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Dynamic economic and emission dispatch of large

scale renewable integrated microgrids for varying


loads and seasons

Bishwajit Dey Dr. Biplab Bhattacharyya


Electrical Engineering Department Electrical Engineering Department
Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Indian Institute of Technology (ISM)
Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India
sonu.aec2007@gmail.com biplabrec@yahoo.com

Abstract—Optimal sizing of distributed generation sources for a microgrids. Some of the author uses artificial intelligence (AI)
microgrid is very essential for proper functioning of the microgrid techniques such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm
when minimization of the energy cost and pollutants emission are Optimization (PSO) while other uses the rule-based method and
of prime concern. This paper deals with three different cases of optimal global methods available. [3] uses iterative and AI
cost and emission minimization each for two microgrid test based methods for optimizing a hybrid PV system. Similarly in
systems consisting of fuel cell, micro-turbine, storage devices and [4] and [5] GA finds the optimal configuration of the hybrid
renewable energy sources. A proposed symbiotic organism search system as well as optimizes the operation strategy using each of
algorithm is used as the optimization tool to minimize the the optimal configuration. [6] uses PSO to minimize the
microgrid operating cost and emission abiding by the various
microgrid cost comprising of a micro-turbine fuel cell, PV,
equality and inequality constraints and considering load
wind turbine and battery storage. The forecasted value of PV
uncertainties and market bids. A comparative study is then made
to prove the efficiency of the proposed algorithm with various and wind turbine and also the real time market prices were
other techniques used in literature. considered while minimizing the microgrid cost in [7] and both
emission and microgrid cost in [8]. Likewise, [9] used hybrid
Keywords—Microgrid, dynamic load dispatch, PV, wind, symbiotic fireworks algorithm to minimize both microgrid costs and
organisms search emission consisting of RES effected by real time market price.

I. INTRODUCTION This paper uses a dedicated and powerful Symbiotic


Organisms Search algorithm to minimize the operating cost and
Electric power grid is by far the largest and the most emissions of two test microgrids consisting of PV, Wind
complex innovation of mankind. The upliftment in the quality Turbine, Fuel cell and micro turbine. Section 2 of this paper
of human life and advancement of industrialization is especially discusses the formation of objective functions of the microgrid
because of the modern power system. High voltage alternating including the constraints involved. Section 3 gives a detailed
current (HVAC) transmission of power is used widely due to its knowledge about the Symbiotic organisms search algorithm
efficiency and reliability. Distributed Energy Resources used in the paper. Furthermore section 4 discusses the results
(DERs) like wind and solar are used to generate electric power obtained and a comparative study among the results of other
by integrating them into the utility distribution system [1]. They literatures is made. The paper concludes in section 5.
have many advantages such as energy efficiency, power quality
improvement, reliability and the utilization of transmission and II. ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROBLEM
distribution assets etc.[2]. The microgrid has been developed to FORMULATION
provide bidirectional and controlled power flow to the active
The microgrid considered in this work is a LV grid-
distribution networks.
connected microgrid. It consists of a micro-turbine, a wind
Microgrid comprises of a low voltage system along with turbine, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a PV system.
DERs, storage devices and flexible loads. The DERs such as The overall operating cost of a microgrid comprises of the sum
micro-turbines, fuel cells, renewable energy sources (RES) like of DG fuel costs only. Hence the cost objective function
wind turbines and photo voltaic (PV) system along with storage emphasizes on optimal sizing of power from DG sources. Such
devices such as flywheel, battery, energy capacitor etc. all are objective function can be defined as follows:
used in a microgrid. A microgrid has two modes of operation 24 n

viz. islanded and grid connected mode and hence it is of benefit


Min F(x) =  a P(t )
t =1 k =1
k
2
k + bk P(t ) k + ck (1.1)
to both the grid and customer. The primary microgrid control, 24 n
also known as the coordinated control, is used to optimize the Min E ( x) =  Pk / Grid (t )ek / Grid (t ) (1.2)
allocation of power among DER, cost of producing the energy t =1 k =1

and emission. There are several methods for optimal sizing of where ek / Grid (t ) = CO2k /Grid (t ) + SO2k /Grid (t ) + NOxk /Grid (t )

