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Counseling psychology is a general practice and health service provider specialty in

professional psychology. It focuses on how people function both personally and in their
relationships at all ages. Counseling psychology addresses the emotional, social, work, school
and physical health concerns people may have at different stages in their lives, focusing on
typical life stresses and more severe issues with which people may struggle as individuals and
as a part of families, groups and organizations. Counseling psychologists help people with
physical, emotional and mental health issues improve their sense of well-being, alleviate
feelings of distress and resolve crises. They also provide assessment, diagnosis, and treatment
of more severe psychological symptoms.

Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals , families and

groups to accomplish mental health,wellness, education and career goals.

Counseling (Burks & Stefflre, 1979)​ can be defined as a “professional relationship between
a trained counselor and a client. It is designed to help clients to understand and clarify their
views of their lifespace, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful,
well-informed choices and through resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal

The primary purpose of counseling is to create changes in mood, attitudes, behavior, thoughts
and feelings that have prevented the client from enjoying life and realizing his/her potential.
Counseling involves sharing sensitive, personal, and private information that may, at times,
be distressing. During the course of counseling, clients often experience periods of anxiety or
confusion. Counseling is best accomplished when it is a combined effort between the
counselor and client. Talking with a counselor, alone, does not guarantee success or progress.
The level of satisfaction for a particular individual is not predictable.

Acc. to ​Pepinsky & Pepinsky (1954)​ counseling is a process involving an interaction

between a counsellor and a client in a private setting with the purpose of helping the client
change his or her behaviour so that a satisfactory resolution of needs may be obtained.

Good (1945)​ defined counseling as the individualised and personalised assistance with
personal ,educational and vocational problems in which all pertinent facts are studied and
vocational problems in which all pertinent facts are studied and analysed and a solution is
sought often with the assistance of specialists and community resources in which counsellee
is taught to make his or her own decisions.

Blocher (1966) explains counseling as “ helping an individual become aware of himself and
the ways in which he is reacting to the behavioural influences of his environment .

Rogers (1952) describes counseling as the process by which the structure of the self is
relaxed in the safety of the client’s relationship with the therapists and previously denied
experiences are perceived and then integrated into an altered self.

All the definitions concur with the view that counselling is a process which involves bringing
about sequential changes over a period of time leading to a set goal. These definitions shows
that the counselor-counselee relationship is not casual but characterized by warmth,
responsiveness and understanding

● Counseling Vs Guidance
Guidance and Counseling both involve helping an individual in making choices about the
different things that might confront and confuse him.

Counseling is a psychological specialty that deals with research and applied work in
supervision, training, career development, prevention, and health. It focuses on a person’s
strengths, assets, environmental interactions, educational background, career development
and personality.

It helps clients to choose the best solution to a problem, through the process of listening and
questioning. It is important to note that counseling is not a giving of opinion and it is based
on a wellness model rather than a medical one.

A counselor’s basic concern should go beyond treating dysfunction or pathology. It should

deal with a client’s self awareness which should help him towards personal growth and

Counseling helps individuals to make changes whereas guidance depends upon the what
person values.

Guidance is defined as the act of guiding, giving leadership, supervision, direction or
professional guidance for future actions. It is usually provided to students in preparation for a
Guidance helps a person discover and develop his psychological, vocational and educational
potential in order to be happier and more useful in society. Each person is responsible for his
decisions and actions, but when he is young he will need someone more mature and
experienced to guide him through life and towards making the right decisions for himself.

Guidance is one way whereas counselling is two way process both counsellor and counselee
involves in the counselling.

Difference between Guidance and Counselling :



Meaning Guidance refers to an advice or Counseling refers to a professional

a relevant piece of information advice given by a counselor to an
provided by a superior, to individual to help him in
resolve a problem or overcome overcoming from personal or
from difficulty. psychological problems.

Nature Preventive Remedial and curative

Approach Comprehensive and In-depth and introverted


What it does? It assists the person in It tends to change the perspective,

choosing to help him/her get the solution by
the best alternative. himself/ herself.

Deals with Education and career related Personal and socio-psychological

issues issues.

