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PREFACE

The TOEFL textbook, one of the compulsory textbooks published only for the students of The
State Vocational High School 8 Malang, was written based on the original ones, either commonly-tested
materials or model of questions. Other literatures which are dealing with and supporting the subjects
were also considerably used.

Since this TOEFL book is specially presented for the 5th semester students and expected to be a
supplement English text book for learning general English in either grammar or stucture, the book only
discusses two major topics. They are dependent/independent clauses and the relationship between
adjective clause or adverbial clause and participle. The other of two supporting chapters are such
enrichments or review/test that either the students or the teacher can hopefully improve their skill in
mastering English.

Of course, this TOEFL book still needs constructive suggestion, proposed idea and the like. The
best hope this TOEFL book could be very useful and helpful for both us and our students due to its
simplicity and practicality as reference. Thanks.

Malang, May 2012

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CONTENTS

PREFACE

CHAPTER ONE:
DEPENDENT and INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
LESSON 1 : ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
1.1.1 Using Subject Pronouns: who; which; that.
1.1.2 Using Object Pronouns: whom; which; that.
1.1.3 Using Possessive Pronouns: whose

LESSON 2 : NOUN CLAUSE


1.2.1 Noun Clauses which begin with a question word
1.2.2 Noun Clauses which begin with whether or if
1.2.3 Noun Clauses which begin with That

LESSON 3 : ADVERBIAL CLAUSE


1.3.1 Adverbial Clauses showing time relationships
1.3.2 Adverbial Clauses showing cause and effect relationships
1.3.3 Other ways of showing cause and effect relationships
(using such … that and so … that)

LISTENING CORNER

CHAPTER TWO:
PARTICIPLE
2.1 PARTICIPLE AS AN ADJECTIVE
2.2 CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE
2.2.1 NON PARTICIPLE
2.2.1 Changing Time Clauses to Modifying Phrases

2.2.2 PARTICIPLE
2.2.2.1 Expressing The idea of ‘during the same time’ in
Modifying Phrases
2.2.2.2 Expressing ‘Cause and Effect Relationship’ in
Modifying Phrases

CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW

CHAPTER FOUR: MODEL TEST TOEFL 1

CHAPTER FIVE: MODEL TEST TOEFL 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter one:

DEPENDENT and INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

INTRODUCTION

Clause : A group of words containing a subject and a verb.

Independent Clause : A complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a
sentence.
Dependent Clause : An incomplete sentence, so it must be connected to an
independent clause.
Adjective Clause : A dependent clause which modifies noun. It functions to
describe, identify, or give further information about a noun. An
adjective clause is also called a relative clause.
Noun : It is used as a subject, an object or a complement.

Noun Clause : A dependent clause which is used as a subject, an object and a


complement. In other words, a noun clause is used in the same ways
as a noun.
Adverbial Clause : A dependent clause which modifies a sentence thoroughly. It is
usually introduced by the use of particular conjunctions.

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LESSON 1:
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

 It is also called “A Relative Clause”; regarding to the use of “Relative Pronouns” such as Who;
Whom; Whose; Which; and That preceding the clause.

 PATTERNS
1.1.1 USING SUBJECT PRONOUNS: WHO, WHICH, THAT

I helped the woman. Note :


She was in trouble.  I helped the woman = an independent
↓ clause
(a) I helped the woman who was in trouble.  who was in trouble = an adjective clause

(b) I helped the woman that was in trouble.  The adjective clause modifies the noun
“woman”.
 In (a) and (b): Both “who” and “that” are
the subject of the adjective clause and have
the same meaning

My motorcycle is black.
It is parked there.  who = used for people

(a) My motorcycle which is parked there is  which = used for things
black.
 that = used for both people and things
(b) My motorcycle that is parked there is
black.

 Task 1.
Combine the two sentences below. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause.

1. I visited my friend last night.


He was hospitalized at ‘Lavalette’.

2. The girls look very happy.


They have been accepted at Panasonic.

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3. My father has just bought a new car
It has more variations than ours before.

4. I have got a limited edition of English textbook .


It costs quite expensive.

5. I am very fond of caring orchid.


It needs special treatment to grow and blossom well.

 Task 2.
Fill in the blank in each sentence properly using relative pronoun “who” or “which”.

