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Test Method

10/99 ME 1.1671

ABCD

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440 Contents

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 1 of 2

OF CMC 1

3.1. Transients during fault establishment 3

3.2. Phase shifting between voltage memory and fault current 3

nd th

3.3. What should the Omicron testing box do for tests in 2 and 4 quadrants: 3

OMICRON TEST EQUIPMENT 3

5.1. Phase-to-ground fault 9

5.1.1. Network model 9

5.1.2. CMC OMICRON setting 11

5.1.3. Fault simulation 12

5.2. Two phase fault : Phase-to-phase fault 15

5.2.1. Network model 15

5.2.2. CMC OMICRON setting 16

5.2.3. Fault simulation 17

5.3. Three phase fault 20

5.3.1. Network model 20

5.3.2. CMC OMICRON setting 20

5.3.3. Fault simulation 21

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440 Contents

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 2 of 2

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 1 of 23

Within the distance protection element of the CMC-software there are different

choices of models for the test.

The two most commonly used are:

Constant test current:

The test current is preset (e.g. at twice the nominal current) and the fault voltage is

calculated accordingly to represent the fault impedance.

For this model no phase jumps between the prefault and fault voltages will occur

(for a phase-phase fault this is true only for the ph-ph voltage and not the ph-n

voltage).

Constant source impedance:

This model uses a model with a definable complex source impedance. The fault

currents and voltages are determined by the nominal voltage, the source and fault

impedances.

For all cases, where source impedance and fault impedance have different angles,

a phase jump between prefault and fault voltages will occur .

The fault inception angle can be set to be random or fixed at a specified angle. To

perform an even more realistic simulation a superposition of the decaying dc-

component to the steady state fault signal can be activated. In this case there will

be no jumps in the current signals. All these parameters can be set on the manual

test page.

waveforms of CMC

All the tests shown are performed with an A-B-C fault in the impedance plane.

The waveforms are captured at the CMC outputs IA (trace A) and VA (trace B) using

a Fluke 97 scopemeter and a LEM current sensor.

Shot with model constant test current, fault location at 6 Ohm, 0°, no dc-offset

fault inception at 0 deg: fault inception at 90 deg:

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 2 of 23

As you can see, there are no transients created by CMC, but a step change from

the steady state prefault signals to the steady state fault signals. To force currents

starting at 0 deg (possible for single phase and phase-phase faults, for three-phase

faults only in one phase), the fault inception angle has to be set

accordingly.

Shot with model constant source impedance, source impedance 9.105 Ohm

64.62°, fault at 6 Ohm, 0°

without dc offset with dc-offset

There is a phase jump between the prefault and fault voltage according to the

network model used.

If dc-offset is selected, the current starts at 0 independently from the fault inception

angle.

If the test is made with identical phase angles for source and fault impedance , no

phase jump in the voltage signals occur:

Fault at 6 Ohm, 64.62°

without dc-offset with dc-offset

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 3 of 23

P442 relays

The CMC doesn‘t create transients during fault establishment but a step change

from prefault to fault steady state signals. The recorded waveforms seem to be

influenced by the input circuitry of the relay. (as compared with to recorded

waveforms shown above).

To avoid a jump in the current signal, two possibilities are given:

- select the proper fault inception angle,

- activate the superposition of the dc-offset.

A phase shift only occurs if testing with the model ‚constant source impedance‘ and

is caused by the physics of the model. The same behaviour will be observed in the

real system for a close-in fault with pure resistive fault impedance.

Use the constant test current model to avoid phase jumps

3.3. What should the Omicron testing box do for tests in 2nd and 4th

quadrants

The fault current(s) have, if possible, to start with a zero phase shifting.

This is possible with the right selection of the fault inception angle. The preferred

solution is to use the dc-offset component forcing the currents to start at 0

magnitude (not 0 phase angle). This reflects the reality better, where the fault

inception angle can be any.