Provided by Any superior or expert A person who possesses high level

of skill and professional training.

privacy Open and less private Confidential

Mode One to one or one to many One to one

Decision By guide By client

● Psychotherapy Vs Counseling
Counseling involves two people working together to solve a problem. It is a term that is used
in conjunction with many types of advice giving. For example, financial planning and
spiritual guidance are both types of counseling. Just about anyone may claim to be a
counselor if they are in the role of giving advice. The term counseling may also properly be
used to refer to what occurs in a relationship with a psychotherapist.

Psychotherapy on the other hand is generally a longer-term treatment that focuses more on
gaining insight into chronic physical and emotional problems. Its focus is on the person's
thought processes, and how these may be influenced by past events such that they cause
problems in the present. In other words, psychotherapy addresses the root cause and core
issues of current problems so that lasting change and personal growth may occur.

Counseling psychology emerged as an applied specialty within the American Psychological
Association (APA) in the 1940s. It has been recognized as a specialty by the APA since 1946,
and this recognition was reaffirmed in 1998 when the APA initiated a new period of
application for specialty recognition. Landmarks in the history of counseling psychology
include the establishment of the discipline in relation to the overall profession of psychology,
the creation of key professional journals, and important conferences held across the years.
Two organizations are considered key in the formation and development of counseling
psychology: the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) of the APA and the Council of
Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP), the organization for directors of
training programs in counseling psychology. Prior to 2004, SCP was typically referred to as
“Division 17,” so reviewers of original historical material should note this reference. In the
present entry, the terms SCP and Division 17 will be used as seems historically appropriate.

John Whiteley, a noted historian of counseling psychology, identifies the most distant seeds
of counseling psychology in the vocational guidance, mental hygiene, and
psychometrics/individual differences movements along with the emergence of nonmedical
and non-psychoanalytic forms of counseling interventions such as Carl Rogers’s
person-centered therapy. Later, the growth of counseling psychology was spurred by the
demand for psychological services created by the veterans returning from World War II.
Negotiations among representatives from the APA’s divisions 12 (Clinical Psychology) and
17 (then called Counseling and Guidance) and what was then the Veterans Administration’s
Central Office Staff in Clinical Psychology resulted in the creation of a new position for
psychologists in the VA system, “Counseling Psychologist (Vocational)” in 1952 to aid
veterans in their readjustment to civilian life. Because helping veterans gain employment and
education opportunities required different knowledge and skills than addressing
psychopathology and neurological injuries, this new position helped counseling psychology
to differentiate from psychiatry and clinical psychology and resulted in the growth of the
vocational guidance movement.

In 1946, APA recognized Division 17, Counseling and Guidance. Counseling psychology
topics began to be regularly reviewed in the Annual Review of Psychology under this title.
The Annual Review of Psychology helped to further legitimize the specialty by creating a
place for routine evaluation of the literature. In the 1950s, the explosion of enrollment in
higher education and the needs of the returning World War II veterans spurred significant
research in the areas of career development and counseling orientations. Theories of human
development and behavior grew out of these economic and social forces during this time
period, and client-centered, directive, learning, psychodynamic, humanistic, and existential
theories further developed.

Counseling psychologists held the first major conference on counseling psychology, the
Northwestern conference, in 1951. T. C. Gilbert Wrenn, the president of Division 17 at the
time of the conference, addressed the circumstances that he considered critical leading up to
the conference, focusing mainly on the content of training for doctoral-level counseling
psychologists, including practicum training. The Northwestern conference resulted in the first
set of standards for doctoral training in counseling psychology and the formation of the
Division 17 Committee on Definition. In 1956, the committee’s report, Counseling
Psychology as a Specialty, was an attempt to create a more inclusive statement defining
counseling psychology. Donald Super, the next president of Division 17 after Wrenn,
expanded on the statements made at the Northwestern conference. He helped to clarify the
functions of the division by assigning the Committee on Definition the task of developing a
formal statement regarding the boundaries and focus of the specialty and discussing the need
to differentiate between counseling and clinical psychology.