1. I really enjoy my job because I like the people … work there.


2. The hotels … are expensive have few guests.
3. The man … lives next door has been suspected for his being involved in corruption affair.
4. The name of river … passes through Malang town is ‘Kali Brantas’.
5. I like “murai” … always sings on the tree every morning.
6. I have ever read The Sun Also Rises, … was written by Ernest Hemingway.
7. Bali, … is very well-known as Dewata Island, offers many splendid tourism spots.
8. The geologists … lectured at Gadjah Mada University last week predicted that would be another
earthquake.
9. The local government always warns people … live along river bank not to swim at the river …
has already been polluted because it is not safe for swimming.
10. Only the graduates … are able to speak both English and Mandarin should be qualified for the
job advertised on Jawa Pos.

USING OBJECT PRONOUNS: WHOM, WHICH, THAT

(Pronoun used as the object of a verb) Note :


 I helped the man = an independent clause
 whom you know well = an adjective
clause
I helped the man.  The adjective clause modifies the noun
You know him well. “man”.
┌──────┘  General guideline: Place an adjective clause
(a) I helped the man whom you know well. pronoun as close as possible to the noun it
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(b) I helped the man that you know well. modifies.
(c) I helped the man you know well.  In (a) and (b): Both “whom” and “that”
are the subject of he adjective clause and
have the same meaning.
 In (c) and (e): an object pronoun (whom,
which, that) is often omitted from an
adjective clause.

My motorcycle looks very clean.


I washed it this morning.
 whom = used for people
(c) My motorcycle which I washed this
morning looks very clean.  which = used for things
(d) My motorcycle that I washed this
morning looks very clean.
 that = used for both people and things
(e) My motorcycle I washed this
morning looks very clean.

 Task 3.
Combine the two sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the
possible patterns.

1. The seminar was very interesting.


I attended it yesterday.

2. The new neighbors are very nice.


My parents sometime invite them for having dinner together.

3. Violence and revenge are always found at Mandarine movies.


Some private TV stations in Indonesia still provide them.

4. Ms. Dona has taught us ITE since 2008.


Every student likes her so much.

5. Orang Utan becomes one of the threatened species in Indonesia.


The Malaysia company often killed them for their benefit.

 Task 4.
Fill in the blank in each sentence properly using relative pronoun “whom” or “which”.

1. My son looked very happy when I gave him a new handphone … I bought yesterday.
2. The young man … the guest wanted to see is a new manager of our department.
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3. Do you mean that it is the book … you showed me last night ? I really want to read it now.
4. The boy … I thought to become my good friend, stole my Michael Jackson cassette.
5. Do you remember the girl … we met at Carrefour this morning ? She is Mr. Cho’s daughter.
6. Mary is a very helpful girl … I always ask for giving suggestion.
7. We do not succeed in finding something … we want to buy in that shop for my mother’s gift on
her birthday next week.
8. The lady … we expected to help us solve our problem hasn’t come in yet.
9. The pictures of my mother … I took last year are still well-kept in my family album.
10. Trees … the students planted at the school yard when there was celebration of ‘The Earth Day”
are in bloom now.

(Pronoun used as the object of a


prepositions) Note :

I helped the man.  In very formal English, the preposition


I told you about him comes at the beginning of the adjective
┌───────┘ clause, as in (f) and (i).
(f) I helped the man about whom I told you.  Usually, however, in everyday use, the
(g) I helped the man that I told you about. preposition comes after the subject and
(h) I helped the man I told you about.
verb of the adjective clause, as in the other
examples (g).

The music is good.  If the preposition comes at the beginning of


We always listen to it. the adjective clause, only ‘whom’ or
┌───────┘ ‘which’ may be preceded.
(i) The music to which we always listen is good.
(j) The music that we always listen to is  In (e) and (k) : an object pronouns (whom,
good. which, that) is often omitted
(k) The music we always listen to is from an adjective clause.
good.

 Task 5.
Combine the two sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the
possible patterns.

1. Pak Bakri is a very well-known person due to his good care on the poor.
I have ever talked to him recently.

2. I must thank my parents for their bearing me.


I have got great love and nurture from them.
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3. Those pictures look very beautiful.
Our living room is decorated with them.

4. Most of the senior employees are all very helpful.


I work with them at Indomarine company.

5. Every visitor has to show their ticket.


They cannot enter the Madame museum without it.