CMC OMICRON test equipment

Rating voltage UN

UN Phase-Ground : rating voltage in menu „Line“/P44* setting

VN Phase-Phase : √3 x UN Phase-Ground

Maximum voltage

P441/P442 technical data:

Permitted continuous maximum voltage: 2.2 × VN

Maximum current

P441/P442 technical data:

Permitted continuous overload current: 4 × IN

Overload current 30 × IN during 5 seconds

100 × IN during 1 second

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 4 of 23

Permissive tolerance

Tolerance of impedances in % and absolute:

The accuracy for the first zone is 5% and 10% for the other zones.

You can set:

Z in % = 10%

Z in Ω = 5% of X3 if X3 ≥ X4

5% of X4 if X3≤ X4

with X3: reactance Zone 3 in the P44* menu

X4: reactance Zone 4 in the P44* menu

Tolerance of tripping times in % and absolute:

You can set:

t in % = 10%

t in sec = 30% of (t2 - t1) with a minimum value of 100 ms.

with t1: tripping time of Zone 1 in the P44* menu

t2: tripping time of Zone 2 in the P44* menu

Time reference fault inception

If you do not connect the starting output contact of the protection relay, you must

select “ fault inception ” as the time reference. So the CMC will display the time

between the fault inception and the protection trip.

Maximum permissible instantaneous tripping time in s

P441/P442 technical data (at 50 Hz):

The maximum tripping time with a Source Impedance Ratio of 30 is ≤ 30 ms.

The maximum tripping time with a Source Impedance Ratio of 40 is ≤ 40 ms.

You must set:

Maximal Tripping Time = 40 ms + T1 (if T1 ≠ 0 ms)

Test current

I test current = 2 x IN

with IN: rating current in the P44* menu

If the overcurrent back-up protection is enabled in the P44* menu, you can set:

I test current = 1.2 × I>2

with I>2: threshold overcurrent back-up protection

Test line angle

Phi Test = Phi Line

With Phi Line : line angle in the P44* menu

Connection of the voltage transformer

You must choose between „line“ and „busbar“.

If you select „busbar“, the voltages will be not switched off after the fault simulation.

Network model

The relay has four negative sequence impedance coefficients kZ1, kZ2, ZP, kZ3-4.

The measurement of impedance for phase-to-ground faults is based on kZ1 for a

fault in zone 1, on kZ2 for a fault in zone 2, etc. You can use them if you have an

application with cable/line between two sub-stations.

During the simulation with the CMC test equipment, you must set the same value

for all negative sequence impedances (kZ1 = kZ2 = ZP = kZ3-4).

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 5 of 23

P441/P442 are full scheme protection relays. All digital distance relays work on

numerical measuring principles with simultaneous measurement in all zones and

phases. They are equipped with simultaneous measuring principles consisting of :

! a superimposed measuring technique,

! a conventional measuring technique.

Both techniques are used individually and simultaneously for starting, phase

selection, directional detection and impedance measurement. A parallelogram

characteristic is used for phase and earth fault measuring elements enabling high

fault resistance coverage and proper settings to avoid load encroachment even

under the most adverse conditions.

The P441/P442 distance relays calculate the value of both these parameters of the

fault.

To calculate these parameters the following equation is used :

U = XV + RW, where

X = distance to fault from relay equation,

R = apparent resistance,

U = voltage at relay location,

W = fault current image,

V = voltage drop on line per unit of length.

nd th

Directional characteristic (angle in the 2 and angle in the 4

quadrant)

CONVENTIONAL ALGORITHMS :

Simultaneously and in parallel to superimposed algorithms, conventional

algorithms are used for starting, direction detection, phase selection and distance

measurement.

Starting and distance measurement are based on the result of fault resistance and

fault distance calculations carried out simultaneously on all six loops. Unfiltered

quantities are used for U (voltage at relay location), V (voltage drop on line per unit

of length) and W (fault current image) for the first few samples after fault detection,

subsequently filtered quantities are used. The fault direction is defined on the basis

of the calculation of the phase shift between the stored voltage and the derivative

of a current. The current and the voltage used are those of the measuring loop(s)

defined by the phase selection. The directional characteristic for the

“ conventional algorithms ” is fixed by −30° and +150°.

