:

Res = (De × Gs)/u Ret = (D×Gs) /u


Res = 810.7 Ret = 7329.36

Step-7: jH factor jH factor


jH = 16 jH = 25

Step-8: Prandtle number: Prandtle Number:


(C× u/K)(1/3) = 3.8 (C× u/K)(1/3)= 4.2

Step-9: Heat transfer coefficient: Heat transfer coefficient:


ho= (jH× K)/(De) (C × u/K)(1/3) (θs) hi= (jH× K)/(De) (C × u/K)(1/3) (θt)
ho = 235.8 (Btu)/(h.ft2.oF) hi =62.55 (Btu)/(h.ft2.oF)
θt & θs = Viscosity correction factor for non-viscous fluids = 1

Step-10: Correct hi:


ID
hio = hi×
OD
Btu
hio = 55
h. ft2 . F
Step- 11: Overall clean coefficient:
hio ho (Btu)
Uc = hio+ho = 44 (h)(.ft2) (.F)

Step- 12: Dirt factor:


Uc−Ud (h)(ft2 )(F)
Rd = = 0.0015
Uc Ud Btu

Step- 13 Pressure drop:


Shell side: Tube side:
f = 0.0004 f = 0.0003
Specific volume = 1 s = 0.7
fGs2 Ds(N+1) (f)(Gt2 )(L)(n)
∆Ps = 5.22×1010 De Sθs ∆Pt = 5.22×1020 (D)( S)(Qt)

∆Ps = 6.6 psi ∆Pt = 0.5 psi

99
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification Sheet

Heat Exchanger E-102


Identification: Shell and tube heat exchanger Date: 27-January-2019
No. required: 1 By: Group-1

Function: Decrease Temperature of Process Fluid.

Operation: Continuous

Type: 1-2 horizontal heat exchanger


Btu
Heat duty: 3560418 Outside area 552 ft2
h

TUBE SIDE: Tubes: 1 in. OD. 16 BWG


Fluid handled: Hot 132 number of tubes each 16 ft long
Flow rate: 243479.28 lb/h Passes: 2

Temperature: 482 to 131℉ Pitch: 1 in square

Pressure drop: 0.5 psi

SHELL SIDE: Shell: 19.25 in dia.


Fluid handled: Cold Passes: 2
Flow rate: 99200 lb/h Baffles spacing: 3.85 in

Temperature: 77 to 113℉
Pressure drop: 6.6 psi
Btu Btu
UD assumed: 45 UD calculated: 41 (h)(ft2 )(F)
(h)(ft2 )(F)

(Btu) Calculated dirt factor


Uc calculated: 44.2 (h)(.ft2) (F)
(h)(ft2 )(F)
Rd: 0.0015 Btu

100
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.9 Coal Gas Heat Exchanger (E-102)


E-102 is a shell and tube, liquid to gas Heat Exchanger. It decreases the coal gas coming from
gasifier from 250oC to 55oC. Cooling water is used as utility to cool down the hot gas. The gas is
then introduced into absorber for CO2 removal.

The simulation is done on Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR). The TEMA sheet, overall
layout sheet and tube layout sheet has been shown.

101
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.10 Heat Exchanger (E-401-A)


T = 45
P = 1.01 bar
H2O = 1620.88 kg/hr

T=600
P=30 bar
Product Gases = 8909 kg/hr
39

T = 485 40
P = 30 bar
Product Gases = 8909 kg/hr E-401 A

T = 25
P = 1.01 bar
H2O = 1620.88 kg/hr
Figure 5.12: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (E-401-A)
Design calculations
Process conditions required
Hot fluid: T1, T2, W, c, s, µ, k, Rd
Cold fluid: t1, t2, w, c, s, µ, k, Rd
For the exchanger the following data must be known
Exchanger, IPS = 8 * 6

Step-1. Heat Balance:


T1=1112 F T2 = 905 F Tavg = 1008.5 F
W1 = 19640.96 lb/hr Cp = 0.2868 Btu/lb.F, μ = 0.0372 cp
t1= 77 F t2 = 113 F tavg = 95 F
w1 = 32421.7 lb/hr, cp = 0.99 Btu/lb.F μ = 0.79 cp
Q = W Cp (T1 – T2) = w cp (t2 – t1)
Q = 1166037 Btu/hr

Step-2 True LMTD:

Hot fluid (℉) Temperatures Cold fluid (℉) Difference (℉)

1112 High temperature 113 999

905 Low temperature 77 828

207 Difference 36 252

106
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

(𝑇2−𝑡1)−(𝑇1−𝑡2)
LMTD =
ln(𝑇2−𝑡1)/(𝑇1−𝑡2)

LMTD = 910.8 F
Step-3
A Check of both stream will shows that neither is viscous at the cold terminal ( the viscosities is
less than 1 cp) and the temperature ranges and temperature difference are moderate.

A check of table 6.2 indicates that the flow area of inner pipe is greater than annulus. Place the
larger stream, gases in the inner pipe.

Step-4 Annulus side (Water) Inner pipe side (Product Gases)

Flow area: Flow area:


ID of outer pipe= 7.981/12 D = 6.065/12
D2 = 0.665ft D = 0.505 ft
πD2
OD of inner pipe = 6.625/12 ap = 4
D1 = 0.55 ap = 0.2 ft2

aa= ᴫ(D22-D12)/4

aa = 0.107 ft2
Equivalent dia:
De= (D22-D12)/D1
De = 1.2738 ft

Step-5 Mass velocity: Mass velocity:


G = w/aa G = W/ap
G = 300287.5 lb/hr.ft2 G = 97947.6 lb/hr.ft2

Step-6 Reynolds number: Reynolds number:


Re= (De × G)/µ Re= (D×G) /µ
Re= 200089 Re= 549901.8

Step-7 JH factor: JH factor:


JH = 440 JH = 980

Step-8 at tavg = 95 F at tavg = 1008.5 F


Cp = 0.99 Btu/lb F Cp = 0.286 Btu/lb F
μ = 1.91 lb/ft hr μ = 0.09 lb/ft hr
K = 0.355 Btu/hr ft2( F/ft) K = 0.21 Btu/hr ft2( F/ft)

107
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Prandtle number: Prandtle Number:


(C× u/K)(1/3) = 1.75 (C× u/K)(1/3)= 0.49

Step-9 Heat transfer coefficient:

𝐤 𝟑 𝐜𝛍 𝝁 𝐤 𝟑 𝐜𝛍 𝛍
𝐡𝟎 = 𝐣𝐡 𝐃 √ 𝐤 (𝝁 )𝟎.𝟏𝟒 𝐡𝐢 = 𝐣𝐡 𝐝 √ 𝐤 (𝛍 )𝟎.𝟏𝟒
𝐞 𝒘 𝐰

ho = 214 Btu/hr. ft2 F) hi = 202 Btu/hr. ft2 (F)

Step-10 Correct hi:


ID
hio = hi× = hio= 185 Btu/hr. ft 2(F)
OD

Step-11 Overall clean coefficient:


hio ho
Uc = hio+ho = 99.5 Btu/hr. ft 2(F)

Overall design co efficient:

R d = 0.003
1 1
= + Rd
UD UC
UD= 76.6 Btu/hr. ft 2(F)
Step-12 Required surface:
A= Q/UD*∆T
A= 16.7 ft2
From Table 11. P-844 Kern, IPS standard pipe there are 1.734 ft2 of external surface per foot length
Required length = 16.7/1.734
Required length = 9.64 lin.ft
This may be fulfilled by connecting one 5-ft hairpin.

Step-13
The surface supplied actually A’= 10*1.734 = 17.34 ft2.
The dirt factor will accordingly be greater than required.

Step-14 Actual design coefficient is:


Q
UD =
A′ × ∆t
UD= 1166037 /17.34*910.8
UD= 73.84 Btu/hr. ft 2(F)

108
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Step-15: Rd= [UC-UD]/[UC*UD]


Rd= 0.0034

Pressure drop Calculations


Step-1 Step-1
De ′ for pressure drop differs from De Re= 417886.8

for heat transfer. D′e = (D2 − D1 ) f= 0.0045

De’= 0.113 ft s = 0.44


De′ Ga
Re′a Re = 17748.9 density = 62.43 * 0.44
µ

f = 0.007, s=1 ρ =27.5 lb/ft3


density = 62.43 lb/ft3

Step-2 Step-2
4𝑓𝐺𝐿 4𝑓𝐺𝐿
∆Fa = fanning eq = 2𝐺𝑃^2𝐷𝑒 ∆Fp = fanning eq = 2𝐺𝑃^2𝐷𝑒

∆Fa= 0.076 ft ∆FP= 0.0038 psi

Step-3 Step-3
∆Fp ×ρ
V = G/3600*ρ ∆Pp = 144

V= 1.336 fps ∆PP= 0.001 psi


FI=3(V2/2g,) Allowable pressure = 3 psi
FI= 0.08 ft
ρ
∆Pa = (∆Fa + Fl ) ×
144
∆Pa= 0.069 psi Allowable pressure = 10 psi

109
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification Sheets

E-401-A
Identification
Item Heat Exchanger (E-401-A)
Type Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Function
To reduce Temperature of gases in order to increase conversion
Heat Duty: 1166037 Btu/hr
Exchanger, IPS = 8 * 6
Annulus Inner Pipe
Fluid: Cold Fluid: Hot
Flow Rate: 32421.7 lb/hr Flow Rate: 19641 lb/hr
Temperature: 77 to 113 F Temperature: 1112 to 905 F
Pressure Drop: 0.069 Psi Pressure Drop: 0.002 Psi

110
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.11 Heat Exchanger (E-401-B)


E-401-B
Identification
Item Heat Exchanger (E-401-B)
Type Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Function
To reduce Temperature of gases in order to increase conversion

Heat Duty: 420889 Btu/hr


Exchanger, IPS = 8 * 6
Annulus Inner Pipe
Fluid: Cold Fluid: Hot
Flow Rate: 11702.8 lb/hr Flow Rate: 19641 lb/hr
Temperature: 77 to 113 F Temperature: 905 to 829.4 F
Pressure Drop: 0.01 Psi Pressure Drop: 0.0014 Psi

111
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.12 Heat Exchanger (E-401-C)


E-401-C
Identification
Item Heat Exchanger (E-401-C)
Type Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Function
To reduce Temperature of gases in order to increase conversion

Heat Duty: 128518 Btu/hr


Exchanger, IPS = 8 * 6
Annulus Inner Pipe
Fluid: Cold Fluid: Hot
Flow Rate: 3573.4 lb/hr Flow Rate: 19641 lb/hr
Temperature: 77 to 113 F Temperature: 829.4 to 806 F
Pressure Drop: 0.0011 Psi Pressure Drop:0.001 Psi

112
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.13 Design of Absorber


Absorption
The removal of one or more component from the mixture of gases by using a suitable solvent is
second major operation of Chemical Engineering that based on mass transfer.

In gas absorption a soluble vapors are more or less absorbed in the solvent from its mixture with
inert gas. The inert gas in the gas mixture is called “carrier gas”.
The purpose of such gas scrubbing operations may be any of the following;

1. For Separation of component having the economic value.


2. As a stage in the preparation of some compound.
3. For removing of undesired component (pollution).
Types of Absorption
1. Physical Absorption
2. Chemical Absorption
Physical Absorption
In it mass transfer takes place purely by diffusion and is governed by the physical equilibria.

The forces that bring about physical absorption are predominantly the attractive “dispersion forces”
and short‐range repulsive forces. In addition, electrostatic forces are responsible for the adsorption
of polar molecules, or by surfaces with a permanent dipole.

Chemical Absorption
On the other hand, chemical absorption is referred to as chemisorption. In this type of absorption
as soon as a particular component comes in contact with the absorbing liquid a chemical reaction
take place. Then by reducing the concentration of component in the liquid phase, which enhances
the rate of diffusion.

Types of Absorber:
1. Packed Columns
2. Plate Columns

113
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Comparison between Packed and Plate Column


Table 5.17: Comparison between Packed and Plate Column

Packed Columns Tray columns


The packed column delivers continuous contact The plate column fetches the two phases into
between vapor and liquid phases. contact on stage wise basis.
Column diameter of less than approx. 6m, But if the column is very large then the
packed columns are used because of their low liquid distribution is problem and large
manufacturing cost. volume of packing and its weight is problem.
So, we use a plate type column.
For diameters of less than 6m, packed tower Maintenance and material cost in plate type
require lower fabrication and material costs. columns is more as compared to the packed
one.
Pressure drop in packed column is less than the In plate column there is additional friction
plate column produced as the vapor passes through the
liquid on each tray. If no. of plates are more
than pressure drop is quite high.
In a packed tower the liquid flows as a thin film Because of the liquid on each plate there may
over the packing. be a desire quantity of the liquid in plate
column.

From the above consideration packed column is selected as the absorber, because in our case the
diameter of the column is less than 6 ft. As the solubility is infinity so the liquid will absorb as much
gases as it remains in contact with gases so packed tower provide more contact. It is easy to operate.

Packed Column Selection


Packing Selection
It is the most important factor of the system. The packing provides adequate area for intimate

Contact between phases. The efficiency of packing with respect to both HTU and flow capacity
determines to an important extent the overall size of the tower. The economics of the installation
are therefore tied up by the packing choice.

The packing is divided into two types which are dumped at random into the tower and these which
must be stacked by hand.

Dumped packing consists of unit 1/4 to 3 inches in major dimension and are used roost in the smaller
columns and stacked packing are 2 to about 8 inches in size, they are used only in the larger towers.
The principal requirements of a tower packing are:

1. It must be chemically inert to the fluids in the tower.


2. It must be strong without excessive weight.
3. It must contain sufficient passages for both streams without extreme liquid holdup or
pressure drop.
4. It must offer good contact between liquid and gas.

114
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5. It must be reasonable in cost.


The packing is the heart of the performance of the absorber. Its proper selection involves an
understanding of packing operational features and the effects on performance of the points of major
physical difference between several types. The types and corresponding merits and demerits are
given below.

 Rashing Rings
 Berl Saddles
 Intalox Saddles
 Pall Rings
 Lessing rings.
 Cross-partition rings
 Single spiral rings
 Double - Spiral rings etc.

For the absorption packing selected in this case are intalox saddles because of the following
features.

Merits of Intalox Saddles


1. One of the most efficient packing
2. Very little tendency or ability to nest and block areas of bed
3. Higher flooding limits and lower pressure drop than rashing rings or berl saddles
4. Lower HTU values for most common systems
5. Material of packing is ceramic because it resist corrosion

Selection of Solvent
Selexol solvent is a mixture of dimethyl ethers of polyethylene glycol, and has the formulation of
CH3 (CH2CH2O) nCH3, where n is between 3 and 9. Selexol solvents are true physical solvents and
do not react chemically with the absorbed gases. The ability of Selexol solvents to remain
chemically non-reactive with the gas is a necessary feature. The Selexol solvent has some other
encouraging advantages too.

1. A very low vapor pressure that limits its losses to the treated gas
2. Low viscosity to avoid large pressure drop
3. High chemical and thermal stability
4. Low heat requirements for regeneration because the solvent can be reproduced by a simple
pressure letdown.
5. High solubility for nickel and iron carbonyls allows for their removal from synthesis gas.
6. High H2S absorption capacity.