(Quantitative adjective preceeding relative pronoun


‘Whom / Which’)

The twenty students of STAVOCHEMA


prefer staying at boarding house. Note:
Most of them are from Dampit.
 Relative pronoun ‘whom’ can be
preceded by a quantitative adjective
(l) The twenty students of STAVOCHEMA, most of word, as in (l), as well as relative
whom are from Dampit, prefer staying at boarding pronoun ‘which’ describe a subject (n)
house . or an object of main clause (m).

My little sister prefers to collect romance


novel.  Pronoun ‘them’ can refer to both
A few of them are written by Mahesa Ayu. person and imperson object (m). But
for person, relative pronoun as subject
(l) should be “who”. In this case, the
use of “whom” because of its
(m) My little sister prefers to collect romance novel, a equivalence to pronoun “them”.
few of which are written by Mahesa Ayu

Michael’s shoes are on the auction.


Most of them are made of snake’s leather.

(n) Michael’s shoes, most of which are made of


snake’s leather, are on the auction.

 Task 6.
Combine the two sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the
possible patterns.

1. The worse traffic jam in Malang now is greatly caused by vehicles.


Many of them are motor cycles made in Japan.

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2. Some patients suffered from lung cancer.
None of them could stop their smoking while they were healthy.

3. The seminar was attended by groups of English teacher.


Most of them are teaching high school students.

4. My relatives spend their holiday visitig Jatim Park I in Batu.


Most of them speak in Maduranese.

5. The children’s programs on TV are very interesting to watch.


One of them is Sponge Bob.

1.1.2 USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: WHOSE

Note :
 I helped the man = an independent clause.

I helped the man.  whose house was burnt down in (a) and
His house was burnt down. whose report I typed in (b) = an
└─┐ adjective clause.
(a) I helped the man whose house was burnt
down.  The adjective clause modifies the noun
“man”.
I helped the man.
I typed his report.  My motorcycle is black = an independent
┌┘ clause.
(b) I helped the man whose report I typed.
 In (c); whose tires are all new = an
My motorcycle is black. adjective clause.
Its tires are all new.
 The adjective clause modifies the noun
(c) My motorcycle whose tires are all new is “motorcycle”.
black.
General guideline:
 Whose is used to show possession. It
carries the same meaning as other
possessive pronouns: his, her, their, and
its.

 Whose usually modifies both “people” and


“thing”.

 Whose always followed by noun” (house;


report; tires) in examples is placed at the
beginning of the adjective clause.

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 Task 7.
Combine the two sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the
possible patterns.

1. I apologized to the woman.


I spilled her coffee accidentally at cafe.

2. Mr. Browmann called the fireman department.


His office was on fire.

3. I live in a very lovely neigbourhood.


Its residents come from many towns.

4. Mr. Arthuro teaches the students of bilingual class.


Their native language is Spanish.

5. That man is my lecturer when I attended at university.


His son died in the traffic accident last night.

 Task 8. REVIEW
A. Choose the best answer to complete the following parentheses.

1. I do not know that the man … I telephoned last night moved out to another town.
a. which c. who
b. whom d. whose

2. The letter … I wrote to him hasn’t arrived yet though it was sent two weeks ago.
a. which c. to whom
b. who d. whom

3. A nice old man … reminded me of my father came up and spoke to me wisely.


a. which c. who
b. from which d. whose

4. Our teacher showed us the way of being a successful students … we still cannot understand.
a. whom c. which
b. whose d. about which

5. Do you know a little kiosk … is situated at the corner ? That is my uncle’s.


a. to which c. that
b. whom d. whose

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6. We have ever had a table … legs are three, but it was stolen some years ago.
a. which c. that
b. whose. d. whom

7. The students … always perform undisciplined or bad manner while they are at school can be
tolerable, or must get punishment.
a. who c. whom
b. that d. whose

8. The man … usually works together with Mrs. Jono is an outstanding pediatrician in my town.
a. who c. to whom
b. which d. from which

9. The function of the building … is strongly standing up on Black Street is changed to be an


internationally standardized school.
a. which c. whose
b. about which d. who

10. It was a surprise when I was called by one of my old friends … I hadn’t kept in touch for years.
a. whom c. which
b. that d. whose

11. I introduced my brother to Mary, … father is his academic supervisor at his campuss.
a. that c. whose
b. which d. whom