978-1-5386-4769-1/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE


where k = 1,2,3,….n and t = 1,2,3,…24 are the total number Case 2: Here the renewable sources (WT and PV) delivers
of DG sources and hours of operation respectively. P(t) is the their maximum available power outputs throughout the day
power output of the DG source at tth hour and ak, bk, ck are the whereas the rest of the DG sources including the MT, FC,
fuel cost coefficients of the kth DG source respectively. Eq. (1.2) battery and even the utility operates within their bounded limits.
is the emission objective where ek / Grid (t ) is the emission The significance of this case is to utilize maximum of the
available renewable energy sources and reduce the dependency
coefficient of the DG sources and grid. on the distribution grid (utility) thus helping in selling the
The above mentioned objective function in (1) is bound to excess power to the grid and maintain an economic balance.
some equality and inequality constraints as explained below: Case 3: The utility in this case is made unconstrained. In
other words all the DG sources shall be operating in their
A. Generation Limit maximum and minimum limits whereas the utility is allowed to
The hourly power outputs of all the DG sources including exchange any amount of power with the microgrid. This case is
the storage device and utility should lie between its maximum also known as “Infinite Energy Exchange”.
and minimum limits. The proposed SOS-based approach is implemented to find
the optimal sizing of the DG sources in all the three different
P k / Grid ,min (t ) ≤ Pk / Grid (t ) ≤ Pk / Grid ,max (2) cases.
III. SYMBIOTIC ORGANISMS SEARCH
Where Pk,min(t) are the minimum output powers and Pk,max(t) Symbiotic organisms search (SOS) is a relatively new,
are the maximum output powers of the DG sources at the tth powerful and meta-heuristic algorithm applied to optimize
hour respectively. many mathematical and engineering problems [10]. It works by
simulating the symbiotic strategies acquired by the organisms
B. Storage device limits
among themselves to survive and sustain in the ecosystem.
The charge and discharge rates of storage device of test system Almost all the meta-heuristic algorithms available in the
2 for each time interval are limited as follows literature share some common characteristics such as: they are
inspired from the nature, make use of random variables and they
1 make use of several parameters that need to be adjusted to the
Wess,t = Wess ,t −1 + η ch arg e Pch arg e Δt − Pdisch arg e Δt
η disch arg e problem. The fact that SOS doesn’t require any algorithm
(3)
specific tuning parameters makes it superior to many other
Wess ,min ≤ Wess ,t ≤ Wess ,max meta-heuristic algorithms. Symbiotic relationships provide at
 least one of the participating species with a nutritional
 Pch arg e ,t ≤ Pch arg e , max advantage. The symbiotic relationships that are found in nature
 are of three types, viz. mutualism, commensalism and
 Pdisch arg e ,t ≤ Pdisch arg e ,max (4) parasitism. These three relationships are mathematically
speculated and the SOS algorithm is developed as a result.
Where Wess,t and Wess,t-1 are the energy stored in the battery at tth
and (t-1)th hour respectively. Pcharge and Pdischarge are the Mutualism phase: In the mutualism phase of SOS, both the
allowable rate of charge and discharge during a definite period species involved are benefitted. One common example is the
say ∆t. The suffix ‘min’ and ‘max’ denotes the minimum and relationship between honey bees and flowers. This phase can be
maximum of the respective parameter. mathematically developed by the following equations:
C. Power Supply-Demand Balance Equation
Xi + X j
The total generation of power from the DGs in the microgrid Mutual_Vector= (6)
during every hour including the RES must fulfill the total load 2
demand of the grid. Transmission losses are neglected as the X inew = X i + rand(0,1) * ( X best − Mutual_ Vector* BF1 ) (7)
microgrid considered is a small LV one. Therefore X jnew = X j + rand (0,1) * ( X best − Mutual _ Vector * BF2 ) (8)
n where Xi is an organism of the ith member of the ecosystem and
P
k =1
k / Grid (t ) + PPV (t ) + PWT (t ) = Pload (t ) (5)
Xj is randomly selected from the ecosystem to interact with Xi.
rand(0,1) denote a vector of random numbers. BF1 and BF2
Three different cases for two different microgrid test denote the benefit factors and are kept either at 1 or 2.
systems are studied to exploit the availability and the Mutual_Vector represents the mutual relation between the
dependency on the renewable energy sources that are acting as organisms Xi an Xj.
DG sources for the microgrid. For microgrid test system 1,
these cases are nothing but the variation of load demand for Commensalism phase: Commensalism is a relationship
three different seasons viz. winter, summer and spring. The existing in nature between individual of two species where one
variation in the power generation of the RES were also species gather its food or other benefits from the other without
considered for these seasons. For microgrid test system 2, the harming or benefitting the latter. Similar to the mutualism
three cases are described as below: phase, Xj is selected randomly to interact with Xi and a new
Case 1: In this case it is taken into consideration that all of organism Xinew can be calculated as:
the DG sources including the storage device and the utility
operates within their maximum and minimum limits to satisfy X inew = X i + rand (−1,1)*( X best − X j )
(9)
the load demand throughout each hour of the day.
Where (Xbest – Xj) portrays the beneficial advantage Step 5: Parasitism phase: Organism Xj (Xj≠Xi) is randomly
provided by Xj to help Xi increasing its survival advantage in selected from the ecosystem. Parasite_Vector is formed by
ecosystem to the highest degree Xbest in current organism. mutating Xi in random dimensions using a random number
within a given range. Constraint checking is done and fitness
Parasitism phase: Parasitism is the name given to the value is calculated. If Parasite_Vector is found better than the
relationship between two organisms in the ecosystem where previously calculated fitness value, then the previous fitness
one is harmed and the other gets benefitted. The organism that value is replaced with the Parasite_Vector else the
gets benefitted is called ‘parasite’ and the one that faces the Parasite_Vector is rejected and we proceed to the next step.
harm is called the ‘host’.
In SOS, Xj is selected randomly to act as the host. Step 6: We proceed to step 2 if the current Xi is not the last
Parasite_Vector is an artificial organism created in the search member of the ecosystem; otherwise we proceed to the next
space. If fitness value of Parasite_Vector is better than Xj, it step.
will replace organism Xj. And if the fitness value of Xj is better, Step 7: We stop if one of the termination criteria i.e. the
it will have immunity and the Parasite_Vector will no longer maximum number of iterations is reached; otherwise we return
survive in that ecosystem. to step 2 and start the next iteration