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 6 of 23

HIGH SPEED SUPERIMPOSED ALGORITHMS :

Considering that the network in steady state, i.e., pre-fault stable operating

conditions, the occurrence of a fault creates a new operating state, i.e., a faulted

network. If no other modifications have occurred in the network meanwhile, the

difference between the two states (prior to and during the fault) must have been

caused by the fault itself including the two states in the same linear domain. A

superimposition principle can be used, which states that the quantities under fault

are equal to the sum of pre-fault quantities and the fault generated quantities. For

the latter the fault behaves as a voltage source at the fault point with a value equal

to the negative of the pre-fault voltage at that point with source voltages replaced

by short circuits.

Series capacitors are used in power systems for following purposes:

! by reducing the effective reactance of the line, they ensure higher power

transfer capability,

! series capacitors improve the VAR balance in a line and hence reduce its

voltage regulations,

! by reducing the effective reactance capacitors they may be used to balance

the loading in parallel circuits.

The effects of series compensation on line protection is to introduce into the circuit

a new element of negative capacitive reactance where the distance relay has to

perform its protection tasks.

Negative impedances may be measured for forward faults (fourth quadrant) and

positive impedance for reverse faults (second quadrant), contrary to

conventional algorithms, depending on the location of the fault. All the

distance relays are based on impedance measurement principles, but the P441

and P442 relays, using the high-speed algorithms, are able to operate with series

compensated lines. The forward or reverse fault decision must be taken correctly

by the directional element which is also exposed to new and difficult conditions.

Directional decision in conventional relays is based on comparison of current

direction. In EPAC and PXLN a new philosophy of directional

detection is used based on the sign of the transition energy for the

superimposed algorithms and, full-memory pre-fault voltage synchronised to

faulted network frequency is employed for the conventional algorithm, which helps

the relay take a correct directional decision for all system, fault and compensation

conditions.

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 7 of 23

2.5°

and +270°± (dead zones between +87.5° and +92.5° AND between +267.5°

2.5°

and +272.5°).

Fault direction is detected according to the sign of the transition energy

characterising the fault. Transition energy is the energy created by the fault and is

given by:

S = ∫ U . I . dt

The sign of the energy is used for detection of fault direction as follows:

Considering the transition network for both forward and reverse faults, as all

sources are replaced by short circuits in the transition network, behind the relay

location the network consists of only passive impedances (resistive inductive or

capacitive the total reactance however cannot be capacitive as no line is

compensated over 100% in series capacitor applications). There, Zs

(source impedance) is always positive and so is:

∆ U = ∆ I . Zs

For forward faults ∆ I is in reverse direction to relay current polarisation.

The power taken through the relay is: P = - ∆ I ². Zs

The energy is: S = - ∫ ∆ I ². Zs. dt, which is always negative.

Similarly, for reverse fault:

∆ U = ∆ I. Zs is positive while ∆ I is in same direction as the relay current

polarisation, hence

P = ∆ I ². Zs and the energy (S = + ∫ ∆ I ². Zs. dt,) is always positive for reverse

fault.

Transient energy S is always imported on the relay side and its sign does not

depend on the inductive, capacitive or resistive nature of the network impedance’s,

therefore the directional detection is correctly applicable to all lines’ series

compensated or not. For a three phase network transition, energy is expressed as :

S = ∫ (∆UA . ∆IA + ∆UB . ∆IB + ∆UC . ∆IC ). dt

Which is computed digitally as :

ni

no

S < 0 for forward faults.

S > 0 for reverse faults.

The directional decision is authorised if :

∆ Ui = (max. of ∆UA, ∆UB, ∆UC) > 0.1 Un / √3

∆ Ii = (max. of ∆IA, ∆IB, ∆IC) > 0.2 In, and

S ≥ 5 . ( 0.1 Vn . 0.2 In . cos 85°)

This sum is calculated on five successive samples. If these conditions are not

fulfilled, directional decision is based on the conventional algorithm.

