Sie sind auf Seite 1von 39

Chapter 03

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION
DRAWINGS
3.1 Introduction:

Drawing is the language of engineers. An engineer must be well conversant with drawings.
Drawings represent reduced shape of structure and the owner will be able to see what is going
to happen. The drawings are prepared as per the requirements of the owner. In case of public
buildings, the functional aspects are studied and accordingly the drawings are prepared as per
the recommendations laid down in National Building Code (N.B.C) or as per the Indian
standard specifications. Any modifications like additions or omissions can be suggested from
a study of the drawings before actual construction of the structure is started. Drawings
provide a language with specific data to Architects, Engineers and workman at the site to
construct the structure accordingly.

In case of public buildings, bridges or any other civil engineering works, it is essential to
workout different items of construction with their quantities for estimating the total cost of
construction project. For this purpose, drawings of different parts and different views are
essential so that approval of work from the sanctioning authority can be obtained. Further, the
detailed drawing form as an essential contract document, when the work is handed over to a
contractor. Hence, it is necessary to prepare detailed drawings which will inform the
contractor, the exact information which he needs during the construction of different items of
work.

The building of any structure is described by a set of related drawings that give the Builder a
complete, sequential, graphic description of each phase of the construction process. In most
cases, a set of drawings begins by showing the location, boundaries, contours, and
outstanding physical features of the construction site and its adjoining areas. Succeeding
drawings give instructions for the excavation and disposition of existing ground; construction
of the foundations and superstructure; installation of utilities, such as plumbing, heating,
lighting, air conditioning, interior and exterior finishes; and whatever else is required to
complete the structure.
The engineer works with the architect to decide what materials to use in the structure and the
construction methods to follow. The engineer determines the loads that supporting members
will carry and the strength qualities the members must have to bear the loads. The engineer
also designs the mechanical systems of the structure, such as the lighting, heating, and
plumbing systems. The end result is the architectural and engineering design sketches. These
sketches guide draftsmen in preparing the construction drawings.

3.2 Construction drawing:

Generally, construction or "working" drawings furnish enough information for the Builder to
complete an entire project and incorporate all three main groups of drawings-architectural,
electrical, and mechanical. In drawings for simple structures, this grouping may be hard to
discern because the same single drawing may contain both the electrical and mechanical
layouts. In complicated structures, however, a combination of layouts is not possible because
of overcrowding. In this case, the floor plan may be traced over and over for drawings for the
electrical and mechanical layouts.

All or any one of the three types of drawings gives you enough information to complete a
project. The specific one to use depends on the nature of construction involved. The
construction drawing furnishes enough information for the particular tradesman to complete a
project, whether architectural, electrical, or mechanical. Normally, construction drawings
include the detail drawings, assembly drawings, bill of materials, and the specifications.

A detail drawing shows a particular item on a larger scale than that of the general drawing in
which the item appears. Or, it may show an item too small to appear at all on a general
drawing. An assembly drawing is either an exterior or sectional view of an object showing
the details in the proper relationship to one another. Assembly drawings are usually drawn to
a smaller scale from the dimensions of the detail drawings. This provides a check on the
accuracy of the design drawings and often discloses errors.

Construction drawings consist mostly of right-angle and perpendicular views prepared by


draftsmen using standard technical drawing techniques, symbols, and other designations. The
first section of the construction drawings consists of the site plan, plot plan, foundation plans,
floor plans, and framing plans. General drawings consist of plans (views from above) and
elevations (side or front views) drawn on a relatively small scale. Both types of drawings use
a standard set of architectural symbols. Which we will describe further in these courses in
detail Drawing, thus prepared should be carefully preserved even after the completion of
work. Thus, it becomes to assess the possibility of further vertical expansion by referring to
the foundation details initially provided. Drawing should be clear, simple, clean and
accurately drawn so that scaled measurements agree with actual figures.

