I I2 V
R= p = p =p for constant temperature only.
A V A2
1 1
αo = __________ = ___________
to – T │T│
1 1
αo = __________ = ___________
t1 – T t1 + │T│
OHM’S LAW (Ω): It states that the ratio of potential difference (V) between
any two points on a conductor to the current (I) flowing through them is
constant provided the physical conditions (e.g. temperature) of the conductor
does not change.
V V
___ = constant or ___ = R
I I
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
CURRENT DIVIDERS:
If, in a twobranched parallel circuit, R1 and R2 are the branch resistance,
IT the total current, then branch current are
R2 R1
I1 = IT x _______ and I2 = IT x _______
R1 + R 2 R 1 + R2
VOLTAGE DIVIDERS:
If, for two resistors R1 and R2 in series, VT is the total voltage, then
individual voltage drops are
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
R1 R2
V1 = VT x _______ and V2 = VT x _______
R1 + R2 R 1 + R2
V2t
W = I2 Rt = VIt = _____ = Pt in watt – see or Joules
R
The amount of heat produced electrically is given by:
W
H = _____ in kcal or BTU
J
THERMAL EFFICIENCY:
It is the ratio of the heat actually utilized to the total heat produced
electrically.
Battery – a group of cells that generate electric energy from their internal
chemical reaction.
First Law. The mass of an ion set free by a current in the process of
electrolysis is proportional to the quantity of charge that has passed through
the electrolyte.
1 a
m = zlt = (____= ___) It
F v
Second Law. When the same current passes through the several electrolytes
for the same time, the mass of various ions deposited at each of the
electrolytes are proportional to their chemical equivalents.
m1 z1
___=___
m2 z2
CIRCUIT DEFINITIONS:
Circuit. A conducting part or a system of conducting parts through which an
electric current flows or is intended to flow.
Parameters. Various elements of an electric circuit such as Resistance,
Inductance and Capacitance. The parameters may be lumped or distributed.
Linear Circuit. A circuit in which the parameters are constant i.e. do not
change with voltage or current.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
DC CIRCUITS PART I
EXERCISES:
2. A copper wire has a diameter of 0.032 inch. What is the area in circular
mils?
A. 1,228 B. 1,024 C.810 D.1,624
REE – Sept.2002
5. One (1) kW is equal to _________hp.
A. 0.746 B. 1.34 C. 550 D.1.5
DC CIRCUITS PART I
DC CIRCUITS PART I
22. What is the work in ergs needed to raise a 10 gram weight 100
meters up?
A. 4.9 x 105 B. 9.8 x 107 C. 98 x 107 D. 1.96 x
107
2. The absolute permeability of free space or vacuum (µo) has been given a
value of 4П x 107 H/m
3. µ = µr µo
m
H= N/Wb In a medium
4πµ d 2
12. The axial field of a solenoid having N turns and 1 meters long when
carrying current of I amperes is
H = NI/L AT/m
13. Field of an infinitely long straight conductor is given by
I µ0 µr I
H= AT/m B= Wb/m2
2πr 2πr
14. The magnitude of the force between two long straight conductors is
µ0 µrI1I2l µ0I1I2l
In a medium In air
F= N F= N
2πd 2πd
26. When two coils having self inductances of L1 and L2 and mutual
inductance of M are connected in series, the combined inductance is
given by:
L = L1 +L2 + 2M mmf are additive
L = L1+ L2 – 2M mmf are subtractive
27. When two coils having self inductances of L1 and L2 and mutual
inductance of M are connected in parallel, the combined inductance is
given by:
L1 L2 –M2
L1 L2 –M2
L=
Subtractive L=
L1+ L2  2M
Additive L1+ L2 + 2M
28. The hysteresis loss is given by the area of the B/H loop.
Wh = area of the hysteresis loop
= (Area of the B/H loop) joules/m3/cycle provides B is
in Wb/m2 and H in AT/m.
