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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

The literature reviewed below examines the popularity of part-time work

amongst students, how employment is affecting students’ performance, time,

and interest in school and how part-time work is affecting the students’ life.

Some of the issues discussed in this research are the impact of part time work

towards academic performance to the Senior High students in Lapasan National

High School.

One important reason why many students combine study and work is that

it provides them with an income, which may help them to satisfy their

consumption aspirations.

According to Jensen (2017), “Children raised in poverty are faced daily

with overwhelming challenges that affluent children never have to confront; and

their brains have adapted to sub-optimal conditions in ways that undermine

good school performance.” This means that poverty affects the performance of

the students in other ways that make the students crave to find a job.

Yanbarisova D.M (2015) says that, “Today, combining academic study with

employment is typical for a wide range of students. There are many reasons why

students choose to work, Either the students wants to help their family in terms

of financial problems in school or whether wants to buy what they want.” The
statement means that having a part time work gives the students an extra money

to support their needs and buy what they want.

As stated by Greenberger (2019), “Students can have a glimpse of their

future job and determine whether they actually like that particular career path.

Also, part-time jobs can help students improve time management skills and

become more efficient.” Having a part time job gives us an advance learning on

what job will we get in the future and also makes us to be flexible in managing

our time since we experienced it already.

Cooper (2018) also said that “As a student, the key to success is

recognising the importance of time management, so you can keep on top of your

studies when work gets busy.” Managing our time plays a big role in our life

especially to those students who have a part-time job, from managing your time

in doing your homework, projects, assignments etc. up to working time.

Momo (2019) also stated that working while studying has a negative effect

on the students, “The part-time job takes the students most of the time after

school. So the students who have a part-time job after school might lose the

chance to make friends, and build up desirable interpersonal relationships. To

keep up the health is important but difficult to the students who have to work

after school due to some reasons.” Having a part-time job gives us a little time to

communicate anymore because we need to catch up to our work after school and

after work we need to do our school work which gives us little time, forgetting to

eat because you need to hurry or else you’ll get late, and also sleeping late to

those students who works on midnight shift.


According to Furr and Elling (2017), “29% of the students working 5-6

hours per week and 39% of those students working full time indicated that work

had a negative and frequent impact on their academic progress.” Sleeping for so

long because you’re body needs more energy which caused us to wake up late

and gets late to school that leads us to poor attendance in our first subject that

affects our academic progress.

But despite having negative effects, it also has benefits on a students , As

reported by Cunha (2018), “Students who hold down part-time jobs will have

more money than they would have otherwise. As they come into adulthood,

earning an income can boost their confidence and allow them to have some fun

within the limits of their paychecks. Some students need to work through school

to afford tuition. Others will set the money aside to pay back student loans. Still,

the money will be theirs to spend as they wish, and they may appreciate it more

because they worked for it.” As stated in the second statement, students’ get

some part-time job to sustain their needs from personal needs up to their

financial needs to school, having a part-time job gives us knowledge on how to

hold control on using our money.

According to Labour Force Survey carried out in the UK, it states that

between 1996 and 2006 the number of students engaged in part-time

employment increased by 50%. According to the Journal of Organizational

Behavior (2019) 50% of the full-time students in the U.S. have a part-time job.
“Young and immature students tend to find it difficult to manage working

hours and study than older students” says (Barone 1993). Therefore, age also

plays an important role in students' decisions.

Ronald D’Amico (2019) states that “Part-time employment provides

opportunities to assume greater responsibility, authority and cooperative

interdependence”. Students who work part-time will develop networking skills;

contacts and references will be valuable for future employment opportunities.

As reported by (Babcock & Marks 2020). They say that, “Students who

are working part-time have the disadvantage in time unlike the non-working

students.” Students who have a part-time job can’t do all their projects and

assignments because they have work to do, unlike the non-working students

that is only focused on doing the following.

In her research Singg (2016) found out that “Students who work part-time

tend to show more responsibility in their daily personal situations and have

greater career maturity than those students who do not work.” It is because non-

working students don’t have enough experience unlike to those students who

have experience on working.

“One reason high-school students and undergraduates used to work was

to earn money to pay for college. But one byproduct of skyrocketing college prices

is that a part-time paycheck pays a smaller proportion of the tuition bill. As a

result, many students find it easier to just take out loans instead of trying to

work to pay for their higher education.” said (Carnevale, 2016). It means having
a part-time job helps you so much, especially in your tuition, it depends to the

company you are in.

(Zeiger, 2015) stated that, “Students who have part-time work receives a

small time to sleep that causes them to be late for school.” Students who are

frequently tardy have lower GPAs, lower scores on standardized assessments,

and lower graduation rates. Chronic tardiness in elementary and middle school

is also linked to failure in high school.

Based in (Katwalia, 2018), she stated that “Some working students cannot

focus on their studies because of their job, especially when they need to study

hard for their exams. Most students fail in their exams because they don't have

time to study after going to work.” This is one reason why students lose their

interest in studying and choose to quit and just focus on their job.