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S TOPP I H G P O WER ME TE R S

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3rd Edition
By: John .1. WiUiam, MSEE
Pres?dent
Consumertronics Co.
Includes STOPPING POWER METERS 2ND EDITION, SPM ADDENDUM
And More!!
STOPPING POWER METERS is divided into two distinct bodies. The first body
covers watt-hour energy meters, how they work, how they are adjusted, and
the errors they produce. The second body is devoted to various techniques of
slowing do~,vn and stopping power meters.
This pamphlet is comprehensive, lengthy and full of valuable information.
Indepth theoretical knowledge is not required to understand and utilize it.
However, a very good practical electrical and electronic background and
know-how is a must. NOTE: The utility meter attached to your home or
business is a watthour meter - not a power meter.
CAUTIONS AND DISCLAIMERS
DO NOT USE THESE METHODS ON ANY METER BELONGING TO A UTILITY.
Completely isolate your utility meter from your personal meter with an
isolation transformer and/or heavy filtering. As hr as we know, the legality
of applying load control methods that incidentally make the utilityowned
meter underregister has not been legally tested. However, assume that the
law will take as dim a View of doing this as it does if you actually physically
tamper with the meter. It is ironic that many law enforcement agencies on
one hand can't seem to do enough to plea# utility big-shots while blithely
ignoring the many and extreme aimes committed by utilities upon the
citizenry. Fortunately, most juries savvy this perversity of the law and act
according-
We must firmly state that we are totally against breaking the law in any
fashion and that WE FORBID ALL ILLEGAL APPLICATIONS..Also, no licence#
is granted under the copyright and/or patent rights of Consumertronics Co.
or anyone else. And, although we have made every reasonable effort to
provide accurate, reliable and useful information, we assume no
responsibility whatsoever for errors or omissions.
Be careful and know what you are doing. Induced currents can injure or kill
and mistakes can also cause# property damage. All circuit diagrams are
simplified; add fuses and circuit breakers as required.
WATTHOUR METERS
There is nothing magical or sacred about watthour meters.
Like any high-grade scientific instrument designed to accurately
measure an electrical parameter (energy, in kilo-watthours)
under specific operating conditions and an ideal environment,
they lose accuracy when their operating and environmental
conditions are less than ideal and thru the process of aging.
Watthour meters measure electrical energy consumed in a
dynamic load by using the principle of the 2-Phase induction
motor. IN FACT, IF THE ROTOR DISK WAS
RESTRAINED, THE WATTHOUR METER BECOMES A
CONSUMERTRONICS CO.

The stator consists of a voltage (potential coil) with a compensatory winding. However. P. M. otherwise. disk speed is then proportional to consumed real power. and two current coils. . and PF (cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current). Four-wire polyphase systems usually require three single-phase meters. the true energy reading cannot b accurately determined. N. These sinusoidal rotor torques add to produce a resultant constant and steady torque. Our LOADFINDER pamphlet. imaginary and apparent power and how to make PF corrections. Williams ana DYNAMOMETER-TYPE POWER METER. The stator is energized by the combined effects of the line voltage and load currents. Thus. power consumed. Drawer537. The register assembly consists of a gear train that connects the rotor worm gear to the pnged dials in the meter's faceplate. among other information. the disk torque will be proportional to the product of RMS voltage. and the resister assembly. both torques are always in the forward direction because the current (or voltage) flux is always of the same polarity as the voltage (or current)- induced eddy currents.O. Essential features of watthour meters are depicted in Fig. there are different instances in the cydes of each torque component when the torques are reversed corresponding to those instances in which the line voltage and current are of different polarity. RMS current. and like the induction motor. Alamogordo. when the PF is less than unity (lag or lead~. P. The second rotor torque results from the interaction of the useful voltage flux with the current-induced eddy currents in the disk. the rotor assembly (includes disk) the retarding magnet(s).5. To translate the disk torque into disk sFed. The first torque component results from the interaction of the useful current flux (dw to load current) with the voltage-induced eddy currents in the disk. 1.Copyright ~ 1979 John J. This theoretically results in one constant sFed for every torque level. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Stopping Power Meters STATOR LINE 240 VAC CT~ToF~ ASSEMBLY ~ Worm Gear Braking Maon~. Although still initially constant . the disk sFed would increase until arrested by very low air and dVot friction. These powerful magnets generate an eddy current in the aluminum disk whenever it is moving. Two torques acting in the same direction but ~0 electrical degrees apart are generated. not imaginary. three-wire systems require two single-phase meters or one meter with two independent stators. This eddy current provides an opposing torque because its flux opposes that of the permanent magnets. explains real. 88310 Family. For ~I PF less than 0. As it turns out. 2 . average torque is diminished. The basic elements of the single phase meter are the stator assembly (electromagnet). one meter will always run BACKWARDS! Unless it is known for certain that PF is less than 0. rotor speed is proportional to line frequency.5. When the power factor (PF) is unity. permanent "braking" magnets must be provided. Thus. Thr~pha#. you will b billed for the real.