In 1952 the official name of Division 17 was changed to Counseling Psychology, and the
American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology announced that its diplomas would
include the term Counseling Psychology rather than Counseling and Guidance. The
appearance of the Journal of Counseling Psychology in 1954 and the continued reviews in
Annual Review of Psychology helped further establish the professional identity of counseling

Nature of counseling psychology

● Counseling is diverse and multicultural : ​counselors see clients with varied cultural
backgrounds and at different ages and stages of life . Those from minority cultures are
helped in a variety of ways depending on their needs which may include addressing
larger societal issues such as discrimination or prejudice.
● Counseling is conducted with different sizes of group such as individual,family,
other group settings : ​clients seen by counselors live and work in a wide variety of
setting and in all strata of society. Their problems may require short-term and
long-term interventions that focus on just one person or with multiple individuals
who are related or not related to one another.
● Counselling is a dynamic process : ​Counselors not only focus on their clients goals
but they also help clients to accomplish them. This dynamic process comes through
using a range of theories and methods . Thus, Counseling involves making choices as
well as changes. Counseling is lively and engaging .
● Counselling deals with variety of problems : ​Counselors work in areas that involve
a range of issues including those that are personal and those that are interpersonal .
These areas include concerns related to finding meaning,adjustment and fulfillment in
mental and physical health and the achievement of goals in such settings as work and
school. Counselors are concerned with social justice and advocate for the oppressed
and powerless as a part of process.
● Counselling should be based on theory of psychology
● Counselling is a profession
● Counselling encompasses variety of health specialities. It is an applied Field
● Counselling is interdisciplinary it comprises other fields such as anthropology, law,
mental heath , psychology, sociology etc.
● The mode of interaction is usually limited to the verbal realm. The counsellor and
counsellee talk to each other. Counselle talk about themselves, their thoughts,
emotions, actions, feelings, describe events. The Counsellor listens and responds in
some fashion to what the counsellee says to provoke further responses. The two of
them think, talk and share their ideas.

Goals of counseling psychology


1. Immediate goals (attending to client’s presenting problems)

2. Process Goals or intermediate goals (dealing with client’s anxiety inhibition

resistance during session)

3. Long Range Goals (self actualization, self realization,fully functioning, good

mental health)

These broader goals can be achieved through specific objectives :

1. Facilitating behavioural change : ​The goal of counseling is to bring about a change

in behaviour which will enable the client to live a more productive and satisfying life.
Dustin and George (1997) believed that a shift from general goals to specific goals
Enable both the client and counselor to understand precisely the specific change that
Is desired from counseling .

2. Promoting Decision making : ​An individual may have to decide among many things
like what career to pursue , whether to accept a new job, relocation,whom to marry
etc. counseling helps individuals obtain information ,clarify and sortout certain
personal characteristics and emotional concerns that may interfere with and be related
to decisions involved. It helps individuals acquire an understanding not only of their
abilities ,interests and opportunities but also of their emotions and attitudes that can
influence their choice of decision.
3. Improving Relationships :​ Much of one’s life is spent in social interactions with
other people get many clients have a major problems in relating to other people. This
maybe the result of the way client’s present their self image causing him or her to act
poorly in a relationship. It could also be due to lack of proper communication
happening as a result of inadequate social skills.Counselors work with their client’s
and help improve the quality of their relationships with others.

4. Facilitating Client potential :​ This goal can be viewed as one of those improving
personal effectiveness of the client. Bloteer suggest that :
a) Counseling seeks to maximise an individual possible freedom within the limitations
supplied by himself or herself and the environment.
b) Counseling seeks to maximise an individual effectiveness by giving him/her control
over his or her environment and the responses that are evoked by the environment.

5. ​ Enhancing Coping skills: ​Most of us inabilitively run into difficulties in the process
of Growing up and do not achieve all of our development tasks and a unique
Expectation is imposed on us by significant other which eventually leads to coping
Issues and difficulties. Inconsistency on the part of significant others may results in
Learning of behavioural patterns that are ineffective , moreover learned coping
Patterns may not always work as new interpersonal or occupational roles,role
Demands may create an overload and produce excessive anxiety for an individuals.
This maladjustment to daily living makes it an important goal of counseling .

6. ​Generativity , social Action And empowerment : ​Inspiring the person a desire and
Capacity to care for others and pass on the knowledge to contribute to the collective
Good through political engagement and community work. Working on skills awarenes
And knowledge that will help the client to take control of his or her own life
Empowers Such individuals .
Types of Counselling
Counseling can be classified variously (e.g : social,educational or vocational) and variety of
counseling techniques or approaches can be employed. There are Four types of counseling
situations : facilitative,preventive, developmental and crisis counseling.