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 8 of 23

nd th

Testing in the 2 and 4 quadrants :

The fault current(s) have, if possible, to start with a zero phase shifting.

This is possible with the right selection of the fault inception angle. The preferred

solution is to use the dc-offset component forcing the currents to start at 0

magnitude (not 0 phase angle). This reflects more the reality, where the fault

inception angle can be any.

Z3

Z4 Tripping at T1

nd th

If you want to simulate an automatic fault cycle (also in 2 and 4 quadrant), you

must deactivate the high-speed algorithms. To do this, you must set a tripping time

for the first zone at least equal to 50 ms (the „high speed algorithms“ operate only

during the first 40 ms after the fault appearance).

Starting zone

The relay provides an overcurrent back-up protection. This function is used to deal

with faults detected outside the start-up characteristic. It initiates a three-phase trip

if the current threshold is exceeded for a settable length of time. It constitutes a

back-up protection against forward and/or reverse current faults.

That function is associated with two settable current thresholds, a high threshold

I>1 and a very high threshold I>2. A direction can be associated with each of these

thresholds so that only the threshold overreaches detected on one side or the other

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 9 of 23

of the protection relay are taken into account. Each current threshold has a settable

time delay associated with it.

A typical P44* overcurrent back-up protection setting for the CMC OMICRON test

is following:

Threshold I>2 : threshold I>

Direction of I>2 : forward

Direction of I>1 : without direction

I>1, tI>1

I>2, tI>2

Z4

tZ4 Z3

tZ3

Zp

tZp

Z2

tZ2

Z1

tZ1

The overcurrent back-up protection will trip if the conventional algorithms are not

active (none of the six measuring loops converges within the distance characteristic)

or if a fuse failure has been detected but is yet unconfirmed. Therefore the time

selectivity can be respected.

For the simulation with CMC OMICRON, you must set:

Starting zone: yes

Direction back-up time:

Direction: Forward (direction of I>2)

Time t: tI>2

Time limit: Time t: tI>1 without direction (direction of I>)

The network model used by the relay is as follows:

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 10 of 23

I1 = I0 + Id + Ii with Id + Ii = I1 – I0

For a line, we have Zi = Zd

V1 = Z0 I0+ Zd ( Id + Ii ) + RFault J

V1 = Z0 I0+ Zd ( I1 - I0 ) + RFault J

IR = 3 x I0 with IR residual current

IR Z0 IR

V1 = Zd [ I1 - + ] + RFault J

3 3 Zd

(Z0 - Zd)

With k0 = 3 Zd

IR (Z0 - Zd)

V1 = Zd [ I1 + 3 Zd ] + RFault J

V1 = Zd ( I1 +k0 IR ) + RFault J

For the tests, we have: IR = I1 = J

V1 = I1 [ Zd (1+k0) + RFault ]

V1

= Zd (1+k0) + RFault

I1

with:

V1 : fault voltage

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

The P441/P442 measure :

V1 R

= Zd + Fault

I1 (1+k0) (1+k0)

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 11 of 23

The CMC OMICRON test equipment can simulate the k0.

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

Zd

ZFault

Rph-gnd

The CMC OMICRON test equipment cannot simulate the fault resistance and add

it to the line resistance. This means that you must set the following values in the

CMC OMICRON test equipment:

RP44*

R OMICRON = (1+f )

R

(R0 - Rd) (X0 - Xd)

With fR = 3 x R and fX = 3 x X

d d

Examples :

R01: negative sequence resistance for the first zone

X01: negative sequence reactance for the first zone

Rd: positive sequence resistance of the line

Xd: positive sequence reactance of the line

Phi: line angle

RP44*: fault resistance setting in EPAC relay

ZP44*: zone setting in EPAC relay

With :