The four major manufacturers of watthour meters are: 1 ) General Electric. from thedisk or by adjusting the positions of the magnetic shunts that lie between their Pob faces and the disk. 2) Light-Load Adjustment. Utilities u ually limit this recallibration to: I) Full-Load Adjustment.Wrent Cojl Ll L2 TO LOADS 7~ ~Brskin~ M~n~t. 3) L~ Adjustment. but there have been some improvements in devoting.Comp~nsation Coil .. by turning the adjustment wh~l that has an "F" and "S" on it until disk speed is accurately ~t. This adjustment essentially adds a controlled torque due to the . At a loss of some accuracy.. it has not been uncommon for meters to run backwards under li~ht loads. This opposite notation is designed to fool and Fnalize meter tamFrers. due to voltage coil flux irregularities. However. This results from friction. To maintain accuracy watthour meters must b calibrated frequently. most modem meters are capable of measuring energies of up to 600% Full-Load Rabng.C~ S Current Coil ~ ~ ~ ~. NOTE: In some cases the "S" direction speeds the meter up while the "F" direction slows it down ~Duncan Meters). 4) Duncan. since then.- Fig. lack of linearity ~ ~ Registration Dials~ J ~ P ~ ~REGISTER ASSEMBLY. -- ROTOR AEStM~ ROTOR ASSEMBLY ~_ Rotor Plate . Then. This is the main adjustment that the utility will make when either you or it is concerned about the meter's ccurac~ 2) LIGHT-LOAD ADJUSTMENT Under light loads (10% of Full Load). in the generation of driving torque as a function of load current. It is done by assuring that the braking magnets are of suitable strength. I~ FULL-LOAD ADJUSTMENT The Full-Load Adjustment rating of most home and small business m~rs is 5 to 30 amps.~ ~ \Volta9. Slots and holes have ben put in the disks of modern meters to prevent the disk from moving at all under very light loads ~less than 1% Full Load). by carefully varying their positions. 1: Basic Elements of the Typical Induction Watthour Meter. and the presence of torques due to the potential flux acting alone caused by the lack of symmetry of the stator with respect to the disk. printed on meter face. roil design compenr. meter performance becomes nonlinear. The common inductance watthour meters design principle has remained unchanged since 1925. otc. meters usually overregister under light loads. tion. Uncompensated. This adjustment is made at full load and unity PF. 3) Westinghouse. 2) Sangamo.

3 voltage flux alone sufficient to provide the correct disk sFed for 10% unity PF loads. When it favors the utility. This adjustment is made at 0. between calibrations. you'll never hear about it. that claim is utterly false. it almost always results in underregistration. temperature. In reality. AND SOMETIMES EVEN DECADES. unless you take the initiative and even chronically complain. However. such as in the 1960s and early 1970s. However.2 leading. deterioration. Any lag adjustment made to inaea# disk sFed at lagging PF will decrease its speed for leading PF (capacitative load). but it is hardly noticeable unless the PF is small. When the error is in your favor.1S151. l~tO~ ~o~ ISgl. WATTHOUR METER INACCURACIES Utilities are fond of boasting that watthour meters are accurate to within ~1% of actual consumption under conditions where load currents vary from 0. 88310 N~nON~L ENQUII~EII. This condition is known as "meter aeeP. Wear. few people can now afford to pay for their actual consumption - much less for errors that are compounded by the Fuel Adjustment rip-off. No scientific instrument remains accurate if not frequently and precisely calibrated. And your meter will b recalibrated or replaced by one more favorably calibrated for the utility. the utility will seldomly adjust an overregistering meter to read the correct amounts. the Light. These errors can result in either your or the utility's favor. dirt. electromagnetic fields and vibration always take their toll. t~ Shppin~ Power Meters P. A compensatory lag coil (See Fig. humidity. Errors didn't matter so much when rates were fair. When the lag is out of adjustment.~USTMENT Since the voltage coil has some resistance. Meters usually spend years in operation. if the utility notices. and you will undoubtedly never collect a dime for past overpayments.Load and Lag Adjustments are provided by the same mechanism. Light Load and/or Lag adjustments are required. ~UI~I.2 lagging to 0. 11 or plate is provided to adjust the lag so that it is as close to 90as possible.M.3% to 400% and voltage from 80% to 120% of rated values.ED OFF~ 1S61.w~ n~. Under the above "field" conditions. or ~ FO' ~LLI~ IS201? CoNsUMERTRoNIcs CO~ P. Meter errors are caused by a number of factors.3) LA~ AD. you probably will b billed on a guessed-estimate arbitrarily determined by the utility to adjust your costs upwards. andlor you may b monitored by a pole meter. These errors exist even when the meter is precisely calibrated. A radial motion provides the Lag Adjustment while a circumferential motion provides the Light-Load Adjustment. The necessity of this adjustment is apparent if the disk turns in either direction when there is no load. this is the very best case error for precise ly calibrated meters under laboratory conditions. Compensation torque is provided by adding a shaded-pole loop known as the Light-Load Plate. and temperatures from -40 C to ~75 C. N. Often. They are accentuated when the Full-Load. cumulative error for a calibrated meter can be as high as 10096 under small loading conditions and higher than 10% under normal home/business loads WITHOUT having made any effort to "fool" the meter. mo~ordo. the voltage flux lags line voltage by less than 90~. many of them interrelated. In my opinion. . PF from 0. dtscribt manl~ other uulnerabilitie~ Nt-rd ~bout our shockin~ public~tion ~UTO~i~TIC ~L~ C~ E~ IS20l. ~. particularly an instrument in continuous outdoor use.5 lagging PF.o. Draw~r537 of C~ ~0 IIII~UT~.