12. The information … you sent me this morning is very helpful to reveal the mystery. It is a must
for me to thank you.
a. whom c. whose
b. that d. to which

13. Miss Grace, … you have got music lesson will get married soon with her senior.
a. that c. from whom
b. which d. who

14. Sort of merchandise … we have already paid have not arrived at my office yet.
a. for which c. whom
b. which d. that

15. The lady … I introduced you at the wedding party of our beloved teacher last night is my aunt.
a. which c. that
b. to whom d. whose
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16. Mother kept on eye to find the knife … she usually cuts dragon fruit.
a. whose c. that
b. which d. with which

17. The singing contest articipants, ... will be selected to enter the grand final are now waiting for
the jury’s decision.
a. Whom of five only c. five only of that
b. five of them only d. only five of them

18. Will you call the waiter … usually serves this table, please ? I would like to see him right away.
a. which c. who
b. whom d. whose

19. Anto : Who are you looking for, Ronny ?


Ronny : I want to meet the participant … won the Final Grand Prix contest.
a. which c. whom
b. who d. by whom

20. Tom’s father … health hasn’t been so good lately, is in hospital now.
a. that c. who
b. whose d. whom

21. These tourists, ... are Japanese, were among the crowd participating in the ‘dangdut’ dance.
a. there are many c. many of whom
b. many of them d. whose many

22. Maryam : You look troubled. What’s the matter ?


Belda : The academic counselor ... told me that unless I get at least B for applied science, I
won’t be able to graduate this year.
a. which I spoke to c. that I spoke
b. to whose I spoke d. whom I spoke to

23. ‘Are you going to send the letter by regular mail ?’


‘No. I have to give it irectly to the person ... this letter is addressed’.
a. with whom c. of whom
b. from whom d. to whom

24. The eyewitness ... the accused greatly depended to prove his innocence in the murder case
suddenly died of a heart attack.
a. on whom c. whose
b. of which d. that
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25. Bintang : Whom did you invite to this seminar ?
Wahyu : A special author … novel you are eager to get.
a. whose c. whom
b. which d. that

B. Find and correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. Sony : Do you like the Professor that teaches Chemistry 101 ?


A B
Bertha : Not really, but I’m very fond of his daughter whose has good sense of humor.
C D

2. I was introduced to a very nice girl from which I got many things that I haven’t known yet.
A B C D

3. Shakira : Could you tell me who that new student is ?


A
Brenda : Sadly, I have to tell you that his parents whom have worked for the most
B C
prestigious company in Indonesia for years died in the air plane crash.
D

4. Teenager delinquency about whom the parents complain about is still growing up rapidly in
A B C
every metro city.
D

5. Amry : Did you find the book for which you are looking ?
A B
Aisyah : No, I didn’t. Perhaps I can find another one which our supervisor also asked me to
C
get it soon.
D

6. Most of the mayor candidates can show their ability in coping the problems who effects have
A B C D
already deeply-rooted in people life.

7. Experts whose study dreams feel that they are related to the deep wishes and fears of the
A B C
dreamer.
D

8. Bonds, who were sold by the U.S. government to finance both world wars, are still an
A B C
important money-raising device.
D

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9. Vegetarians whom drink no alcohol and do not smoke live longer than the general ones.
A B C D

10. Survey shows that consumers who spend more money on automobiles than on furniture
A B C D
and household equipment.

11. The thief whom stole my watch long ago was compelled to restoring it back again.
A B C D

12. The patient whom the physician diagnosed with cancer left hospital suddenly without telling
A B C
to any nurses whose were on duty at that time.
D

13. It was her which suggested that the drama Timun Emas should be changed into Bawang
A B
Merah Bawang Putih, so that she could get a role for herself.
C D

14. Dr. Yunindra, the first woman who is elected president of the college, was intelligent,
A B
capable, and aware of the problems to be solved.
C D

15. You can apply for a scholarship to the British embassy where provides many either at the
A B C
beginning or at the end of the semester.
D

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LESSON 2:
NOUN CLAUSE

 The following words are usually used to introduce noun clause :


(1) Question Words :
When Who
Where Whom
Why Whose
What How
Which
(2) Conjunction :
Whether / If  replace ‘auxiliary verbs’ as Yes/No question words
(3) That

 Noun Clause , in complex sentence or complex-compound sentence, may be found as Subject,


Object and even Complement.
Examples : a) What you have done to your life made your parents disappointed.
( Noun clause as Subject ) Verb Object complement

b) The teacher tried to explain why we have to collect data for our presentation.
S Verb + to V1 (Noun clause as Object of verb)

c) Here is what you are looking for.