R01 = R02 = R0P = R03-4 = 31.45 Ω

X01 = X02 = X0P = X03-4 = 126.138 Ω

Rd = 8.975 Ω

Xd = 35.998 Ω

Phid = 76°

Z1 P44* = 29.68 Ω (impedance for zone 1)

Z2 P44* = 44.52 Ω (impedance for zone 2)

ZP P44* = 55.65 Ω (impedance for zone P)

Z3 P44* = 74.19 Ω (impedance for zone 3)

Z4 P44* = 18.54 Ω (impedance for zone 4)

R1 Ph-Grd = 15 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone 1)

R2 Ph-Grd = 20 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone 2)

RP Ph-Grd = 25 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zone P)

RLim Ph-Grd = 30 Ω (resistance phase-to-ground fault for zones 3 and 4)

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 12 of 23

(R01 - Rd)

fR = 3 x Rd = 0.835

(X01 - Xd)

fX = 3 x X = 0.835

d

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#:

R1 Ph-Grd P44*

R1 OMICRON = (1+fR) = 8.17 Ω

X1 OMICRON = Z1 P44* x sin Phi = 28.80 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#;

R2 P44*

R2 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 10.90 Ω

R

X2 OMICRON = Z2 P44* x sin Phi = 43.19 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#<

R3 P44*

R3 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 13.62 Ω

R

X3 OMICRON = Z3 P44* x sin Phi = 53.99 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#=

RLim P44*

R4 OMICRON = (1+f ) = 16.35 Ω

R

X4 OMICRON = Z4 P44* x sin Phi = 71.98 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#>

RLim P44*

R5 OMICRON = = 16.35 Ω

(1+fR)

X5 OMICRON = Z1 P44* x sin Phi = 18.02 Ω

V1

= Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

I1

with:

V1 : fault voltage

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 =1A

Phi1 = 0°

V1

I1 = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 13 of 23

Xph-gnd

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-gnd

Rph-gnd

with Zd = 0

V1

I1 = ZFault = RFault = R1 Ph-Grd

V1 = I1 x R1 Ph-Grd = 1 x 15 = 15 Volts

?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-01/234#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 =1A

Phi1 = 90°

V1

I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

ZFault

Z1

Rph-gnd

Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω

X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω

V1

I1 = ZFault = Z1 . (1 + k0) + RFault

V1

I1 = X1 . (1 + k0) + Z1 . cos Phid . (1 + k0) + RFault = X1 . (1 + k0)

?,+.#/5#.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 =1A

Phi1 = Line angle = 76°

V1

I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 14 of 23

Xph-gnd

ZFault=Z1

Rph-gnd

V1

I1 = ZFault = Z1 . (1 + k0)

?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#9:#C8.)#*#5*26.#1,+8+.*37,#,D2*6#./#&:#<)-E14#A

I1 =1A

Phi1 = Fault angle

V1

I1 = ZFault = Zd (1 + k0) + RFault

Xph-gnd

RFault/(1+k0)

Z1

ZFault

Rph-gnd

R1h-gnd/(1+k0)

Z1.sin Phid

With Phi1 = Arctan (Z .cos Phi + R

1 d Fault / (1+ k0))

29.68 x sin 76

Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 15 / (1 + 0.835))

Phi1 = Arctan (1.87)

Phi1 = 61.93°

V1

= ZFault = Z1 (1 + k0) + R1 Ph-Grd

I1

V1

= √ (Z1. cos Phid . (1 + k0) + R1 Ph-Grd )² + (Z1. sin Phid . (1 + k0))²)

I1

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 15 of 23

V1

I1 = √ (29.68 x cos 76 x (1 + 0.835) + 15 )² + (29.68 x sin 76 x (1 +

0.835))²)

V1

I1 = 59.89 Ω

The network model used by the EPAC relay is following:

For a phase-to-phase fault, we have I0 = 0, V0 = 0 and Z0 = 0.