29. If the hysteresis loop has been plotted on a scale such that
1 cm = x AT/m  for H
And 1 cm = y Wb/m2  for B
Then Wh = xy (area of hysteresis loop in cm2) J/m3/cycle.
30. Steinmetz’s empirical law for hysteresis loss is:
 Wh = η Bx max
Joules/m3/cycle
The value of the index x depends on the value of the maximum flux
density Bmax. Its value is 1.6 whenBmaxlies between 0.1 and 1.2 Wb/m2.
31. If V metre3 of a magnetic material are subjected to f reversals of
magnetization per second, then hysteresis loss is:
 Joules/s or watt
Wh = η B maxf
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
32. The energy stored in the magnetic field of a coil or solenoid of self
inductance L and carrying current of I is:
E = ½ LI2
Joules
33. Energy stored per unit volume of the magnetic field is:
B2 B2
3
E= joules/m E= joules/m3
2µo 2µo µr
In air in a medium
34. Lifting or tractive force of an electromagnet is given by:
B2
P=
2µo
If the face area of the pole is A m2, then the pulling force is:
B2A
P=
2µo
DC CIRCUITS PART 2
EXERCISES:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
7. When the current in a wire is 5A, the flux 3 meters from the wire is
30 mWb. If the current is decreased to 4A, what will be the flux?
A. 24 mWb B. 37.5 mWb C. 19.2 mWb D.
46.88 mWb
DC CIRCUITS PART 2
14. A 2 – henry inductor has 20 turns. How many turns must be added
to raise its inductance to 3 henry?
A. 147 turns B. 27 turns C. 180 turns D. 60 turns
16. A solenoid has an inductance of 1.58 mH. How many turns of wire
does it have if the solenoid is 25 cm long and its radius is 2.5 cm?
A. 160,000 turns B. 350 turns C. 400 turns
D. 600 turns
DC CIRCUITS PART 2
22. Two coils in a network are positioned such that there is 100%
coupling between them. If the inductance of one coil is 12 mH and
the mutual inductance is 6 mH, find the inductance of the other coil.
ϵ
ϵ = ϵo ϵr
ϵr
ϵo
The relative permittivity, being a ratio, has no units. For air (strictly
vacuum), ϵr = 1
In a medium in air
Where Q1 and Q2 are the two charges in coulombs and d is the
distance between them in meters.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
In a medium In air
7. If D is the flux density of an electric field, then the electric field intensity
D
is given by E
ϵ
In a medium In air
8. The relation between D and E is given by
D = ϵE
Also
D
ϵ=
E
1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb
Similarly, a potential difference of one volt exists between two points if
one joule of work is done in shifting a charge of one coulomb from one point
to the other.
10. The potential at a point is given by
Q Q
E= N/C E= N/C
4πϵoϵrd
2
4πϵoϵrd 2
In a medium In air
11. (a) The charge resides on the outer surface of a sphere but for
calculating the electric field intensity or potential at a point, it is
considered to be concentrated at the center of the sphere.
g = dV/dx
13. At any point within an electric field. The electric field strength (E)
is equal to the potential gradient g at that point
E = g V/m
14. The dielectric strength of the medium is equal to the potential
gradient necessary to cause the breakdown of the insulation of the
medium. It is usually expressed in kV/mm.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
15. The electric field intensity, potential gradient and the dielectric
strength of the medium are all equal.
ab
C = 4πϵoϵr F
ba
ϵA ϵoϵrA ϵoA
C= F= C= F With air electric
d d d
ϵoA ϵoA
C= = F
Ʃd/ϵr d1 d2
+ + .….