S V (Noun clause as Complement)

 PATTERNS

 In (a): novel is a noun, used as the


subject of the sentence.

(a) Mary’s novel is very interesting  In (b): What Mary is reading or What
Mary has written is an extension of a
(b) What Mary is reading is very interesting noun ‘novel’ into a noun clause, used as
(What Mary has written) the subject of the sentence. The noun
clause has its own subject (Mary) and
verb (is reading) which is preceded by the
use of a question word “what” as a
marker of noun clause.

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(c) I want to borrow Mary’s novel.  In (c): novel is a noun, used as the object
of the verb borrow.
(d) I want to borrow what Mary is reading.
(What Mary has written)  In (d): what Mary is reading or what
Mary has written is a noun clause, as
object of the verb borrow.

1.2.1. NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGIN WITH A QUESTION WORD

QUESTION NOUN CLAUSE  In (a) or (b); Question words


function as conjunction connecting
Where does she live ? (a) I don’t know where she lives between independent clause and
What did he say ? (b) I couldn’t hear what he said dependent clause.
 Like a conjunction, A question
word is directly followed by subject
preceding the verb. Do not use
question word order in a noun
clause.

 In (c); (d) and (e); the word order is


Who lives there ? (c) I don’t know who lives there. the same as in both question and the
S V S V noun clause because “who” is the
Who is at the door ? (d) I wonder who is at the door. subject for people in that clause, as
What happened ? (e) Please tell me what happened. well as “what” for things.

Who is she ? (f) I don’t know who she is.  In (f): She is the subject of the
V S S V question, as well as those boys (g)
Who are those boys ? (g) I don’t know who those boys are. and that (h), so it is placed in front
Whose car is that ? (h) I wonder whose car that is. of the verb be in the noun clause.

 In (i): The noun clause what we


What should we do ? (i) What we should do is not clear. should do is the subject of the
sentence. A noun clause subject
What should we do and (j) What we should do and how we takes a singular verb.
how can we deal with can deal with this matter are
this matter ? not clear.  In (j): If there are two noun clauses
as the subject of the sentence, like
noun, it takes a plural verb.

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 Task 1.
Change the question in parentheses to a noun clause construction !

1. (Who is coming to the inauguration of train service next week?)


I don’t know ... .

2. (When are your parents coming from pilgrimate ?).


Do you know ... .

3. (Where did you go on last weekend ?).


Please tell me ,,, .

4. (What are you talking about ?)


………….. attracts me to hear.

5. (Which one do you want to choose from these three models ?)


I wonder … .
.
6. (Where is the nearest ATM from here ?)
Could you show me ... ?

7. (Where did Andrea and Louis go after class yesterday ?)


I don’t know ... .

8. (Who is the mayor of Malang regency now?)


Only eighty percent of Malang residents know ... .

9. (How old does a person have the right to cast a vote in the general election ?)
Most of us wanted to know ….

10. (What issue did Luna and Ariel make on cyber zone ?)
... made the world surprised.

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1.2.2. NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGIN WITH WHETHER OR IF

YES/NO NOUN CLAUSE  When a yes/no question


QUESTION sentence is changed into a
noun clause, whether or if is
Do you live here ? (a) I don’t know whether you live used to introduce the noun
here. clause.
(b) I don’ know if you live here.
 Whether is more acceptable
Can you be on time ? (c) Whether you can be on time or
not is not certain. in formal English, while if is
(d) If you can be on time or not is quite commonly used in
not certain speaking.

 In (c) and (d); notice the


patterns “or not” is used. .

 Task 2.
Change the question in parentheses to a noun clause.

1. (Did you enjoy your trip with family ?)


I want to know … .

2. (Have you already visited Anton in hospital ?)


I wonder ... .

3. (Could you ask your mother for allowing you to join the scout weekend
camping ?)
I wonder … .

4. (Is Sheila sick only because of eating “rujak” ?)


The teacher wanted to know ... .

5. (Would you like to come to my cousin’s party tonight ?)


