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VOLUME OF SOLIDS OF

REVOLUTION
MATH147
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to:
• define what a solid of revolution is.
• find the volume of solid of revolution using disk
method.
• find the volume of solid of revolution using the washer
method.
• find the volume of solid of revolution using cylindrical
shell method.
• find the volume of a solid with known cross sections.
DEFINITION.
If a region in the plane is revolved about a line, the resulting
solid is a solid of revolution, and the line is called axis of
revolution.
THE DISK METHOD
• This method is used when the element (representative strip) is
perpendicular to and touching the axis. Meaning, the axis of
rotation is part of the boundary of the plane area revolved.

Volume of disk=(area of disk)(width of disk)


= 𝜋𝑅2 𝑤
• To find the volume of a solid of revolution using the disk method,
use one of the following:
• Horizontal Axis of Revolution
𝒃
𝟐
𝑽=𝝅 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙
𝒂
• Vertical Axis of Revolution
𝒅

𝑽=𝝅 𝒇(𝒚) 𝟐 𝒅𝒚
𝒄
Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded
by the line y = 6 – 2x and the coordinate axes about the y-axis.

By horizontal stripping, the elements


are perpendicular to and touches the
axis of revolution, thus we use the disk
Method.
We use V  r 2 h to find the area of the strip.

 dV 
 x 2 dy

 x dy x  6  y 
1
V 2
, if y  -2x  6;
0 2
2
6
1 
V  
  2 6  y   dy 


0
6
 
V


6  63  6  03 
V
4 0
6  y 2  dy  12

V    366 
6
 6  y  3 12
V  V  18 cu. units
4 3
0
THE WASHER METHOD
• Ring or Washer method is used when the axis of rotation is not a
part of the boundary of the plane area revolved. The
representative element is perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
• Consider a region bounded by an outer radius
w(y) and an inner radius v(y), as shown in the figure. If the
region is revolved about the
y -axis the volume of the given solid is given by
𝒅
𝟐 𝟐
𝑽=𝝅 𝒘(𝒚) − 𝒗(𝒚) 𝒅𝒚
𝒄
Similarly, the volume generated by revolving about the
x-axis using washer-shaped elements will be
𝒃
𝟐 𝟐
𝑽=𝝅 𝑹(𝒙) − 𝒓(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙
𝒂
Example:
Find the volume of solid generated by revolving the second quadrant
region bounded by the curve x 2  4  y about x  1  0 .

By horizontal stripping, the elements are


perpendicular but not touching the axis
of revolution, thus we use the
Ring or Washer Method.

x
V   R2  r 2 h  

R  1  ( 4  y ) 
2
 (1  4  y ) 2 r 1


dV   (1  4  y ) 2  12 dy 
4
V   (1  2 4  y  4  y  1)dy
0

 
4
   ( 4  y )  2 4  y dy
0

 (4  y ) 2 (4  y )3 / 2  4
   2 0
 2 3 / 2 

1 4  1 4  56
   (4  4) 2  (4  4) 3 / 2   ( )  (4  0) 2  (4  0) 3 / 2    cu. units.
2 3  2 3  3
THE CYLINDRICAL SHELL METHOD
• This is an alternate method for finding the volume of a solid of revolution.
The representative element is parallel to the axis of rotation.
REMARKS:
1. The method is easier followed, if we note the fact that the integrand is the
differential of volume of a right circular cylinder, when the altitude is kept
constant, i.e.
𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ
𝑑𝑉 = 2𝜋𝑟ℎ𝑑𝑟
That is, the volume element of a thin cylindrical shell,
𝑑𝑉 = 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑥 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑥 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠.
• The choice of method for solving volume problems depends,
naturally, upon which method requires simpler formulation and
evaluation of the definite integrals arising in the process.
Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the second quadrant
region bounded by the curve x 2  4  y about x  1  0.

Using vertical stripping, the


elements parallel to the axis
of revolution, thus we use the
shell method.

Shell Method: V  2rht


r  1 x
h y
t  dx
dV  2(1  x )ydx
V  22 1  x ydx
0

 20 1  x ydx
2

 20 y  xy dx
2
but x 2  4  y; y  4 - x 2

 20
2
4  x   x4  x dx
2 2

 20
2
4  4x  x  x dx
2 3

2
 x 2
x x 
3 4
V  2  4 x  4    
 2 3 4 0  8
 2  12  
 1 1 4  3
 2  4  2   2  2    2    2  
2 3

 3 4   36  8  56
 2    cu. units
 8   3  3
 2  8  8   4 
 3 
SOLIDS WITH KNOWN CROSS SECTIONS
• With the disk method, you can find the volume of a solid
having a circular cross whose area is 𝐴 = 𝜋𝑅2 .
• This method can be generalized to solids of any shape, as long
as you know a formula for the area of an arbitrary cross
section. Some common cross sections are squares,rectangles,
triangles, semicircles, and trapezoids.
VOLUMES OF SOLID WITH KNOWN CROSS SECTIONS

1. For cross sections of area 𝐴 𝑥 taken perpendicular


to the x-axis,
𝒃

𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 = 𝑨 𝒙 𝒅𝒙
𝒂
2. For cross sections of area 𝐴(𝑦) taken perpendicular
to the y-axis,
𝒅

𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 = 𝑨 𝒚 𝒅𝒚
𝒄
Example
EXAMPLE
1. Find the volumes of the solid whose bases are bounded by the
graphs of 𝑦 = 𝑥 + 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 𝑥 2 − 1, with the indicated cross
sections taken perpendicular to the x-axis.
a) Squares b) Rectangles of height 1
2.
References
• Calculus, Early Transcendental Functions, by Larson and Edwards
• Calculus, Early Transcendental, by Anton, Bivens and Davis