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Test with Omicron CMC

Test Method

10/99 ME 1.1671

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TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440 Contents
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 1 of 2

1. TESTING USING DIFFERENT MODELS OF THE CMC SOFTWARE 1

2. SAMPLE TESTS WITH RECORDED VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS


OF CMC 1

3. HOW USE THE CMC TEST EQUIPMENT WITH EPAC/PXLN RELAYS 3


3.1. Transients during fault establishment 3
3.2. Phase shifting between voltage memory and fault current 3
nd th
3.3. What should the Omicron testing box do for tests in 2 and 4 quadrants: 3

4. SETTING OF EPACPXLN RELAYS FOR SIMULATION WITH CMC


OMICRON TEST EQUIPMENT 3

5. EPAC FAULT MODEL 9


5.1. Phase-to-ground fault 9
5.1.1. Network model 9
5.1.2. CMC OMICRON setting 11
5.1.3. Fault simulation 12
5.2. Two phase fault : Phase-to-phase fault 15
5.2.1. Network model 15
5.2.2. CMC OMICRON setting 16
5.2.3. Fault simulation 17
5.3. Three phase fault 20
5.3.1. Network model 20
5.3.2. CMC OMICRON setting 20
5.3.3. Fault simulation 21
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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 2 of 2

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 1 of 23

1. Testing using different models of the CMC Software


Within the distance protection element of the CMC-software there are different
choices of models for the test.
The two most commonly used are:
Constant test current:
The test current is preset (e.g. at twice the nominal current) and the fault voltage is
calculated accordingly to represent the fault impedance.
For this model no phase jumps between the prefault and fault voltages will occur
(for a phase-phase fault this is true only for the ph-ph voltage and not the ph-n
voltage).
Constant source impedance:
This model uses a model with a definable complex source impedance. The fault
currents and voltages are determined by the nominal voltage, the source and fault
impedances.
For all cases, where source impedance and fault impedance have different angles,
a phase jump between prefault and fault voltages will occur .
The fault inception angle can be set to be random or fixed at a specified angle. To
perform an even more realistic simulation a superposition of the decaying dc-
component to the steady state fault signal can be activated. In this case there will
be no jumps in the current signals. All these parameters can be set on the manual
test page.

2. Sample tests with recorded voltage and current


waveforms of CMC
All the tests shown are performed with an A-B-C fault in the impedance plane.
The waveforms are captured at the CMC outputs IA (trace A) and VA (trace B) using
a Fluke 97 scopemeter and a LEM current sensor.
Shot with model constant test current, fault location at 6 Ohm, 0°, no dc-offset
fault inception at 0 deg: fault inception at 90 deg:
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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 2 of 23

As you can see, there are no transients created by CMC, but a step change from
the steady state prefault signals to the steady state fault signals. To force currents
starting at 0 deg (possible for single phase and phase-phase faults, for three-phase
faults only in one phase), the fault inception angle has to be set
accordingly.

Shot with model constant source impedance, source impedance 9.105 Ohm
64.62°, fault at 6 Ohm, 0°
without dc offset with dc-offset

There is a phase jump between the prefault and fault voltage according to the
network model used.
If dc-offset is selected, the current starts at 0 independently from the fault inception
angle.
If the test is made with identical phase angles for source and fault impedance , no
phase jump in the voltage signals occur:
Fault at 6 Ohm, 64.62°
without dc-offset with dc-offset
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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 3 of 23

3. How to use the CMC test equipment with P441 and


P442 relays

3.1. Transients during fault establishment


The CMC doesn‘t create transients during fault establishment but a step change
from prefault to fault steady state signals. The recorded waveforms seem to be
influenced by the input circuitry of the relay. (as compared with to recorded
waveforms shown above).
To avoid a jump in the current signal, two possibilities are given:
- select the proper fault inception angle,
- activate the superposition of the dc-offset.

3.2. Phase shifting between voltage memory and fault current


A phase shift only occurs if testing with the model ‚constant source impedance‘ and
is caused by the physics of the model. The same behaviour will be observed in the
real system for a close-in fault with pure resistive fault impedance.
Use the constant test current model to avoid phase jumps

3.3. What should the Omicron testing box do for tests in 2nd and 4th
quadrants
The fault current(s) have, if possible, to start with a zero phase shifting.
This is possible with the right selection of the fault inception angle. The preferred
solution is to use the dc-offset component forcing the currents to start at 0
magnitude (not 0 phase angle). This reflects the reality better, where the fault
inception angle can be any.