Designing steps of Absorber


1. Selection of Column
2. Selection of packing and material
3. Selection of packing and material
4. Calculating the size of packing

115
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5. Calculate Flow Factor


6. Calculate K4 & Mass Velocity
7. Calculate the Area of Column
8. Calculating the diameter of column
9. Determining the height of transfer unit (HOG)
10. Determining the number of transfer units (NOG)
11. Determining the height of the column
12. Calculating the operating velocity
13. Calculating the flooding velocity
14. Determining the pressure drop across the column

Calculations
G = Gas flow rate =10433.02657 kg/hr

PG = Pressure of gases = 30 kg/cm2


TG = Temperature of gases = 55 0C
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
µG = viscosity of gas = 0.00079 N.s/m2

L = Solvent flow rate = 61372.43423 kg/hr

PL = Pressure of solvent = 30 kg/cm2


TL = Temperature of solvent = 50 0C
ʃL = Density of Selexol = 1030 kg/m3
µL = Viscosity of Selexol = 0.0058 N.s/m2
POp = Operating pressure = 30 kg/cm2

Flow Factor FLV

𝐿 ʃ
FLV = 𝐺 √ ʃ𝐺
𝐿

FLV = 0.5607
Design for pressure drop of 42 mmH2O/m of packing. Therefore…
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 is = 0.62
K4 at flooding from graph 11.44 is = 1.3

𝐾4
Percentage flooding = √𝐾
4 𝑎𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

Percentage Flooding = 47.69 %

116
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Calculation of Diameter of column


Packing selected is Ceramic Intalox Saddle.
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 
G* = 3.41 kg/m2.s
Column area required = G/ G*
G = Gas flow rate =10433.03kg/hr
G = Gas flow rate = 2.898 kg/s
Column area required = 2.898/1.82
Column area required = 0.84 m2

4
Diameter = √π ∗ Column area required

Diameter = 1.042 m

Onda’s Method
Calculation of Height transfer Unit
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3
Lw = Liquid mass velocity = 20.0568 kg/m2.s
σL = surface tension of selexol = 0.032 N/m
σc = surface tension for particular material of packing = 0.0061 N/m
µL = Viscosity of selexol = 0.0058 N.s/m2
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
g = 9.81 m/s2
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3
−0.05 0.2
𝑎𝑤 𝜎𝑐 0.75 𝐿𝑤 0.1 𝐿2𝑤 𝐿2𝑤
= 1 − exp[−1.45 ( ) ( ) ( 2) ( )
𝑎 𝜎𝑙 𝑎𝜇𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝜎𝑙 𝑎

aw/a = 0.602
aw = 0.602*a
aw = 0.602*108
aw = 65.0164 m2/m3

117
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Calculation of liquid film mass transfer coefficient


KL = liquid film coefficient m/s
dp = packing size = 51 mm = 0.051 m
DL= Diffusivity of liquid = 1.11*10-8 m2/s
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 = 65.01 m2/m3
Lw = Liquid mass velocity = 20.059 kg/m2.s
µL = Viscosity of selexol = 0.0058 N.s/m2
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
g = 9.81 m/s2
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3
1 2 1
𝜌𝐿 3 𝐿𝑤 3 𝜇𝐿 −2 0.4
𝐾𝐿 ( ) = 0.0051 ( ) ( ) (𝑎𝑑𝑝 )
𝜇𝐿 𝑎 𝑤 𝜇𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝐷𝐿
KL = 0.000241 m/s

Calculation of gas film mass transfer coefficient


KG = Gas film coefficient, kmol/m2s.bar
K5 = 5.23 (Packing size above 15 mm)
Vw = Gas mass velocity = 3.41 kg/m2.s
TG = Temperature of gases = 55 0C
R = 0.08314 bar.m3/kmol.K
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
µG = Viscosity of gas = 0.00079 N.s/m2
DG= µG/ʃG
DG = 8.440*10-05 m2/s
dp = packing size = 51 mm = 0.051 m
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
1
0.7
𝐾𝐺 𝑅𝑇𝑔 𝑉𝑤 𝜇𝑔 3 −2
= 𝐾5 ( ) ( ) (𝑎𝑑𝑝 )
𝑎𝐷𝑔 𝑎𝜇𝑔 𝜌𝑔 𝐷𝑔

KG = 0.00201 kmol/m2.s.bar

Gas Film Transfer Unit Height

118
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Gm = Gas mass velocity = 0.1004 kgmol/m2.s


PG = Pressure of gases = 30 kg/cm2
KG = Gas film coefficient =0.00201 kmol/m2.s.bar
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 = 65.01 m2/m3
HG = Gas film transfer unit height, m
𝐺𝑚
𝐻𝐺 =
𝐾𝐺 𝑎𝑤 𝑃
HG = 0.25560 m

Liquid Film Transfer Unit Height


Lm = Liquid mass velocity = 0.0382kgmol/m2.s
Ct = Total concentration, kmol/m3 =ʃL/Molecular weight of solvent
Ct = 1030/ 280
Ct = 3.68 kmol/m3
KL = Liquid film coefficient = 1.912*10-3 m/s
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 =58.64 m2/m3
HL = Liquid Film Transfer Unit Height, m
𝐿𝑚
𝐻𝐿 =
𝐾𝐿 𝑎𝑤 𝐶𝑡
HL = 1.2482 m
Calculation of Height of Transfer Unit:
HG = Gas film transfer unit height = 0.025560 m
Colburn has suggested the economic value of mGm/Lm from 0.7 to 0.8
So we selected the value of mGm/Lm = 0.75
HL = Liquid Film Transfer Unit Height = 1.2482 m
𝑚 𝐺𝑚
𝐻𝑂𝐺 = 𝐻𝐺 + × 𝐻𝐿
𝐿𝑚
HOG = 0.9616 m
Calculation of Number of Transfer Units:
Equation for equilibrium curve:
Y1= Mole fraction of CO2 in entering gas stream = 0.0837
Y2 = Mole fraction of CO2 in Leaving gas stream = 0.00093

119
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Y1/Y2 = 0.084/0.0009 = 90.09


mGm/Lm = 0.75
NOG is obtained from graph 11.40 using Y1/Y2 and mGm/Lm
NOG = 13

Calculation of height of tower


Total height of packing = Z = NOG × HOG
Z = 13 * 0.9616
Z = 12.50 m
Allowances for liquid distribution = 2 m
Allowances for liquid Re-distribution = 2 m
Total Height = 12.50+2+2
Total Height = 16.50 m

Calculation of operating velocity


G = Gas flow rate = 10433.02 kg/hr
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
L = Solvent flow rate = 61372.434 kg/hr
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030kg/m3

𝐿 ʃ
FLV = 𝐺 √ ʃ𝐺
𝐿

FLV = 0.5607
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 is = 0.62
µL = Viscosity of selexol = 0.0058 Ns/m2
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 

G = 3.41kg/s

120
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Calculation of flooding velocity


G = Gas flow rate =10433.02 kg/hr
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
L = Solvent flow rate= 61372.434 kg/hr
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030kg/m3

𝐿 ʃ
FLV = 𝐺 √ ʃ𝐺
𝐿

FLV = 0.5607
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 at flooding is = 1.3
µL = Viscosity of selexol = 0.0058 N.s/m2
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 
G = 4.94 kg/s
Operating velocity must be 50-90% of the flooding McCabe & Smith

Calculation of wetting rate


Volumetric liquid flow rate = 0.0165 m3/s
Volumetric liquid flow rate per unit cross sectional area = 0.0195 m3/m2.s
a = surface area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
Liquid volumetric flow rate per unit cross sectional area
Wetting rate =
Specific area of packing per unit volume
Wetting rate = 0.000180 m2/s

Calculation of Pressure Drop at Flooding


(McCabe & Smith (5th Ed.)
Pressure drop at flooding is given by relation.
ΔPflooding = 0.115Fp0.7
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 130 m-1
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 39.41ft-1

121
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

ΔPflooding = 3.471028559 inH2O/m of Packing


ΔPflooding = 87.46991968 mmH2O/m of Packing

Calculation of Total Pressure Drop


Gy = Gas mass velocity = 3.41 kg/m2.s
Gx = Liquid mass velocity = 20.05 kg/m2.s
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3

𝐺𝑥 ʃ𝑦
√ = 0.5633
𝐺𝑦 (ʃ𝑥 − ʃ𝑦 )

G = Gas flow rate = 2.898 kg/s


gc = 32
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 9.36 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of selexol = 1030 kg/m3
µL = Viscosity of selexol = 0.0058 N.s/m2

𝐺 2 ∗ 𝐹𝑝 ∗ µ0.1
= 0.00208
ʃ𝑔 (ʃ𝑙 − ʃ𝑔 )𝑔𝑐

𝐺 ʃ𝑦 𝐺 2 ∗𝐹𝑝 ∗µ0.1
With respect to 𝐺𝑥 √(ʃ and ʃ pressure drop from the graph will be…
𝑦 𝑥 −ʃ𝑦 ) 𝑔 (ʃ𝑙 −ʃ𝑔 )𝑔𝑐

ΔP = 0.04 in.H2O/ft of packing


ΔP = 1.008 mmH2O/ft of packing
ΔP = 3.30 mmH2O/m of packing
Total Height of packing = 16.5 m
Total ΔP = ΔP*Total Height of packing
Total ΔP = 3.30*16.5
Total ΔP = 54.55 mmH2O
Total ΔP = 0.00535 bar

122
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Specification Sheet

C-201

Identification

Item Absorber

Type Packed Column

Packing Ceramics Intalox Saddles

Function

To absorb the H2S gas from product stream

Operating Pressure 32 bar

Operating Temperature 55 oC

Diameter 1.042 m

Area 19.64 m2

Height of transfer unit 0.9616 m

Number of transfer unit 13

Column Height 16.50 m

Pressure Drop (ΔP) 0.535

123
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.14 Design of stripper


Stripping
Stripping works on the basis of “mass transfer” that involves the transfer of a solute from the liquid
phase to the gas phase.

“Stripping is a separation process in which one or more components of a liquid stream are
eliminated by place in contact with a gas stream that is insoluble in the liquid stream.”
In industrial applications the liquid and vapor streams can have co-current or countercurrent flows.
Stripping can be carried out in two types of columns, a packed type or a tray type column.

Comparison between Packed and Plate Column


Table 5.18: Comparison between Packed and Plate Column

Packed Columns Tray columns


The packed column delivers continuous contact The plate column fetches the two phases
between vapor and liquid phases. into contact on stage wise basis.
Column diameter of less than approx. 6m, But if the column is very large then the
packed columns are used because of their low liquid distribution is problem and large
manufacturing cost. volume of packing and its weight is
problem. So, we use a plate type column.
For diameters of less than 6m, packed tower Maintenance and material cost in plate type
require lower fabrication and material costs. columns is more as compared to the packed
one.
Pressure drop in packed column is less than the In plate column there is additional friction
plate column produced as the vapor passes through the
liquid on each tray. If no. of plates are more
than pressure drop is quite high.
In a packed tower the liquid flows as a thin film Because of the liquid on each plate there
over the packing. may be a desire quantity of the liquid in
plate column.

Packed Column Selection


Packing Selection
It is the most important factor of the system. The packing provides adequate area for intimate
contact between phases. The efficiency of packing with respect to both HTU and flow capacity
determines to an important extent the overall size of the tower. The economics of the installation
are therefore tied up by the packing choice.
The principal requirements of a tower packing are:
1. It must be chemically inert to the fluids in the tower.
2. It must be strong without excessive weight.

124
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

3. It must contain sufficient passages for both streams without extreme liquid holdup or
pressure drop.
4. It must offer good contact between liquid and gas.
5. It must be reasonable in cost.

The packing is the heart of the performance of the stripper. Its proper selection involves an
understanding of packing operational features and the effects on performance of the points of major
physical difference between several types. The types and corresponding merits and demerits are
given below.

 Rashing Rings
 Berl Saddles
 Intalox Saddles
 Pall Rings Lessing rings.
 Cross-partition rings
 Single spiral rings
 Double - Spiral rings etc.
Some important shapes of packing are shown below:
For the stripping packing selected in this case are intalox saddles because of the following features.

Merits of Intalox Saddles


1. One of the most efficient packing
2. Very little tendency or ability to nest and block areas of bed
3. Higher flooding limits and lower pressure drop than rashing rings or berl saddles
4. Lower HTU values for most common systems
5. Material of packing is ceramic because it resist corrosion

Design Steps for Stripper


The design steps of stripper are following...
1. Selection of Column
2. Selection of packing and material
3. Selection of packing and material
4. Calculating the size of packing
5. Calculate Flow Factor
6. Calculate K4 & Mass Velocity
7. Calculate the Area of Column
8. Calculating the diameter of column
9. Determining the height of transfer unit (HOG)
10. Determining the number of transfer units (NOG)

125
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

11. Determining the height of the column


12. Calculating the operating velocity
13. Calculating the flooding velocity
14. Determining the pressure drop across the column

Calculations
G = Gas leaving from top of column = 848.55 kg/hr
PG = Pressure of gases = 1.2 kg/cm2
TG = Temperature of gases = 120 0C
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
µG = viscosity of gas = 0.00013 N.s/m2
L = Solvent flow rate (H2S + selexol) = 72603.67 kg/hr
PL = Pressure of solvent = 1.2 kg/cm2
TL = Temperature of solvent =95 0C
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2
POp = Operating pressure = 1.2 kg/cm2

Flow Factor FLV

𝐿 ʃG
FLV = 𝐺 √ʃL

FLV = 3.05
Design for pressure drop of 42 mmH2O/m of packing. Therefore…
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 is = 0.14
K4 at flooding from graph 11.44 is = 0.18

𝐾4
Percentage flooding = √𝐾
4 𝑎𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

Percentage Flooding = 88.19 %

Calculation of Diameter of column


Packing selected is Ceramic Intalox Saddle.
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1

126
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 
G* = 0.59 kg/m2.s
G = Gas flow rate = 848.55 kg/hr
G = Gas flow rate = 0.235708333 kg/s
Column area required = G/ G*
0.23571
Column area required =
0.59
Column area required = 0.397 m2 ~ 0.4m2

4
Diameter = √π ∗ Column area required

Diameter = 0.7133m

Onda’s Method
Calculation of Height transfer Unit
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3
Lw = Liquid mass velocity = 43.97 kg/m2.s
σL = surface tension of solvent = 0.05 N/m
σc = surface tension for particular material of packing = 0.0061 N/m
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
g = 9.81 m/s2
ʃL = Density of solvent = 101kg/m3
−0.05 0.2
𝑎𝑤 𝜎𝑐 0.75 𝐿𝑤 0.1 𝐿2𝑤 𝐿2𝑤
= 1 − exp[−1.45 ( ) ( ) ( 2) ( )
𝑎 𝜎𝑙 𝑎𝜇𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝜎𝑙 𝑎

aw/a = 0.17
aw = 0.17*a
aw = 0.17*108
aw = 19.16 m2/m3

127
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Calculation of liquid film mass transfer coefficient


KL = liquid film coefficient m/s
dp = packing size = 51 mm = 0.051 m
DL= Diffusivity of liquid = 4.5*10-7m2/s
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 = 19.16 m2/m3
Lw = Liquid mass velocity = 43.97 kg/m2.s
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
g = 9.81 m/s2
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3
1 2 1
𝜌𝐿 3 𝐿𝑤 3 𝜇𝐿 −2 0.4
𝐾𝐿 ( ) = 0.0051 ( ) ( ) (𝑎𝑑𝑝 )
𝜇𝐿 𝑎 𝑤 𝜇𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝐷𝐿
KL = 0.0062 m/s