The algorithm for optimal power management and sizing of IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
DG sources with SOS are summarized as follows:- Description of the system: A strong and powerful Symbiotic
Step 1: Formation of Ecosystem – The parameters organisms search is used to evaluate its performance in optimal
considered for microgrid energy management include fuel cost- sizing of a microgrid and minimize its operating cost. The
coefficients of generators, power generation limits, power microgrid considered in this work is a LV islanded microgrid.
demand of various types of loads and limits of forecasted wind The microgrid test system 1 consists of three micro-turbines, a
power. Also the size of ecosystem i.e. the total number of wind turbine, fifteen proton exchange membrane fuel cells and
organisms in the ecosystem (eco_size) and maximum iteration a PV system. The time span for calculating the optimal sizing
(max_iter) is set in this step. is considered to be 24 hours. The complete system data which
includes the maximum and minimum capacity of the DGs, their
Step 2: The particles of the population is initialized in a fuel cost coefficients, load demand profile for 24 hours for
random manner according to the limits of each unit including various seasons and the RES output for those seasons are
individual dimensions. These initial particles must be feasible
gathered from [12]. MATLAB R2013a platform is used to code
candidate solutions that satisfy the practical operating
constraints. Let Vi be the trial vector designating the ith particle and execute the algorithm in a personal computer with 2.53GHz
of the initial population where Vi consists the power outputs of core i3 processor and 2GB RAM. The program is run with 30
micro-turbine, fuel cell, photo voltaic array and wind turbine population and 1000 iterations for 20 trials. The weightage
for 24 hours respectively. Hence Pi can be represented as factor (f_weight) is set at 0.7 and crossover probability constant
Vi=[Pk1, Pk2, Pk3….Pk24]; (f_cr) is set at 0.2 for the DE algorithm.
Now for k number of DG sources and m number of particles The microgrid test system 2 is a LV grid connected
i varies from i=1, 2, 3….m. Hence the population matrix can be microgrid consisting of MT, FC, PV, WT and a battery as
represented by equation (8) storage device. The system data which includes the DG
V = [ P1 , P2 , P3 ...Pm ]T (10) parameters, load demand and the real time market price are
taken from [7]. The personal computer configuration and the
Step 3: Mutualism phase: Here i is initially set at 1, organism tuning parameters of DE algorithm were maintained the same
X1 is matched to Xi and organism Xj is formed randomly from as of microgrid test system 1. The program is run with 30
the ecosystem. In this case, X2 is selected as Xj. Mutual_Vector population and 1500 iterations for 20 trials.
is calculated using (4). Benefit Factors (BF1 and BF2) are set Comparative Analysis:
at 2. Organism Xi and Xj are modified based on their mutual For Microgrid Test system 1: The optimal sizing of the DG
relationship using (5) and (6) and the constraints checking is sources is done to give a minimized microgrid cost for all the
done. Once it is found that Xi and Xj abides by the constraints, three seasons using a proposed SOS method. The costs are then
the fitness value is then accounted for, which if found better compared with three other algorithms such as Genetic
than the initial fitness value, we go to next step else we reject Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization and Differential
the modified organism and proceed to next step with the initial Evolution with local global neighborhood [11]. Table 1 does the
solution. detailed comparative analysis of the fuel costs obtained using
Step 4: Commensalism phase: Organism Xj (Xj≠Xi) is generated the four algorithms. It also highlights the statistical analysis of
from the ecosystem on random basis. New candidate solutions the algorithms and the computational time taken to obtain the
Xi,new are calculated using (7). Constraint checking is done and optimum value. It can be clearly seen that for all the three
fitness value is calculated. Like the previous step, if fitness seasons SOS yielded the least fuel costs. The fuel costs of the
value of the modified organism in this step is better than the DG sources was $6783.0102 in winter as evaluated by SOS.
previous value then we go to the next step else the modified This price is pretty less compared to $6799.4304 by GA,
organism is rejected and the previous solution is kept and $6790.0648 by PSO and $6787.8858 by DEGL. For summer
proceeded to the next step. too, SOS minimized the fuel cost to as low as $6836.8722
compared to $6878.7290 by GA, $6854.2558 by PSO and
$6841.5104 by SOS. Likewise the fuel costs for the loads and
RES of spring season was minimized by SOS to a low value of
$5924.3871. This value was much better than $5947.4138 by
GA, $5943.3537 by PSO and $5930.0844 by SOS. Figure 1, 2
and 3 shows the convergence characteristics of the proposed
SOS method along with the other algorithms used. The
steepness of the curves in the figures, the lowest values of
standard deviation and the decreasing order of computational
time for 1000 iterations in Table 2 clearly indicate about the fast
convergence criteria and robustness of the proposed algorithm
to attain such a minimal value.
For Microgrid Test system 2: Three optimization techniques
viz. DE, DEGL & SOS were implemented to minimize the
emission objective for microgrid test system 2. The
optimization techniques were run for 1500 iterations each to
match with the literature for comparative analysis. Table 2
gives a detailed statistical and comparative analysis for the Fig 2: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid fuel costs in
summer
minimized emission objective along with various algorithms
from literature. It can be clearly seen that for all the three cases
SOS yielded the least emission of pollutants among all the
algorithms used so far. The least value of standard deviation
from table 2 along with simulation time shows the fast
convergence property of SOS compared to DE and DEGL. SOS
gave the minimized result 18 to 19 times out of 20 trials thus
increasing its robustness to 90-95%. Figure 4 through 6 shows
the convergence characteristics of the emission objective for all
the three cases. Figure 7 through 9 are the hourly outputs of the
DG sources for the emission objective using SOS.