ALL PERMANENT MAGNETS DEMAGNETIZE WITH TIME. The demagnetization of braking magnets ALWAYS results in rotor speed-up and over registration I 2) FREQUENCY ERROR Lille frequency seldomly varies more than ~ IX from 60 ~or 50) Hz.4) VERY HIGH OR VERY LOW LOADING Very low loading almost always favors the utility. the meter almost always reads high no matter the actual consumption. WE ARE ABSOLUTELY AND TOTALLY AGAINST BREAKING THE LAW IN ANY FASHION. 6) METER DISSIPATION Meters dissipate about IA watts on a continuous basis. 22-24 watts is required just to restart it. Any attempt to tamper with a utility meter is almost definitely illegal. particularly for high PFs. or eliminate the measurement of the electricity taken by any Customer or person on the premises. It is unclear to me whether the legal definition of tampering includes load control methods. . AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE. THIS INFORMATION IS PROVIDED FOR EDUCATIONAL AND INFORMATIONAL PU RPOSES ONLY. Meter ~can perform erratically when harmonically rich waveforms ~eg rectified sine wave) is applied to it at appreciable energy levels. WE MUST STATE CATEGORICALLY THAT NO METHOD IS PROVIDED FOR ILLEGAL APPLICATION WHATSOEVER. Some utilities define it ~: "Tampering means any unauthorized interference with the Company's equipment. if your meter is located where earthquakes have occurred. which would reduce the accuracy of the measurement. even stopping power meters without physically tampering with them or applying externally pnerated power. This error can possibly be as much as 100% of actual consumption. it costs you about one KWH Fr month in meter dissipation alone. 3) VOLTAGE ERROR Generally. Watthour meters read slightly high when voltage is low. The main cause# of this error is the increase in the voltage coil lag at low temperatures (temporary error) and demagnetization of the braking magnets permanent error) at high temperatures. Meter reads high at low frequencies ~to a point) and low at high frequencies. 2. even for compensated meters. Very high loading of meter results in 'overload droop. For the dubious privilege of letting the utility monitor your electrical consumption. THE RATE OF WHICH IS DETERMINED BY TEMPERATURE. causing it to either underregister or overregister. your meter may be put out of calibration in a very short period of time. Error is higher for low PF loads at low frequency. near heavy machinery. Error accentuates with decreasing PF and alone can be as high as 4% at 0. 6) VIBRATION AND SHOCK Vibration and shock will uncalibrate any scientific instrument . QUALITY. Thus. including meters or other property. and~ while consuming substantial power. Furthermore. a 10% variation of line frequency can result in a 1% or more error.5 PF." For low PF.METER ERROR SOURCES I) TEMPERATURE ERROR Meters read high between O and 8~F and low thereafter. up to the point where the meter stops turning. or any . watthour meters read substantially low due to significant AC damping that results in some braking. or near high traffic flows. The effects of most of these error mechanism are summarized in Fig. In cases of overvoltage. This phenomenon is called "overload droop" and is slightly higher for low PF. line voltage k stable to within+10% of rated.including watthour meters. if the disk stops turning. TIME. This section is dedicated to slowing down.