I just want to confirm … .

6. (Is it alright to take the assignment home ?)


Toddy wonder ... .

7. (Did Ali forget to invite you to attend this meeting ?)


I don’t know ….

8. (Does Monica have to leave home earlier ?)


Bryan doesn’t know … .

9. (Can you operate computer well ?)


The manager wonder … .

10. (Are you able to speak more than two foreign language fluently ?)
The interviewer wants to know ... .
1.2.3. NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGIN WITH THAT

STATEMENT NOUN CLAUSE .


(Expression of an  that the world is round is
idea or fact) a noun clause, as a subject
of the verb believes
The world is round (a) Every body believes that
the world is round.  In (b) and (d); the word
(b) Every body believes the that simply marks the
world is round. beginning of the clause, no
meaning in itself, so it is
Olga is one of the most (c) Every body knows that frequently omitted
popular presenters now. of the most popular
(especially in speaking)
presenters now.
(d) Every body knows Olga is when this noun clause as
one of the most popular object of the verb.
presenters now.

The world is round (e) That the world is round  In (e) or (g); the word that
is a fact. is not omitted when it
(f) It is a fact that the world introduces a noun clause
is round
used as subject of the
Olga is one of the most (g) That Olga is one of the sentence.
popular presenters now most popular presenter
now has already been  More commonly, the word
known by viewers. it (f) and (h) functions as
(h) It has already been known the subject and the noun
by viewers that Olga is clause as object.
one of the most popular
presenter now.

 Task 3.
Complete sentence (a) by using it and an appropriate word or expression from
the given list. In (b), give the equivalent sentence by using a “that clause” as the
subject.

For example : - word list  a fact


- that clause  Bali is a beautiful island with its fascinating culture.

(a) It is a fact that Bali is a beautiful island with its fascinating


culture.
S V N NC modifies and extends the word “a fact”

(b) That Bali is a beautiful island with its fascinating culture is a


fact.
NC as subject of a sentence V N

Words obvious unfair a well-known fact


List :
strange true

1. (a) ……………………….… drug abuse can ruin one’s health.


(b) …… drug abuse can ruin one’s health …………………….

2. (a) …………………………. some women do not earn equal pay for equal work.
(b) …... some women do not earn equal pay for equal work …………………….

3. (a) ………………………….. the earth revolves around the sun.


(b) …… the earth revolves around the sun ……………………..

4. (a) ……………………………Irene failed her entrance examination.


(b) …… Irene failed her entrance examination ……………………..

5. (a) ……………………………smoking can cause cancer.


(b) …… smoking can cause cancer ……………………...

 Task 4.
Find and correct the errors in the following sentences.
1. My father doesn’t care how much does the sports car cost because he is going to
buy it
A B
C
for my elder brother.
D
2. My brother was not able to tell the truth when father asked him what did happen
last
A B C D
night.

3. Some researchers believe whether an unfair attitude toward the poor will
contribute to
A B
C
the problem of poverty in a country.
D

4. Those of you whose smoke should have your lungs X-rayed regularly.
A B C D

5. I wonder why the explanation whom our instructor gave us was different from the
one
A B C
you gave me.
D

6. Robert Merton studied how does society influences the development of science.
A B C D

7. Analysts have translated clay tablets that demonstrate that the Babylonians
were
A B C
high skilled in arithmetic.
D

8. Maps whose show detail landforms are commonly used in both physical
geography and
A B C
geology.
D

9. English is the official language of New Zealand and in which spoken throughout
the
A B
country while Maoris speak their own language.
C D

10. Clifford Odet’s play Waiting for Lefty ranks among the most important
works
A B
whom deal with the struggle of the working class.
C D

LESSON 3:
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

 Words that introduce adverbial clause are called subordinating conjunction.


 Summary list of those words is as follow:

TIME CAUSE and OPPOSITION CONDITION


EFFECT
 After  Even though  If
 Before  Because  Although  Unless
 When  Since  Though  Only if
 While  now that  Whether or not
 As  As  Even if
 By the time  As/so long as  Whereas  Providing (that)
(that)  Inasmuch as  While  Provided (that)
 Whenever  In case (that)
 Since  In the event
 Until  So (that) (that)
 As soon as  In order that
 Once
 As/so long as

 This lesson; however, is going to discuss relationship between the adverbial clause
and independent clause only dealing with “time” and “cause-effect”. This
consideration is previously connected with the next chapter which is going to explain
a good order between “participle lesson” and “reduced clause”, either adjective or
adverbial clause. See next chapter…!