Calculation of gas film mass transfer coefficient


KG = Gas film coefficient, kmol/m2s.bar
K5 = 5.23 (Packing size above 15 mm)
Vw = Gas mass velocity = 0.59 kg/m2.s
TG = Temperature of gases = 120 0C
R = 0.08314 bar.m3/kmol.K
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
µG = Viscosity of gas = 0.000013 N.s/m2
DG= µG/ʃG
DG = 0.0001032 m2/s
dp = packing size = 51 mm = 0.051 m
a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
1
0.7
𝐾𝐺 𝑅𝑇𝑔 𝑉𝑤 𝜇𝑔 3 −2
= 𝐾5 ( ) ( ) (𝑎𝑑𝑝 )
𝑎𝐷𝑔 𝑎𝜇𝑔 𝜌𝑔 𝐷𝑔
2
KG = 0.00101 kmol/m .s.bar

Gas Film Transfer Unit Height


Gm = Gas mass velocity = 0.0173 kmol/m2.s

128
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

PG = Pressure of gases = 1.2 kg/cm2


KG = Gas film coefficient = 0.00101 kmol/m2.s.bar
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 = 19.16m2/m3
HG = Gas film transfer unit height, m
𝐺𝑚
𝐻𝐺 =
𝐾𝐺 𝑎𝑤 𝑃
HG = 0.7451 m

Liquid film transfer unit height


Lm = Liquid mass velocity = 0.0861 kmol/m2.s
Ct = Total concentration, kmol/m3 =ʃL/Molecular weight of solvent
Ct = 1009/ 280
Ct = 3.602 kmol/m3
KL = Liquid film coefficient = 0.0062 m/s
aw = Effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3 = 19.16 m2/m3
HL = Liquid Film Transfer Unit Height, m
𝐿𝑚
𝐻𝐿 =
𝐾𝐿 𝑎𝑤 𝐶𝑡
HL = 0.369 m
Calculation of Height of Transfer Unit
HG = Gas film transfer unit height = 2.51 m
Colburn has suggested the economic value of mGm/Lm from 0.7 to 0.8
So we selected the value of mGm/Lm = 0.75
HL = Liquid Film Transfer Unit Height = 1.68 m
𝑚 𝐺𝑚
𝐻𝑂𝐺 = 𝐻𝐺 + × 𝐻𝐿
𝐿𝑚
HOG = 1.02m

Calculation of Number of Transfer Units


Equation for equilibrium curve
Y1= Mole fraction of H2S in entering stream = 0.0135
Y2 = Mole fraction of H2Sin leaving stream = 0.00247
Y1/Y2 = 0.41/0.00247 = 54.65

129
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

mGm/Lm = 0.75
NOG is obtained from graph 11.40 using Y1/Y2 and mGm/Lm
NOG = 10.8

Calculation of height of tower


Total height of packing = Z = NOG × HOG
Z = 10.8 * 1.022
Z = 11 m
Allowances for liquid distribution = 2 m
Allowances for liquid Re-distribution = 2 m
Total Height = 11+2+2
Total Height = 15 m

Calculation of operating velocity


G = Gas flow rate = 844.55 kg/hr
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
L = Solvent flow rate = 72603.67 kg/hr
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3

𝐿 ʃ
FLV = 𝐺 √ ʃ𝐺
𝐿

FLV = 3.035
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 is = 0.14
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 
G* = 0.059 kg/s ~ 0.06 Kg/s

Calculation of flooding velocity


G = Gas flow rate = 844.55 kg/hr
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3

130
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

L = Solvent flow rate = 72603.67kg/hr


ʃL = Density of solvent = 1011.7 kg/m3

𝐿 ʃ
FLV = 𝐺 √ ʃ𝐺
𝐿

FLV = 3.035
With respect to FLV the value of K4 from graph 11.44 at flooding is = 6
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2
Packing factor of ceramic intalox saddle is = Fp = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρg  
0.5

G*   
 13.1*Fp* µL /ρL 0.1 
 
G* = 0.67 kg/s
Operating velocity must be 50-90% of the flooding McCabe & Smith

Calculation of wetting rate


Volumetric liquid flow rate = 0.0174 m3/s
Column area required = 19.16 m2
Volumetric liquid flow rate
Volumetric liquid flow rate per unit cross sectional area = Column area required

Volumetric liquid flow rate per unit cross sectional area = 0.0437 m3/m2.s
a = surface area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3
Liquid volumetric flow rate per unit cross sectional area
Wetting rate = Specific area of packing per unit volume

Wetting rate = 0.000405 m2/s

Calculation of Pressure Drop at Flooding


Pressure drop at flooding is given by relation.
ΔPflooding = 0.115Fp0.7
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 130 m-1
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 39.41ft-1
ΔPflooding = 3.471028559 inH2O/m of Packing
ΔPflooding = 87.46991968 mmH2O/m of Packing

131
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Calculation of Total Pressure Drop


Gy = Gas mass velocity = 0.59 kg/m2.s
Gx = Liquid mass velocity = 44.18 kg/m2.s
ʃy = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
ʃx = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3

𝐺𝑥 ʃ𝑦
√ = 2.64
𝐺𝑦 (ʃ𝑥 − ʃ𝑦 )

G = Gas flow rate = 844.55 kg/s


gc = 32
Fp =packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox saddles = 130 m-1
ʃG = Density of Gas = 1.26 kg/m3
ʃL = Density of solvent = 1009 kg/m3
µL = Viscosity of solvent = 0.00542 N.s/m2

𝐺 2 ∗ 𝐹𝑝 ∗ µ0.1
= 0.000104
ʃ𝑔 (ʃ𝑙 − ʃ𝑔 )𝑔𝑐

𝐺 ʃ𝑦 𝐺 2 ∗𝐹𝑝 ∗µ0.1
With respect to 𝐺𝑥 √(ʃ and ʃ pressure drop from the graph will be…
𝑦 𝑥 −ʃ𝑦 ) 𝑔 (ʃ𝑙 −ʃ𝑔 )𝑔𝑐

ΔP = 0.0124 in.H2O/ft of packing


ΔP = 0.03024 mmH2O/ft of packing
ΔP = 0.991 mmH2O/m of packing ~ 1.0 mmH2O/m of packing
Total Height of packing = 11 m
Total ΔP = ΔP*Total Height of packing
Total ΔP = 0.991*11
Total ΔP = 10.910 mmH2O
Total ΔP= 0.0025 bar.

132
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.14.1 Specification Sheet

C-203

Identification

Item Stripper,

Type Packed Column

Packing Ceramics Intalox Saddles

Function

To regenerate the absorbent by removing absorbed gas from it

Operating Pressure 1.2 bar

Operating Temperature 120 oC

Diameter 0.713m

Area 0.4 m2

Height of transfer unit 1.02 m

Number of transfer unit 10.8

Column Height 15 m

Pressure Drop(ΔP) 0.097 bar

133
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.15 Absorber-Stripper Simulation


This document describes an Aspen Plus model of the CO2 capture process by the physical solvent
DEPG from a gas mixture of CO, CO2, H2, H2O, N2, Ar, CH4, NH3, and H2S from gasification of
Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The operation data from an engineering evaluation design case by
Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory (1994) are used to specify the feed
conditions and unit operation block specifications in the process model. Since only the equilibrium
stage results are available in the literature, the process model developed here is based on the
equilibrium stage distillation model instead of the more rigorous rate-based model. DEPG is a
mixture of the dimethyl ethers of polyethylene glycol with formula CH3O(C2H4O)nCH3 where n
ranges from 2 to 9. However, DEPG in this model is represented by an Aspen Plus databank
component, also called DEPG (dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol), with the average molecular
weight of 280 - corresponding to n = 5.3. DEPG data from Coastal Chemical for vapor pressure,
liquid density, heat capacity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are used to determine parameters
in thermo-physical property and transport property models used in this work. For all other
components, thermo-physical property models have been validated against DIPPR correlations,
which are available in Aspen Plus, for component vapor pressure and liquid density. Vapor-liquid
equilibrium data from Xu et al. (1992) between DEPG and selected components are used to adjust
binary parameters in thermo-physical property models. The designed packing information from the
literature is also included in the process model, which allows rigorous rate-based simulation to be
performed. The model includes the following key features:

 PC-SAFT equation of state model for vapor pressure, liquid density, heat capacity, and
phase equilibrium
 Transport property models
 Equilibrium distillation model for absorber with designed packing information from the
literature

5.15.1 Components
The following components represent the chemical species present in the process. As already stated,
DEPG in real processes is a mixture of the dimethyl ethers of polyethylene glycol with formula
CH3O(C2H4O)nCH3 where n ranges from 2 to 9 and in this model an average molecular weight of
280 corresponding to n = 5.3 is used to represent the DEPG solvent by an Aspen Plus databank
component DEPG.

134
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Table 5.19: Chemical Species Present in the Process

ID Type Name Formula

DEPG CONV DIMETHYL-ETHER-POLYETHYLENE-GLYCOL DEPG

CO CONV CARBON-MONOXIDE CO

CO2 CONV CARBON-DIOXIDE CO2

H2 CONV HYDROGEN H2

H2O CONV WATER H2O

N2 CONV NITROGEN N2

AR CONV ARGON AR

CH4 CONV METHANE CH4

NH3 CONV AMMONIA H3N

H2S CONV HYDROGEN-SULFIDE H2S

HCN CONV HYDROGEN-CYANIDE CHN

COS CONV CARBONYL-SULFIDE COS

CH2O2 CONV FORMIC-ACID CH2O2

5.15.2 Process Description


The flowsheet for CO2 capture by DEPG in the report by Energy Systems Division, Argonne
National Laboratory (ANL) includes an absorber for CO2 absorption by DEPG at elevated pressure,
flash tanks to release CO2 and regenerate solvent at several different pressure levels, and
compressors and turbines to change pressures of streams. However, the process model presented in
this work focuses only on the absorber and the other unit operations are not included. The sour gas
enters the bottom of the absorber, contacts with lean DEPG solvent from the top counter-currently
and leaves at the top as sweet gas, while the solvent flows out of the absorber at the bottom as the
rich solvent with absorbed CO2 and some other gas components. Two pressure levels for absorption
were evaluated in the ANL report: 250psia and 1000psia. For each pressure case study, the gas
feeds into the absorber is the same, but solvent flow rates and number of equilibrium stages used
are different. Typically, to achieve a certain CO2 recovery, the high pressure case used less solvent
and fewer stages.

5.15.3 Physical Properties


The PC-SAFT equation of state model is used to calculate vapor pressure, liquid density and phase
equilibrium. The PC-SAFT pure component parameters for CO, CO2, NH3 and H2S have been
regressed against vapor pressure and liquid density generated from DIPPR correlations for each
component. The PC-SAFT pure parameters for DEPG have been regressed to fit vapor pressure and
liquid density data from Coastal Chemical. For all other components, the PC-SAFT pure parameters

135
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

are taken from the work by Gross and Sadowski. The binary parameters between CO2 and DEPG
and H2S and DEPG have been regressed against vapor-liquid equilibrium data form Xu et al. Based
on solubility ratio of H2 to H2S in DEPG at 25°C and experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data
for H2S in DEPG, we also estimated vapor-liquid equilibrium data for H2 in DEPG and used these
estimated data for regression of binary parameters between H2 and DEPG. In the same way, we
obtained binary parameters between the other gas components and DEPG, except for Ar because
of the missing solubility ratio of Ar. DIPPR model parameters for DEPG are regressed to fit data
from Coastal Chemical for viscosity and thermal conductivity. The Aspen ideal gas heat capacity
model parameters for DEPG are also regressed to fit liquid heat capacity data from Coastal
Chemical. Finally, the dipole moment from the DIPPR database for penta-ethylene glycol dimethyl
ether is used for DEPG.

5.15.4 Simulation Approach


The high pressure absorber and the low pressure stripper are included in the process model as two
separate columns. The columns are modeled with the Equilibrium calculation type instead of the
more rigorous rate-based calculation type because the design cases were based on equilibrium stage
calculations. This allows us to make meaningful comparison between our model and the literature.
However, we included designed packing information from the literature in the model so that the
rate-based calculation type can be used. In addition, as shown above, transport properties, which
are crucial for rate-based calculations, have also been validated. Therefore, this model is ready for
rate-based calculations, in which correlations and scale factors of interfacial area, mass transfer
coefficient, heat transfer coefficient, liquid holdup and so on can be selected and adjusted.

Figure 5.13: Simulation Flowsheet of absorber and stripper

136
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

The table below shows all the blocks used and their functions
Table 5.20: Blocks Used in Simulation and Their Functions

Unit Operation Aspen Plus Block Comments / Specifications

Calculation type: Equilibrium stage


Number of stages: 10
Top Pressure: 1000psia
Absorber RadFrac Column diameter: 11ft
Packing Type: Pall ring
Packing Size: 50mm (2in)
Packing Height per stage: 3ft

Calculation type: Equilibrium stage


Number of stages: 12
Top Pressure: 250psia
Striper RadFrac Column diameter: 17ft
Packing Type: Pall ring
Packing Size: 50mm (2in)
Packing Height per stage: 3ft

5.15.5 Simulation Results


The simulation was performed using Aspen Plus with the absorbers' calculation type set to
Equilibrium. Key simulation results are presented in Table 5.21 and Figure 5.13, together with
available design data from the report of the Energy Systems Division, Argonne National
Laboratory. A problem was found in the literature that their calculation was based on improper
solubility ratios of the gas components in DEPG solvent, in which N2:H2 is 0, while UOP reported
a ratio of 1.5 and this model reports a ratio of about 3.8. As a result, this model gives less CO2
absorption than that reported in the literature. In addition, the temperature of the rich solvent from
the bottom of the absorbers is also lower in our simulation.

137
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Table 5.21: Simulation Results

Material
Stream Unit Gas In Lean-H Gas Out Rich-H Prod Lean
Desc.
From Absorb Absorb Absorb Absorb
To Absorb Absorb Striper
Stream Conven Conven Conven Conven Conven Conven
Phase Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid
Tempe C 50.00 50.00 51.17 53.46 190.99 255.88
Pressure bar 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 2.00 2.00
Flow kg/hr 500.00 2400.00 431.53 2468.47 119.13 2349.34
DEPG kg/hr 0.00 2400.00 0.01 2399 56.69 2343.31
CO kg/hr 309.19 0.00 308.07 1.12 1.12 0.00
CO2 kg/hr 45.54 0.00 38.41 7.13 7.13 0.00
H2 kg/hr 18.49 0.00 18.45 0.03 0.03 0.00
H2O kg/hr 11.76 0.00 0.00 11.76 5.75 6.01
N2 kg/hr 7.26 0.00 7.24 0.02 0.02 0.00
AR kg/hr 0.18 0.00 0.17 0.01 0.01 0.00
CH4 kg/hr 55.34 0.00 54.88 0.46 0.46 0.00
H2S kg/hr 52.24 0.00 4.31 47.93 47.91 0.02

5.15.6 Composition Profiles


Below is the temperature profile of Absorber w.r.t stage

138
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Below is the temperature profile of Striper w.r.t stage

Mole fraction of H2S in DEPG in Striper

139
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Mole fraction of CO2 in DEPG in Striper

5.15.7 Conclusion
The DEPG model provides an equilibrium stage simulation of the process and validated transport
property models which allow rigorous rate-based simulation. Key features of this model include the
PC-SAFT equation of state model for vapor pressure, liquid density, and phase equilibrium;
rigorous transport property modeling; equilibrium stage simulation with RadFrac; and packing
information from the literature. The model is meant to be used as a guide for modeling the CO2 and
H2S capture process with DEPG. Users may use it as a starting point for more sophisticated models
for process development, debottlenecking, plant and equipment design, among others

140
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.16 Crystallizer
Crystallizers are used in industry to achieve liquid-solid separation. They are an important piece of
chemical processing equipment because they are capable of generating high purity products with a
relatively low energy input.