attached magnets. most people believe that public (?) utilities have been swindling them. commonly applied to induction motors in general. These are located on the top of or near to your service pole and are generally placed Just where your service drop connects into the main lines. as well as your meter. which has a folding hook that loops around the wire and closes to look like a folded question mark. Don't be like the old farmer who shot a hole in the side of his meter glass with 9 B-B gun. Thus. at night. Don't brag. Electrical' costs have soared several times what they should be. These practices are deadlyll Virtually every method that will slow or stop the meter employs loading that requires DC or frequency components somewhat removed from 6~ Hz.Power meters behave similarly. largly dependent upon meter and wiring. Fig. if you break into the meter attached to your property while standing on your property you could go Stoppin~ Pow~r Met~rs to jail for TRESPASSING! If your utility notices a sudden drop in usage or very low usage that cannot be explained. He would then slaN the meter da~n by inserting a piece of straw between the rotor disk and braking magnet. in fact. Broken meters and seals. No matter how precise they claim these meters to be." See our infamous but delightful GOOSY MOTHA'S FAIRY TALES publication ~$1. Furthermore..susceptibility of watthour meters to such conditions. are very obvious. Note: As the line frequency approaches either DC or high frequency. Even a little DC will eventually magnetize permanently the stator if applied long enough to provide lasting effects even after it is removed. Or they may b hard-wired. A pole 'J meter may be a meter similar to yours or it may be a currentscJuared-hour (~SH) meter. However. the utility will likely personalize you for this condition.95). He blamed the hole on. then that is their problem. A meter with only DC or RF energy imposed on it will not turn no matter how much energy is applied. "Vandals shooting up the place last weekend.they will probably sudd nly appear to examine the situation. which can be measured accurately by a utility PF meter. it will burn out first. Many people believe that if the untampered watthour meter provided by the utility is unable to adequately measure the amount of usage required by their particular desired loads. In the RF case.unauthorized connection of a meter. a 10% or so difference in readings can occur just from nominal differences between the meters. etc. Since a CSH meter does not indicate line voltage fluctuations. Few people dispute the need of a utility to get a fair retum solely based upon the service provided (but not upon the utility's investments~. No method of slowing or stopping a power meter should be based upon breaking a line neutral or fusing one. the error can be substantially greater than that of a pole meter watthour meter. Even a powerful induction motor can be made to practically stop on a dime when DC is applied. They may be the hook on tyF. DC brakes are. there are certain tones that do this best. . The hole was discovered by a meter retder five years later. the watt-hour reading tends to zero (disk stops turning). line droppage. and different environments. if your PF is extremely low. meter bypasses. They are usually easy to spot. Any DC will brake a meter similarly to the braking magnets. The utility may slap a pole meter on your line. 2 demonstrates the." utilities maintain easement rights over virtually every property they service. ExFa to be hassled if they ever discover this.

can more than handle worse case voltages currents and powers before proceeding to construct any drcuit. home-type auto-battery charger. For better transient suppression. GE. If you do not have a power or KW-HR meter to practice on.000 uf. Dept.ll arrangement. Fast load surges will be far underr~istered primarily due to he rotor inertia. Schenectady. This is becau# th e meter's voltage coil is across the outputs of the two rectifiers. C. rebuilt. ie rectified sine wave. rotor sFed will drastically slow down and may evenstop. Littell. NY. CAUTION: Line and induced volta~s can killl For all ehctrical projocts. Jr.High frequency components will simply underregister due to the impedances and hysteresis of the coils and rotor inertia. In our figurss. be certain that all circuit components induding wiring.rare-free psrformanres of semiconductors. Cl of Fi~s. 1 lelectrolytics. Problems involving the kickback of rectified AC into the DC power supply are evident. a substantial permanent decrea# in meter indication will result with time due to permanentlyinduced malfunctions. KW-HR meters can be obtained by mail from ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES. 4 illustrates two approaches of overcoming this problem. This problem is simply solved by running all your DC experiments with all the #nsitive loads disconnected. If you have induction motors or transformers~ they will also be adversely affected by any DC that reaches them. simpy bcause most of its harmonic energy is in freqwncies not very far from 60 Hz. and shields applianres from utility ripde control of them. To get the . good transient and riwle eliminstion protects induction motors and transformers. 7567 Rt. See Fiq. GE 1-14. Mixed frequencies. even with the Fig. insulated wire on'about a l" soft-iron core. 3. 