Fig 3: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid fuel costs in spring

TABLE 1: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROGRID COST


Best Solution

No. of hits to
optimum
Time (in
Solution
Average

secs) for

solution
Method

Worst
(in $)

(in $)

(in $)

1000
S.D

Winter
GA 6799.4304 6800.3939 6801.3574 1.36 301 17
PSO 6790.0548 6791.0279 6792.0011 1.37 287 17
DEGL 6787.8858 6788.0025 6788.1193 0.16 254 18
Fig 1: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid fuel costs in winter SOS 6783.0102 6783.5054 6784.0006 0.70 251 19
Summer
GA 6878.7290 6880.0482 6881.3674 1.86 300 16
PSO 6854.2558 6854.7347 6855.2137 0.67 289 19
DEGL 6841.5104 6841.7924 6842.0744 0.39 253 18
SOS 6836.8722 6836.9354 6836.9987 0.08 249 20
Spring
GA 5947.4138 5947.7079 5948.0021 0.41 297 18
PSO 5943.3537 5943.6685 5943.9834 0.44 293 17
DEGL 5930.0844 5930.5995 5931.1147 0.72 246 19
SOS 5924.3871 5924.5284 5924.6698 0.19 219 19
Fig 4: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid emission (Case 1) Fig 7: Hourly outputs of DGs for emission objective using SOS (Case 1)

Fig 5: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid emission (Case 2) Fig 8: Hourly outputs of DGs for emission objective using SOS (Case 2)

Fig 6: Convergence characteristics of minimal micro grid emission (Case 3) Fig 9: Hourly outputs of DGs for emission objective using SOS (Case 3)
TABLE 2: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROGRID EMISSION emissions with varying loads and RES outputs throughout the
seasons. The results obtained are then compared to a few other

secs/1000
optimization algorithms found in the literature and SOS

iteration
Solution

Solution
Average
Method

(in kg.)

(in kg.)

(in kg.)
Worst
Best

S.D

No. of
outperformed them all. Due to its better computational speed

hits
and exploitability SOS can therefore be considered as one of the
Case 1 strongest optimization tool to solve various power system and
GA [7] 435.2363 445.3862 457.4680 14.2299 - - microgrid problem.
PSO [7] 4358227 445.1072 454.5917 13.9708 - -
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