 PATTERNS

1.3.1. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES SHOWING TIME RELATIONSHIP

After (a) After Ali (had) graduated, he got a Note :


job.  A present tense , not a
(b) After Ali graduates, he will get a job. future tense, is used
in an adverb clause of
Before (c) Ali (had) typed his typing before he time.
turned off the light.  Notice examples (b)
(d) Ali will finish his typing before he and (d).
turns off the light.

(e) When I arrived, my daughter was Note :


talking on the phone.  When = at that time.
(f) When I got home, my son had already  Notice the different
When taken a bath. time relationships
(g) When my family lived in New expressed by the
Zealand, we visited “Buried Village” tenses.
in Rotorua.
(h) When I see Nayla tomorrow, I will
asked her to come

While (i) While Dina was walking home, it  While; as = during


As* began to rain. that time.
(j) As Dina was walking home, it began
to rain.

By the time (k) By the time Boy arrives, we will have  By the time = one
already left for lecture. event is completed
(l) By the time Boy arrived, we had before another event.
already left for lecture.

Whenever (m) I usually wear my raincoat whenever  Whenever = every


it rains. time when.

Since** (n) I haven’t seen my old friends since I  Since  from that
graduated from university. time to present (only
for present perfect
tense)

Until (o) The students stayed at school until the  Until; ‘till = to that
‘till results of final test were announced. time and then no
longer.
(p) The students stayed at school ‘till the  ‘till is usually used in
results of final test were announced. speaking rather than
writing.

As soon as (q) As soon as it stops raining, we go  As soon as; once =


Once home. when one event
(r) Once it stops raining, we go home. happens, another
event happens soon
afterwards.

As long as (s) I will never speak to him again as long  As long as; so long
So long as as he never admits his mistake. as = during all that
(t) I will never speak to him again so long time , from beginning
as he never admits his mistake. to end

* An adverb clause shows time relationship to independent clause, as well as **


 TASK 1.
Complete the following sentences by paying special attention to verb tenses.

1. Last night Brenda went to the cinema after she (finish) helping her mother do
housework.
2. Ever since I was a child, I (be) afraid of dog.
3. Be sure to reread your composition for errors before you (handle) it to your
teacher tomorrow.
4. By the time I left my apartment, the mailmen (drop) the mail in my mail box.
5. Andrew has known Jerico since they (meet) at farewell party held in my house.
6. As I (ride ) my motorcycle to school this morning, a black cat ran across the road.
7. I (live) here for four years by the time my husband (return) from America.
8. We will have a big party when all of us (graduate) from school with color wings.
9. I will help you with your homework as soon as I (come) home.
10. While I (get) on the bus, I remembered that I had left my briefcase at home.

1.3.2. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES SHOWING CAUSE and EFFECT


RELATIONSHIPS

Because (a) Because Ali was sleepy, he went to Note :


bed.  An adverb clause may
(b) Ali went to bed because he was sleepy. precede or follow the
independent clause.
 Notice the
punctuation in (a) and
(b).

Since* (c) Since Ali was sleepy, he went to bed.  Since = because
 Always precede the
independent clause.
As* (d) As Adinda had nothing to do, she  As = because
called up a friend to come to her house.

Now that (e) Now that the semester is finished, I’m  Now that = because
going to take a trip. now
 Used for present and
future situations only.

As long as* (f) As long as (So long as) you’re not  As long as = because.
So long as* busy, could you help me with this
project ?

Inasmuch (g) Inasmuch as the two government  Inasmuch as =


as leaders could not reach an because.
agreement, the possibilities for peace  Inasmuch as is
are still remote. usually found only in
formal writing and
speech.

* An adverb clause shows cause and effect relationship to independent clause.

 TASK 2.
Complete the following parentheses and decide to put subordinate conjunction in
such as since, because, inasmuch as, and now that !