6 and 7 do a good job. 115 VAC KW-HR meter for ONLY $2011 Owner's narne is Charles C. We u#d a very heavy duty charger (like that found in garages) and didn't ob#rve any malfunctions. With a DC current of about 5 Amps. 49A East. either can be obtained legally. and if its energy is high enough. U# sensible. In addition. ~ represents line neutral. Fig. making it possible to realize this method with a smaller. Iike-new. Transient suppression is required to assure long lasting. PIV designates peak inverse or reverse voltap. ripde. depandin~ upon load reactance. keepwell insulated and don't U# a core that can be touched (eg leg of a drill press). With the DC Method. and ~7 represents earth ground (ussd to ground cases in three wire 120 VAC systems). will cause the rotor to behave erratically. three major problem areas have ari#n.. capacitors and other components.. and utility apdiance and Peak Demand Meter control in detail. (513) 692-5641 . all meters should have tNnsient suppression. Harmonically-rich waveforms require more energy to stop a meter than DC or RF. 5 Amp. All figures are simplified circuit diagrams. does excellent work in this area with very good GEMOV 19 Varistors. Cl are PaFr-Oil typss or Fig. Our RIPPLED OFF pamphlet explains transients. Even without our methods. safe and accurate wiring techniques and procedures. as well as good judgment. Add fu#/drcuit breaker protection as required. They sell a real nice. L=1000 turns rriin. YOUR SAFETY IS TOTALLY UP TO YOU. 25 PIV min. frequency techniques are applied to the current thru the mster. OH 453C4. The# capacitors are required ONLY IF you apply the DC Method with other loads #nsitive to DC excitation (induction motors and tNnsformers tend to saturate) simultaneously running off the same meter. The Fig. Some are finding that the Cl (Blocking Capacitors) are very expensive. C=500 uf. 400 PIV. I) DC LOADS DC Loading is the hardest to accomplish but it is the most effective method. Arcanum. As with all suggested home- made inductors. 3 circuit only affeas the current coils of the meter. or DC working voltap for capacitors. and a re 1000 to 100. Since meter voltage is hard to alter. overly bulky or difficult to realize. at all times.

same as n Fig.anly Lo d4 Fig. Rect. havoc could result in their operations. suggested by many ''' readers but resulting in no real reduction in our experiments. We obtained satisfactory results with both approaches. CCs are Current Coils of meter. Fig. Other meters sharing the same power transformer #condary will also be slowed down. becau# the loads on any other meters will probably not be DC isolated. we used the circuit of Fig. |X. Be careful when using the DC mathod. ~Rect T ~rRect.~ ~ SFii9. Cs. is 1N1198A. (1N1198A) are the same as for Fig.voltage coil into the act. Voltage Coil (VC) is in the Q DC circuit. 3 (SPM) DC Method. are two t N 11 98A. Ls and Rects. 3: Direct Current Method. Rs are 120V heater elements. 5 approach. Inductor must be large. See text. Stoppin~ Power Meters P ~ Gt~ rl~t or IN~ _ n I Uni~er~ ~br 12-24 VDC~L lR1198~ 1 1 hlc~d~ ht. See text. Rect- S~ppl~ Xf rmr ~ ~-~IC1 Fig. However. R is a 120 Volt heater element load. 3. I3nDocf +allHaapproaches~ Each oth~r~[ ~= load block above repre#nts two ~ Lo~d~ r~L. T ~ Rect. C ~. ~ r~ DC ~ r-\~R ~ $Rect . 5. 5: Alternate DC Method. ~ I I ~ L~ Blocl~U c p~cltor Cl~ ~DC ~ ~C Lo d. 3. 9: Alternate Harmonic Method. 4: Two ways to overcome the back voltaging problem of O Fig. C and C1s. See text. but customers prefer the Fig.~U vAC loads in #ries. ~' a. See text. Rect. approximately equal l. $~ II ~ Fig. L=1000 turns minimum. See ~S teYt . 1 24) ~C B-ttery 6 ~ ch-rs~r.

Use Cautionl 2) HIGH FREQUENCY LOADS - High frequency loading is more easily accompished but less effective and consistent than the DC Method and will require "tuning. Radiated RFpowerbyonda small amount pnerally roquires prior FCC approval. 7. 7: Alternate Frequency Method using inductive coupling.01 and 0. See text.~ RG SB or 5 ~. swell and possibly even explode under these conditions. The former appears more effective. 10: Momentary Current Surge Method.001 uf. frequency or function generators. L=100 turns. more safe. ~. C is between 0. The big advantage here is that electrolytics are considerably cheaper and smaller and more available for large capacitances." Tone generators are also called signal. 6. the meter will indicate in reverse at everal frequency points. Tones may be steady or in bursts.Fig. 6. See text. Add fu#s or circuit breakers where necessary. Suitable capacitors may have to be found by a trial and error process. Very good shielding should be NOTE: All figures are simplified circuit diagrams. couple with an audio amplifier) to the meter. See text. 6: Frequency Method using capacitative coupling. The signal an be either hardwired to the meter. ~ ShppinS~ provided and all signal lines should b of minimal len~th and ~with good impedanoe matchin~. Why? We are not absolutely certain . Optimum frequency is emdrially determined. L1=100 turns. See FiF. DC rated electrolytics are not recommended by manufacturers for this type of application. or transformer ooupled to it. 6 and 7. but we have had good results using them. 400 PIV. Fig. the latter. All other values are the same as Fig. Meter will stop at certain "resonant" tones but run at higher tones. 11: An equivalent circuit for using electrolytic capacitors to do the job o f SCR or paper-oil types. C1=2' uf polypropylene. However. 6 circuit with the rn~r passing only a few 60 Hz amps. Fig. We found in certain cases that by using the Fig. Most well designed units with shorted output protection and the ability to deliver at least 5 amF (if necessary. Some may overheat. DC Pa~e ~ supply ~: Calp~ IIC l~d- Fig. Our TONE DEAF pamphlet conbins many useful designs. ~ ~i~l ~3 1 Other C~ _ Clr Fig. _ ~ ~ ~ ~1+ ~l~ Fig. audio.