Types of Crystallizer

 Forced Circulation
 Draft Tube Baffle
 Surface Cooled
 Scraped Surface
 Reaction type
Selection of Crystallizer
We selected Forced Circulation Reaction Type crystallizer on the following basis;

1. Smaller equipment, which generally means less expensive installations, less floor space
needed, less operator labor.
2. Better process control, fewer processes upsets.
3. Extremely wide operating temperature range (-75C to +100C).
4. Can be used at high process fluid viscosity.
5. Simple, self-contained construction with minimal instrumentation and auxiliary equipment.

Design Steps
Following are the design steps of crystallizers;
1. Determination of Residence Time
2. Volume of Crystallizer
3. Dimensions of Crystallizer
4. Agitator Design
5. No of Revolutions of Agitator
6. Power requirement

Calculation
Ammonium sulfate crystal size = 1.1 mm = 1100 𝜇𝑚
Product rate = Pc = 167 tonnes/hr = 167000 kg/hr

Product Median Size = Lm = 600 𝜇𝑚

Magma Concentrations = 0.056 kg/kg water

Crystal Density = ρc = 1.765 g/cm3 = 1765 kg/m3


Shape Factors

141
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Kv = 0.525
Ka = 3.675
30.2
G=[ ]
𝑘𝑣 𝑘𝑎 𝜌𝑐 𝐿𝑚

G = 2.51 × 10−8 𝑚/𝑠

Residence Time
Lm
Residence Time = τ =
3.67𝐺

Residence Time = 6501.10 sec = 1.80 h

Volume of Crystallizer
Qm = Volumetric flow rate
Mass Flowrate
Qm =
ρ𝑚

Magma density = ρm=1300 kg/m3


Total mass flow rate=167000 kg/hr.
Qm= 128.465 m3/hr

Volume of Crystallizer = V = Volumetric Flowrate × Residence Time

=128.465 m3/hr × 1.80 hr


= 231.98 m3

Safety allowance = 10%


Actual Volume = 1.10 × 231.98 m3
=255.18 m3

Dimensions of Crystallizer
πD2 𝐿
Volume of the cylindrical tank = V= 4

Diameter of tank = Height of magma


Dt = L
So we can write,
πD3
V= 4

Dt = 6.87 m
𝐿
= 1.5
𝐷

H = 10.31 m

Agitator Design
142
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

In Design of Agitator, Typical Proportions are


𝑫𝒂 𝟏
1. =𝟑
𝑫𝒕

𝐷𝑎 = Dia of Impeller

Dt = Dia of Crystallizer
1
Da = 3 × 6.87 m

Da = 2.29 m
𝑯 𝟏
2. 𝑫𝒕 = 𝟑

𝐻 = Height of Impeller

Dt = Dia of Crystallizer
1
Da = 3 × 6.87 m

Da = 2.29 m
𝑱 𝟏
3. 𝑫𝒕 = 𝟏𝟐

𝐽 = Baffle Width
Dt = Dia of Crystallizer
1
J = 12 × 6.87 m

J = 0.572 m
𝑳 𝟏
4. 𝑫𝒂 = 𝟒

𝐿 = Length of Turbine Blade

Da = Dia of Impeller
1
L = 4 × 2.29 m

L = 3.67 m
𝑾 𝟏
5. =𝟓
𝑫𝒂

𝑊 = Width of Turbine Blade

Da = Dia of Impeller
1
W = 5 × 2.29 m

W = 0.458 m

143
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

𝑬 𝟏
6. =𝟑
𝑫𝒂

E = Height of Blade from Bottom

Component Flowrate (kg/hr) Viscosity (cp) @ 110oC

Ammonia 1900.009 116.14

Sulfuric acid 4762.17 20.67

Total 6662.179 47.8974

Dt = Dia of Crystallizer
1
E = 3 × 6.87 m

E = 2.29 m

Power Requirement
For Pitched Turbine, 45o
Power Number = Np = 1.30-1.40
Flow Number = Nq = 0.60-0.87
From figure 10.6
If we take Np = 1.35
Then Reynold’s Number = 700
10.75.S.N.D2 𝐿
And Reynold’s Number =
𝜇

Specific Gravity = S = 1.315


Diameter of Crystallizer = D = 6.87 m = 49.57 f

𝑉𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝜇 = 47.89 cp
Number of Revolutions = N = 31.31 rpm
Power Number is given by Formula
𝑃
Np =
𝑁3 .D5 .𝑆

P = 50 hp

144
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

5.17 Sulfuric Acid Reactor


This below document describes an Aspen Plus model for thermodynamic modeling of the H2SO4–
SO3–H2O system covering temperatures up to 500˚C and the whole concentration range from pure
water to pure H2SO4 and then to pure SO3, which is important in simulation of the industrial
processes involving H2SO4, such as H2SO4 production. As process simulation is not within the
scope of current phase of this work, we only give a single stage flash model to simulate the
feasibility of H2SO4 production by SO3 absorption. The thermo-physical properties are intensively
studied against experimental data from open literature, utilizing the property method ENRTL-SR
in Aspen Plus, which is based on the symmetric electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model.
The model includes the following key features:

 True species including ions


 Symmetric electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model for liquid phase non-ideality and
RK equation of state for vapor phase

5.17.1 Components
The following components represent the chemical species present in the process.
Table 5.22: Chemical Species Present in the Process

ID Type Name Formula

H2O CONV WATER H2O

H2SO4 CONV SULFURIC-ACID H2SO4

H3O+ CONV H3O+ H3O+

H5O2+ CONV H3O+ H3O+

HSO4- CONV HSO4- HSO4-

SO4-2 CONV SO4-- SO4-2

SO3 CONV SULFUR-TRIOXIDE O3S

H2S2O7 CONV H2S2O7 H2S2O7

Both bi-hydration (H5O2+) and mono-hydration (H3O+) of the hydrogen ion are considered in this
work. H5O2+ is not included in Aspen Plus databanks, so we defined it as H3O+ and overwrote the
parameters from databanks for H3O+ with parameters for H5O2+ such as molecular weight, reference
state heat of formation, heat capacity, and so on.

5.17.2 Physical Properties


The symmetric electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model and the RK equation of state are used
to compute liquid and vapor properties respectively in this simulation model. To use the symmetric
electrolyte NRTL model, “ENRTL-SR” should be selected as the Base Method on the Properties |

145
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

Methods | Specifications| Global sheet and “Symmetric” should be selected as the Reference state
for ionic species on the Properties | Chemistry | H2SO4 | Input | Specifications sheet.

5.17.3 Simulation Approach


We only used a single stage flash model to simulate the feasibility of H2SO4 production by SO3
absorption. In the following simulation flowsheet in Aspen Plus, water in stream WATER and
sulfur trioxide in stream SO3 are mixed in a FLASH2 block to produce sulfuric acid, which result
in two outlet streams, GASOUT and LIQOUT.

Figure 5.14: Aspen Plus simulation flowsheet of Absorber

5.17.4 Simulations Results


This simulation will complete with run status Results Available. Key simulation results are shown
in the following tables
Table 5.23: Simulations Results

Material
Stream Name Units OFFGAS H2SO4 SO3 WATER
Description
From ABSORBER ABSORBER
To ABSORBER ABSORBER
Temperature K 363.15 363.15 363.15
Pressure N/sqm 202650 202650 202650 202650
Mass Flows kg/hr 2497.35 1962.95 534.52
H2O kg/hr 0.409987 0 534.52
H2SO4 kg/hr 1902.67 0 0
H3O+ kg/hr 97.464 0 0
HSO4- kg/hr 495.67 0 0
SO4-2 kg/hr 0.998857 0 0
SO3 kg/hr 0.000464723 1962.95 0
H5O2+ kg/hr 0.127005 0 0
H2S2O7 kg/hr 0.00440051 0 0

146
Chapter 5 Equipment Design

According to above table, at 90˚C, 2atm and 1:1 fed-in ratio for water: SO3 in moles, only a liquid
stream is produced with purity of H2SO4 around 99mol%. There is a little H2S2O7, 0.1mol%, in the
liquid phase together with some ionic species such as H3O+ and HSO4-. There is almost no SO4-2 in
the liquid stream, since the second dissociation of the sulfuric acid is much weaker than the first
dissociation. A trace amount of H5O2+ is in the liquid stream, suggesting that the formation of the
bi-hydrated ion is not dominant at this condition. No water is left; it has been consumed in producing
sulfuric acid and hydrations of the hydrogen ions.

147
CHAPTER 6
6 MECHANICAL DESIGN

148
Chapter 6 Mechanical Design

6.1 Mechanical Design of Heat Exchanger E-102

Figure 6.1: Mechanical Parts of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

6.2 Design Calculations


T = 25
P = 1.01 bar
H2O = 44996.5 kg/hr

T = 250 T = 55
P = 30 bar 11 12 P = 30 bar
Product Gases = 11782.64 kg/hr Product Gases = 11782.64 kg/hr

E-102
T = 25
P = 1.01 bar
H2O = 44996.5 kg/hr

Figure 6.2: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (E-102)

Design Pressure
It is taken as maximum working pressure of material of construction for Shell and tube Heat
Exchanger.
Shell Side:
Maximum Operating Pressure = 1.01 bar
Maximum Operating Pressure = 0.1 N/mm2
Design pressure is 20% of operating pressure. So,
Design Pressure = 1.01 + 1.01(0.2)
Design Pressure = 1.2 bar
Design Pressure = 0.12 N/mm2

149
Chapter 6 Mechanical Design

Tube Side:
Maximum Operating Pressure = 30 bar
Maximum Operating Pressure = 3 N/mm2
Design pressure is 20% of operating pressure. So,
Design Pressure = 30 + 30(0.2) = 36 bar
Design Pressure = 3.6 N/mm2
Design Temperature
It is taken as maximum working temperature of material of construction for Shell and tube Heat
Exchanger.
Shell Side:
Maximum Operating Temperature = 45 oC
Design temperature is 20% of operating temperature. So,
Design Temperature = 45 + 45(0.2)
Design Temperature = 55 oC
Tube Side:
Maximum Operating Temperature = 250 oC
Design temperature is 20% of operating temperature. So,
Design Temperature = 250 + 250(0.2)
Design Temperature = 300 oC
Material Selection
Following factors must be considered in selecting a suitable material of construction for the Heat
Exchanger:
 Temperature and Pressure
 Good for the environment
 Corrosion resistance
 Availability
 Cost effectiveness
Selection:
The selected material is Carbon steel. The reasons for selection are as follows:
 It has great mechanical properties.
 It is easily available.
 Its cost is not very high.
 Temperature and pressure are within range (Maximum pressure limit for CS = 69 bar)

150
Chapter 6 Mechanical Design

Design Stress:
S = 85 N/mm²
Joint Efficiency = 0.8
Thickness of Shell:
P* Ds
ts = +C
SE - 0.6 Pi
Where: ts = Wall thickness
Pi = Design Pressure = 1.02 Bar
D = Internal Diameter of Shell = 488.9 m
S = Design stress
E = Joint Efficiency
ts = 0.87 mm + 2 mm
ts = 2.87 mm (because of corrosion allowance = 2mm).

Thickness of Head:
P* Rc *W
tH = +𝐶
2SE - 0.2Pi
Where: tH = Head thickness
P = Design Pressure = 1.01 bar = 0.12 N/mm2
Rc = Di = Internal Diameter = 488.9 mm
S = Design stress
E = Efficiency
tH = 0.77 mm + 2 mm
tH = 2.77 mm (because of corrosion allowance).
Inside depth of head = hi = 65.44 mm

Effective exchanger length:


2*hi
Le = Lt +
1000
Length of tube = Lt = 16 ft
Lt = 4.88 m
Le = 501 m

151
Chapter 6 Mechanical Design

Thickness of Tube Sheet:


F*Gp 𝑃 0.5
ts = (𝑘𝑓) +C
3

Where: F = Fixed Tube Sheet = 1


Pt= 1.25 Square Pitch
do= 25.41 mm
Gp = Ds = Internal Diameter of Shell = 488.9 mm
k = 0.5 K = [1 – 0.785/ (Pt/do)^2]
tts = 47.85 mm = 0.1569 ft
Nozzle inside Dia:
Shell ID Range: 19.25 to 21.25 inch
Nozzle ID = 4 inch
Weight of Shell:
𝑊𝑣 = 𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 𝜌𝑚 ∗ 𝐷𝑚 ∗ 𝑔(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8 𝐷𝑚 )𝑡 ∗ 10−3
Where: Wv = Weight of Shell
Cv = External support for Shell = 1.08
Hv = Length of cylindrical section
ρm = Density of material of construction
g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.80 m/s
Dm = Mean diameter of the shell = Di + t
t = wall thickness ; π = 3.14
Wv = 1500 N
Gasket:
Outside Gasket Diameter, DOG = 490.9 mm
Inside Gasket Diameter, DiG = 489.2 mm
Design Pressure, P = 0.1215 N/mm2
Minimum design seating stress (Solid flat metal), Y = 18.28
Gasket Factor, m = 6.5
DOG/DIG = 1.0034

Support:
For Horizontal shell and tube Heat Exchanger:
Support = Saddle (mostly used)
No of saddles = 2

152
Chapter 6 Mechanical Design

Mechanical Design Specification Sheet


Identification
Item: Heat Exchanger
Item No: E-102
Operation: Continuous
Type: Shell and Tube

Mechanical Design

Shell side Tube side


o
Design Temperature: 55 C Design Temperature: 300 oC
Design Pressure: 1.2 bar Design Pressure: 36 bar
Material of Construction: Carbon Steel Material of Construction: Carbon Steel
Stress Factor: 85 N/mm² Stress Factor: 85 N/mm²
Shell Thickness: 2.87 mm Tube Sheet Thickness: 47.85 mm
Effective Exchanger Length: 501 m Length of tube: 4.88 m
Head Thickness: 2.77 mm Nozzle Inside Dia: 4 inch
Inside depth of head 65.44 mm
Support: Saddle Gasket: DOG/DIG = 1.0034
No of saddles: 2

153
CHAPTER 7
7 PUMPS & COMPRESSORS

154
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

7.1 Pumps
Pump is a device that imparts momentum and mechanical energy to the process fluid. Pumps are
used to transfer fluid from one location to other.