4. Setting of P441 and P442 relays for simulation with


CMC OMICRON test equipment
Rating voltage UN
UN Phase-Ground : rating voltage in menu „Line“/P44* setting
VN Phase-Phase : √3 x UN Phase-Ground
Maximum voltage
P441/P442 technical data:
Permitted continuous maximum voltage: 2.2 × VN
Maximum current
P441/P442 technical data:
Permitted continuous overload current: 4 × IN
Overload current 30 × IN during 5 seconds
100 × IN during 1 second
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Permissive tolerance
Tolerance of impedances in % and absolute:
The accuracy for the first zone is 5% and 10% for the other zones.
You can set:
Z in % = 10%
Z in Ω = 5% of X3 if X3 ≥ X4
5% of X4 if X3≤ X4
with X3: reactance Zone 3 in the P44* menu
X4: reactance Zone 4 in the P44* menu
Tolerance of tripping times in % and absolute:
You can set:
t in % = 10%
t in sec = 30% of (t2 - t1) with a minimum value of 100 ms.
with t1: tripping time of Zone 1 in the P44* menu
t2: tripping time of Zone 2 in the P44* menu
Time reference fault inception
If you do not connect the starting output contact of the protection relay, you must
select “ fault inception ” as the time reference. So the CMC will display the time
between the fault inception and the protection trip.
Maximum permissible instantaneous tripping time in s
P441/P442 technical data (at 50 Hz):
The maximum tripping time with a Source Impedance Ratio of 30 is ≤ 30 ms.
The maximum tripping time with a Source Impedance Ratio of 40 is ≤ 40 ms.
You must set:
Maximal Tripping Time = 40 ms + T1 (if T1 ≠ 0 ms)
Test current
I test current = 2 x IN
with IN: rating current in the P44* menu
If the overcurrent back-up protection is enabled in the P44* menu, you can set:
I test current = 1.2 × I>2
with I>2: threshold overcurrent back-up protection
Test line angle
Phi Test = Phi Line
With Phi Line : line angle in the P44* menu
Connection of the voltage transformer
You must choose between „line“ and „busbar“.
If you select „busbar“, the voltages will be not switched off after the fault simulation.
Network model
The relay has four negative sequence impedance coefficients kZ1, kZ2, ZP, kZ3-4.
The measurement of impedance for phase-to-ground faults is based on kZ1 for a
fault in zone 1, on kZ2 for a fault in zone 2, etc. You can use them if you have an
application with cable/line between two sub-stations.
During the simulation with the CMC test equipment, you must set the same value
for all negative sequence impedances (kZ1 = kZ2 = ZP = kZ3-4).
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Distance Protection Functions


P441/P442 are full scheme protection relays. All digital distance relays work on
numerical measuring principles with simultaneous measurement in all zones and
phases. They are equipped with simultaneous measuring principles consisting of :
! a superimposed measuring technique,
! a conventional measuring technique.
Both techniques are used individually and simultaneously for starting, phase
selection, directional detection and impedance measurement. A parallelogram
characteristic is used for phase and earth fault measuring elements enabling high
fault resistance coverage and proper settings to avoid load encroachment even
under the most adverse conditions.

Measurement of distance to fault and apparent resistance


The P441/P442 distance relays calculate the value of both these parameters of the
fault.
To calculate these parameters the following equation is used :
U = XV + RW, where
X = distance to fault from relay equation,
R = apparent resistance,
U = voltage at relay location,
W = fault current image,
V = voltage drop on line per unit of length.
nd th
Directional characteristic (angle in the 2 and angle in the 4
quadrant)

CONVENTIONAL ALGORITHMS :
Simultaneously and in parallel to superimposed algorithms, conventional
algorithms are used for starting, direction detection, phase selection and distance
measurement.
Starting and distance measurement are based on the result of fault resistance and
fault distance calculations carried out simultaneously on all six loops. Unfiltered
quantities are used for U (voltage at relay location), V (voltage drop on line per unit
of length) and W (fault current image) for the first few samples after fault detection,
subsequently filtered quantities are used. The fault direction is defined on the basis
of the calculation of the phase shift between the stored voltage and the derivative
of a current. The current and the voltage used are those of the measuring loop(s)
defined by the phase selection. The directional characteristic for the
“ conventional algorithms ” is fixed by −30° and +150°.
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Figure 4.1: Directional characteristic for the “ conventional algorithm ”