1. Facilitative Counseling :
Facilitative counseling is the process of helping the client to clarify a concern , then through
self understanding and acceptance to devise a plan of action to work on the concern and
finally to act on it in a self responsible manner.
This type of counseling is often labelled ‘remedial’ or ‘adjustive’ as if one were correcting a
fault or an undesirable behaviour. Remedial counseling is interpreted as aiding an individual
to progress from a deficient stage to a functional one.
When we speak to the one to one helping relationship in facilitative counseling we agree with
carkhuff (1973) that the counselor aids the client through the cyclical process of exploration ,
understanding and Action. Concern in facilitative counseling include choosing academic
options,planning a career,getting along with family or fellow works or classmates and
identifying individual strengths , weaknesses , interests and aptitude.

2. Preventive Counseling :
Preventive Counseling is primarily programmatic as well as related to specific concern such
as an elementary school sex education program with the purpose of alleviating future
anxieties about sexuality and sexual relationships.
In preventive counseling ,the counselor maybe presenting information to a group or referring
individuals to relevant programs . The counselor may continue to work individually with
clients or on a group.

3. Developmental Counseling :
Developmental counseling is an ongoing process that occurs throughout an individual’s entire
lifespan. It focuses on aiding clients in achieving positive personal growth in any stage of
their lives.

4. Crisis Counseling :
Brammer (1973) states crisis is a state of disorganization in which the helpee faces frustration
of important life goals or profound disruption of his life cycle and methods of coping with
Belkin (1975) discussed the types of crisis such as loss of a loved one, drug induced
crisis,inability to cope with life situation , a family crisis and interpersonal crisis with one we
love or care about or so on. Crisis situation can be related to suicide attempts , unwanted
pregnancy , death of loved one, divorce, drug addiction , retirement or financial problem.
Regardless of the nature of problem , the counselor needs to accept the situation and
maintain personal poise and self assuredness.

Do’s in crisis Intervention :

● Remain calm and stable
● Allow client full opportunity to speak
● Ask object oriental Questions
● Deal with immediate situation first
● Have readily available resources

Don’ts :
● Don’t try to ‘cheer up’ to client
● Don’t ask the suicidal client to abandon his plans



Crisis Immediate Suicidal concerns,drug anxiety , Personal support,

rejection by lover, loss of loved ones, direct intervention,
sexual abuse. synthesis of
additional support.

Facilitative varies Job placement,academic problems, Individual

marriage adjustment counseling including
reflection of content
and feelings ,
directing Activities.

Preventive Specific Sex education, self and career Information- giving

time span awareness, drug awarness referral to relevant
(depending programs, individual
on the counseling regarding
program) program content and

Developme Continuous Developing Positive self concept in Aiding values

ntal (over the life elementary school,mid career change clarification,
span ) , acceptance of aging , illness and reviewing decision
deaths making , individual
counseling regarding
development in
conjuction with
significant others.

Personality characteristics of effective counselor or

skills needed

Foster (1966) and Guy (1987) delineated few personal qualities of an effective counselor.
● Curiosity And Inquisitiveness - a natural interest in people
● Ability to listen - the Ability to find listening stimulating
● Comfort with Conversation - enjoyment of verbal exchanges
● Empathy and understanding - The ability to put oneself in another’s place, even if that
person is totally different from you.
● Emotional insightfulness - comfort dealing with a range of feelings from anger to joy.
● Introspection - the ability to see or feel from within
● Capacity for self-denial - the ability to set aside personal needs to listen and take care
of others’ needs first
● Tolerance of intimacy - the ability to sustain emotional closeness.
● Comfort with Power - the acceptance of power with a certain degree of detachment.
● Ability to laugh - The capability of seeing the bittersweet quality of life events and
humor in them

Professional counselors are licensed mental health therapists who provide assessment,
diagnosis and counseling to people facing a variety of life stresses and psychological
problems. They help people with relationship issues, family problems, job stress, mental
health disorders such as depression and anxiety, and many other challenging problems that
can impact feelings of well-being and happiness. To be effective in their roles, counselors
should enjoy helping others and possess specific attributes and skills.

Communication Skills :​ Effective counselors should have excellent communication skills.

Although some of these skills can be honed during graduate school and are developed and
refined over the course of your career, you should already possess certain communication
skills before embarking on a counseling career. Counselors need to have a natural ability to
listen and be able clearly explain their ideas and thoughts to others.