A pump is a device used to raise, compress, or transfer fluids. The motors that power most pumps
can be the focus of many best practices. It is common to model the operation of pumps via pump
and system curves. Pump curves offer the horsepower, head, and flow rate figures for a specific
pump at a constant rpm. System curves describe the capacity and head required by a pump system.

Pump Types
Various types of pumps are used in the chemical industry, including centrifugal, reciprocating, and
helical rotor pumps.

Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps operate by applying a centrifugal force to fluids, many times with the assistance
of impellers. These pumps are typically used in moderate to high flow applications with low-
pressure head, and are very common in chemical process industries. There are three types of
centrifugal pumps radial, mixed, and axial flow pumps. In the radial pumps, pressure is developed
completely through a centrifugal force, while in axial pumps pressure is developed by lift generated
by the impeller. Mixed flow pumps develop flow through a centrifugal force and the impeller.

Reciprocating Pump
Reciprocating pumps compress liquid in small chambers via pistons or diaphragms. These pumps
are typically used in low-flow and high-head applications. Piston pumps may have single or
multiple stages and are generally not suitable for transferring toxic or explosive material.
Diaphragm pumps are more commonly used for toxic or explosive materials.

Helical Rotor Pump


Helical rotor pumps use a rotor within a helical cavity to develop pressure. These pumps are useful
for submersible and waste applications.

Selection Criteria of Pumps


Many different factors can influence the final choice of the pump for a particular operation. The
following list indicates the major factors that govern the pump selection

 The amount of liquid that must be pumped out.


 The properties of the fluid.
 The increase in presence of the fluid due to work input of the pump.
 Types of the flow distributions.
 Types of the power supply.
 Cost and mechanical efficiency of the pump.

We have selected centrifugal pumps for a process because of the following outstanding advantages:

155
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

 They are simple in operation and cheap.


 Fluid is delivered at uniform pressure without shocks or pulsation.
 They are no valves involved in pump operation.
 They operate at high speed (up to 4000 rpm) therefore they can be coupled directly to an
electric motor.
 The discharge line may be partly shut off or completely closed off without changing the
pump.
 They are much smaller than other pumps of equal capacity.
 Maintenance costs are lower than other types of pumps.

7.2 Pump (P-201)


7.3 Pump Selection
Pump type is selected from the below graph:
Capacity = 61372.4 kg/hr
= 370.02 gpm of Selexol
P(g)
Head = 𝑠𝑝.𝑔𝑟∗0.4367

Head = 39 ft

Figure 7.1: Capacity to Head graph for pumps selection

Hence, the Pump Selected is Centrifugal Pump.

7.4 Pump Sizing Calculation Steps


 Locate the process equipment

156
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

 Estimate z1 and z2.


 Estimate Frictional pressure losses ED and ES
 Calculate Pump Work.
 Calculate Pump shaft horsepower & estimate its Efficiency.
 Calculate electric-motor horsepower & estimate its Efficiency.
 Select a standard electric-motor horsepower.
 Calculate NPSH

7.5 Pump Calculation


Define the inlet and outlet pressures:
The inlet pressure is = P1 = 1.2 bar
The outlet pressure is = P2 = 30 bar

Locate the process equipment


Locate the process equipment according to the rule of thumb listed in following table…

Figure 7.2: Rules of Thumb for locating equipment

As we need to pump the liquid in to the absorber so our process equipment is absorber which is
supported by a skirt having skirt height of about 3.5 ft or 1.069 m.

Estimation of z1 & z2
Z1 with respect to pump = 0
Z2 = skirt height + height of column
Z2 = 1.069 + 16.5
Z2 = 17.57m
Z2 = 57.64 ft

Estimation Frictional pressure losses ED and ES

157
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

Figure 7.3: Estimation of ED and ES

So, ES & ED is equal to 0.35

Calculate the pump work


𝒈 𝑷𝟏 − 𝑷𝟐
𝑾= (𝒛𝟏 − 𝒛𝟐 ) + − (𝑬𝑺 − 𝑬𝑫 )
𝒈𝑪 ʃ

9.8 (1.2 ∗ 105 − 3.0 ∗ 106 ) (0.35 + 0.35) ∗ 105


𝑊= (0 − 57.64) + −
32 1009 1009
𝑁𝑚
𝑊 = −2941
𝐾𝑔

Calculate the pump shaft horsepower


Pump efficiency is calculated as
𝑚𝑊
𝑃=
ɳ
61372.4 ∗ 2941
𝑃=
0.7
P = 2.57*108 J/hr

P = 71625.48 J/s

P = 96.05 hp

158
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

Calculate Electric-Motor Horsepower & Estimate its Efficiency

Figure 7.4: Tentative efficiencies of standard pumps types

Figure 7.5: Tentative efficiencies of standard motors types

On the basis of horsepower, the selected motor is squirrel cage Induction motor having power range
of 1 to 5,000 hp.

159
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

Efficiency of motor is selected to be = 0.91


𝑃𝑃
The power of motor is calculated as = PE = 𝑃𝐸 = ɳ

96
𝑃𝐸 =
0.91
PE = 105.5 hp

Select a Standard Electric Motor Horsepower

Figure 7.6: Standard motor Horsepower

Hence the selected motor is of 125 hp.

Net Positive Suction Head NPSH:


1 𝑃𝑎 − 𝑃𝑣
𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 = ( − ℎ𝑓𝑠 ) − 𝑍𝑎
𝑔 ʃ
Absolute pressure at the surface of reservoir = Pa = 1.2 bar = 1.2*105 Pa
Vapor pressure of Selexol = Pv = 1 bar = 1000Pa
Friction losses in suction line = hfs = 0
Za = 0

1 1.2 ∗ 105 − 1000


𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 = ( − 0) − 0
9.8 1009

NPSH = 11.79 m

160
Chapter 7 Pumps and Compressors

Specification Sheet

P-201
Identification
Item Pump
Item No. P-201
No. Required 1
Type Centrifugal
Function
To increase pressure from 1.2 bar to 30 bar
Feed Flow Rate 61372.4 kg/hr
Inlet Pressure 1.2 bar
Outlet Pressure 30 bar
Power of pump 96.05 hp
Power of electric motor 105.5 hp
NPSH 11.8 m

161
CHAPTER 8
8 COST ESTIMATION

162
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

8.1 Cost Estimation


A capital investment is required for any industrial process and determination of the necessary
investment is an important part of a plant design project.

8.2 Capital Investment


Before industrial plant can put into operation, a large sum of money must be supplied to purchase
and install the necessary machinery and equipment. Land and service facilities must be obtained
and the plant must be erected complete with all piping, controls and service. In addition, it is
necessary to have money available for the payment of expenses involved in the plant operation. The
total capital required for the installation and working of a plant is called total capital investment.

Total Capital Investment = Fixed Capital + Working Capital


8.2.1 Fixed Capital Investment
The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called fixed capital
investment. The fixed capital is further subdivided into followings,
i. Manufacturing fixed capital investment
ii. Non-manufacturing fixed capital investment.
The fixed capital investment classified into two sub divisions,
i. Direct Cost
ii. Indirect Cost

1) Direct Cost

The direct cost items arc incurred in the construction of the plant in addition to the cost of
equipment.
i. Purchased equipment cost
ii. Purchased equipment installation
iii. Insulation cost
iv. Instrumentation and control
v. Piping
vi. Electrical installation
vii. Building including services
viii. Yard improvement
ix. Service facilities
x. Land

2) Indirect Cost
Indirect cost can be estimated by estimating following costs.

i. Engineering and supervision


ii. Construction expenses
iii. Contractor’s fee
iv. Contingencies
v. Startup expenses

163
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

8.2.2 Working Capital


The capital required for the operation of the plant is known as working capital. Working capital
includes following things to be considered,

i. Raw materials and supplies carried in stock


ii. Finished product in stock and semi-finished products in the process of being manufactured.
iii. Accounts receivable
iv. Cash kept on hand for monthly payment of operating expenses, such as salaries, wages and
raw material purchases.
v. Accounts payable
vi. Taxes payable

8.3 Capital Cost Estimates


An estimate of the capital investment for a process may vary, pre-design estimated based on little
information except the size of the proposed project to a detailed estimate prepared from complete
drawings and specifications.

Between these two extremes of capital investment estimates there can be numerous, other estimates
which vary in accuracy depending on the stage of development of the project. These estimates are
called by a variety of names, but the following five categories represent the accuracy range and
designation normally used for the design purposes,

i. Order of magnitude estimates


ii. Study estimate (factorial estimate)
iii. Preliminary estimates (budget authorization estimate)
iv. Definitive estimate (project control estimate)
v. Detailed estimate (Contractor’s estimate)

8.4 Cost Indices


A cost is nearly an index value for a given point in time showing the cost at that time relative to
certain base time. So, present cost is estimated from cost index as follows:
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 (𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡)
=
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡
Many different types of cost indices are published regularly. Some of these can be used for
estimating equipment cost; others apply specifically to labor, construction, materials or other
specialized fields.

The most common of these indices are

i. Marshal-and-Swift all industry and process industry equipment index


ii. Engineering news record contraction cost index

164
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

8.5 Total Cost of Equipment in 2018


8.5.1 Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Material of construction = Stainless Steel
Length = 9.46 m
Diameter = 1.33 m
Material Factor = 2
Pressure Factor = 1.4

Purchase Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Material Factor × Pressure Factor

= 10000*2*1.4 = $ 17000
Cost index in 2004 = 521.7
Cost index in 2018 = 711.17
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in 2018 = Cost in 2004 × = $ 23174.02
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

8.5.2 Cyclone Separator


Flow rate = 303.41 m3/hr
Basket Diameter = 0.088m

Cost in 2002 = Bare cost × material factor


= 2500*1 = $ 2500
Cost index in 2002 = 428
Cost index in 2018 = 711
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in 2018 = Cost in 2002 × = $ 4153.03
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

8.5.3 Cost of Packed Bed Reactor


Material of construction = Carbon Steel
Length = 34.70 m
Diameter = 1.96 m
Material Factor = 1
Pressure Factor = 2.2

Purchase Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Material Factor × Pressure Factor

= 10000 × 1 × 2.2 = $ 22000

Cost index in 2004 = 521.7

165
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Cost index in 2018 = 711.17


𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in 2018 = Cost in 2004 × = $ 29989.91
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

8.5.4 Cost of Absorber


Diameter of column = 1.042 m
Height of Column = 16.5 m
Height of packing = 5.4 m
Packing: Intalox saddle
Pressure = 30 bar
Material: Stainless Steel

Purchase Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Material Factor × Pressure Factor

= 12000 × 2 × 1.4 = $ 33600


2004 index = 541.2
2018 index = 711
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in 2018 = Cost in 2004 × 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

Purchase cost of equipment in 2018 = $ 44141.90


πD2 H
Volume of packing V = = 0.85 m3
4

Cost of packing for size of 51 mm = 1400 $/m3


Total cost of packing = $ 1190
Total cost of absorber in 2018 = $ 23260.95

8.5.5 Cost of Stripper


Diameter of column = 0.713 m
Height of Column = 15 m
Height of packing = 4.23 m
Packing: Intalox saddle
Pressure= 1.2 bar
Material: Stainless Steel

Purchase Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Material Factor × Pressure Factor

= 8000 × 2 × 1 = $ 16000

2004 index = 541.2

166
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

2018 index = 711


𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in 2018 = Cost in 2004 × 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

Purchase cost of equipment in 2018 = $ 21019.95


πD2 H
Volume of packing V = = 0.43 m3
4

Cost of packing for size of 25 mm = 1400 $/m3


Total cost of packing = $ 602
Total cost of absorber in 2018 = $ 11111.97

8.5.6 Waste Heat Boiler E-101


Type: Shell and tube heat exchanger
Material: Carbon steel
Pressure Factor = 1.25 (30 bar)
Type factor U tube = 0.85
Heat transfer surface area = 552.9 ft2
Heat transfer surface area = 51.36 m2
From Figure F.1 = 25*1000 $
Bare cost from figure = 25000 $
Purchased Equipment Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Type factor × Pressure factor
Purchased Equipment Cost in 2004 = 26565 $
2004 Cost Index = 541.2
2018 Cost Index = 621.53
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Equipment Cost in 2018 = Ce = 25000$ ∗ ( 541.2 )
2004 Cost Index

Purchase cost of E-101 in 2018 = 28710.7 $

As there are two Exchangers of same specifications (E-101 & E-102) so,
Purchase Cost of Heat Exchanger E-102 in 2018 = 28710.7 $

8.5.7 Heat Exchanger E-201


Type: Shell and tube heat exchanger
Material: Carbon steel
Pressure Factor = 1.25 (30 bar)
Type factor U tube = 0.85

167
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Heat transfer surface area = 1151 ft2


Heat transfer surface area = 106 m2
From Figure F.1 = 36*1000 $
Bare cost from figure = 36000 $
Purchased Equipment Cost in 2004 = Bare cost × Type factor × Pressure factor
Purchased Equipment Cost in 2004 = 38250 $
2004 Cost Index = 541.2
2018 Cost Index = 621.53
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Equipment Cost in 2018 = Ce = 38250$ ∗ ( )
2004 Cost Index 541.2

Purchase cost of E-201 in 2018 = 43927 $

8.5.8 Heat Exchanger E-401 A


Type: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Material: Carbon steel
Heat transfer surface area = 17 ft2 = 1.64 m2
Heat transfer surface area =1.64 * 10 = 16.4 m2
From Figure 2, Equipment Cost in 2004 = 2600 $
2004 Cost Index = 541.2
2018 Cost Index = 621.53
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Equipment Cost in 2018 = Ce = 2600$ ∗ ( 541.2 )
2004 Cost Index

Purchase cost of E-104 A in 2018 = 2986 $

8.5.9 Heat Exchanger E-401 B


Type: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Material: Carbon steel
Heat transfer surface area = 10.8 ft2 = 1.00 m2
Heat transfer surface area =1.00 * 10 = 10 m2
From Figure 2, Equipment Cost in 2004 = 2400 $
2004 Cost Index = 541.2
2018 Cost Index = 621.53
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Equipment Cost in 2018 = Ce = 2400$ ∗ ( )
2004 Cost Index 541.2

168
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Purchase cost of E-104 B in 2018 = 2750 $

8.5.10 Heat Exchanger E-401 C


Type: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Material: Carbon steel
Heat transfer surface area = 7 ft2 = 0.65 m2
Heat transfer surface area =0.65 * 10 = 6.5 m2
From Figure 2, Equipment Cost in 2004 = 2100 $
2004 Cost Index = 541.2
2018 Cost Index = 621.53
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Equipment Cost in 2018 = Ce = 2100$ ∗ ( 541.2 )
2004 Cost Index

Purchase cost of E-104 C in 2018 = 2412 $

8.5.11 Cost of Furnace F-001


Furnace Heat Duty = Q = 2015880 Btu/hr
From Figure 3, Cost of Furnace in 2004 = 140,000 $
2018 Cost Index 621.53
Cost of Furnace in 2018 = Ce = 140,000$ ∗ ( 541.2 )
2004 Cost Index

Cost of Furnace in 2018 = 160,780 $

8.5.12 Cost of Pump


Type: Centrifugal
a = 6900; b = 206; n = 0.9;
S = 1566.66 kg/hr S = 0.42 L/s
Ce = a + bSn
Equipment cost in 2007 = $ 6994.36
2007 index = 830.9
2018 index = 1029.83
Cost in 2018 = $ 8668.91

