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Unit 2

P RESENT SIMPLE
- Positive  I live near here. She lives near here.
- Negative  I don’t play. He doesn’t play.
- Question  Where do/does they/she live?

Use:
- Express a habit, an action that happens again and again. (hábito o costumbre) I get up at 7:30. He
smokes too much.
- A fact that is always true. Vegetarians don’t eat meat. We come from Spain.
- A fact that it’s true for a long time (a state). I live in Oxford. She works in a bank. I prefer coffee or
tea.

ADVERBS OF FRECUENCY
We often use them with the Present Simple.
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Never rarely not often sometimes often usually always

They go before the main verb, but after the verb be.

I usually star school at 9.00. They’re usually in a hurry in the morning. She never eats meat. He’s never late.

Sometimes and usually can also go at the beginning or the end. But never, always, rarely ((rara vez), and
seldom (apenas) cannot move in this way. Every day, night, etc… goes at the end.

STATE VERBS
They’re usually used with the Present Simple as well. This is because their meanings are related to states or
conditions that are facts and not activities.

Verbs of thinking and opinions.


Believe Think Understand Suppose Expect
Agree Doubt Know Remember Forget
Mean Imagine Realize Deserve merecer Prefer

I believe in you. Do you understand? I know his face, but I forget his name.

Verbs of emotions and feelings.


Like Love Hate Care Hope Wish Want Admit

I like black coffee. Do you want to go out? I don’t care.

Verbs of having and being


Belong Own Have Posses Contain Cost Seem
Need Depend on Weigh Come from Appear Resemble parecerse a

This book belongs to Jane. How much does it cost? He has a lot of money.

Verbs of the senses.


Look Hear Taste Smell Feel

The food smells good. *Can you smell something burning? I can hear someone crying.
*We often use can when the subject is a person.
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Some of these verbs can be used in the Present Continuous, but with a change of meaning. In the continuous,
the verb expresses an activity, not a state. Compare.

I think you’re right. Opinion. We’re thinking of going to the cinema. Mental activity.
He has a lot of money. Possession. She’s having a bad day. Activity.
I see what you mean. Understand. Are you seeing Rob tomorrow? Activity.
The soup tastes awful. State. I’m tasting the soup to see if it needs salt. Activity.

P RESENT CONTINUOUS
- Positive  I’m playing. He’s working. We’re eating.
- Negative  They aren’t eating. He isn’t playing. I’m not working.
- Question  Are you going by train? What is he doing?

Use:
- An activity that is happening now. I’m watching TV. She’s having a shower.
- An activity or situation that is true now, but is not necessarily happening at the moment of speaking.
She’s studying maths at university. I’m reading a good book.
- A temporary activity. I’m living with friends until I find a place of my own. Peter is a student but
he’s working as a waiter during the holidays.
- A planned future arrangement. I’m having lunch with Rob tomorrow. We’re meeting at 1.00 outside
the restaurant.

SPECIAL PASSIVE
With subordinate clauses in which the main verb is one of those:
Agree, announce, assume, claim, consider, decide, declare, discover, estimate, expect, feel, find, know,
mention, propose, recommend, say, suggest, suppose, think and understand.
We have 2 options:

1) It + passive of the main verb + sentence.


2) Subject of subord. Sentence + passive of main verb + infinitive or perfect inf. of subord. sentence.*

*Infitinive: present, will, is going to, and would.


*Perfect infinitive (to have + past perfect): past tense.
*Have been + verb+ing: Have + verb 3º column.

Examples:
- We consider that the petrol tank is unsafe.
o It is considered that the petrol tank is unsafe.
o The petrol tank is considered to be unsafe.
- We have discovered that the brakes are badly worn.
o It has been discovered that the brakes are badly worn.
o The brakes have been discovered to be badly worn.
- Scientists discovered that aspirin fights cancer.
o It was discovered that aspirin fights cancer.
o Aspirin was discovered to fight cancer.
- The firemen expected the damage would be extensive.
o It was expected the damage would be extensive.
o The damage was expected to be extensive.

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Unit 3
P AST SIMPLE
- Positive  I finished yesterday. She left at 3 o’clock.
- Negative  I didn’t finish. He didn’t leave.
- Question  When did they/she get married?

Use:
- A finished action in the past. We met in 2000. I went to Manchester last week.
- Actions that follow each other in a story. Mary walked into de room and stopped. She listened
carefully. She heard a noise coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and the she
saw…
- A past situation or habit. (situaciones habituales o de rutina q solían ser en el pasado). When I was a
child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Every day I walked for miles on the beach with my dog.

Last night.
Two days ago.
Time expressions that are common Yesterday morning.
I met her
with the Past Simple In 2001.
In summer.
When I was young.

P AST CONTINUOUS
- Positive  I was working.
- Negative  She wasn’t working.
- Question  What were they doing?

Use:
We often use the P.C. in sentences with the P.S. P.C. refers to longer, background activities, while the P.S.
refers to shorter, completed actions. The children were playing in the garden when their grandparents
arrived.

- Activities in progress before, and probably after, a particular time in the past. At 7 o’clock this
morning I was having my breakfast. I walked past your house last night. There was an awful lot of
noise. What were you doing?
- For descriptions. Jan looked beautiful. She was wearing a green cotton dress. Her eyes were shining
in the light of the candles that were burning nearby.
- To express an interrupted pass activity. When the phone rang, I was having a shower. While we were
playing tennis, it started to rain.
- To express an incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the Past Simple than expresses
a completed activity. I was reading a book during the flight. (I didn’t finish it.) I watched a film
during the flight. (The whole film.)