ϵr1 ϵr2
25. The voltage distribution when the two capacitors are joined in
series is C2 C1
V1 = VT V1 = VT
C1 +C2 C1 +C2
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
E = ½ CV2 joules
E = ½ DE joules
D2
E= joules
2ϵoϵr
ν = V (1 – e t/λ)
q = Q (1 – e t/λ)
i = Ime t/λ
ν = Ve t/λ
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
q = Qe t/λ
i = Im e t/λ
DC CIRCUITS PART 3
EXERCISES:
1. An 800 W electric iron operates on 110 V. How many electrons pass
through the iron per second?
A. 4.54 x 10 19 B. 6.4 x 109 C. 70.4 x 106 D.
19
3.25 x 10
REE – Sept.2005
8. A two parallelplate capacitor charged to 15 KV has a capacitance of 4.5
x 104µF. If the plates of the capacitor of 200 square centimeter each are
separated by a distance of 1 mm. what is the permittivity of the dielectric
medium?
A. 2.8 B. 2.65 C. 2.55 D.
2.54
REE – Sept.2004
9. A multiplate capacitor is made up of 501 sheets of aluminum 25 cm x
30 cm with an insulation of paraffin paper 0.0015 cm thick. What is the
capacitance in microfarads of the capacitor?(k for paraffin paper is 3)
A. 50 B. 55 C. 35 D. 67
REE –May 2008
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
A. A B. B C.A and B
D. cannot be determined
REEApril 2006
20. An amperehour meter is calibrated to give a reading of
energy in kilowatt hour on a 220v circuit. When used on a 250v circuit,
it records 845 KWHR in a certain time. calculate the energy actually
supplied
A. 920 B.960 C.950
D.955
Peak to peak
Value
0 π 2π
1 cycle
(360o)
Frequency (f) – the number of cycles per second expressed in hertz (HZ).
PxN
f=
120
Where:
f – frequency, hertz (HZ) or cps
P no. of poles
N – speed, rpm
Wave length (λ) – the length of the complete wave or cycle or the distance
traveled by the waveVelocity
in one cycle
ν
λ= =
frequency f
Note:
1 . For electromagnetic waves, the velocity (ν) in air or vacuum is
186,000 mi/s or 3 x 1010 cm/s, which
is the speed of light.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Vm
0 π 2π

where:
i(t) = instantaneous value of current, amperes
Im = maximum value of current amperes
ν3(t)
ν1(t)
ν2(t)

Vm
θθ
θ π 2π
θ θ

where:
+θ = leading or ahead
θ = lagging or behind
θ = phase angle or angle of displacement
Average Value – the average of all the instantaneous values of half (either
positive or negative) cycle of alternating quantity.
For sinusoidal voltage wave, Vave = 0.636 Vm
For sinusoidal current wave, Iave = 0.636 Im
T T
Vave =
𝟏
𝑻
∫ V(t) dt Iave =
𝟏
𝑻
∫ i(t) dt
0 0
T T
Vave = √
𝟏
𝑻
∫V (t) dt
2
Iave = √ ∫I (t) dt
𝟏
𝑻
2
0 0
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Effective value
Form factor =
Average value
Maximum value
Crest or peak factor =
Effective value
Vm r.f. = sin θo = 0
V= = 0.707 Vm
P=S;Q=0
√2
Im Energy expended
I= = 0.707 Im
W = Pt joules or watt  sec
√2
Vm = Imr
Phasor diagram Pure Inductance
I
0 I V
V L
θ=0 o
2 Vm
Im
V= ; Im
=
P = I2R watts √2
√2
∴↷ Vm = ImXL
2. Reactive Power
` Phasor diagram:
Q = VI sin θ volt – ampere reactive (vars) 0
V
VmIm θ = 90 o
Q= sinθ vars
2
I
3. Apparent Power