8.5.13 Cost of Compressor


Power = 150 Kw, C = 1920, n = 0.8
Ce = CSn
Ce = $ 105724 in 2004

169
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Cost index in 2004 = 830.9


Cost index in 2018 = 1029.83

Cost in 2018 = $ 131035.92


Table 8.1: Total Cost of Equipment’s

Equipment Cost ($)


Reactors
Fluidized Bed Gasifier 23174
Packed Bed Reactor 29989
Waste Heat Boiler
Vaporizer ( E-101) 28710
Furnace (F-100) 160780
Heat Exchangers
(E-102) 28710.7
(E-201) 43927
(E-401 A) 2986
(E-401 B) 2750
(E-401 C) 2412
Cyclone Separator 4153.03
Absorber 23260.9
Stripper 11111.9
Pump 8668.91
Compressor 131035.9
Total 501670.04 $

8.6 Direct Cost


Table 8.2: Direct Cost

Items Range % Cost $


Purchased equipment --- 100% 501670.04
Installation 25-55% of purchased equipment cost 40% 200668.01
Instrument and Control 6-30% of purchased equipment cost 15% 75250.50
Piping 40-80% of purchased equipment cost 50% 250835.02
Electricity 10-15% of purchased equipment cost 10% 50167.004
Building 15% of purchased equipment cost 15% 75250.506
Land 4-8% of purchased equipment cost 4% 20066.801
Service facility 30-80% of purchased equipment cost 40% 200668.01
Yard Improvement 10-20% of purchase equipment cost 10% 50167
Insulation cost 8-9% of purchased equipment cost 8% 40133.6
Total --- --- 1464876.5

170
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

8.7 Indirect Cost


Table 8.3: Indirect Cost

Items Range % Cost $


Engg. & supervision 8% of total direct cost 8% 117190
Contractor fee 2-8% of direct plant cost 3% 43946
Construction Expenses 10% of Total direct plant cost 10% 146487
Contingences Direct plant cost 8% 117190
Total --- --- 424814.18

Total capital investment = Fixed capital investment + working capital investment


Fixed capital investment = direct cost + indirect Cost
Fixed capital investment = 1889690.7 $
Working capital investment = 15% of fixed capital investment
Working capital investment = 283453.6 $
Total capital investment = Fixed capital investment + working capital investment
Total capital investment = 2173144 $ = Rs 303805575
8.8 Total Production Cost
Total production cost = variable cost + fixed cost + overhead charges

8.9 Variable Cost


Raw Material Cost
i. Coal Cost
Flow rate of coal = 5376.64 kg/hr
For 330 days of operating time = 42582988.8 kg/year
Price of coal per kg = 0.03005 $/kg
Total price of coal = 1279618.8 $/year

ii. Catalyst Cost


Price of catalyst = 0.035 $/kg
Weight of catalyst = 5393 kg
Price of catalyst = 188.75 $/year

iii. Steam Cost


Price of steam in 2018 = 0.0145 $/kg
Total steam required = 3657.58 kg/hr
For 330 days of operating time = 28968033.6 kg/year

171
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Total price of steam per year = 419455.96 $/year

iv. Selexol Cost


Price of Selexol = 1.8 $/kg
Flowrate of Selexol = 61372.44 kg/hr
For 330 days of operating time = 845964 kg/year
Total price of Selexol per year = 1241738.16 $/year

8.9.1 Miscellaneous Material


Maintenance cost = 7% of FCI
Maintenance cost = $ 132278
Miscellaneous Material = $ 13227.8 (It is 10% of maintenance cost)

8.9.2 Utilities
i. Cooling water
Cooling Water price = 0.00001 $/kg
Cooling Water Required = 27123.34 kg/hr
Cooling water required = 8950702.2 kg/year
Total price of cooling water = 2148.16 $/year
Variable cost = raw material cost + miscellaneous cost + utilities cost
Variable cost = 2956377.6 $/year

8.10 Fixed Operating Cost


Table 8.4: Fixed Operating Cost

Type % FCI Cost $


Maintenance 7 132278.3
Operating Cost of Labor 10 188969
Laboratory Cost 20 377938
Supervision Cost 15 283453.6
Plant Overheads 50 944845.3
Capital Charges 10 188969
Insurance 1 18896.9
Local Taxes 2 37793.8
Royalties 1 18896.9
Fixed Operating Cost - 2192041.2

172
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Direct production cost = variable cost + fixed cost


Direct production cost = 2956377.6 + 2192041.2
Direct production cost = 5148418.88 $

8.11 Overhead Charges


30% of direct production cost
Overhead charges = 0.3 X 5148418.88 = 1544525.66 $
Total production cost = Direct Production Cost + Overhead Charges
Total production cost = 5148418.88 + 1544525.66 $
Total production cost = 6692944.55 $/year
Total production rate = 167 ton/day = 53790 ton/year
Production cost ($/kg) = Total production cost / Total production rate
= 0.12 $/kg
= 17.4 Rs/kg
= 124.4 $/ ton
Our goal is to get the maximum profit we sale the product with market rate after comparing with
the market.
8.12 Profitability Analysis
8.12.1 Selling Price
Selling price of product = 0.13 $/kg = 135 $/ton = 18.87 Rs/kg
Production Cost = 124.4 $/ton
Selling Price = 135 $/ton

8.12.2 Profit
Profit = Selling price - production cost = 10.57 $/ton
Total Production per year = 53790 ton/year
Profit per year = 568705.45 $/year

8.12.3 Total Income


Selling Price = 135 $/ton
Total Production per year = 53790 ton/year
Total Income = 7261650 $/year

173
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

Gross Profit
Gross Profit = Total Income - Total Production Cost
= 7261650 - 6692944.55 $/year
= 568705.45 $/year

Net Profit
Let the tax rate is 30%
Taxes = 0.3*Gross Profit = 170611.6 $/year

8.12.4 Depreciation
Assume that the Fixed Capital Investment depreciate by straight line method for 20 years.
Assuming 5 % Salvage value at the end of plant life.
V−VS
Depreciation = D =
N

V = F.C.I = 1889690.7 $
VS = 0.05*F.C.I = 69805.2 $
N = No of Years = 20 Years
V−VS
Depreciation = D = = 89760.3 $
N

Net Profit = Gross profit - Taxes - Depreciation


= 308333.5 $/year

8.12.5 Rate of Return


Net profit
Rate of return = (𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡) ∗ 100

Rate of return = 14.18 %

8.12.6 Payback Period


Payback Period = 1/rate of return
Payback period = 7 year

174
CHAPTER 9
9 INSTRUMENTATION
&
CONTROL

175
Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Control

Instrumentation is the science of automated measurement and control. Applications of this science
abound in modern research, industry, and everyday living. From automobile engine control systems
to home thermostats to aircraft autopilots to the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs, automation
surrounds us. Therefore, selection of the most effective means for measurement is an important first
step in the design and formulation of any process control system.

In manual control an operator may periodically read the process variable and adjust the input up or
down in such a direction as to derive the temperature to its desired value. Manual control is used in
non- critical application, where any process condition occurs slowly and in small increments and
where a minimum of operator attention is required. While in automatic control, measurement and
adjustments are made automatically on a continuous basis. Today automatic control is used in
industry due to following benefits.

 Improvement in product quality


 Increase in process yield of production rate
 Increase safety for personnel and equipment
 Economics saving in materials, energy of time
 Improvement of working conditions
 Achievement of operation not possible by manual control

9.1 Objectives of Instrumentation and Control System


Following are the objectives of Instrumentation and Control System

 Suppressing and killing the external disturbances


 Operate the process in a stable manner
 Optimize the process operation

Components of Control System


Following are the components of Control System,

 Process
 Measuring Element
 Process Variable
 Controller
Process
Any operation or series of operation that produces a desired final result is a process.

Measuring Element
As all parts of control system, measuring element is perhaps the most important. If measurements
are not made properly the remainder of the system cannot operate satisfactorily, also the measured
variable is chosen to represent the desired conditions in the process.

176
Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Control

Process Variable
The even operation of a process is dependent upon the control of the process variables. These are
defined as conditions in process materials or apparatus, which are subject to change temperature,
pressure, flow and liquid level are the major variable, followed by perhaps a dozen less frequently
encountered variables such as chemical composition, viscosity, density, humidity, moisture content
and so forth. Measurement is a fundamental requisite to process control either the control can be
effected automatically, semi automatically or manual. An automatic control is used to measure,
correct and modify changes of the four principle types of process variations.

 Temperature measurements
 Pressure measurements
 Flow rate measurements
 Level measurements
Various types of measuring instruments for temperature, pressure, flow, and level are:
Table 9.1: Measured Process Variables, Devices and Comments

Measured Process
Measuring Devices Comments
Variable
Thermocouples, Most common for Relatively
Thermometer, Thermistor, low Temp.
Temperature Bimetallic Thermometers, Radiation pyrometers
Radiation Pyrometers Used for high temperature
Manometers With float or Displacers based
Bourdon tube elements on the elastics deformation of
Bellow elements Materials.
Strain gauges Used to convert Pressure to
Pressure Capsule gauges Electrical signal.
Thermal conductivity For measurement of Vacuum
Gauge
McLeod gauge
Orifice plate Measuring pressure drop
Venture flow nozzle across a flow constriction
Pitot tube Positive displacement and
Turbine flow meter Mass flowmeter for high
Flow Rate Hot wire anemometry Precision Quantity
Positive displacement and Flowmeter
Mass flowmeter
Float actuated devices Coupled with Various Types
Displacer devices of indicators and signal
Liquid Level Liquid head pressure devices Converters good for system
Dielectric measurement With two phases Indirect
Method of hydrostatic
pressure.

177
Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Control

Temperature Measurement and Control


The temperature measurement is used to control the temperature of outlet and inlet Streams in heat
exchangers, reactors etc. most temp measurement in the industry are made by means of
thermocouples to facilitate bringing the measurement to centralized location for local measurements
at the equipment bi-metallic or filled system thermometers are used to a lesser extent usually, high
measurements accuracy resistance thermometer are used. All these meters are installed with
thermo-walls when used locally. This provides against atmosphere and other physical elements.

Pressure Measurement and Control


Like temperature, pressure is a variable indicating material state and composition. In fact, these two
measurements considered together are the primary evaluating devices of industrial materials.

In the reactor, pressure measurements are of primary importance. Pumps, compressors and other
process equipment associated with pressure changes in the process material are finished with
pressure measuring devices. Thus pressure measurements become an indication of energy increase
or decrease.

Most pressure measurements in industry are elastic elements devices, either directly connected for
local use at transmission type to centralized location. Most extensively used industrial pressure
element is bourdon tube or a diaphragm bellows.

Flow Measurement and Control


The measurement of flow is an essential part of almost every industrial process, and many
techniques have been evolved for it.

Measurement of flow usually employs the same principle as the measurement of pressure i.e.,
sensing device coupled with a DP cell.

For special applications other flow meters may be employed e.g for process no external disturbance
in the fluid stream is required for magnetic flow meters. Flow indicator controller are used to control
the amount of liquid, also all manually set streams require some flow indication or some easy means
for occasional sample. Most flow measurements in industry are variable head devices. To lesser
extent variables is used, as are the many available types as special measuring situations arise.

Controller
The controller is the mechanism that responds to any error detecting mechanism. The output of the
controller is predetermined function of the error. Final Control Element: The final control element
receives the signal from the controller and by some predetermined relationship change energy input
to the process.

178
Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Control

9.2 Types of Control


Many different types of controls are used in industry depending upon requirements and specific
needs. They range from very simple control to very complex system, in general they may be
categorized into two major categories as follows:

 Feedback control.
 Feed forward control

Feedback Control
It is our general behavior that we leant from experience. A feedback control, as the name implies,
is also based on same principal. If any input to a system is changed it will cause changes in the
system termed as “disturbances”. These disturbances are noted down and corrected action is taken
on the input to undo the effect that change.

Advantages

 Not require identification and measurement of disturbance


 Insensitive to modeling errors.
 Insensitive to parameter changes.

Disadvantages

 Control action is taken after disturbances have been felt.


 Unsatisfactory for slow and significant dead time process.
 It may create instability in the closed-loop response.

Feedforward Control
Uses direct measurement of the disturbances to adjust the value of manipulated variables.

Advantages

 It acts before the effect of disturbance has been felt by system.


 It is good for slow systems or systems with significant dead time.
 It does not introduce the instability in control system.

Disadvantages

 It requires the identification of all possible disturbances and their direct measurement.
 Cannot cope with unmeasured disturbances.
 Sensitive to process parameter variation.
 It cannot eliminate steady state offset.
 It requires good knowledge of process model.
In order to design a control system to operate not only automatically but efficiently, it is frequently
necessary to obtain both steady state and dynamic manner in which this information is obtained is
dependent largely upon the process being controlled and control strategy to be implied.

179
Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Control

9.3 Case Study


H2S from Stripper is introduced into dual convection section, multi terraced furnace. Natural gas is
used as fuel in the burners which are placed along the wall. H2S and air are mixed inside the tubes
in the convection section which are heated by burners and oxidation of H2S takes place to form
SO2. The product SO2 is extracted from the top tube collector. Flue gas produced by burning of fuel
are also collected at the top.

Flow of fuel gas, air and product SO2, temperature of convection section and composition of flue
gasses are the key process variables to control and monitor.

Figure 9.1: Instrumentation and Control on Furnace

180
CHAPTER 10
10 HAZOP STUDY

181
Chapter 10 HAZOP Study

A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and widely accepted methods of systematic
qualitative hazard analysis. It is used for both new or existing facilities and can be applied to a
whole plant, a production unit, or a piece of equipment It uses as its database the usual sort of plant
and process information and relies on the judgment of engineering and safety experts in the areas
with which they are most familiar. The end result is, therefore reliable in terms of engineering and
operational expectations, but it is not quantitative and may not consider the consequences of
complex sequences of human errors.

10.1 Objectives of HAZOP Study


The objectives of a HAZOP study can be summarized as follows:

 To identify (areas of the design that may possess a significant hazard potential.
 To identify and study features of the design that influence the probability of a hazardous
incident occurring.
 To familiarize the study team with the design information available.
 To ensure that a systematic study is made of the areas of significant hazard potential.
 To identify pertinent design information not currently available to the team.
 To provide a mechanism for feedback to the client of the study teams detailed comments.

10.2 HAZOP Study Guide Words and Meanings


Table 10-1 shows the guide words and meanings of HAZOP Study.
Table 10.1: HAZOP Study Guide Words and Meanings

Guide Words Meanings


No Negation of design intent
Less Quantitative decrease
More Quantitative increase
Part of Qualitative decrease
As well as Qualitative increase
Reverse Logical opposite of the intent
Other than Complete substitution
10.3 Hazard and Operability Studies
An important element of any system for the prevention of accidents is conducting of hazard and
operability studies. A hazard and operability study (or HAZOP) is a systematic, critical examination
by a team of the engineering and operating intentions of a process to assess the hazard potential of
mal-operation or mal-function of individual items of equipment and the consequential effects on
the facility as a whole. It is quite normal to carry out safety reviews. These may take different forms.
Experts may be consulted in isolation, without reference to each other. They may instead be
gathered in lengthy meetings to discuss the particular topic. HAZOP meetings with a distinct
structure, the structure imposing a certain organization, to enhance effectiveness. They are a
generalized study technique, equally applicable to microchip manufacture, pharmaceutical

182
Chapter 10 HAZOP Study

synthesis, effluent plant operation or any process. They should not be seen, however, as a solution
to all ills, the ultimate review. The procedure is only anther tool in the safety locker and should be
seen as complementary to other techniques. Indeed, it is best applied as one stage of a multistage
procedure, applying different techniques as relevant to each stage. It does not replace, but rather
supplements, existing Codes of Practice. Neither can it totally substitute for experience. But, both
Codes of Practice and experience are evolved from existing situations. Innovative developments
require a review which investigates the unknown. HAZOP are a systematic, logical approach to
determining problems.