For a line, we have Zi = Zd

I1 = - I2

U12 = Zd . I12 + RFault /2 . I12

U12 = Zd . ( 2 . I1 ) + RFault /2 . ( 2 . I1 )

U12 = I1 . [ 2 . Zd + RFault ]

U12

= 2 . Zd + RFault

I1

with:

U12 : fault voltage phase-to-phase

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

The P441/P442 measure :

U12 R

= Zd + Fault

2 . I1 2

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 16 of 23

Xph-ph

RFault/2

Zd

ZFault

Rph-ph

The CMC OMICRON test equipment cannot simulate the fault resistance and add

it to the line resistance. That means, you must set the following values in the CMC

OMICRON test equipment:

RP44*

R OMICRON = 2

X OMICRON = ZP44* x sin Phi

Examples :

Rd: positive sequence resistance of the line

Xd: positive sequence reactance of the line

Phi: line angle

RP44*: fault resistance setting in the P441 or P442 relay

ZP44*: zone setting in the P441 or P442 relay

With :

Rd = 8.975 Ω

Xd = 35.998 Ω

Phid = 76°

Z1 P44* = 29.68 Ω (impedance for zone 1)

Z2 P44* = 44.52 Ω (impedance for zone 2)

ZP P44* = 55.65 Ω (impedance for zone 3)

Z3 P44* = 74.19 Ω (impedance for zone 4)

Z4 P44* = 18.54 Ω (impedance for zone 5)

R1 Ph-Ph = 10 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase fault for zone 1)

R2 Ph-ph = 20 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault

for zone 2)

RP Ph-ph = 25 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault

for zone P)

RLim Ph-ph = 30 Ω (resistance phase-to-phase and phase-to-phase fault

for zones 3 and 4)

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#:

R1 Ph-Ph P44*

R1 OMICRON = 2 =5Ω

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DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 17 of 23

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#;

R2 Ph-ph P44*

R2 OMICRON = = 10 Ω

2

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#=

RP Ph-ph P44*

R3 OMICRON = 2 = 12.5 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#>

RLim Ph-ph P44*

R4 OMICRON = (1+fR) = 15 Ω

!"!#$"%!&$'#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#7)*1*7.,18+.87#+,..830#5/1#9/3,#F

RLim P44*

R5 OMICRON = = 15 Ω

(1+fR)

U12

= 2 . Zd + RFault

I1

with:

U12 : fault voltage phase-to-phase

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 =1A

Phi1 = 0°

U12

I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-ph

Rph-ph

with Zd = 0

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 18 of 23

U12

I1 = ZFault = RFault = R1 Ph-Ph

?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 =1A

Phi1 = 90°

U12

I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

RFault/2

X1

ZFault

Z1

Rph-ph

Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω

X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω

U12

= ZFault = 2 . Z1 + RFault

I1

U12

I1 = 2 . X1 + 2 . Z1 . cos Phid + RFault = 2 . X1

U12 = I1 . 2 . X1 = 1 x 2 x 28.80 = 57.6 Volts

?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 =1A

Phi1 = Line angle = 76°

U12

I1 = 2 . Zd + RFault

Xph-ph

X1

ZFault=Z1

Rph-ph

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 19 of 23

U12

I1 = 2 . Z1

?,+.#/5#.),#8B(,4*37,#9:#C8.)#*#5*26.#1,+8+.*37,#,D2*6#./#&:#<)-<)#A

I1 = I2 = 1 A

Phi1 = Fault angle

U12

= ZFault = 2 . Zd + RFault

I1

Xph-ph

RFault/2

X1

Z1

ZFault

Rph-ph

R1Ph-ph/2

Z1.sin Phid

With Phi1 = Arctan

(Z1.cos Phid + RFault / 2)

Zd = Z1 and RFau(lt = R1 Ph-Ph

29.68 x sin 76

Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 10 / 2)

Phi1 = Arctan (2.36)

Phi1 = 67.07°

U12

= ZFault = 2 . Z1 + R1 Ph-Grd

I1

U12

= √ (2 . Z1. cos Phid + R1 Ph-Ph )² + (2 . Z1. sin Phid )²)

I1

U12

I1 = √ (2 x 29.68 x cos 76 + 10 )² + (2 x 29.68 x sin 76)²)

U12

= 62.53 Ω

I1

U12 = 1 x 62.53 = 62.53 Volts

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 20 of 23

The network model used by the relay is as follows:

For a phase-to-phase fault, we have I0 = 0, V0 = 0 and Z0 = 0.