Acceptance : ​Being nonjudgmental and accepting are important attributes in any of the
helping professions. But professional counselors must be able to "start where the client is at."
This phrase is often used in counseling to describe the ability to relate to clients with an open,
nonjudgmental attitude – accepting the client for who she is and in her current situation.
Counselors need to be able to convey acceptance to their clients with warmth and

Empathy:​ Counselors help people through some of the most difficult and stressful times of
their lives. They must be able to display empathy – the ability to feel what another person is
feeling. Empathy means that you are truly able to imagine what it's like to stand in someone
else's shoes. Compassion and empathy help your clients feel understood and heard.

Problem-Solving Skills :​ It's not up to a counselor to solve her clients' problems, no matter
how much she might want to help. But counselors must have excellent problem-solving skills
to be able to help their clients identify and make changes to negative thought patterns and
other harmful behaviors that might be contributing to their issues.

Rapport-Building Skills : ​Counselors must possess a strong set of interpersonal skills to

help establish rapport quickly with clients and develop strong relationships. They must give
their undivided attention to clients and be able to cultivate trust. Counselors need to be able to
place all of their focus on what their clients are saying and avoid being distracted by their
own personal problems or concerns when they are in a session.

Flexibility : ​Flexibility in counseling is defined as the ability to adapt and change the way
you respond to meet your clients' needs. You don't stay rigid and stick to a predetermined
treatment path when your clients require a different approach. Being flexible is one of the
most important attributes of a professional counselor. ​(Gerald Juhnke)

Self-Awareness : ​Self-awareness is the ability to look within and identify your own unmet
psychological needs and desires, such as a need for intimacy or the desire to be professionally
competent. This ability prevents your issues from affecting or conflicting with those of your
clients. Self-awareness has a major impact on a counselor's effectiveness ​(David

Multicultural Competency : ​Counselors help people from all walks of life. They must
display multicultural competency and adopt a multicultural worldview. Multicultural
competency means that you try to relate to and understand your clients regardless of their
race, ethnicity, religious or political beliefs or socioeconomic background.

Counseling in India
Counselling has not existed in the Indian subcontinent as a well-defined therapeutic modality.
Although psychology in India is fully interwoven with the ancient philosophical and religious
systems, knowledge related to mental health and human behaviour are not clearly articulated
and noticeably applied in the daily living. People tend to attribute various mental health
issues to evil spirits, evil eye or supernatural powers and prefer to go for
astrological-religious remedies even these days.
The roots of Psychology in India are indebted to ancient philosophical and religious texts.
The British system of education transplanted to colonial India not only asserted the
superiority of Western Knowledge, but also defended its position by degrading and
discouraging local systems of knowledge. The end of British Colonial rule in 1947 led to
major expansion in higher education in the 1950s and 1960s. In the last three decades, the
importance of cultural variables in understanding human development and behaviour has
received greater attention from psychologists both in India and abroad. India’s cultural
ethos is unique. It is predominantly a rural country, with many castes, tribes, languages,
religions and socio-economic disparities including rampant poverty and deprivation. As we
have entered in the new millennium, the field of psychotherapy in India is still struggling
with a number of unanswered questions and difficult challenges. Researchers have devoted a
tremendous amount of effort towards developing empirically supported therapeutic methods.
The use of Indigenous therapies - yogasana, meditation, vedantic psychotherapy, sufi
psychotherapy, guru-shishya relationship, opposites therapy-in clinical practice and their
effectiveness in the treatment of various forms of psychological disorder.

In this current Indian scenario, the demands of industrial globalisation and the globalised
education that influence various sectors, consequently have introduced counselling and
guidance services. However, as acknowledged in many parts of the world, the therapeutic
counselling that focuses on the comprehensive development of the person has not become
popular, with the exception of some urban centres. Taken as a whole, counselling is narrowly
identified and popularly associated with academic advising, career guidance and, further in
the industrial setting as performance counselling.
Whilst therapeutic counselling is slowly gaining popularity, there arise a need for indigenous
therapy models for efficient intervention and effective outcome. This is evidenced by the fact
that culture and worldview of the people in the Indian sub-continent are different than what
the western theories suggest. In spite of the fact that some Indian therapists integrate yoga
and meditation practices into counselling and psychotherapy process, there are no indigenous
counselling models that define unique counselling setting and stages, culture-specific
theoretical basis and the mode of practise which affect the process and outcome of
counselling for Indian clients.

