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DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING

Project Report

ON

Handwriting Recognition

In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degree

Of

BACHLEOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

Information Technology Engineering

Government Engineering College, AJMER

Submitted To: - Submitted By: -

Mr. Anil Tailor Muzammil Moosani

(Assistant Professor) (15EEAIT032)

Ajit Sahu
(15EEAIT007)
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation report entitled “Handwriting Recognition” submitted to
Department of Information Technology and Engineering, Government Engineering College,
Ajmer, affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of degree “Bachelor of Technology” is the bonafide record of the
work done by Muzammil Moosani (15EEAIT032) & Ajit Sahu (15EEAIT007), under
supervision and guidance.

Mrs. Shikha Gupta Signature & Date

Assistant Professor

Government Engineering College, Ajmer

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PREFACE

In the field of Artificial Intelligence, scientists have made many enhancements that helped a lot
in the development of millions of smart devices. On the other hand, scientists brought a
revolutionary change in the field of image processing and one of the biggest challenges in it is to
identify documents in both printed as well as hand-written formats. One of the most widely used
techniques for the validity of these types of documents is ‘Character Recognition’. Optical
Character Recognition (OCR) is an extensively employed method to transform the data of any
form (handwritten or typed) into electronic format. This data can be used anywhere, in any field,
like database, data analysis, etc. There are millions of techniques introduced now that can be
used to recognize handwriting of any form and language. In the suggested system, we will be
handling the issue of machine reading alphabetical figures. I tried developing such a system that
corresponds to the ability of human beings to identify such characters or symbols. The objective
is to make a system that can classify a given input correctly.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all those people who have been directly and
indirectly with me during the completion of this Project.

We pay thank to Mrs. Shikha Gupta Ma’am who has given guidance and a light to us during this project.
Her versatile knowledge has eased us in the critical times during the span of this project.

We acknowledge here out debt to those who contributed significantly to one or more steps. I take full
responsibility for any remaining sins of omission and commission.

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CONTENTS

S. No Content Page
No.
1. Introduction 7

2. Utilization 8

3. Overview of Machine Learning 9

4. Technical Details of the Project 11

5. Methodology 13

6. UML Diagrams 15

7. Flow Diagrams 17

8. Implementation 18

9. Outcomes of the Project 19

10. Summary and Conclusion 22

11. Future Scope 23

12. Bibliography and References 24

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FIGURE LIST

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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

F1-Logo

The aim of this project is to develop such a tool which takes an image as input and extract
characters (alphabets, digits, symbols) from it. The image can be of handwritten document or
printed document.

Handwritten text is a very general term, and we wanted to narrow down the scope of the project
by specifying the meaning of handwritten text for our purposes. In this project, we took on the
challenge of classifying the image of any handwritten word, which might be of the form of cursive
or block writing. This project can be combined with algorithms that segment the word images in a
given line image, which can in turn be combined with algorithms that segment the line images in a
given image of a whole handwritten page.

Handwriting recognition (HWR) is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible
handwritten input from sources such as paper documents, photographs, touch-screens and other
devices. The image of the written text may be sensed "off line" from a piece of paper by optical
scanning (optical character recognition) or intelligent word recognition.

This project is based on Machine learning, we can provide a lot of data set as an Input to the
software tool which will be recognized by the machine and similar pattern will be taken out from them.

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CHAPTER-2

UTILIZATION

1. Health care: - Doctor’s handwriting and the problems associated with reading their script has been a
major problem in the health care industry.

2. Automotive Industry: -The automotive industry has incorporated HWR in their new cars that have
on-board computers.

3. Consumers: - HWR has been around for years, but the devices that leverage this technology are
starting to reach their tipping point.

4. Education: -The education field has started using HWR technology in their classroom. This has
helped many students to increase their comprehension with handwritten notes and use the latest
technology.

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CHAPTER-3

OVERVIEW OF MACHINE LEARNING

Many people see machine learning as a path to artificial intelligence (AI). But for a data scientist,
statistician, or business user, machine learning can also be a powerful tool for making highly
accurate and actionable predictions about your products, customers, marketing efforts, or any number
of other applications.

Even if you are not technically prepared to create machine learning algorithms, it doesn’t mean you
cannot leverage the power of machine learning. The first step to implementing machine lear ning in
your line of work is to understand why it is valuable. From there, it’s just a matter of training and
iterating until you achieve your desired results.

Machine learning is a subfield of computer science, but is often also referred to as predictive analytics, or
predictive modelling. Its goal and usage is to build new and/or leverage existing algorithms to learn from
data, in order to build generalizable models that give accurate predictions, or to find patterns, particularly
with new and unseen similar data.

F2-Examples of Machine Learning

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Machine Learning Process Overview

Imagine a dataset as a table, where the rows are each observation (aka measurement, data point, etc), and
the columns for each observation represent the features of that observation and their values.

At the outset of a machine learning project, a dataset is usually split into two or three subsets. The
minimum subsets are the training and test datasets, and often an optional third validation dataset is created
as well.

Once these data subsets are created from the primary dataset, a predictive model or classifier is trained
using the training data, and then the model’s predictive accuracy is determined using the test data.

As mentioned, machine learning leverages algorithms to automatically model and find patterns in data,
usually with the goal of predicting some target output or response. These algorithms are heavily based on
statistics and mathematical optimization.

Optimization is the process of finding the smallest or largest value (minima or maxima) of a function, often
referred to as a loss, or cost function in the minimization case. One of the most popular optimization
algorithms used in machine learning is called gradient descent, and another is known as the the normal
equation.

In a nutshell, machine learning is all about automatically learning a highly accurate predictive or classifier
model, or finding unknown patterns in data, by leveraging learning algorithms and optimization techniques.