HIGH SPEED SUPERIMPOSED ALGORITHMS :
Considering that the network in steady state, i.e., pre-fault stable operating
conditions, the occurrence of a fault creates a new operating state, i.e., a faulted
network. If no other modifications have occurred in the network meanwhile, the
difference between the two states (prior to and during the fault) must have been
caused by the fault itself including the two states in the same linear domain. A
superimposition principle can be used, which states that the quantities under fault
are equal to the sum of pre-fault quantities and the fault generated quantities. For
the latter the fault behaves as a voltage source at the fault point with a value equal
to the negative of the pre-fault voltage at that point with source voltages replaced
by short circuits.
Series capacitors are used in power systems for following purposes:
! by reducing the effective reactance of the line, they ensure higher power
transfer capability,
! series capacitors improve the VAR balance in a line and hence reduce its
voltage regulations,
! by reducing the effective reactance capacitors they may be used to balance
the loading in parallel circuits.
The effects of series compensation on line protection is to introduce into the circuit
a new element of negative capacitive reactance where the distance relay has to
perform its protection tasks.
Negative impedances may be measured for forward faults (fourth quadrant) and
positive impedance for reverse faults (second quadrant), contrary to
conventional algorithms, depending on the location of the fault. All the
distance relays are based on impedance measurement principles, but the P441
and P442 relays, using the high-speed algorithms, are able to operate with series
compensated lines. The forward or reverse fault decision must be taken correctly
by the directional element which is also exposed to new and difficult conditions.
Directional decision in conventional relays is based on comparison of current
direction. In EPAC and PXLN a new philosophy of directional
detection is used based on the sign of the transition energy for the
superimposed algorithms and, full-memory pre-fault voltage synchronised to
faulted network frequency is employed for the conventional algorithm, which helps
the relay take a correct directional decision for all system, fault and compensation
conditions.
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The directional characteristic for the “ high-speed algorithms ” is fixed by +90°±


2.5°

and +270°± (dead zones between +87.5° and +92.5° AND between +267.5°
2.5°

and +272.5°).
Fault direction is detected according to the sign of the transition energy
characterising the fault. Transition energy is the energy created by the fault and is
given by:
S = ∫ U . I . dt
The sign of the energy is used for detection of fault direction as follows:
Considering the transition network for both forward and reverse faults, as all
sources are replaced by short circuits in the transition network, behind the relay
location the network consists of only passive impedances (resistive inductive or
capacitive the total reactance however cannot be capacitive as no line is
compensated over 100% in series capacitor applications). There, Zs
(source impedance) is always positive and so is:
∆ U = ∆ I . Zs
For forward faults ∆ I is in reverse direction to relay current polarisation.
The power taken through the relay is: P = - ∆ I ². Zs
The energy is: S = - ∫ ∆ I ². Zs. dt, which is always negative.
Similarly, for reverse fault:
∆ U = ∆ I. Zs is positive while ∆ I is in same direction as the relay current
polarisation, hence
P = ∆ I ². Zs and the energy (S = + ∫ ∆ I ². Zs. dt,) is always positive for reverse
fault.
Transient energy S is always imported on the relay side and its sign does not
depend on the inductive, capacitive or resistive nature of the network impedance’s,
therefore the directional detection is correctly applicable to all lines’ series
compensated or not. For a three phase network transition, energy is expressed as :
S = ∫ (∆UA . ∆IA + ∆UB . ∆IB + ∆UC . ∆IC ). dt
Which is computed digitally as :
ni

S = Σ (∆UA i. ∆IA i + ∆UB i . ∆IB i + ∆UC i . ∆IC i )


no

where “ no ” represents the moment when the fault is detected.


S < 0 for forward faults.
S > 0 for reverse faults.
The directional decision is authorised if :
∆ Ui = (max. of ∆UA, ∆UB, ∆UC) > 0.1 Un / √3
∆ Ii = (max. of ∆IA, ∆IB, ∆IC) > 0.2 In, and
S ≥ 5 . ( 0.1 Vn . 0.2 In . cos 85°)
This sum is calculated on five successive samples. If these conditions are not
fulfilled, directional decision is based on the conventional algorithm.
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Figure 4.2: Directional characteristic for the “ high-speed algorithm ”


nd th
Testing in the 2 and 4 quadrants :
The fault current(s) have, if possible, to start with a zero phase shifting.
This is possible with the right selection of the fault inception angle. The preferred
solution is to use the dc-offset component forcing the currents to start at 0
magnitude (not 0 phase angle). This reflects more the reality, where the fault
inception angle can be any.

