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Childhood Nutrition

Childhood
 Period of life from 1 to 12 years old
Pre-school Children
The nutritional needs of the pre-school child differ from those of the adult:
1. There are larger requirements for growth so there is a greater need for
proteins, vitamins and minerals.
2. The preschooler activities are proportionally higher than those of the
adults so the preschooler calories allowances per unit body weight must
be increased
3. The selection of foods requires some modification especially for young
children
4. Childhood present a period of rapidly changing attitudes and emotional
development- a period when food habits can be most favorably
channeled.

Function of DIET for a child


1. Diet provides fuel for the child’s muscular activity.
2. It supplies the necessary chemical elements and compounds that the child’s
body require for building materials and repairing worn-out tissues
3. Eating generally gives pleasure and satisfaction to the child
Pre School period (2-6 years old)
 The physical growth of a child is slow that a decrease in weight may even be
observed while the overall emotional, social and intellectual development is
fast
 Receptive learning at this stage
 Continue to have food preference and prejudices which have a great
influence on their eating habits
 Food desire is erratic and their food appetite wanes
 Between the second and third years of a child he/ she may not gain weight
for a weeks or even a months but As the child further grows he/she becomes
more independent and selective, making him/her more vulnerable to
nutritional deficiencies
 “Wont eat era” should not alarm the parents, it is expected in a normal child’s
development. At this time, parents must be careful not to foster poor eating
habit by urging, forcing the child to eat. Appetite usually tends to improve as a
child approaches school age.
Nutritional Allowances:
1. Calories
a. Determined by age, activity and basal metabolism
b. If the child’s diet is lack of calories, the body will utilize the proteins for energy
resulting in protein calorie malnutrition (PCN)
c. If the protein is not adequate, tissue reserves are used for energy and body
building needs leading to marasmus
2. Protein
a. About 1.5 to 2 g/ kg of body weight is required
b. Higher protein requirement than adults
3. Vitamins and Minerals
a. Essentials for normal growth and development
4. Fluids
a. 4-6 glasses of water per day
Meal planning for pre-School Children
 Amount of food the child eats affect his/ her physical and mental well being
 Good nutrition during school age is important to his/her future.
 Childs Needs adequate food to grow, build his/her body
 Food habits are formed. The child gets to like the food that are usually served
to him/her by his/her mother
 Introducing the child early to good nutrition will help shape his food habits in
later years
 Pre school are very active. They should eat energy foods like rice, corn,
bread, yellow kamote, gabi
 Fats and oils also supply heat and energy. In addition, fats help keep the skin
smooth and help the body make use of vitamin A (Butter or margarine )
 Give at least 1 cup of milk daily( Avoid using condensed milk)
Feeding Problem
1. The child is eating too little
a. Causes
i. The child likes few foods (picky eaters)
ii. Appetite is lost because of to much parental urging
iii. The child is tired of the same food eaten every day
b. Remedies
i. Go slow in adding new foods. Start the meal with foods he/ she likes
best
ii. Serve less than what he/she will eat
iii. Prepare simple dishes like sinigang or tinola
2. The child is eating too much
a. Causes
i. Heredity
ii. Temperament
iii. Appetite
iv. Mother’s insistence on a “clean plate”
b. Remedy
i. Refrain from serving rich foods like cakes, pastries, pies and ice cream
3. The child is dawdling
a. Causes
i. The child may be trying to get someone’s attention
ii. The child may not be feeling well
iii. The child may have been given portions which are too big
b. Remedies
i. Have a child regularly checked by the pediatricians
ii. Avoid fussing over him/ her
iii. Let the child enjoy eating
4. The child is gagging especially when fed coarse foods
a. Causes
i. The child lacks proper training in eating chopped foods
b. Remedy
i. Encourage self-feeding
ii. Put the child in a well-ventilated bright clean eating place. Provide the
child with a colorful plate, an eye catching cup and utensils which
she/he can manage easily
5. The child has aversion toward some food
a. Remedies
i. Give fruits as substitutes of vegetables
ii. Mix vegetable with familiar foods like noodles and eggs or stuff them
inside the mashed potatoes or kamote
iii. Give milk through halo-halo, leche flan, gulaman, piniping, main con
yelo or breakfast cereals.
6. The child has allergies
a. Causes
i. Chemical in air
ii. Food preservatives
iii. Food coloring
b. Remedy
i. Monitor nutrient intake
ii. Make food substitution
Indication of Good Nutrition
1. Weight
a. First degree Malnutrition : 10% less than the standard for age and sex
b. Second degree Malnutrition : 25% less than the standard for age and
sex
c. Third degree Malnutrition :40% % less than the standard for age and s
2. Clinical Posture :Erect
Arms and Legs :Straight
Abdomen :In
Chest :Out
Head :Normal Size
Skeleton :With no malformation
Teeth :Straight without crowding in a well shaped jaw (6 y/o = 24
teeth)
Skin :Smooth, slight moist with a health glow
Eyes :Clear, Bright with no signs of fatique
Hair :Shiny
Muscle :Firm
Gums :Light pink in color
Lips :Moist
Tongue :Without lesions
School Age Children
 Period Between 7-12 years old
 Characterized by a slow, steady growth, increase body proportions, enhanced
mental capabilities and more mind and body coordination
 Growth rates vary within this period. Girls usually correct the discrepancies
with the boys
 The gain weight average is 1.8-3.1 kg annually