3.3 Prime requirements of a good drawing:

The quality of drawing can be improved by considering the following points:

1. Drawing should be clear, simple and clean.


2. Should be accurately drawn so that scaled measurements agree with actual
dimensions and free from repetive details.
3. Exact information should be provided in order to carry out the work at site without
scaling for missing measurements.
4. Neatness, ability for co-relative details and their arrangement in a logical sequence
should be provided.
5. Only minimum notes to support the drawings should be indicated in the drawing.
6. Sufficient space should be provided between different views so as to mark the
dimensions without crowding.

Size of drawing sheet:

Size W (mm) L (mm) A (mm2)


A0 841 1189 1.00
A1 594 841 0.50
A2 420 594 0.25
A3 297 420 0.125
A4 210 297 0.063

Details of drawing sheet:


Schedule of doors and windows:
Name Particulars Size& No Sill
Type
Door Flush door 1200 01 0000
Etc…
Specifications:
Elevation Section 1.foundation 2.walls 3.lintels 4.roof slab
5.plastering 6.weathering course 7.flooring
8.finishing of walls
Area table:
S.No Description Quantity
1 Permissible built-up area
(as per calculations)
2 Proposed built-up area at G.F
3 Proposed built-up area at F.F
4 total built-up area
5 FSI permissible
6 FSI used
7 Open land area
Colour note:
Plot boundary line
Proposed construction
Road
Plan Site Plan Title block:
Scale 1:200 Name:
All dimensions are ID no:
in mm only Class:
remarks Year:
breeze
Title of drawing Date:
Drawing no:

Fig. 3.1 Layout of Drawing Sheet


3.4 Conventional signs and symbols:

Conventional signs are used to represent the particular item in the drawing. For example
stone masonry, brick masonry and concrete are indicated by standard conventional signs.
They are only represented in the section i.e., when the materials are cut by any imaginary
plane.

Similarly conventional symbols are provided to indicate doors, windows, their fixing,
movement of shutters when they are closed or opened, various water supply and sanitary
fixtures like tap, wash basin, W.C, urinals, kitchen sink, shower etc. Symbols are also used to
indicate the position of electrical fittings like, lamp, switch, power socket, fan, etc. To
indicate positions of furniture in drawing room, bed room, suitable symbols are used.

The Bureau of Indian Standards (B.I.S) has recommended conventional signs and symbols in
order to:

1. Avoid confusion and to understand the drawings.


2. Save time in making out various details in the drawing to enable others to quickly
understand without any confusion.
3. Identify the various details viz; materials of construction, electrical fixtures, water
supply & sanitary fittings, positions of furniture like chairs, tables, beds, cup boards,
kitchen sinks, cooking range etc.
4. Prevent any dispute between contractor and owner (or executing authority) in actual
construction of the structure.
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 1

Plan Symbols

ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS
Symbol Definition

Wall section No. 2


2 can be seen on
drawing No. A-4.
A-4
Detail section No. 3
can be seen on
3 drawing No. A-5.
L-5

Building section A-A


AA can be seen on
drawing No. A-6.
A-6
Main object line

Hidden or invisible line

Indicates center line

3" 3' 4" Dimension lines

Extension lines

Symbol indicates center line

Indicates wall suface

N Indicates north direction


09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 2

ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS (cont.)


Symbol Definition

ca Column line grid

5 or 5 Partition type

A Window type

05 Door number

05 Room number

10'-0" Ceiling height

2 Revision marker

Break in a continuous line

3 Refer to note #3

100'-0"
Elevation marker

1 Interior elevations
1,2,3 & 4 can be
4 A-5 2 seen on drawing A-5.
Direction of triangle
3 indicates elevation.
09 ConPal Dewalt
PLUMBING PIPING

Soil, waste or leader Soft cold water SW


(above grade)

Soil, waste or leader Industrialized ICW


(below grade) cold water

7/8/05
Vent Chilled drinking DWS
water supply
Combination waste SV
and vent Chilled drinking DWR

3:48 PM
water return
Acid waste AW Hot water

Acid vent AV Hot water return

Page 3
Sanitizing hot water
Indirect drain IW supply (180F)