Z3

Z4 Tripping at T1

For the P440 relays:


nd th
If you want to simulate an automatic fault cycle (also in 2 and 4 quadrant), you
must deactivate the high-speed algorithms. To do this, you must set a tripping time
for the first zone at least equal to 50 ms (the „high speed algorithms“ operate only
during the first 40 ms after the fault appearance).
Starting zone
The relay provides an overcurrent back-up protection. This function is used to deal
with faults detected outside the start-up characteristic. It initiates a three-phase trip
if the current threshold is exceeded for a settable length of time. It constitutes a
back-up protection against forward and/or reverse current faults.
That function is associated with two settable current thresholds, a high threshold
I>1 and a very high threshold I>2. A direction can be associated with each of these
thresholds so that only the threshold overreaches detected on one side or the other
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of the protection relay are taken into account. Each current threshold has a settable
time delay associated with it.
A typical P44* overcurrent back-up protection setting for the CMC OMICRON test
is following:
Threshold I>2 : threshold I>
Direction of I>2 : forward
Direction of I>1 : without direction
I>1, tI>1
I>2, tI>2
Z4
tZ4 Z3
tZ3
Zp
tZp
Z2
tZ2
Z1
tZ1

The overcurrent back-up protection will trip if the conventional algorithms are not
active (none of the six measuring loops converges within the distance characteristic)
or if a fuse failure has been detected but is yet unconfirmed. Therefore the time
selectivity can be respected.
For the simulation with CMC OMICRON, you must set:
Starting zone: yes
Direction back-up time:
Direction: Forward (direction of I>2)
Time t: tI>2
Time limit: Time t: tI>1 without direction (direction of I>)

5. EPAC Fault Model

5.1. Phase-to-ground fault

5.1.1. Network model


The network model used by the relay is as follows:

Figure 2-1: Simulation of the phase-to-ground fault


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For a phase-to-ground fault, we have:

V1 = V0 + Vd + Vi + RFault J = Z0 I0+ Zd Id + Zi Ii + RFault J


I1 = I0 + Id + Ii with Id + Ii = I1 – I0
For a line, we have Zi = Zd
V1 = Z0 I0+ Zd ( Id + Ii ) + RFault J
V1 = Z0 I0+ Zd ( I1 - I0 ) + RFault J
IR = 3 x I0 with IR residual current
IR Z0 IR
V1 = Zd [ I1 - + ] + RFault J
3 3 Zd
(Z0 - Zd)
With k0 = 3 Zd
IR (Z0 - Zd)
V1 = Zd [ I1 + 3 Zd ] + RFault J

V1 = Zd ( I1 +k0 IR ) + RFault J
For the tests, we have: IR = I1 = J

V1 = I1 [ Zd (1+k0) + RFault ]

V1
= Zd (1+k0) + RFault
I1
with:
V1 : fault voltage
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
The P441/P442 measure :

V1 R
= Zd + Fault
I1 (1+k0) (1+k0)
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5.1.2. CMC OMICRON setting


The CMC OMICRON test equipment can simulate the k0.

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

Zd

ZFault

Rph-gnd

The CMC OMICRON test equipment cannot simulate the fault resistance and add
it to the line resistance. This means that you must set the following values in the
CMC OMICRON test equipment:
RP44*
R OMICRON = (1+f )
R