For a line, we have Zi = Zd

I1 - I2 = I12 = √3 . I1 = √3 . I2

V1 - V2 = U12 = √3 . V1 = √3 . V2

U12 = Zd . I12 + RFault /2 . I12

U12 = Zd . √3 . I1 + RFault /2 . √3 . I1

√3. V1 = Zd . √3 . I1 + RFault /2 . √3 . I1

RFault

V1 = I1 . [Zd+ ]

2

V1 R

= Zd + Fault

I1 2

with:

V1 : fault voltage

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

The P441/P442 measure :

V1 R

= Zd + Fault

I1 2

(same as 5.2.2)

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 21 of 23

V1 R

= Zd + Fault

I1 2

with:

V1 : fault voltage

I1 : fault current

Phi1 : fault angle

?,+.#/5#.),#1,+8+.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A

Phi1 = 0°

V1 RFault

= Zd +

I1 2

Xph-ph

ZFault=RFault=R1ph-ph/2

Rph-ph

with Zd = 0

V1 R1 Ph-Ph

I1 = ZFault = RFault = 2

R1 Ph-Ph

V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 x 2 = 1 x 10/2 = 5 Volts

?,+.#/5#.),#1,*7.*37,#()*+,-./-()*+,#5*26.#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A

Phi1 = 90°

V1 RFault

= Zd +

I1 2

Xph-ph

RFault/2

X1

ZFault

Z1

Rph-ph

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 22 of 23

Zd = Z1 = 29.68 Ω

X1 = Z1 .sin Phid = 29.68 x sin 76 = 28.80 Ω

V1 RFault

I1 = Z d

+

2

V1 RFault

= X1 . sin Phid + R1 . cos Phid + = X1 . sin Phid

I1 2

V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 . X1 = 1 x 28.80 = 28.20 Volts

?,+.#/5##.),#8B(,4*37,#5/1#@/3,#:#A

I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A

Phi1 = Line angle = 76°

V1 RFault

= Zd +

I1 2

Xph-ph

X1

ZFault=Z1

Rph-ph

V1

= Z1

I1

V1 = V2 = V3 = I1 . Z1 = 1 x 29.68 = 29.68 Volts

Test of the impedance Z1 with a fault resistance equal to R1 Ph-Ph :

I1 = I2 = I3 = 1 A

Phi1 = Fault angle

V1 RFault

I1 = Zd + 2

Xph-ph

RFault/2

X1

Z1

ZFault

Rph-ph

R1Ph-ph/2

Z1.sin Phid

With Phi1 = Arctan (Z .cos Phi + R

1 d Fault / 2)

TEST METHOD ME 1.1671

MiCOM P440

DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS Page 23 of 23

29.68 x sin 76

Phi1 = Arctan (29.68 x cos 76 + 10 / 2)

Phi1 = 67.07°

V1 RFault

I1 = Z1 + 2

V1 R1 Ph-Ph

= √ (Z1. cos Phid + )² + (Z1. sin Phid )²)

I1 2

V1

I1 = √ (29.68 x cos 76 + 10/2 )² + (29.68 x sin 76)²)

V1

I1 = 31.26 Ω

ABCD

T&D Protection & Contrôle - 95, rue de la Banquière - BP 75 - 34975 Lattes Cedex FRANCE

Tél : 33 (0)4 67 20 54 54 - Télex : 485 093 F - Fax : 33 (0)4 67 20 54 99 - E-mail : protection.controle@tde.alstom.com

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