Note: The Past Simple is usually used to express a repeated past habit or situation. But the Past Continuous
can be used if the repeated habit becomes a longer setting for something. Compare:

I went out with Jack for ten years. I first met Harry while I was going out with Jack.

GRAMMAR REVISION: WHILE, DURING AND FOR


- While is a conjunction, and is followed by a clause. While I was getting ready, I listened to the radio.
I met my wife while I was at university.
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- During is a preposition, and is followed by a noun. It tells us when something happened. It means at
some point in a period of time. We had to call a doctor during the night. Can I speak to you during
the break? *We cannot use during with a period of time (two minutes, five weeks)
- For is a preposition, and is followed by a noun. It tell us how long something lasts. We talked for two
minutes. We’re going on holyday for five weeks.

PAST SIMPLE OR PAST COINTINUOUS?


- The PS focuses on past actions as simple facts. The PC focuses on the duration of past situations and
activities. Compare:
A. I didn’t see you at the party last night.
B. No. I stayed at home and watched football.

A. I didn’t see you at the party last night.


B. No, I was watching football at home.

- Questions in the PS and PC refer to different time periods: the PC asks about activities before; the PS
asks about what happened after.
When the war broke out, Peter was studying medicine at medical school. He decided that it was safer
to go home with his parents and postpone his studies.
What was Peter doing when the war broke out? He was studying.
What did Peter do when the war broke out? He went home to his parents.

PAST PERFECT
P.P. means ‘before’, so it refers to an action in the past that was completed before another action in the past.

- Positive  I’d (had) seen him before.


- Negative  She hadn’t finished work at 6 o’clock.
- Question  Had he already left?

Use:
- Is used to make clear that one action in the past happened before another action in the past.
o When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my apartment and had stolen my
DVD player, so I called the police.
PAST-------->X--------------------------->X----------------------->X--------------->NOW
I I I
My DVD player was stolen I arrived home I called the police.

Action 1: Someone broke into my apartment and stole my DVD player.


Action 2: I got home and called the police.

- Notice the difference between the following sentences:


o When I got to the party, Peter went home. (First I arrived, then Peter left.)
o When I got to the party, Peter had gone home. (First Peter left, then I arrived.)

Unit 4
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
Can, could, may, might, must, will, would, should, and ought to.
- No –s in the third person singular. She can ski. He must be tired. It might rain.
- There is no do (not)/does (not) in questions and negatives.* Can I help you? What should I do? You
mustn’t steal. He can’t dance.
- Are followed by infinitive without to, except ought to. You must go. I’ll help you. You ought to see a
doctor.
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- They have no infinitives and no –ing forms. Other expressions are used instead. I’d love to be able to
ski. I hate having to get up in clod, winter mornings.
- They don’t usually have past forms. Instead, we can use them with perfect infinitives. You should
have told me that you can’t swim. You might have drowned! Or we use another expressions: I had to
work hard in school.

*Might (Podría) Might + Infinitive

Positive I/He/They might go to the party / be late


&
Negative He/We/You might not rain tomorrow / go out for a meal tomorrow

Question Do you think* you’ll be here on time? /it’ll rain? /they’ll come to our party?
* Doesn’t exist  Might you…? ALWAYS Do you think… + will…?
Short Answer He might / It might / It might not.

Use: Express a future possibility, it’s possible, but you don’t know. (Will is used when, in the speakers
opinion, expresses a future certainly.)
In the negative, these sentences express the same idea of possibility:
- It might not rain this afternoon. (Posibilidad)
- I don’t think it’ll rain this afternoon. (Intensidad del que habla)

Note: could is used with a past meaning to talk about a general ability in the past. I could swim when I was
six. To talk about ability on one specific occasion, we use was able to/managed to (fue capaz de). The
prisoner was able to/managed to escape by climbing on to the roof of the prison. Be allowed to, me
permiten, me dejan. I’m allowed to enter here/ I was allowed to, have been, will be allowed to.

Use: I must post this letter. Obligation. You must be tired. Deduction, probability. Could you help me?
Request. We could go to Spain for our holiday. Possibility. You may go home now. Permission. Where’s
Anna? I’m not sure, she may be at work. Possibility.

Modal verbs of obligation and permission.


Have (got) to. Semi modal, -s is used on 3rd person.
She has/doesn’t have to work hard. Do you have to work hard?
- Expresses strong obligation, a law, a rule, the authority of another person. Mom says you have to
clean your room.
- Have got to is more informal than have to. I’ve got to go now. See you!
- Have to expresses a general repeated obligation. I always have to tell my parents where I’m going.
- Have got to expresses an obligation on one particular occasion. I’ve got to get up early tomorrow to
catch a train.
Can and be allowed to
She can/can’t – is/isn’t allowed to park here. Can we park here? Are we allowed to park here?
They express permission. Can is more informal and usually spoken. You can borrow my bike, but you can’t
have the car. I need it. You’re allowed to get married when you’re 16.
Should, ought to, and must.
You/he should(n’t)/ ought (not) to/must work hard.
- Should and ought to (more formal) express mild obligation, suggestions or advice. The express in the
speaker’s opinion the best thing to do. We often use them with I think, I don’t think… I think you
should spend less. You shouldn’t sit so close to the TV. You ought to be more careful with you
money.
- Should I…? Is possible but better use Do you thing I should…?
- Must express strong obligation, one that involves the speaker’s opinion. It’s personal. I must get my
hair cut. You must go and visit your grandmother.
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- Must is also associated with a formal, written style. Books must be returned on or before the due
date. (instructions in a library).