Storm drain Sanitizing hot water


S return (180F)

Cold water Industrialized hot IHW


water supply
09 ConPal Dewalt
PLUMBING PIPING (cont.)
Industrialized hot IHR Gas – low pressure G G
water return

Tempered water Gas – medium pressure MG


TWS
supply

7/8/05
Tempered water Gas – high pressure HG
TWR
return
Compressed air A
Fire line F F

3:48 PM
Wet standpipe Vacuum V
WSP

Dry standpipe Vacuum cleaning VC


DSP

Page 4
Combination standpipe CSP Oxygen O

Main supplies S Liquid oxygen


sprinkler LOX

Branch and head Nitrogen N


sprinkler
09 ConPal Dewalt
Liquid nitrogen LN Pneumatic tubes PN
tube runs

Nitrous oxide NO Cast iron CI

7/8/05
Hydrogen H Culvert pipe CP

3:48 PM
Helium HE Clay tile CT

Argon AR Ductile iron

Page 5
DI

Liquid petroleum LPG Reinforced concrete


gas RCP

Industrial waste INW Drain – open tile or


agricultural tile
09 ConPal Dewalt
HEATING PIPING

High pressure HPS Make up water MU


steam
Medium pressure MPS Air relief line V
steam

7/8/05
Low pressure Fuel oil suction FOS
LPS
steam
High pressure Fuel oil return FOR
HPR
return

3:48 PM
Medium pressure Fuel oil vent FOV
MPR
return
Low pressure Compressed air A
LPR

Page 6
return
Boiler blow off Hot water HW
BD heating supply
Condensate or vacuum VPD Hot water
pump discharge HW
heating return
Feedwater pump PPD
discharge
09 ConPal Dewalt
AIR CONDITIONING PIPING

Refrigerant liquid RL Chilled water CHWR


return

Refrigerant discharge

7/8/05
RD Make up water MU

Refrigerant suction RS Humidification line

3:48 PM
H

Condenser water CWS Drain


supply D

Page 7
Condenser water CWR Brine supply
return B

Chilled water CHWS Brine return BR


supply
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 8

PIPING SYMBOLS

Valves, Fittings and Specialties

Gate Concentric
reducer
Eccentric
Globe reducer

Check Pipe guide

Butterfly Pipe anchor

Solenoid Flow
direction
Lock shield Elbow
looking up
2-Way
automatic Elbow
control looking
down
3-Way
Up/Down
automatic Pipe pitch
control up or down
Gas cock Expansion
joint
Plug cock
Expansion
Flanged loop
joint
Flexible
Union connection

Thermostat T
Cap

Thermostatic
Strainer trap
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 9

PIPING SYMBOLS (cont.)

Float and
thermostatic F&T Hose bibb
trap
Elbow
Thermometer

Tee

Pressure
gauge 'Y'

FS OS & Y
Flow gate
switch

P
Pressure
switch Shock
absorber

Pressure House trap


reducing
valve

Temperature ‘P’ trap


and pressure
relief valve

Humidistat H Floor drain

A Indirect IW
Aquastat waste

Sanitary S
Air vent below grade
Sanitary S
above grade
Meter M
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 10

PIPING SYMBOLS (cont.)

Storm Gas-low
below grade ST pressure G

Storm ST Gas-medium MG
above grade pressure

Vent Gas-high
HG
pressure

Combination CWV
Compressed
CA
waste & vent air

Acid waste AW Vacuum V


below grade

Acid waste AW Vacuum VC


above grade cleaning

Acid vent AV Nitrogen N

Cold water CW Nitrous N2O


oxide

Hot water HW Oxygen O

Hot water HWC Liquid LOX


circulation oxygen

Drinking Liquid
DWS petroleum LPG
water supply
gas

Drinking DWR
water return
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 11

FIRE PROTECTION PIPING SYMBOLS

Fire protection F Wall


water supply fire department
connection
Wet standpipe WSP

Sidewalk
fire department
Dry standpipe DSP connection

FHR
Combination CSP Fire hose
standpipe rock

Automatic SP Surface
fire sprinkler mounted
fire hose FHC
Upright fire cabinet
sprinkler heads