10.4 What is Hazard and HAZOP?


A Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study is a structured and systematic examination of a planned
or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks
to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. The HAZOP technique was initially
developed to analyze chemical process systems, but has later been extended to other types of
systems and also to complex operations and to software systems. A HAZOP is a qualitative
technique based on guide-words and is carried out by a multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP team)
during a set of meetings.

10.5 When to Perform HAZOP?


The HAZOP study should preferably be carried out as early in the design phase as possible to have
influence on the design. On the other hand; to carry out a HAZOP we need a rather complete design.
As a compromise, the HAZOP is usually carried out as a final check when the detailed design has
been completed. A HAZOP study may also be conducted on an existing facility to identify
modifications that should be implemented to reduce risk and operability problems.

10.6 Why HAZOP carried out?


 To identify (areas of the design that may possess a significant hazard potential).
 To identify and study features of the design that influence the probability of a hazardous
incident occurring.
 To familiarize the study team with the design information available.
 To ensure that a systematic study is made of the areas of significant hazard potential.
 To identify pertinent design information not currently available to the team.
 To provide a mechanism for feedback to the client of the study teams detailed comments.

10.7 Types of HAZOP


Process HAZOP
The HAZOP technique was originally developed to assess plants and process systems.

Human HAZOP
A “family” of specialized HAZOPs. More focused on human errors than technical failures.

Procedure HAZOP
Review of procedures or operational sequences sometimes denoted SAFOP – SAF operation Study.

183
Chapter 10 HAZOP Study

Software HAZOP
Identification of possible errors in the development of software.

10.8 Process HAZOP


As a basis for the HAZOP study the following information should be available

 Process flow diagrams


 Piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs)
 Layout diagrams
 Material safety data sheets
 Provisional operating instructions
 Heat and material balance
 Equipment data sheets Start-up and emergency shut-down procedures.

10.9 Success or Failure of HAZOP


The success or failure of the HAZOP depends on several factors:

 The completeness and accuracy of drawings and other data used as a basis for the study.
 The technical skills insights of the team.
 The ability of the team to use the approach as an aid to their imagination in visualizing
deviations, causes, and consequences.
 The ability of the team to concentrate on the more serious hazards which are identified.
 The process is systematic and it is helpful to define the terms that are used.

Study Nodes
The locations (on piping and instrumentation drawings and procedures) at which the process
parameters are investigated for deviations.

Intention
The intention defines how the plant is expected to operate in the absence of deviations at the study
nodes. This can take a number of forms and can either be descriptive or diagrammatic; e.g. flow
sheets, line diagrams, P and ID.

Deviation
These are departures from the intention which are discovered by systematically applying the guide
words (e.g. more pressure).

Causes
These are the reasons why deviations might occur. Once a deviation has been shown to have a
credible cause, it can be treated as a meaningful deviation. These cause can be hardware failures,
human errors, an unanticipated process state (e.g., change of composition), external disruptions
(e.g. loss of power), etc.

184
Chapter 10 HAZOP Study

Consequences
These are the results of the deviations should they occur (e.g. release of toxic materials). Trivial
consequences, relative to the study objective, are dropped.

Guide Words
These are simple words which are used to qualify or quantify the intention in order to guide and
stimulate the brainstorming process and so discover deviations. The guide words shown in Table
10-1 are the ones most often used in a HAZOP; some organizations have made this list specific to
their operations, to guide the team more quickly to the areas where they have previously found
problems. Each guide word is applied to the process variables at the point in the plant (study node)
which is being examined.

185
Chapter 10 HAZOP Study

10.10 Steps for HAZOP Study

Figure 10.1: Flow Diagram of Steps for HAZOP Study

186
10.11 HAZOP Study on Reactor (R-001)
A HAZOP study is to be conducted on Furnace, as presented by instrumentation and control diagram in figure 9.1
Table 10.2: HAZOP Study on Furnace

Process Guide Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action


Parameters
Flow No No flow -Blockage on line -Decrease in production -Cleaning of lines
-No SO2 is produced Or no production -Maintenance of pipes
-Feed Pump is rupture -Automatic valve
-Valve is closed -Automatic Pump
-Pump is closed
Flow More of High flow of SO2 and -More opening of valve -Heat Exchanger hot stream -Decrease flow rate
O2 at reactor entrance will be too hot -Automatic valve
Flow Less of Less flow of SO2 and -Less opening of valve -Heat Exchanger hot stream -Increase flow rate
O2 at reactor entrance will not be too hot -Automatic valve
Flow Part of Higher SO2 fraction -High quality of feed -More pure production than -Quality control of raw material
intended and product
Flow As well as Impurities in feed -Problem in raw material -Low conversion rate -Quality control of raw material
stream -Fouling in pipes -Decrease in quality of and product
product
Flow Reverse Reverse of flow -No probable cause -Decrease in production rate -Consider interlock in feed
Or no production stream
Flow Other than Maintenance -Equipment failure -Line cannot be completely -Replace the equipment
drained
Temperature High High temperature of -Catalyst deactivated or -no reaction takes place in -Install temperature sensors
inlet gases poison the presence of deactivation
of catalyst

187
Temperature Low Low temperature of -reaction is slow -Low conversion rate -Install temperature sensors
gases -Decrease in quality of -Scheduling inspections
product
Pressure High High flow rate or -More opening of valve -Heat Exchanger hot stream -Install Pressure sensors
pressure of inlet stream will be too hot
Pressure Low Low flow rate or -Less opening of valve -Heat Exchanger hot stream -Install Pressure sensors
pressure of inlet stream will not be too hot

188
CHAPTER 11
11 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ANALYSIS

189
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a statutory procedure in which the environmental
impacts of a project are determined. The assessment is the responsibility of the party implementing
the project.

 The EIA studies the impacts of the project on, for example, the following issues
 Human health, living conditions and comfort

 Soil, water, air, climate, vegetation, organisms, their mutual interaction, and biodiversity.
 Community structure, buildings, landscape, townscape and cultural heritage.
 Utilization of natural resources.

11.1 Purpose of EIA Procedure


The purpose of the procedure is to,

 Promote the communication to and involvement of citizens, even in the early stages of the
project.
 Highlight the environmental impacts that should be taken into consideration in the planning.
No project-related decisions are involved in the EIA, nor does it limit the citizens ‘opportunities to
contribute to the project in other ways. The EIA procedure is performed before any decisions on
the licenses and permits are made, and another of its objectives is to offer additional information
for decision-making. The environmental impact assessment report is mandatory when applying for
a decision-in-principle concerning, for instance, a new nuclear power plant or a repository for spent
nuclear fuel.

11.2 Stages of EIA Procedure


There are two stages in the EIA procedure. The EIA program is first completed and the
environmental impact assessment report is drawn up on the basis of the program. The EIA
procedure sets out with the compilation of an environmental impact assessment program (EIA
program). The EIA program is a written plan indicating the types of environmental impacts that
will be investigated and how the EIA procedure will be organized. The program is submitted to the
Ministry of Employment and the Economy, which will request statements on it from,
The municipalities affected by the project

 Different authorities
 Finnish citizens
 Corporations.
The Ministry of the Environment presents the project to the authorities of the Baltic coastal states
and Finland’s neighboring states. The authorities will then organize the hearing of their own citizens
and issue statements. According to law, the duration of this hearing period shall be 30-60 days.
Based on the issued statements and opinions, the Ministry of Employment and the Economy will
issue its own statement on the EIA program. An environmental impact assessment report will then
be issued, based on the EIA program and the statements issued on it. The assessment report is
delivered to the Ministry of Employment and the Economy, which will collect the opinions of
different parties and statements of other authorities during the hearing period and issue its own

190
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

statement. After the Ministry’s statement, a decision-in-principle can be applied for in the project
whose environmental impacts were assessed. The environmental impact assessment report forms
an enclosure to the application for a decision-in-principle.

Figure 11.1: Stages of EIA Procedure

11.3 Managing Environmental and Social Issues


What project activities could affect the environment and people?
It is recognized that a project of this scale and duration has the potential to affect the environment
and the community, both in a beneficial and an adverse way. The activities that could cause the
most important impacts include:
● Direct impacts on air quality from emissions from the power plant
● Noise and vibration from the power plant, heard and felt by nearby residents
● Contamination of environments due to leakage and spillage of wastes
● Contamination of environments from the disposal of waste materials including ash
● Impacts on landscape features
● Direct and indirect impacts on ecology
● Social impacts (some positive, some negative) associated with:

1. Physical and economic displacement of people and their livelihoods


2. Employment generation
3. Provision of electricity and heating
4. Workers well-being
5. Community health, safety and well-being

A summary of the key findings and the main mitigation measures identified for the social and
Environmental impact as set out in this section. The ESIA assessed the impacts of the Project in the
following areas:

 Air quality
 Greenhouse gases
 Noise and vibration
191
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

 Waste and materials management


 Hydrology, hydrogeology and flood risk
 Landscape and visual
 Ground conditions
 Biodiversity and ecology
 Social impact assessment
Whilst environmental and social issues can interact, the findings of the ESIA broadly cover the
following themes:
● Impacts on people
● Impacts on the natural environment and resources

11.4 Impacts on people


11.4.1 Resettlement
A major impact on people is the change in use of land resulting in the physical resettlement and
economic displacement of households that live on or near the Project site. The Government should
develop a resettlement policy/strategy for the deserted area, which encompasses all developments
in project. Based on this strategy, the Government should then produce a resettlement policy
framework which sets out the approach to be taken for resettlement of communities within Project
Area. The village of Kharo Jani with a population of 1,200 across 160 households, and much of its
cultivated land, will be the only village to be displaced. The resettlement process is currently
ongoing.

11.4.2 Employment
The Project is expected to require 1,000 workers at the peak of the construction phase. The
generation of employment is a beneficial impact of the project; this provides opportunities for local
people to access jobs and to undertake training to develop new skills, as well as improve the
livelihoods of local communities. Given the existing skill base of the local population, these
positions are likely to be limited to unskilled labor jobs and more skilled positions are likely to be
taken by more skilled migrant workers. During operation, many of the positions will be skilled roles
and it is not known at this stage how many local community members have the required skills to
access these opportunities.

11.4.3 Population influx


The simultaneous construction of Ammonium Sulfate plant in the open pit mine and this Project
means that there it is likely there will be many nonlocal workers coming into the area. The expected
influx may bring about significant cultural changes, an increased risk of disease, insecurity and
overburdening of existing yet limited social services. A worker code of conduct will be developed
for non-local workers to adhere to and will raise awareness of cultural norms and customs of the
local community.

192
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

11.4.4 Traffic
At this stage, exact numbers of construction vehicles are not known and the routes that they will
take are not defined; during peak construction, vehicle movements are expected to be less than 200
per day. Increased traffic will result in increased noise, dust, vehicle emissions, potential
disturbance of habitats and potential contamination caused by fuel/oil leaks. Increased traffic
volumes during construction phase may result in road safety risks and can affect the already
vulnerable population in adverse ways.

To control negative impacts, measures will be in place including water spraying to minimize dust
and the use of modern, well-maintained vehicles to reduce emissions and noise. To further reduce
negative impacts on people, the project will conduct a traffic awareness program to improve local
understanding, signage will be installed and speed restrictions will be in place.

11.4.5 Landscape and visual


During construction, the presence of machinery, compounds, a large number of workers and
construction traffic on local roads will affect the local landscape character and decrease levels of
tranquility. The local landscape character will be significantly affected due to construction
activities, which are temporary in nature. Construction activities will be prominent in the view up
to 2km away and less visible but prominent up to 5km away, as well as being visible during the day
and night. Existing residential areas may be affected by light emanating from the Project at night.
As a result, the Project will implement a number of measures designed to reduce the impact by
minimizing the amount of land required for construction, maintaining strict requirements for
vehicles to remain on roads at all times through a traffic management plan, reinstating vegetation
where construction areas and access tracks are no longer required and restricting site lighting
outside normal working hours.

During operation, the Project will affect the local landscape of the site and its surroundings as the
project includes some very large buildings, extensive adjacent land use and a 210m high stack.
Residents in nearby properties within 2km and receptors located further to the north and south of
the project will have their views dominated by the power plant. To lessen the effect, lower parts of
the project buildings and secondary structures will be painted in neutral colors of the surrounding
landscape – shades of sandy browns and greys. Where possible, the scale of the project will also be
reduced by accommodating facilities into smaller buildings rather than single larger units. External
lighting will only be installed where necessary and will be down-lit and shielded to reduce the
impact.

11.4.6 Dust
During construction, most dust will be raised through excavations and earth moving and measures
will be taken to minimise and supress dust to avoid negative impacts. During operation, the handling
and movement of coal in the storage yard, coal handling facilities and conveyors has the potential
to generate dust which has the potential to impact locations within 500m, which can have a negative
impact on human health. The project will implement measures to minimise the impact from coal
dust which have been included in the design of the plant, for example enclosure of the coal
conveyors and installation of wind fences. The project will monitor dust concentrations close to the
site to confirm that the mitigation measures are working and these will be reviewed if the monitoring

193
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

shows that they are not. The assessment has demonstrated that these impacts are not predicted to be
significant.

11.4.7 Air Emissions


During operation, the project will emit pollution from its stack as a result of the combustion of
lignite coal. Having carried out air quality modelling for when the power plant is operating at full
capacity, no significant negative impact is predicted although ground levels of air pollution will be
slightly elevated in nearby locations. Technology including low nitrogen oxides burners, limestone
injection and electrostatic precipitators will be used to remove pollutants and help emissions to air
meet the guaranteed limits, which are below the legal national limits. The stack will be 210m high
to ensure effective dispersion of emissions. Air quality will be monitored during operation to ensure
emissions remain acceptable throughout the project lifetime.

11.4.8 Noise
During construction, which will last about 40 months, noise impacts will mainly be associated with
the operation of machinery, with the highest noise levels predicted to be during excavation and
foundation works. At the Yusuf Ji Dhani residential area long-term night time work could be an
issue and so noisy works will be scheduled during the day and where night time work is necessary
it will only be for periods of less than a month.
No significant negative impacts due to noise are predicted during operation.

11.4.9 Local Community Benefits


The community will benefit from some short term employment during the construction phase. A
local content strategy and a recruitment and skills development policy will be in place to enable
local people to benefit from the creation of employment. Job opportunities will be disclosed in
communities, an employment liaison forum will be in place to engage local populations and there
will be a focus on skills development in the local workforce.
A community investment plan will be developed to identify how project benefits are shared with
local communities and how the effects of in-migration are controlled. Input from local and regional
government authorities, local leaders, non-government organizations and civil society bodies will
be used to deliver the plan with potential improvements in agriculture, livelihood diversification,
education, and health and community infrastructure.