DC may haw to be filtered out for some univarsal motors. tween our resul ts and the results of ot I do believe that permanent effects on meters.The circuit of Fig. then 8~0 PIV ue better. a arel 2 uf (non41ectrolytic) polypropylene capacitors. THIS CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS. In our Ist Edition of SPM... audio generators~ in our ?rd . the answer lies in the different effects on dif ferent meter tyFs The DC method problem of adver#lY affecting ~o~er '. This resulted in custo. filter out all AC components for a DC motor. Transient suppression is highly recommended. This method has very little effect on the ~most high frequency energy components very affectivelv. 9 as an easier alternative because it raquires only single 120 VAC/DC frequency points btl. 8 90t mixed reviecau# some custo- changed our limit frQm 100 Irlz to 10 KHz.veen 100 Hz and 1 KHz are vcry effec.ng tho 60 Hz Line comPonent. 7 fre~uencies. We tested it and found no observable nat reduction in tive in reducing meter indication. However. phasos and amditudes.~ loads. use polyc~rbonate or polyester capacitors. we recommended RF signals of 1 KHz to 1~0 KHz ~Figs. 6 and 7). The DC component will brake the meter movament while the harmonics will diminish tha total mater reading by making the meter bahave in an e~rrabc fashion. ~ ~r-egistration . 400 PIV capacitor across the motor terminals. Ferrite coras are preferred. and all harmonics fw an AC motor. Ll inductors are made from at least 100 turns each of both insulated meter lines and insulated tone pnerator lines. Rectifier surge current rating should b at least three times the combined sur~e currents for all loads. we . choose what. 8 BECAUSE IT RESULTS IN A FLOATED LINE NEUTRAL.Edition.or circuit fact or that explains therant differences be- ever range suits YOll beR. DC and 60 Hz components are produced ' along with an infinite number of harmonics that raddly diminish in power content. ' ' A number of people wggested the circuit of Fig. LslOO turns. USE GREAT CARE IN APPLYING THE CIRCUIT OF FIG. If polypropybne capacitors are not available.loading. mer feedback on successes of the 100 Hz to 1 KHz 'are-. The power lines and transformer will dissipate Blondel~s'Theorem). I have not yet been able to pinpoiy particular meter type mer complaints of filtering'pro~lems! Therefore. air cores are not nearly as good but will work if tone generator voltage and windings are high. tightly packed. POSSI8LY RESULTING IN SHOCK OR FIRE. 2" dia. Use a 2 uf non electrolytic. even though some ~ower Meters P. because of custo ~ metar i ndication even thous~h someomers more by it. We recommend 400 PIV ratings. Minimum PIV should b 800 volts.(to accommodate mer~ noticed a n et INCREASE in meter inion by using it. rhis method has no observable.I ~nder different loads to yross violations of Blondel's Theorem meters on the same transformer is usually nota problemwitH '~ ~See our~ KW-HR METERS book for an explanation of ~this method. unless you are in a high lightning strike area. If there is a lot of motor brush sparking. incandescant lighting and heater elemant steady state load currents. be sure to use heavy enough wiring to withstand.~ Rectifier must be rated such that its steadY state current ratin~ is at least twica the sum of all universal or DC motors. Frequency components below 1 KHz are difficul~-to filter ~ut without significantly attenuat.about the mechanism involved but believe that the revelsals are caused by a combination of voltage coil flux irregularities and voltage to current phase relationships. Whan a 60 Hz sine wave is half wave rectified.

