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## 1. Calculate the maximum range of a radar system which operates at 3 cm with a

peak pulse power of 500 kw, if its minimum receivable power is 10 13 W, the
capture area of its antenna is 5 m2 and the radar cross-sectional area of the target
is 20 m2

Given Data :

Formula used:

1
 
 Pt Gt Ae  
4
Rmax   

4   2 Smin 

Solution:

## All parameters values are given in the problem except Gt

4  Ae 4  3.14  5
But Gt = = = 69778
 2
.03 2
500  10 3  69778  5  20.
Rmax4 =
4  3.14  4  3.14  10 13

5  6.9778  5  2  1010.
Rmax4 = = 2.2116  10 23

## 4  3.14  4  3.14  10 13

R max 4 = 2211 6  10 20

R max 2 = 47.02  10 10
PROF. G.KUMARASWAMY RAO
2

## Maximum Range R max = 6.8576 105  685.76 KMs

2. A low power, short range radar is solid state throughout, including a low noise
RF amplifier which gives it an overall Noise Figure of 4.77 dB. If the antenna
diameter is 1m , the IF bandwidth is 500 kHz, the operating frequency is 8 GHz
and the radar set is supposed to be capable of detecting targets of 5 m2 cross-
sectional area at a maximum distance of 12 km, what must be the peak
transmitted pulse power?
Given Data :

## Antenna capture area = Ae =

 D 2  3.14  12  0.785 m2
4 4

## (iii) Frequency of operation = 8  109 HZ

=
c  3108   0375m
f 8109
Gain = 4  Ae ⁄2 = 4  3.14  0.785 / (.0375  .0375 ) = 7011

## (iv) Radar cross-sectional area  = 5 m2

(v) R max = 12 Km  12  10 3m
Formula used:

Pt G A e 
R max 4 
S
 4  K T0 Bn Fn ( N0 )min
2
0
Where K = 1.38  10 23 J / K Deg (Boltzman Constant)

## PROF. G.KUMARASWAMY RAO

3

S0
= 10 (Assume)
N0

Pt  7011 0.785 5
(12 103)4 
4  3.14  4  3.14 1.381023  290  500 103  310
= Pt  0.290584  1016

## (12 103 ) 4  Pt  0.290584  1016

Pt = 7.13 Watts

3. The transmitter power is 1 KW and safe value of power which might be applied
to a receiver is 1mw. Find the isolation between transmitter and receiver in dB.

Give Data :

##  Tx Power = 1 KW = 1000 watts.

 Safe value of Rx Power = 10 mw = 10  10 3 W

Formula used:

Isolation =
Tx Power  1000  100103  105
Rx Safe Power 10  10-3

## Isolation = 10 log 105 = 50 dB

4. What are the peak power and duty cycle of a radar whose average transmitter power
is 200W, pulse width of 1 μ s and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 HZ.

Given Data :

1
PRT T =  .01sec
100
Formula used:

4

## Pav τ 200 1106

Duty Cycle =      104
P T PT .01
T
200  .01
Pt = 6
 2  106  2 megawatts
10
5. Calculate Doppler frequency shift (fd) when the relative velocity of target with
respect to radar is 50 knots at a transmitted frequency of 80 MHZ.

Given Data :

## 1 knot = 1 nautical mile / hour = 1.852 km/hour

Speed =
92.6103  25.72mt/sec.
60 60
Formula used:

2 νr 2 νr 
fd =  f  where λ  c 
λ C  f

fd =
2 25.72  80  106  2 25.72  .8  13.7HZ
3108 3
Or

1.03 r
fd = where vr = knots λ = meters.

fd =
1.03 50  f  1.03 50 80106 = 13.7 Hz
c 3108
6. A pulsed radar operating at 10 GHZ has antenna with a gain of 28 dB and a
transmitter power of 2 KW (pulse power). It is defined to detect a target with a
cross section of 12 sq.m and the minimum detectable signal is – 90 dBm. What is
PROF. G.KUMARASWAMY RAO
5

Given Data :

## (i) Frequency of operation = 10  109 HZ

λ =
C  3108  .03meter.
f 10109
28
(ii) Gain of Antenna Gt = 28 dB = Antilog = 630.96
10
(iii) PT = 2 KW = 2000 W

(v) RCS = σ = 12 m2

## (VI) S min = – 90 dBm = 1 x 10 ─9 mw = 1 x 10 12 W

P G t 2 λ2 σ
Formula used: R max 4 = T
(4 )3 S
min

## = 2000  630.96  630.96  .03 .03 12

4
R max
4  3.14  4  3.14  4  3.14  1012

## 7. An MTI Radar System operating at 10 GHZ and a repetition rate of 1000 HZ

velocity component of 1 km / sec. Determine the radial velocity component as

Given Data :

## (i) Frequency of operation = 10  109 HZ

C 3 108
λ =   .03meter .
f 10 109

6

## (ii) Vr = 1 km / sec = 1000Mt / sec.

Formula used:

2 r 2  1000
fd =   66666HZ  66.666KHZ
 .03
8. A 8 GHZ police Radar measures a Doppler frequency of 1788 HZ from a car
approaching the stationary police vehicle in an 80 km/h speed limit zone. What
should be the police officer do.

## (i) Frequency of operation = 8  109 HZ

C 3 108
λ =   .0375meter .
f 8 109
(ii) fd = 1788 HZ.

Formula used:

2 r
(i) fd = =

2 r
1788 =
.0375

## vr  1788.0375 = 33.525 Mt/sec

2
= 33.525 X 60 X 60 = 120690 = 120.69 km/hr.

Since the vehicle has crossed the 80 km/hr limit, the police officer has to proceed against
the driver as per the law of the country.