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PROGRAM INTERVENSI SPM 2008 ( KIMIA)

CHAPTER 4 : PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENT


4.1 Periodic Table
o Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged according to their proton number.
o Horizontal rows are called periods.
o Vertical columns are called groups.

4.2 Groups in the Periodic Table


o Specific name of groups:
 Group 1 : Alkali metals
 Group 2 : Alkali earth metals
 Group 3 – 12 : Transition elements
 Group 17 : Halogens
 Group 18 : Noble gases

o Type of substances :
Group Type of substances
1,2 and 13 metals
3 to 12 ( transition elements ) metals
14, 15, 16, 17, 18 non-metals

4.3 To determine the position of elements in the Periodic Table


1. Write the electron arrangement of the element.
2. The number of valence electrons  group
3. The number of shells  period

Example :
Sodium element has a proton number of 11 1 valence electron means
that sodium is in Group 1.
The electron arrangement of a sodium atom = 2.8.1

3 shells means that


sodium is in Period 3.

4.4 Group 18 ( He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn )


o Changes of physical properties when going down group 18( Noble gas).
Properties Changes Explanations
Atomic size increases Because the number of occupied shells increases.
Melting & increase Because
boiling Point i. the atomic size increases when going down the group.
ii. The force of attraction between particles become stronger.
iii. Thus, more heat is needed to overcome the stronger force.
o the gases in group 18 are inert chemically or chemically unreactive and exist as
monoatomic gases because they have stable electron arrangement.

o The uses of noble gases.


Gas uses
Helium To fill weather balloons.
Neon To fill neon light to light up advertisement boards.
Argon To fill electrical bulbs.
4.5 Group 1 ( Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr )
o Physical properties:
 Conduct electricity and heat
 Softer, low melting/ boiling point and less dense compared to other metals.

o Changes of properties when going down group 1( Alkali metals).


Properties Changes Explanations
Atomic size increases Because the number of occupied shells increases.
Melting & boiling decrease Because
Point i. the atomic size increases when going down the group.
ii. The metal bond between atoms become weaker.
iii. Thus, less heat is needed to overcome the weaker bond.

Reactivity increases Because


(Electropositivity— i. The atomic size/radius increases when going down the group.
strength to release ii. The valence electron in the outermost shell becomes further from the
electron) nucleus.
iii. The force of attraction of nucleus on the valance electron become weaker.
iv. The valence electron becomes easier to be released.

o Chemical properties
Chemical properties Chemical equations
Reacts with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide 2 X + 2 H2O  2 XOH + H2
solutions and hydrogen gas.
Burns in oxygen gas to produce white solid metal oxides. 4 X + O2  2 X2O
Burns in chlorine gas to form white solid metal chloride. 2 X + Cl2  2 XCl

X = metals in group 1( Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr )

4.6 Group 17 ( F, Cl, Br, I, At )


o Physical properties ;
 Very low melting and boiling point
 Pungent smell and are poisonous
 Exist as diatomic molecules at room temperature (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, At2)
o Changes of properties when going down group 17( Halogens).
Properties Changes Explanations
Atomic size increases Because the number of occupied shells increases.
Melting & boiling increases Because
Point i. the atomic size increases when going down the group.
ii. The force of attraction between particles become stronger.
iii. Thus, more heat is needed to overcome the stronger force.
Reactivity decreases Because
(Electronegativity i. The atomic size/radius increases when going down the group.
– strength to ii. The outermost shell becomes further from the nucleus.
attract electron) iii. The strength to attract one electron into the outermost shell by the nucleus
becomes weaker.
iv. The tendency to receive an electron decrease.

o Chemical properties
Chemical properties Chemical equations
Reacts with water to produce two acids X2 + H2O ⇔ HX + HOX
Reacts with hot iron to form a brown solid, iron (III) 3 X2 + 2 Fe  2 FeX3
halides
Reacts with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH to form X2 + 2NaOH  NaX + NaOX + H2O
sodium halide, sodium halite (I) and water.
X = halogen ( F, Cl, Br, I, At)
4.7 Period 3 ( Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar )
o Changes of properties across Period 3.
Properties Changes Explanations
Atomic size decreases Because across Period 3
i. All the atoms of elements have 3 shells occupied with electrons.
ii. Proton number increases by one unit from one element to the next element
causes the positive charge of the nucleus to increase.
iii. Nuclei attraction on the electrons of the first 3 shells increases causes the
atomic size to decrease.

Electronegativity increases Because across Period 3


(strength to attract i. The atomic size/radius decreases while the positive charge of the nucleus
electron) increases.
ii. The strength of atom to attract electrons also increases.

o Changes in oxide properties across Period 3 from left to right.


Basic oxide  amphoteric oxide  acidic oxide
Element Sodium Magnesiu Aluminiu Silicon Phosphoru Sulphur Chlorin
m m s e
Acid-base
properties of Base Base amphoteric acid acid acid acid
element oxide
Reaction with √ acid √ acid √ acid X acid X acid X acid X acid
acidic or
alkaline X alkali X alkali √ alkali √ alkali √ alkali √ alkali √ alkali
solution
X = insoluble
√ = soluble

4.8 Transition Elments / metals (Group 3 – Group 12)


o 4 special characteristics of transition elements:
 Form ions which have different oxidation numbers.
 Form coloured ions / compounds.
 Form complex ions.
 Act as catalysts in certain reactions.