Nutrient Allowances

1. Calories
a. Allowance decline to about 80-90 kcal/kg for children 7-9 years old and 70 to
80 kcal for children aged 10-12 years.
2. Protein
a. 37 g of protein are recommended daily for aged 7-9 years and 43 to 48 g for
aged 10-12 years
3. Vitamin and Minerals
a. As most girls start to menstruate at the age of 11 to 12, iron allowance should
consider the 1.4 mg/day of menstrual loss.
b. In growing children may need 2 to 4 times as much calcium dose an adult. At
level of 500-1000mg of calcium daily in diet
c. 120mcg of iodine for children 7to 10 years old

Meal Planning for Children (7 to 9 years old)


 Good condition helps children do better at home and in school. Growing
children need more body- building foods to grow fast and strong. A good
breakfast starts a good day. Hungry weak children are not alert and less
attentive to class
1. Make green leafy and yellow vegetables and fruits a “must” in daily family meal
2. Pack Nutritious Lunch.
3. Avoid serving too spicy and highly-seasoned foods. These may destroy the appetite
4. Make snack count. Serve nutritious snacks like root crops, beans or fresh fruits
instead of candies and soft drinks

Feeding the School Child


1. Psychological Factor
a. More confident; express own food choices
b. Strong Urge to eat what his/her friens eat
2. School Environment
Goal of School Feeding program in the Philippines:
a. Improve the nutrition of school children by providing them with
wholesome food at lowest reasonable price
b. Aid in strengthening the nutrition and health education programs of the
public schools
c. Foster proper eating habits
3. Food Preference
a. Eat a wider variety of food and has more food likes and dislikes
b. Wants a simple and plain dish
c. Eat what most adults eat
d. Develops fondness for food products seen in TV commercials and
appetite for the favorite food of his/he celebrity idol

Feeding Problems
1. The child received inadequate meals.
Breakfast which provides ¼ to ½ of the daily nutrient allowances is often
missed or hurriedly eaten by school children.

 Causes:
o Nothing to eat
o Late bed Riser
o Arrival of School Bus
o Fear of being late for school
o Rush in preparing oneself for school
 A good breakfast should consist of the following:
o Vitamin C- rich fruits like papaya
o Cereals like oatmeal or fried rice or pan de sal
o Protein-rich food like egg, tuyo , cheese or milk
Lunch is also a dietary problem because so many children eat their lunch in school
so fast or at fast-food joints

2. The Child has poor appetite


 Causes
o Demanding school work
o Tiring extracurricular activities
o New outdoor experiences
o Confections and soft drinks in school
 Remedies
o School cafeterias should offer nutritious and inexpensive snacks
o Carbohydrates-rich snack products
3. The Child has sweet tooth
 Causes
o Hungry growing bodies recognize the need for extra calories
o Parents give sweet as rewards or pasalubong to kids

Weight and Height Standards for Filipino Boys and Girls

During the early years, a steady rate of growth is normally maintained. At about 10-
12 years of age, the pre- adolescent growth spurt begins.