I lags V by 90o
S = VI volt ampere (va)
VmIm
S = va
2
∴ For pure L, since θ = 90o
P= VI cos 90o = 0 R and L in Series
Q= VI sin 90o = VI I
S= VI
∴S=Q
R VR
Energy expended, V
f~
2
IL Im2L
WL = joules WL= joules L
VL
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
2 4
Note: I is constant
XL = (1)L = 2πfL
Ω
Pure Capacitance Phasor diagram:
I VL = IXL
V = IZ
V C
θ
0 I
V = IXC VR = IR
Where:
XC = capacitive reactance in ohms V = √VR2 + VL2
1 1 V = √R2 +
2
XL
XC= = V = IZ volts
(1)C 2πfC
Where:
C = capacitance, farad (F) Z=
impedance in ohms
For sinusoidal voltage supply Z = √R2 + XL2
Vm Im p.f. = cos θ = VR/V =
R/Z
V= ; I= r.f. = sin θ =
VL/V = XL/Z
√2 √2 tan θ = VL/VR = XL/R
∴Vm = ImXC
θ = 90o XL
V θ
\0 0 R
I leads V by 90o
∴ For Pure C, since θ = 90o P = VI(p.f.) = I2R = VR/R watts
P = 0; Q = VI, S = VI Q = VI(r.f.) = I2XL = VL/XL
watts
S=Q S = VI = I2Z = V2/Z va
Also,
S = √P2 + Q2 va
Energy expended,
V2C Vm2C
WC = joules WC = joules
2 4
I I
R VR R
VR
V
f~
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
V
C Vc f~ L VL
1 1 C VC
XC = = Ω
(1)C 2πfC
Note: IT = √ IR2 + IC 2
V is constant, √ R2 + XC
2
XL = (1)L = 2πfLΩ IT = V
IR = V/R ; IL = V/XL RXC
IT = V/Z amp.
Phasor diagram: where:
IR RXC
()
V Z=
θ √ R2 + XC 2
R and C in Parallel
IT
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
IC
IR
V
f~ R C
1 1
XC = = Ω
(1)C 2πfLΩ
IR = V/R ; IC = V/XC
Z = 0 + jXL Ω Y=
mho or Siemen
Z = ǀ XLǀ∠90o Ω Z
Conductance (G) – is the reciprocal
or resistance R.
3. For Pure C 1
Z = 0 + jXC Ω Y=
mho or siemen
Z = ǀ XCǀ∠90o Ω R
Susceptance (B) – is the reciprocal or
reactance X.
4. For Pure RL 1
Z = R + jXL Ω Y= mho or siemen
Z =√ R2 + XL 2 ∠+θ X
Z = ǀ Z ǀ∠+θ Ω ∴ Inductive susceptance. BL= 1/ XL
Where: 0o < θ < 90o Capacitive susceptance.
BC= 1/ XC
Z = ǀ Z ǀ∠θ YT Y1 Y2 Y3
Yn
Note: 0o < θ < 90o
∴ For two(2) impedances in
parallel
In general, Z = R ± jX Y1Y2
Where + jX = inductive reactance YT =
 jX = inductive reactance Y1 +Y2
* For the complex expression of n impedance, Admittances in
Parallel
Its angle ranges from 0o to 90o only either YT = Y1 + Y2 + Y3 +
…… + Yn
Positive or negative. Mathematically, 0o≤θ ≤ 90o
Note: In the above equations,
admittances
Must be
expressed in complex form.
Power in Complex Form
1. Voltage Conjugate Method 2. Current Conjugate
Method
S = I x Conjugate of V with S = V x Conjugate of
I with
* Respect to the horizontal axis * Respect to
the horizontal axis
S = IV S = VI
= P ±jQ = P∓jQ
S = √P + Q ∠ ±θ va
2 2
S = √P2 + Q2∠ ∓θ va
where: where *
S = apparent power, va I = conjugate of
the current, amperes
P = real or true or average power, watts
Q = reactive power, vars note:
I = current, amperes j = Q is capacitive
(p.f. is leading)
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Resonance
A circuit is said to be in resonance when the applied voltage V and the
voltage current I are in phase. Thus, at resonance, the equivalent complex
impedance of the circuit consists of only resistance R. Since V and I are in
phase, the power factor of a resonant circuit is unity.