F3-Process

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CHAPTER-4

TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE PROJECT

ORIGIN OF THE PROPOSAL -


The purpose of this project is to take handwritten English characters as input, process the
character, train the neural network algorithm, to recognize the pattern and modify the character
to a beautified version of the input.

This project is aimed at developing software which will be helpful in recognizing


characters of English language. This project is restricted English characters only. It can be
further developed to recognize the characters of different language. It engulfs the concept of
neural network.

Because handwriting is such a complex skill, there are many children who have difficulty
mastering it. This may cause frustration and distress and affect a child's desire to write.

We have all noticed that doctors’ handwriting can be extremely bad.

We face problems to understand handwriting in daily life. So we want design a Software


which is comfortable and accurate device with speed and easy to use.

DEFINATION OF THE PROBLEM -

Handwriting recognition is the ability of a computer or a mobile device to read handwriting as


actual text. The most common use case in today’s mobile world is handwriting recognition as a direct
input to a touchscreen through a stylus or finger. This is useful as it allows the user to quickly jot down
numbers and names for contacts as compared to inputting the same information via the onscreen
keyboard.

Optical character recognition (OCR) is the most mainstream technique used for handwriting
recognition. This is done by scanning a handwritten document and then converting it into a basic text
document.

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OBJECTIVES-

To provide an easy user interface to input the object image.

User should be able to upload the image.

System should be able to pre-process the given input to supress the background.

System should detect the text regions in the image.

System should retrieve text present in the image and display them to user.

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CHAPTER-5

METHODOLOGY

What is Handwriting Recognition?

Handwriting Detection is a technique or ability of a Computer to receive and interpret


intelligible handwritten input from source such as paper documents, touch screen, photo
graphs etc.

F4-Ways of Recognition

F5-Working

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Types of Recognition:-

1. Online Recognition:-
On-line handwriting recognition involves the automatic conversion of text as
it is written on a special digitizer or PDA, where a sensor picks up the pen-tip
movements as well as pen-up/pen-down switching. That kind of data is
known as digital ink and can be regarded as a dynamic representation of
handwriting. The obtained signal is converted into letter codes which are
usable within computer and text-processing applications. The elements of an
on-line handwriting recognition interface typically include:
1) a pen or stylus for the user to write with.
2) a touch sensitive surface, which may be integrated with, or adjacent to, an
output display.
3) a software application which interprets the movements of the stylus across
the writing surface, translating the resulting strokes into digital text.

2. Offline Recognition:-
Off-line handwriting recognition involves the automatic conversion of text in
an image into letter codes which are usable within computer and text-
processing applications. The data obtained by this form is regarded as a static
representation of handwriting. Off-line handwriting recognition is
comparatively difficult, as different people have different handwriting styles.
And, as of today, OCR engines are primarily focused on machine printed text
and ICR for hand "printed" (written in capital letters) text. There is no
OCR/ICR engine that supports handwriting recognition as of today.

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CHAPTER-6

UML DIAGRAMS

1. Use Case Diagram

F6-Use Case Diagram

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2. Activity Diagram

F7-Activity Diagram

3. Class Diagram

F8-Class Diagram

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CHAPTER-7

FLOW DIAGRAMS

F9-Flow Diagram

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CHAPTER-8

IMPLEMENTATION

1. Pre-processing:-

-processing stage has several tasks to be done:

2. Segmentation:-
An image of the sequence of characters is decomposed into sub-images of individual
character.

F10-After Segmentation

3. Feature Extraction:-
Feature Extraction Based on Character Geometry
lar character.
The feature extraction technique explained was tested using a Neural Network
which was trained with the feature vectors obtained from the system proposed.

4. Classification and recognition:-


Design for the Artificial Neural Network.

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CHAPTER-9

OUTCOMES OF THE PROJECT

To analyse the result of the research, we can look at a number of things: a general
comparison of the algorithms used, analysis of the results of each specific algorithm across the
different datasets, as well as closure look at some of the most frequent errors and confusion
points.

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F11-Start Screen

F12-Output 1

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F13-Output 2

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CHAPTER-10

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

So after all these stuff…


We have a brief Idea about Automatic Handwriting Detection..
1) Online and offline detection is available
2) Online procedure is easier then Offline procedure(difficult one)
3) Today’s business world need some computerized authentication for security
purpose the (AHD) fulfil their need.
4) Handwriting recognition is important for genealogy...
...but it is hard
5) Current methods don't work very well...
...and they don't operate much like the human brain.
The proposed neural network architecture has an ability to classify the
character patterns in some degree. But it shows difficulties during the classification
of unknown samples. Since as a future enhancement, it is expected to improve the
current architecture

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CHAPTER-11

FUTURE SCOPES

Nothing is perfect in this world. So, we are also no exception. Although, we have tried our
best to present the information effectively, yet, there can be further enhancement in the
Application. We have taken care of all the critical aspects, which need to take care of during
the development of the Project. Like the things this project also has some limitations and can
further be enhances by someone, because there are certain drawbacks that do not permit the
system to be 100% accurate.

Future improvements include:-

Increase the number of nodes and layers in ANN.


Make the system more front independent.
Try different recognition algorithms such as HMM(Hidden Markov Model).
Improve the separation of touching characters.
Improve the efficiency of the feature extraction method.
Improve the system to identify any other characters.

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BIBILIOGRAPHY AND REFRENCES

1) Dinesh Deleep. A feature extraction technique based on character geometry for


character recognition.
2) www.abbyy.com/en-apac/finereader/about-ocr/what-is-ocr/
3) www.mathworks.com
4) www.w3Schools.com
5) www.tutorialspoint.com
6) www.stackoverflow.com

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