Pendent fire Recessed


sprinkler heads fire hose
FHC
cabinet

Fire hydrant
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 12

PLUMBING FIXTURE SYMBOLS

Baths

Corner Recessed Angle

Whirlpool Institutional
or island

Showers

Stall Corner Stall Wall Gang

Water Closets

Tank Flush Valve Bidet

Urinals

Wall Stall Trough

Lavatories

Vanity Wall Counter Pedestal


09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 13

PLUMBING FIXTURE SYMBOLS (cont.)

Kitchen Sinks

Single basin Single drainboard

Twin basin Double drainboard

Drinking Fountains or
Electric Water Coolers

DF DF DF
Floor or wall Recessed Semirecessed

Dishwasher Laundry Trays


DW LT L T

Single Double

Service Sinks Wash Fountains


SS SS
WF WF

Wall Floor Circular Semicircular

Hot Water Separators

HW HWT G O

Gas Oil
Heater Tank
09 ConPal Dewalt
MATERIAL INDICATION SYMBOLS
Material Plan Elevation Section

Floor areas
Wood

7/8/05
left blank
Siding Panel Framing Finish

3:48 PM
Face Same as
Brick
plan view
Common Face or common

Page 14
Cut
Stone

Rubble Cut Rubble Cut Rubble


09 ConPal Dewalt
Same as
Concrete
plan view

Concrete Same as

7/8/05
block plan view

3:48 PM
Earth None None

Page 15
Large scale
Glass
Small scale

Same as Insulation Loose fill or batt


Insulation section
Board
09 ConPal Dewalt
MATERIAL INDICATION SYMBOLS (cont.)

Material Plan Elevation Section

Plaster Stud
Same as

7/8/05
Plaster
section
Lath and plaster

3:48 PM
Structural Indicate
steel by note

Page 16
Indicate Show
Sheet metal
by note contour
flashing
09 ConPal Dewalt
Tile

Floor Wall

7/8/05
3:48 PM
9-17

Porous fill None None

Page 17
Plywood Indicated by note Indicated by note
09 ConPal Dewalt
MATERIAL INDICATION SYMBOLS (cont.)

Material Plan Elevation Section

7/8/05
Batt None Same as plan
insulation

3:48 PM
Rigid None Same as plan
insulation

Page 18
Small scale
Glass

Large scale
09 ConPal Dewalt
Gypsum Same as plan
wallboard

7/8/05
Acoustical None

3:48 PM
Page 19
Ceramic Same as plan
wall tile

Floor tile None


09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 20

LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS AND GRAPHICS

Property Fence
line

Center
line
Concrete
Building

Sand

Window

Brick
Door

Paving —
Gravel
pattern

Rock
random

Wall
Water
Stone
wall

Hedge Swamp
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 21

LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS AND GRAPHICS (cont.)