X OMICRON = ZP44* x sin Phi


(R0 - Rd) (X0 - Xd)
With fR = 3 x R and fX = 3 x X
d d

Examples :
R01: negative sequence resistance for the first zone
X01: negative sequence reactance for the first zone
Rd: positive sequence resistance of the line
Xd: positive sequence reactance of the line
Phi: line angle
RP44*: fault resistance setting in EPAC relay
ZP44*: zone setting in EPAC relay
With :
R01 = R02 = R0P = R03-4 = 31.45 Ω
X01 = X02 = X0P = X03-4 = 126.138 Ω
Rd = 8.975 Ω
Xd = 35.998 Ω
Phid = 76°
Z1 P44* = 29.68 Ω (impedance for zone 1)
Z2 P44* = 44.52 Ω (impedance for zone 2)
ZP P44* = 55.65 Ω (impedance for zone P)
Z3 P44* = 74.19 Ω (impedance for zone 3)
Z4 P44* = 18.54 Ω (impedance for zone 4)
R1 Ph-Grd = 15 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone 1)
R2 Ph-Grd = 20 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone 2)
RP Ph-Grd = 25 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone P)
RLim Ph-Grd = 30 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zones 3 and 4)
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(R01 - Rd)
fR = 3 x Rd = 0.835
(X01 - Xd)
fX = 3 x X = 0.835
d

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#:
R1 Ph-Grd P44*
R1 OMICRON = (1+fR) = 8.17 Ω
X1 OMICRON = Z1 P44* x sin Phi = 28.80 Ω
!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#;
R2 P44*
R2 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 10.90 Ω
R
X2 OMICRON = Z2 P44* x sin Phi = 43.19 Ω
!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#<
R3 P44*
R3 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 13.62 Ω
R
X3 OMICRON = Z3 P44* x sin Phi = 53.99 Ω
!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#=
RLim P44*
R4 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 16.35 Ω
R
X4 OMICRON = Z4 P44* x sin Phi = 71.98 Ω
!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#>
RLim P44*
R5 OMICRON = = 16.35 Ω
(1+fR)
X5 OMICRON = Z1 P44* x sin Phi = 18.02 Ω

5.1.3. Fault simulation

V1
= Zd (1 + k0) + RFault
I1
with:
V1 : fault voltage
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 =1A
Phi1 = 0°
V1
I1 = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault
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Xph-gnd

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-gnd
Rph-gnd

with Zd = 0
V1
I1 = ZFault = RFault = R1 Ph-Grd
V1 = I1 x R1 Ph-Grd = 1 x 15 = 15 Volts
?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 =1A
Phi1 = 90°
V1
I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

ZFault
Z1
Rph-gnd

RFault = - Z1 . cos Phid . (1 + k0) = - 29.68 x cos 76 x (1 + 0.835) = - 13.17 Ω


Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω
X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω
V1
I1 = ZFault = Z1 . (1 + k0) + RFault

V1
I1 = X1 . (1 + k0) + Z1 . cos Phid . (1 + k0) + RFault = X1 . (1 + k0)

V1 = I1 . X1 . (1 + k0) = 1 x 28.80 x (1+0 .835) = 52.84 Volts


?,+.#/5#.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 =1A
Phi1 = Line angle = 76°
V1
I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault
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Xph-gnd

ZFault=Z1
Rph-gnd

With RFault = 0 Ω and Zd = Z1


V1
I1 = ZFault = Z1 . (1 + k0)

V1 = I1 . Z1 . (1 + k0) = 1 x 29.68 x (1+0 .835) = 54.46 Volts


?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#9:#C8.)#*#5*26.#1,+8+.*37,#,D2*6#./#&:#<)-E14#A
I1 =1A
Phi1 = Fault angle
V1
I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

Z1

ZFault
Rph-gnd
R1h-gnd/(1+k0)

Z1.sin Phid
With Phi1 = Arctan (Z .cos Phi + R
1 d Fault / (1+ k0))

Zd = Z1 and RFau(lt = R1 Ph-Grd


29.68 x sin 76
Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 15 / (1 + 0.835))
Phi1 = Arctan (1.87)
Phi1 = 61.93°
V1
= ZFault = Z1 (1 + k0) + R1 Ph-Grd
I1
V1
= √ (Z1. cos Phid . (1 + k0) + R1 Ph-Grd )² + (Z1. sin Phid . (1 + k0))²)
I1
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V1
I1 = √ (29.68 x cos 76 x (1 + 0.835) + 15 )² + (29.68 x sin 76 x (1 +
0.835))²)
V1
I1 = 59.89 Ω

V1 = 1 x 59.89 = 59.89 Volts

5.2. Two phase fault : Phase-to-phase fault

5.2.1. Network model


The network model used by the EPAC relay is following:

Figure 2-2: Simulation of the phase-to-phase fault


For a phase-to-phase fault, we have I0 = 0, V0 = 0 and Z0 = 0.
For a line, we have Zi = Zd
I1 = - I2
U12 = Zd . I12 + RFault /2 . I12
U12 = Zd . ( 2 . I1 ) + RFault /2 . ( 2 . I1 )

U12 = I1 . [ 2 . Zd + RFault ]

U12
= 2 . Zd + RFault
I1
with:
U12 : fault voltage phase-to-phase
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
The P441/P442 measure :

U12 R
= Zd + Fault
2 . I1 2
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5.2.2. CMC OMICRON setting

Xph-ph

RFault/2

Zd

ZFault
Rph-ph

The CMC OMICRON test equipment cannot simulate the fault resistance and add
it to the line resistance. That means, you must set the following values in the CMC
OMICRON test equipment:
RP44*
R OMICRON = 2
X OMICRON = ZP44* x sin Phi
Examples :
Rd: positive sequence resistance of the line
Xd: positive sequence reactance of the line
Phi: line angle
RP44*: fault resistance setting in the P441 or P442 relay
ZP44*: zone setting in the P441 or P442 relay
With :
Rd = 8.975 Ω
Xd = 35.998 Ω
Phid = 76°
Z1 P44* = 29.68 Ω (impedance for zone 1)
Z2 P44* = 44.52 Ω (impedance for zone 2)
ZP P44* = 55.65 Ω (impedance for zone 3)
Z3 P44* = 74.19 Ω (impedance for zone 4)
Z4 P44* = 18.54 Ω (impedance for zone 5)
R1 Ph-Ph = 10 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase fault for zone 1)
R2 Ph-ph = 20 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault
for zone 2)
RP Ph-ph = 25 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault
for zone P)
RLim Ph-ph = 30 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault
for zones 3 and 4)
!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#:
R1 Ph-Ph P44*
R1 OMICRON = 2 =5Ω

X1 OMICRON = Z1 P44* x sin Phi = 28.80 Ω


TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 17 of 23

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#;
R2 Ph-ph P44*
R2 OMICRON = = 10 Ω
2

X2 OMICRON = Z2 P44* x sin Phi = 43.19 Ω


!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#=
RP Ph-ph P44*
R3 OMICRON = 2 = 12.5 Ω

X3 OMICRON = ZP P44* x sin Phi = 53.99 Ω


!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#>
RLim Ph-ph P44*
R4 OMICRON = (1+fR) = 15 Ω

X4 OMICRON = Z3 P44* x sin Phi = 71.98 Ω


!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#F
RLim P44*
R5 OMICRON = = 15 Ω
(1+fR)

X5 OMICRON = Z4 P44* x sin Phi = 18.02 Ω

5.2.3. Fault simulation

U12
= 2 . Zd + RFault
I1
with:
U12 : fault voltage phase-to-phase
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 =1A
Phi1 = 0°
U12
I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-ph
Rph-ph

with Zd = 0
TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 18 of 23

U12
I1 = ZFault = RFault = R1 Ph-Ph

U12 = I1 x R1 Ph-Ph = 1 x 10 = 10 Volts


?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 =1A
Phi1 = 90°
U12
I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

RFault/2
X1

ZFault
Z1
Rph-ph

RFault = - 2 . Z1 . cos Phid = - 2 x 29.68 x cos 76 = - 14.36 Ω


Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω
X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω
U12
= ZFault = 2 . Z1 + RFault
I1
U12
I1 = 2 . X1 + 2 . Z1 . cos Phid + RFault = 2 . X1
U12 = I1 . 2 . X1 = 1 x 2 x 28.80 = 57.6 Volts
?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 =1A
Phi1 = Line angle = 76°
U12
I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

X1

ZFault=Z1
Rph-ph

With RFault = 0 Ω and Zd = Z1


TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 19 of 23

U12
I1 = 2 . Z1

U12 = I1 . 2 .Z1 = 1 x 2 x 29.68 = 59.36 Volts


?,+.#/5#.),#8B(,4*37,#9:#C8.)#*#5*26.#1,+8+.*37,#,D2*6#./#&:#<)-<)#A
I1 = I2 = 1 A
Phi1 = Fault angle
U12
= ZFault = 2 . Zd + RFault
I1