Other substantial enerDy savings result because induction motors and transformers operate far more efficiently with clean electrical inputs.than the $200 or $12w ones peddled by these firms. '' 4~ HIGH SURG E. all waveforms are composites of simple sine waves of certain time to maintain.~ conditioning. drcuit should b desi8ned to best fit Vour needs. SCRs or Motor Star~r Relays should have minimum of 25 amp surge current rating. lUls a su~ested circuit. In fact.meter transientsll Thus.~ If this were so the frequency method des. time and money to effect. load side line filtering essentially duplicates our Frequency Method.and it ~loes not require special equipment or filtering of other loads. -their rflasoning is tDtally false ~usin~ theit owri-h~gicl1: minimiz e the power meter readhile also minimizing load ~iltering~wt all line transients on the -meter'~ LOAD side Variations.can be adiUSte d in combination with ener diodes for load to overregister. Our RIPPLED OFF 11 pamphlet (S3. The timers "the meter runs more slowly becaus~ transients cause meters . R~ watt minimum heater elements or incandescem bulbs. others will work.would be rnuch groater substantially u nderre8ister. and their reliability and longevity also substantially increases. under a very high transient environment. for spot welders simdy because their watthneters energV then absorbed by the' neter. 3~ HARMONIC LOADS This method is most practical and easiest toachieve.neters to overregistul ~Ow_ ~ JS required). costing under S20 for you tn make.thus greatly increasing transient current levels inside the metcr. the meter DOES SLOW DOWN USING JRAN c SIENT ELIMINATORS . LOW DURATION LOADS tors as energy savers. The author has received only one input from this method a person claiming that this method could permanently slow down meters by causing damage to the meter's current coils. that are as good .Fig.if not better .for loads NOT in the rectifier circuit. C-lOvv uf 400 PIV rn.inimum. either manuallv or autcally (more circuitry aibed herein would cause your.95~ describes transient and ripple eliminator circuits. to provide switching charistics that will ever. See Fig. much greater h~rmonic power is required for the same effects. According to Fourier Theory. anoodly amount of sient removal because transient eliminators much reduce~the total impedance as seen by the incoming transiNlts . This methquires the mnst than that absorbed by the meter and the load without tra~ knowledge. of 'coursej ' Fig. 8.because such filterinD INCREASES-~ - and not decreases . However. MAGNO-BRAKE TECHNIQUE . A nurr~ar of firms today are peddling trarlsient elimina. Thi s same effect is prodin spot weldin~ simply means that ALL of the incomin~ transient energy ~ operations and it is a fact that utilitick on an extra use fee dissipated BY THE METER ALONEI In fact~ the tran~ient . They state that by filtering out line ~ - transients (usin~ their 0ossly overpric~d c~rcuits. 10 depicts several powertchin~ circuits.

it can be made so effective that it would permanently wreck your meter by disrupting its carefully balanced mechanical system and/or by shorting out the voltage coil windings. 600 PIV polypropylene or other "poly" type upacitors. "The Flasher" managed to accidentally wreck his utility meter in this fashion. made us aware of the technique described in Fig.. Control t ~nk Circuit Xfrm~. The result of this damage can usually be physically observed . This technique is easier to apply than the DC Method and can be more effective. 12: Our infamous Magno-Brake Technique. 1 to 50 msec. The storage capacitor discharge can be controlled by an electromechanical or solid state relay (SSR~ or even a telegrapher's key. different timing schemes can . You should be able to control voltage level with a rheostat. We used a commercial photoflash unit alled a SYNCHRO TESTER (National Camera.An anonymous contributor.. 12 . z .02 ufl n U ~ C~p. we suggest that you disconnect all other AC loads from the rneter's circuit. 6. Be sure that other circuit components can easily and safely handle the voltage and power produced by whatever transformer you choose.). In fact. 1 H ~ r lOK ~ lOW~tt 0.the meter either fails to indicate or its action is erratic often with scraping sounds. Check with your amera store on vsrieties. The minimum stepup value of the plate transformer is 250 VAC. Plate transformers are cheap surplus items. 13 would work just as well. Colo. Inc. Transformers with higher step-up voltages result in a greater dramatic effect on meters. Mkter 240 V~C Photo- Fln~h CircUl t Fig. Our unit outputs about 400 Volts. Patience and perserverance are musts to get optimum results and to gain valuable experience and knowledge about meters." The circuit of Fig. R211~wirewound with bolt insert. C1=50 uf. 12. Englewood. When using any of the four methods desaibed. C-5. Fig. 50 Watts. See text. The former two can be electronically controlled to provide consistent and programmable results. effective home made "photoflash" circuit. duration per "flash. 13: Simple. whom I alll "The Flasher" (See our KW-HR METERS Book). Points A and B correspond to Fig. Voltage level duration and repetition rate should initially be low anri slowly inaeased until the desired results are realized. Why utilities would react to this in an hysterical manner is beyond me since they cavalierly inject line ripple onto your power line with no regard to the destructive effects it has on YOUR equipment and on YOUR lifel As with the DC Method. See text. 2000 West Union Ave. Ls are same as Fig.0 uf 600 PIV.