Slope up Grass

down

Steps
Ground
up cover

down
Benchmark EI.00.0

Trees —

Topographic
contours
deciduous evergreen
10
Shrubs —

5
deciduous evergreen

Herbaceous
plants Contour lines —
(flowers)
unaltered

altered
Same
variety
proposed
09 ConPal Dewalt
MATERIALS SYMBOLS
Earthworks

Earth/compact fill Porous fill/gravel Rock

7/8/05
Concrete

3:48 PM
Cast-in-place/precast Lightweight Sand/mortar/
plaster/cut stone

Masonry

Page 22
Adobe/rammed earth Common/face Fire brick

Concrete block Gypsum block Structural facing tile


09 ConPal Dewalt
Stone

Bluestone/slate/ Rubble Marble


soapstone/flagging

7/8/05
Metal

3:48 PM
Aluminum Brass/bronze Steel/other metals

Wood

Page 23
Finish Rough Blocking

Hardboard Plywood – large scale Plywood – small scale


09 ConPal Dewalt
MATERIALS SYMBOLS (cont.)
Glass

Glass Structural Glass block

7/8/05
Insulation

3:48 PM
Batt/loose fill Rigid Spray/foam

Finishes

Page 24
Acoustical tile Ceramic tile – large scale Ceramic tile – small scale

Carpet and pad Gypsum wallboard Metal lath and plaster


09 ConPal Dewalt
Finishes (cont.)

Plastic Resilient flooring/plastic laminate Terrazzo

7/8/05
Plan and Section Indications
Partition Indications

3:48 PM
Wood stud Metal stud Special finish face

Elevation Indications

Page 25
Brick Ceramic tile Concrete/plaster

Glass Sheet metal Shingles/siding


09 ConPal Dewalt
WINDOW AND DOOR SYMBOLS
Type Plan Elevation

Double hung
windows

7/8/05
3:48 PM
Casement
windows

Page 26
indicates
window
hinge

Slider
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 27
Exterior

Interior

Bifold
door

door

door
09 ConPal Dewalt
WINDOW AND DOOR SYMBOLS (cont.)

Double hung Fixed glass


windows Door

7/8/05
Alternate double Alternate frame
hung window wall symbols

Openings in Frame Wall

3:48 PM
Page 28
Double unit Awning and Fixed glass
casement windows hopper Door

Partition

Openings in Brick Veneer Wall


09 ConPal Dewalt
Sliding doors 2 units double
hung windows Door

7/8/05
Alternate
position
Openings in Masonry Wall

3:48 PM
Interior door Double Arch Pocket

Page 29
action door sliding door

Bypass sliding door Accordion door


Bifold doors

Openings in Interior Partitions


09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 30

DRAWING CONVENTIONS AND SYMBOLS

Graphic Symbols
The symbols shown are those that seem to be the most
common and acceptable, judged by the frequency of use
by the architectural offices surveyed. This list can and
should be expanded by each office to include symbols
generally used by it, but not indicated here. Adoption of
these symbols as standard practice is desirable to improve
communication in the industry.

Up 17R
Stair direction symbol
111/2 T

N North point
to be placed on each
floor plan, generally in
lower right hand corner
of drawings

Note Indication arrows


Note drawn with straight
lines (not curved);
Note must touch object
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 31

DRAWING CONVENTIONS AND SYMBOLS (cont.)

Indicates section number

C C
A-3 Indicates drawing sheet A-3
on which section is shown

3 7
A-1 A-5

II
A-3

Section Lines and Section References

Indicates detail number

5 9
A-8 A-4

Indicates drawing sheet


on which detail is shown

Detail References
09 ConPal Dewalt
DRAWING CONVENTIONS AND SYMBOLS (cont.)

461.0' New or required C Building section


point elevation A-9 Reference drawing number

7/8/05
461.0' Existing point 7 Wall section or elevation
elevation (plan) A-11 Reference drawing number

3:48 PM
8 Existing contours 7 Detail
26 elevation noted on
high side A-12 Reference drawing number

Page 32
0 New contours
32 elevation noted on 1302 Room/space number
high side

TB-1 Test boring 354 Equipment number


09 ConPal Dewalt
Match line
shaded portions –
the side considered

A 4 Column reference grids

7/8/05
Level line
control point or
datum

3:48 PM
3 Revision
N
Project north

Page 33
h
ort
E Window type (magnetic north arrow

gn
used on plot site plan only)

Ma
123 Door number
B (if more than one door
per room subscript letters
are used)
09 ConPal Dewalt 7/8/05 3:48 PM Page 34

DRAWING CONVENTIONS AND SYMBOLS (cont.)

Dash and dot


Center lines, projections, existing elevations lines

Dash and double dot line


Property lines, boundary lines

Dotted line
Hidden, future or existing construction to be removed

Break line
To break off parts of drawing

Linework

4' 0" 8" Slash


4"
2' 8"
Arrow
8' 1/2"
4' 0"

6' 2"

63/4"
26' 8" 2" Dot
5' 4"
1
/2"
Accent

Horizontal Vertical
Dimension Lines