Xph-ph

RFault/2
X1
Z1

ZFault
Rph-ph
R1Ph-ph/2

Z1.sin Phid
With Phi1 = Arctan
(Z1.cos Phid + RFault / 2)
Zd = Z1 and RFau(lt = R1 Ph-Ph
29.68 x sin 76
Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 10 / 2)
Phi1 = Arctan (2.36)
Phi1 = 67.07°
U12
= ZFault = 2 . Z1 + R1 Ph-Grd
I1
U12
= √ (2 . Z1. cos Phid + R1 Ph-Ph )² + (2 . Z1. sin Phid )²)
I1
U12
I1 = √ (2 x 29.68 x cos 76 + 10 )² + (2 x 29.68 x sin 76)²)
U12
= 62.53 Ω
I1
U12 = 1 x 62.53 = 62.53 Volts
TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 20 of 23

5.3. Three phase fault

5.3.1. Network model


The network model used by the relay is as follows:

Figure 2-2: Simulation of the three phase fault


For a phase-to-phase fault, we have I0 = 0, V0 = 0 and Z0 = 0.
For a line, we have Zi = Zd
I1 - I2 = I12 = √3 . I1 = √3 . I2
V1 - V2 = U12 = √3 . V1 = √3 . V2
U12 = Zd . I12 + RFault /2 . I12
U12 = Zd . √3 . I1 + RFault /2 . √3 . I1
√3. V1 = Zd . √3 . I1 + RFault /2 . √3 . I1

RFault
V1 = I1 . [Zd+ ]
2

V1 R
= Zd + Fault
I1 2
with:
V1 : fault voltage
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
The P441/P442 measure :

V1 R
= Zd + Fault
I1 2

5.3.2. CMC OMICRON setting


(same as 5.2.2)
TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 21 of 23

5.3.3. Fault simulation

V1 R
= Zd + Fault
I1 2
with:
V1 : fault voltage
I1 : fault current
Phi1 : fault angle
?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A
Phi1 = 0°
V1 RFault
= Zd +
I1 2

Xph-ph

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-ph/2
Rph-ph

with Zd = 0
V1 R1 Ph-Ph
I1 = ZFault = RFault = 2
R1 Ph-Ph
V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 x 2 = 1 x 10/2 = 5 Volts

?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A
Phi1 = 90°
V1 RFault
= Zd +
I1 2

Xph-ph

RFault/2
X1

ZFault
Z1

Rph-ph
TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 22 of 23

RFault = - 2 . Z1 . cos Phid = - 2 x 29.68 x cos 76 = - 14.36 Ω


Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω
X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω
V1 RFault
I1 = Z d
+
2
V1 RFault
= X1 . sin Phid + R1 . cos Phid + = X1 . sin Phid
I1 2
V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 . X1 = 1 x 28.80 = 28.20 Volts
?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A
I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A
Phi1 = Line angle = 76°
V1 RFault
= Zd +
I1 2

Xph-ph

X1

ZFault=Z1
Rph-ph

With RFault = 0 Ω and Zd = Z1


V1
= Z1
I1
V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 . Z1 = 1 x 29.68 = 29.68 Volts
Test of the impedance Z1 with a fault resistance equal to R1 Ph-Ph :
I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A
Phi1 = Fault angle
V1 RFault
I1 = Zd + 2

Xph-ph

RFault/2
X1
Z1

ZFault
Rph-ph
R1Ph-ph/2

Z1.sin Phid
With Phi1 = Arctan (Z .cos Phi + R
1 d Fault / 2)
TEST METHOD ME 1.1671
MiCOM P440
DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 23 of 23

Zd = Z1 and RFau(lt = R1 Ph-Ph


29.68 x sin 76
Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 10 / 2)

Phi1 = Arctan (2.36)


Phi1 = 67.07°
V1 RFault
I1 = Z1 + 2

V1 R1 Ph-Ph
= √ (Z1. cos Phid + )² + (Z1. sin Phid )²)
I1 2

V1
I1 = √ (29.68 x cos 76 + 10/2 )² + (29.68 x sin 76)²)

V1
I1 = 31.26 Ω

V1 = V2 = V3 = 1 x 31.26 = 31.26 Volts


ABCD
T&D Protection & Contrôle - 95, rue de la Banquière - BP 75 - 34975 Lattes Cedex FRANCE
Tél : 33 (0)4 67 20 54 54 - Télex : 485 093 F - Fax : 33 (0)4 67 20 54 99 - E-mail : protection.controle@tde.alstom.com