Vernon. Several past customers. IN 47374 .some very heavy. Listed below are some very good sources of magnet wire of virtually any gauge. NY 10550 Cornell Dubilier Elec.h~ in mind. NY 14830 Panasonic Co. Also. there may be some Friods that you find it highly advantageous to stop or even reverse your power meter while restoring it to normal opeNtions during other Friods. NJ 07094 Del Electronics Corp. distri_utors.) ELPAC Components Div. but magnet wire heavier than 18 gauge is almost never available in stores. 313t S. 645 Marshall St. P. Box 13i7 Norwood. Commerically available AC timers are excellent here. CA 92705 Sprague Electric Co. on ripping off the utilities. Div. Sandford Mt.sFcifications. Industrial Components 1 Panasonic Way Secaucus. The author has found that surplus sources are a good start. Or you may feel more oontent to remove your circuit completely between applications. Belden CorD. in which ca# you will need magnet wire to wrap your own. costs. Div.be used. or provide more detail on the sFcifics of these circuits. MA 01247 Corning Glass Works Electronics~Prod. Elect. upon their request. NJ 07648 Richmond. even though we have reFatedly stated that we absolutely are against any illegal applications whatsoeverl Many electronic retail outlets do not carry an adequate supply or selection of capacitors and many SPM lcustomers have written to us to supply them information on the SrOPPING POWER ME~ERS P. 8 capacitor tyFs suggested in our applications. etc. Adams. Magnet wire is available in various coatings. & Cable Corp. However. and the electrical parameters of the applia~tinn~ v~-. SORRYI We do not make or sell any of the described circuits.. (It is usually helpful if you provide them with the capacitor types and sFcifications needed. N. Standard Ave. Houghton Park A2 Corning. t 50 Avenue L Newark. gaups and lengths. 250 E. we INNOCENTLY provided more detailed information tried to rip us off with the complaint that we provided them "how to" info. For instance. O. Daburn Elect. whom. the values you need are not commonly available. we do not answer questions presented us. ELPAC Electronics Inc. length or coating. &nta Clara. We recommend the follnwing sources (of the many available) for capacitor information . 70 0ak St. NJ 071-1 Most of the awlications described herein require power inductDrs .

F. AirpDrt Ft. well over 10.C.M. It resulted in the author's infamous CBS "60 MINUTES" interview with Mike Wallace (March 5.Pontiac St. STOPPING POWER METERS is brought to you by: CONSUMERl~RONlCS GO.Essex Magnet Wire & Insul. LIBERATE GAS AND WATER. FIREBREATHER. Since then. KILLER WATTS. Grenier Fld. Other topics include: SURVIVAL GUNS & AMMO.. Inc.I.O. Alamogordo.FACT OR FAIRY TALE?. "Power Pilferage"~ and many important subsequent media coverages. etc. Send for our brochure with $. useful and money saving publications we offer. 88310 It is but one of the very informative. DrawerS37. 1978. Wayne. Our other energy publications include: KW-HR METERS Book. GOOSY MOTHA'S FAIRY TALES.30 in stamps or coin.' design and testing. SILENCE IS GOLDEN (Silencers). IN 46806 Ft. 3600 E. Wayne. HOLOCAUST AMERICA. MDVR Book. insights and experiences have been integrated into it. Elec. McGraw Edison Co. . RIPPLED OFF.2ND TO NONE?. Lots of luck and greates?of successes. Box 600 Ft. VORTEX GENERATOR and our newest and most controversial one of all: IRON GONADS. 1510 Wall St. X-RAY TO DEATH. Many customer contributions. IN 46801 STOPPING POWER METERS 3rd Edition is the culmination of years of work in the vital area of meter re#arch.with ever increasing popularity to be our very best #ller. Edis. The first edition of STOPPING POWER METERS W85 copyrighted in March 1976. P.D. V. This 3rd Edition contains all of the information found in the 2nd Edition (Copyrighted 1977) and STOPPING POWER METERS ADDENDUM (Copyrighted 1979). THE TESLA CONNECTION.. Div. .. LOADFINDER. X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X Another file downloaded from: The NIRVANAnet(tm) Seven & the Temple of the Screaming Electron Taipan Enigma 510/935-5845 Burn This Flag Zardoz 408/363-9766 realitycheck Poindexter Fortran 510/527-1662 Lies Unlimited Mick Freen 801/278-2699 The New Dork Sublime Biffnix 415/864-DORK The Shrine Rif Raf 206/794-6674 Planet Mirth Simon Jester 510/786-6560 "Raw Data for Raw Nerves" X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X .A. ' Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire Co. Munip.000 copies have sold nationwide and it continues . IN 46804 Manchester. Wayne. including our infamous MAGNO-BRAKE TECHNIQUE. NH 03101 Rea Magnet Wire Co. N.