11.5 Impacts on the natural environment and resources


The project is expected to generate some adverse impacts on the local natural environment.

11.5.1 Water use


In the Thar Desert surface runoff occurs only during the monsoon season and the rains are very
variable from year to year. The Thar Desert is underlain by three groundwater sources – the Top,
Middle and Deep aquifers – all of which are too saline to meet drinking water standards. Local
communities depend on wells in the Top aquifer for domestic use, including their drinking water
because there is no better alternative. Traditional water capture structures have also been built in

194
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

natural depressions to extend the period before the monsoon rainfall is lost to evaporation and
seepage into the Top aquifer

During construction, water will be needed for the workforce, for the concrete batching plant and for
dust suppression. In operation, the main water use is for cooling and the requirement has been
minimized by the selection of a natural draft closed cooling system. The construction quantities are
small in comparison to the water needed during operation when 15 million m3 per year will be
required.

11.5.2 Water availability and discharge


The Government of Sindh is preparing a water management plan for the Thar Coalfield. These
studies will establish the baseline for all water resource across the whole area and then will model
all new developments to assess the cumulative changes in water use and potential impacts on water
resources both quantity and quality. The water management plan will contain all the measures to be
taken to minimize potential impacts area-wide. To extract coal safely the open pit must be kept dry
(dewatered). The project is designed to utilize the groundwater pumped from the mine dewatering
system to meet most of its needs, with water also being sourced via a 15-20km water pipeline from
the Vejhiar Reservoir which is being developed by the Government of Sindh.
The Government of Sindh is working with developers in the Thar Coalfield by providing
infrastructure for the disposal of waste water from all blocks. The arrangements for disposal of
waste water for Block VI are yet to be determined, however all water will be treated by the Project
before disposal to minimize impacts on water quality. The treatment will be designed to meet the
relevant Sindh Environmental Quality Standards for disposal.

11.5.3 Ground conditions


During construction, impacts include vegetation loss and compaction, soil loss and erosion and dust
in the air, which could lead to impacts on human health. These impacts would be in relation to
earthworks and spillage of hazardous materials; if best practice construction is implemented then
no negative impacts are expected. Similarly, during operation, given common best practice
measures will be used, no harm to people or the environment is expected.

11.5.4 Biodiversity and ecology


The Rann of Kutch is an important bird area and wildlife sanctuary located over 22.5km south of
the area affected by the Project, which is considered too far from the site for there to be any
significant negative impact. The habitats and plants in the area affected by the Project are of low
conservation value. Mammals, lizards, amphibians, and invertebrates in the Project area are also of
low conservation value. The habitats in the Thar Desert are important for the survival of several
globally threatened raptor species of birds, namely, the white-romped vulture, the Egyptian vulture
and the Indian vulture.

During the construction phase, working areas will be kept to the minimum to reduce habitat loss,
and where possible a phased vegetation clearance will be undertaken, to ensure animals can escape
the works area during construction. Noise and disturbance will be minimized through good practice
measures, such as the installation of noise control devices during construction and operation.
Vegetation clearance will be done outside of the main bird nesting period to the extent possible. If

195
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

clearance is done within this period, checks will be done and if any breeding birds are discovered
work will be postponed in that area. In addition to this, a number of best practice measures will be
in place to limit impacts on ecology and biodiversity wherever possible.

11.6 Health Effects


Health Effects of Sulfuric Acid has low acute toxicity by the oral, inhalation and dermal routes of
exposure. However, Sulfuric Acid has been classified as hazardous under GHS, as it is corrosive to
skin and eyes, and can cause severe skin burns and eye damage. Concentrated vapors of Sulfuric
Acid may cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract. Ingestion may cause severe
corrosion injury.
Potential acute health effects are,

Eye Contact
Immediate pain, severe burns and corneal damage, which may result in permanent blindness.

Skin Contact
Causes burns, and brownish or yellow stains. Concentrated solutions may cause second or third
degree burns with severe necrosis. Prolonged and repeated exposure to dilute solutions may cause
irritation, redness, pain and drying and cracking of the skin.

Inhalation
Causes respiratory irritation and at high concentrations may cause severe injury, burns, or death.
Effects of exposure may be delayed.

Ingestion
Causes severe irritation or burns of the mouth, throat, and esophagus.

11.7 Potential Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide


Sulfur dioxide is a gas emitted from fossil fuel combustion at power plants and other industrial
facilities as well as fuel combustion in mobile sources such as locomotives, ships, and other
equipment’s. Over 100,000 tons of SO2 were emitted in 2009 in Minnesota. Current scientific
evidence links SO2 exposure with adverse impacts on the respiratory system. In recent reviews of
standard, EPA has determined that even short term exposure to high levels of SO2 can have a
determine effect on breathing function, particular for those that suffer from asthma. SO2 also reacts
with other chemicals in the air to form acids, which fall to the earth as acid rain. Acid rain damages
forests and crops, changes the makeup of soil, and makes lakes and streams acidic and unsuitable
for fish.

11.8 Inhalation Exposure Limit of SO2


OSHA recommended a TWA limit of 2 ppm. ACGIH recommended a TLV-TWA of 2 ppm for 8
hour period and a STEL of 5 ppm for 15 min. The reduction of the TLV from 2 to 5 ppm was based
on available data and in the opinion of the ACGIH committee, effects below 2 ppm were not serious
enough to justify a lower limit.

196
Chapter 11 Environmental Impact Assessment

11.9 Potential Health Effects of Sulfur Trioxide


Sulfur trioxide is a colorless to white crystalline solid which will fume in air. Often shipped with
inhibitor to prevent polymerization. It reacts violently with water to form sulfuric acid with the
release of heat. It is corrosive to metals and tissues. It causes eye and skin burns. Ingestion causes
severe burns of mouth esophagus and stomach. The vapor is very toxic by inhalation. It is fire risk
when in contact with organic material such as wood, cotton fireboard, etc.

11.10 Inhalation Exposure Limit of SO3


Table 11-1 shows the AEGLs for Sulfur trioxide.
Table 11.1: AEGLs for Sulfur trioxide

Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3

10 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 270 mg/m3

30 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 270 mg/m3

60 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 270 mg/m3

4 hours 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 270 mg/m3

SO2 emit in the air is 2.63 mg/m3 or 1 ppm and SO3 emit in air is 1.92mg/m3 or 0.59 ppm. Both the
emissions are within the range.

197
References
1. (2006). (engro fertilizers) Retrieved from https://www.engrofertilizers.com/our-
company/products/
2. (2013). (fertilizer and syn gas technology) Retrieved from https://www.thyssenkrupp-
industrial-
solutions.com/media/products_services/fertilizer_plants/ammonium_sulphate_plants/2017
-02-15_brochure_ammonium_sulfate_plants_scr.pdf
3. (2014, july 18). (NFDC) Retrieved from http://www.nfdc.gov.pk/stat.html - National
Fertilizer Development Center
4. (2018, july 31). (EPA United States) Retrieved from
https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch08/final/c08s04.pdf%20-
%20Through%20Caprolactam
5. ammonium sulfate safety data sheet. (2009, september 08). (GAC chemical Coorporation)
Retrieved from
http://www.gacchemical.com/image_upload/SDS%20Document%20for%20Ammonium%
20Sulfate%20Crystal.pdf
6. Bergfeld, D. L. (2003, september 04). U.S Gelogical survey. Retrieved from
https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/59f34235e4b013d2e92995fe
7. food and agriculture organization. (2014). (united nation) Retrieved from
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5460e/y5460e07.htm#bm07.1
8. Frangules, P. (1992, april 06). (NPTEL) Retrieved from
https://nptel.ac.in/courses/103106108/Lecture%2040.pdf
9. gardeningknowhow. (2018, April). Retrieved from
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/soil-fertilizers/sulfur-in-plants.htm
10. Halloran, S. (2015, july 25). (IHS market) Retrieved from
https://ihsmarkit.com/products/ammonium-sulfate-chemical-economics-handbook.html
11. ICIS. (2007, november 01). Retrieved from
https://www.icis.com/resources/news/2007/11/01/9075186/caprolactam-production-and-
manufacturing-process/
12. J. J. ROWE, R. 0. (1997). Chemical Analysis of Thermal Waters in Yellowstone National
Park. washington: V. E. McKelvey.
13. munir, d. s. (2016, july 17). (punjab nuniversity) Retrieved from
http://pu.edu.pk/home/department/26/Centre-for-Coal-Technology

198
14. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics gov. pk. (2018). (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics) Retrieved from
http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/all-reports-and-publications
15. Rmeez-profesor, M. A. (2012, july 12). (NPTEL) Retrieved from
https://nptel.ac.in/courses/103107086/module2/lecture7/lecture7.pdf
16. Krik-Othmer ; Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol 12, 4th ed., (Wiley 1991-1998),
164
17. D. M. Himmelblau and J. B. Riggs, “Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering,” Paul Boger. pp. 1–1115, 2004.
18. R. H. Perry and D. W. Green, Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, vol. 1. 2008.
19. D. Q. Kern, “Process Heat Transfer.” 1965.
20. H. Scott Fogler , “Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,” Third Edition
21. H. Silla, Chemical Process Engineering Design And Economics. 2003.
22. R. K. Sinnott, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Design, vol. 6, no. 4. 2005.
23. McCabe, W.L, and Julian C.Smith, unit operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed. 664-
680. (McGraw Hill).
24. C. S. Criteria, “Compressor Selection Criteria Compressor Selection Criteria.”
25. M. S. Peters, K. D. Timmerhaus, and R. E. West, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineers. 1991.
26. D. Seborg, T. Edgar, D. Mellicamp, and F. Doyle III, “Process Dynamics and Control,”
John Wiley Sons, p. 595, 2011.
27. “Chemical_Process_Control_an_Introduction_To_Theory_and_Practice.Pdf.” .
28. George Stephanopoulos, “Chemical Process Control an introduction to theory and practice”
29. https://sciencing.com/carbon-dioxide-affect-environment-8583965.html

199
Appendix A

Figures
Figure A-1: Flow Factor
Figure A-2: Number of Transfer Units
Figure A-3: Pressure Drop Graph

Tables
Table A-1: Size, Bulk density, Surface Area and Packing Factor of packing

200
Appendix A

Figures

Figure A- 1: Flow Factor

Figure A- 2: Number of Transfer Units

201
Appendix A

Figure A- 3: Pressure Drop Calculations

202
Appendix A

Tables
Table A- 1: Size, Bulk density, Surface Area and Packing Factor of packing

203
Appendix B

Figures
Figure B-1: Radiant Section Heat Flux
Figure B-2: Radiation between a plane and one or more tube rows parallel to the plane
Figure B-3: Radiation due to Carbon dioxide
Figure B-4: Radiation due to Water Vapor
Figure B-5: Overall heat exchange factor in radiant section

Tables
Table B-1: Permissible Average Radiant Rate

204
Appendix B

Figures

Figure B- 1: Radiant Section Heat Flux

Figure B- 2: Radiation between a plane and one or more tube rows parallel to the plane

205
Appendix B

Figure B- 3: Radiation due to Carbon dioxide

Figure B- 4: Radiation due to Water Vapor

206
Appendix B

Figure B- 5: Overall heat exchange factor in radiant section

207
Appendix B

Tables
Table B- 1: Permissible Average Radiant Rate

208
Appendix C

Figures
Figure C-1: Shell Side Heat Transfer Curves for bundles with 25% cut segmental baffle
Figure C-2: Shell side friction factor for baffles with 25% cut segmental baffles
Figure C-3: Tube side friction factor
Figure C-4: LMTD correction factor for 1-2 exchangers
Figure C-5: Tube side Heat transfer curves

Tables
Table C-1: Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tube Data

209
Appendix C

Figures

Figure C- 1: Shell Side Heat Transfer Curves for bundles with 25% cut segmental baffle

Figure C- 2: Shell side friction factor for baffles with 25% cut segmental baffles

210
Appendix C

Figure C- 3: Tube side friction factor

Figure C- 4: LMTD correction factor for 1-2 exchangers

211
Appendix C

Figure C- 5: Tube side Heat transfer curves.

212
Appendix C

Tables
Table C- 1: Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tube Data

213
Appendix D

Tables:
Table D-1: Selection of Pump Head

Table D-2: Flow system component pressure drop

Table D-3: Efficiency of Pump


Table D-4: Efficiency of Electric Motor
Table D-5: Horsepower Selection

214
Appendix D

Tables
Table D- 1: Selection of Pump Head

Table D- 2: Flow system component pressure drop

Table D- 3: Efficiency of Pump

215
Appendix D

Table D- 4: Efficiency of Electric Motor

Table D- 5: Horsepower Selection

216
Appendix E

Figures:
Figure E-1: Absorption Tower Purchased Cost
Figure E-2: Cost of Furnace
Figure E-3: Cost of Double pipe Heat Exchanger
Figure E-4: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Cost

Tables:
Table E-1: Purchased Cost of Equipment’s
Table E-2: Cost of Pump and Drivers

217
Appendix E

Figures

Figure E- 1: Absorption Tower Purchased Cost

Figure E- 2: Cost of Furnace

218
Appendix E

Figure E- 3: Cost of Double pipe Heat Exchanger

Figure E- 4: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Cost

219
Appendix E

Tables
Table E- 1: Purchased Cost of Equipment’s

220
Appendix E

Table E- 0: Variable Cost

Table E- 2: Cost of Pump and Drivers

221
Nomenclature

MW Molecular weight [kg/kmol]


N Mole [mol/h]
Y Mole or mass fraction of gas stream
X Mole or mass fraction of liquid stream
P Pressure [atm]
F Feed flow rate [kg/h]
V Flow rate [m3/h]
L Flow rate of liquid [kg/h]
T Temperature [°C]
ΔHvap Latent heat of vaporization [kJ/kg]
Q Heat [kJ]
M Mass flow rate [kg/h]
K Activity coefficient A, heat transfer area (ft2)
B Baffle spacing (ft)
Cp Specific heat (Btu/lb-°F)
Do Outside diameter of tube (inch)
Db Bundle diameter (mm)
De Equivalent diameter (inch)
Di Inside diameter of tube (inch)
Ds Shell diameter (inch)
F Feed flow rate (lb-mol/h)
G Mass flow rate (lb-mol/h)
G Mass velocity (lb/hr-ft2)
Ho Outside fluid film coefficient (Btu/ft2-°F)
Hi Inside fluid film coefficient (Btu/ft2-°F)
k Thermal conductivity (Btu/h-ft-°F)
L Liquid flow rate (lb-mol/h)
LMTD Log mean temperature difference (°F)
ρ Density (lb/ft3)
P0 Operating Temperature (atm)
ρG Gas density (lb/ft3)
ρL Liquid density (lb/ft3)
ppm Parts per million
Psig Gauge pressure (psig)
Q Heat flow rate (Btu/h)
R Heat of reaction (Btu/h)
T Temperature (°F)
T1 Inlet Temperature (°F)
T2 Outlet Temperature (°F)
U Overall heat transfer coefficient (Btu/h-ft-°F)

222
V Vapor flow rate (lb-mol/h)
α Absorption efficiency factor
ΔP Total plate pressure drop (N/m2)
ΔT Temperature gradient (°F)
ʎ Latent heat (Btu/lb)

223