1. The teacher didn’t come to teach the class … he was attending the meeting at the
teacher’s room.
2. … we don’t have class tomorrow, we decide to play “futsal” at Premiere Club.
3. … the 17th of August is the independent day of our country, all government
institutions are hoisting the national flag.
4. He was not admitted to the university … he failed in fulfilling the requirements.
5. … oil is an irreplaceable natural resource, we must do whatever we can in order to
conserve it.
6. Jack can’t stay out all night with his friends … he still helps his sister do
mathematics homework..
7. … Maretha was very busy, she couldn’t join her friends going to Mal Olympic
Garden.
8. … you are sixteen, you can get a driver’s license.
9. A new government is being formed … the civil war has ended.
10. My parents has just bought me a new scooter … I could get the first rank in my
class this semester.

1.3.3. OTHER WAYS OF SHOWING CAUSE and EFFECT RELATIONSHIP


(using “such … that” and “so … that” )

(a) Because the weather was nice, we went swimming Note :


outdoor.  Examples in (a); (b) and
(b) It was such nice weather that we went swimming (c) have the same
outdoor. meaning.
(c) The weather was so nice that we went swimming
outdoor.

(d) It was such good coffee that I had another cup.  Such … that encloses a
(e) It was such a difficult test that we got only five in modified noun:
average. such + (adjective-noun)
+ that S – V

(f) The coffee was so hot that I couldn’t drink it.  So … that encloses an
(g) I was so hungry that I could eat a pack of bread adjective in (f) and (g) or
greedily. adverb in (h) and (i).
(h) The speaker speaks so fast that we can’t understand
him.  So + (adjective/adverb)
(i) Albi walked so quickly that I couldn’t keep up with + that S – V
him.

(j) Shovie made so many mistakes that she failed the  So … that is used with
exam. many; few; much; and
(k) Dewi has so few friends that she is always lonely. little.
(l) Mr. Gram has so much money that he can buy
whatever he wants.  Sometimes, primarily in
(m) Bonbon had so little trouble with the test that he speaking, that is omitted
left twenty minutes early. Notice examples in (n)
and (o).
(n) It was such a good novel (that) I couldn’t put it
down.
(o) I was so hungry (that) I didn’t wait for dinner to
eat something.

 TASK 3.
Combine the following sentences by using such … that or so … that. Look at the
examples below !

Examples : This is a boring film. I don’t think I’ll finish it.


This is such a boring film that I don’t think I’ll finish it.

The film was boring. I don’t think I’ll finish it.


The film is so boring that I don’t think I’ll finish it.

1. The man is tall enough. He can reach the top on the shelf.
2. Mohammed is a very kind person. Everyone loves and respects him.
3. Your aunt talked too fast. I couldn’t understand what she talked about.
4. This is good beverage. I feel much refresher after drinking it.
5. Your idea is brilliant. Your supervisor promotes you manager of store
division.
6. Fruits contain many vitamins. Everyone must consume them at least once
a day.
7. Anton was very angry. He put his fist through the wall.
8. These are expensive jewels. I couldn’t afford to buy them.
9. Today is wonderful day. Many people spend their time going to beach and
swimming.
10. This room is very dark. My cousin is getting afraid of being here.

 TASK 4.
Enrichment Quiz. Please choose the best answer for each question.
1. Oil paints are … they have become the most popular painter’s colors.
a. so versatile and durable that
b. so versatile and durable than
c. such versatile and durable as
d. such versatile and durable

2. Water is … that it generally contains dissolved materials in greater or lesser


amounts.
a. such a excellent solvents
b. such excellent solvent
c. a such excellent solvent
d. such an excellent solvent

3. … a wrong number, it is important to apologize before hanging up.


a. You dial
b. If dials
c. If dialing, you
d. If you dial

.4. The thirteen colonies stretched from … Maine to Georgia.


a. that is now
b. what is now
c. now that is what
d. is that what
5. That … by gases has been established only recently.
a. surrounding the earth.
b. surrounded the earth
c. the earth is surrounded
d. the earth surrounded
6. Because Dotry is very naughty that he has fewer friends in his class now than
last
A B C D
year.

7. By the mid-nineteenth century, land was so expensive in large cities that’s why
A B C
architects began to conserve space by designing skyscrapers.
D

8. It is not surprising that this coffee has quite strong taste that nobody can avoid
taking
A B C
another cup.
D
9. Economists predict how much will the prices change and what trends the
stock
A B C
market should exhibit.
D

10. Have you already asked Meita why does she want to see me after make up class
today ?
A B C
D