For the last few decades there is growing realization that for better practice of psychiatry and
counselling we must make more use of the rich Indian philosophical and religious traditions.
Prof. N.C. Surya of Bangalore was one of the early thinkers to draw attention to this. Prof.
N.S. Vahia of Bombay was another pioneer who through many articles popularized the use of
Yoga for treatment of neurotic and psychosomatic disorders in India. Prof. A.Venkoba Rao
has more than once beautifully written about the value of Srimad Bhagwad Gita in
psychotherapy and for understanding the functions of mind. Unfortunately, the uses of stories
from Indian mythology have received relatively little attention.
Ethics is generally describe the collectively agreed upon correct behaviours within the
context of a professional group (gladding,remley and huber 2001) (Swenson 1997).

Ethics is defined as a philosophical discipline that is concerned with human conduct and
moral decision making (Van hoose & kottler, 1985).
Ethics are normative in nature and focus on principles and standards that govern relationships
between individuals . ‘Professional ethics’ are beliefs about behaviour and conduct the guide
professional practices’ .

The study of ethics provides guidance for professionals,aids in stating their professional
responsibilities to society,provides society with reassurance and helps professionals to
maintain integrity and freedom.
The personal identity of the counselee must be strictly kept hidden and guarded and not
shared with any one without counselee’s permission. The only expectation is in the case of
small children for their welfare, parents and guardians can be given the identity of child

Along with the personal identity protection , whatever content that the counselee shares,must
be protected and not shared or else the counselee loses confidence in all counsellors and may
doubt the profession itself. The only expectation can be made in special cases where a
counsellor may feel the need to share some counsellee communication with
fellow-professionals for expert advice to solve counselle’s problems.

Counselee’s Right as Consumers

Despite healthy relationship between counsellor and counsellee , optimum benefits must be
received by counsellee in proportionate exchange of the time spent ,expenditure , incurred
and expectations inmet.

No Exploitation
Counsellee’s exploitation or physical/sexual abuse or emotional abuse is unpardonable .
Since the counselee during counselling process at some stage or another may become
emotionally dependent /attached/entangled with counsellor , he/she may be in a vulnerable
position , the counselor must still maintain emotional detachment within and not
abuse/misuse counselee’s vulnerability.
Equality Relationship
The counselee’s human dignity must be respected and equality -relationship during
counseling sessions should be maintained . If counsellor feels superior to counsellee by virtue
of own expertise, the counselor may become dominating . If counselor feels lesser than
counselee, the counselor may lose confidence to counsel.

Legal Issue
Sharing information incidents and actions by counselee during counseling is legally
‘privileged communication’ and none of it , in full or in part should be ethically shared,
disclosed or made public. Such a revelation will be not only personal-moral offence but also
legal offence.

Credentiality and Licensure

No one without proper education ,training and credentiality must take on the most noble
profession of being a ‘mental health practitioner/counselor or else it will mean deception of
innocent ,suffering people as counselee’s . Licensing is compulsory in some countries ,but
not in all countries. So without licensing ,it is a counsellor’s own professionalism to be
honest about his/her specialization ,credentials and expertise. Despite credentiality and
expertise ,the counsellor must ‘refer’ a counselee , if counselor feels inadequate experience
for a specific problems.

● Gladding, S. T. (2012). Counselling: A Comprehensive Profession. (7th Ed) New

Delhi. Pearson.

● Belkin, G. S. (1998). Introduction toCounselling (3rd Ed.) Iowa: W. C. Brown.

● Counselling Vs guidance - ​​ -

● Kabir, S.M.S. (2017). Essentials of Counseling. Abosar Prokashana Sangstha, ISBN:

978-984-8798-22-5, Banglabazar, Dhaka-1100

● Whiteley, J. M. (Ed.). (1984). Counseling psychology: A historical perspective. The

Counseling Psychologist, 12(1).

● Psychotherapy Vs counselling - ​​ -

● Arulmani, G. (2007). Counseling psychology in India: At the confluence of two

traditions. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 69-82.

● Difference between counselling and guidance - ​Syed Muhammad Sajjad Kabir (2017)
- ​​-

● Characteristics of an effective counselor - Ashley miller (2018) -​-​

● Corey, G. (2009) Counselling and Psychotherapy; Theory and Practice.(7th Ed.) New
Delhi: Cengage Learning.