Series Resonance (For RLC in Series) Parallel Resonance/
Antiresonance (For RLC in Parallel)
At resonance, At resonance,
1. VL = VC 1. VL = VC
2. XL = XC 2. XL = XC
1 1
3. L = 3. L =
2 2
(1)o C (1)o C
1 1
4. C = 4. C =
2 2
(1)o L (1)o L
1 1
5. (1) = 5. (1) =
√LC √LC
Where (1)o = angular frequency at
Resonance, rad/sec
1 1
6. fr = 6. Fr =
2π√LC 2π√LC
Where fr= resonant frequency,
Hertz (HZ)
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
RL RC
V
f~
L C
1 RL2 – L/C
At resonance, (1)o =
B L = BC √LC RC2 – L/C
XL XL
RL2 + XL2
=
2
RC + XC 2
1 RL2  L/C
(1)o =
2π√LC RC2 –
L/C
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Q= = = Vdc = dc component
of the voltage
R R R Im = maximum value of the ac
component
Of the current, subscript
indicates the
3. For series RLC, at resonance degree of the
harmonic (i.e.. 1 for
(1)oL 1 the fundamental or
predominant
Qo = = sinusoidal component, 2 for
second
R (1)oCR harmonic, 3 for third
harmonic and so on)
Vm = maximum value of the ac
component
fr fr of the voltage,
subscript indicates
Qo = = the degree of the harmonic
f2 f1 BW
Harmonics components of the
current or voltage in
where: in which the frequencies
are multiples of
f1 and f2 are the frequencies corresponding the fundamental.
to the halfpower points.
BW = bandwidth which is the distance between Note:
Halfpower points, measured in hertz (HZ) f=
fundamental frequency
2f = 2nd harmonic
frequency
(1)o= √(1)1(1)2 3f = 3rd
harmonic frequency
(1)1 = 2πf1 ; (1)2 = 2πf2
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
∴ fr = √f1f2
AC CIRCUITS
PART I – SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM
EXERCISES:
1. The length of the time between a points in one cycle to the same point of
the next cycle of an AC wave is the____.
A. Frequency B. period C. magnitude D.
polarity
AC CIRCUITS
13. Determine the rms value of a semi – circular current wave which
has a maximum value of a.
A. 0.816 a B. 0.237 a C. 0.886 a D. 0.707 a
14. The rms value of a half – wave rectified current is 100 A. Its value
for full wave rectification would be __________ amperes.
A. 141.4 A B. 200 A C. 200/π A D. 40π A
15. A half – wave rectified sine wave has an average value of 100
amp. What is the effective value?
A. 157 A B. 444 A C. 70.71 A D. 100 A
17. Three alternating currents are given by i1 = 141 sin (𝜔t + 45o) ; i2 =
30 sin (𝜔t + 90o) ; i3 = 20 cos (𝜔t + 120o). Find the equation of
resultant current.
A. 167.4 sin (𝜔t + 45.66o) B. 74.6 sin 𝜔t
C . 143.8 sin (𝜔t + 51.4o) D. 64.7 sin (𝜔t + 30o)
19. The maximum value of sine wave AC voltage which will produce
heat in a resistor at the same average rate as 115 V of direct current is
___________________.
A. 81.2 V B. 115 V C. 162.6 V D.230 V
20. A sinusoidal voltage source has a peak value of 150 volts. What
equivalent DC voltage source would produce the same heating effect in
a 1 ohm resistor?
A. 15 V B. 212 V C. 95 V D. 106 V
26. The effective voltage across a circuit element is (20 + j10) V and
the effective current through the element is 4 – j3 A. Calculate the true
and the reactive power taken by the element.
A. 50 watts & 100 Vars lagging B. 20 watts & 100 Vars
leading
C . 110 watts & 20 Vars lagging D. 110 watts & 20
Vars leading
27. A 110 – volt AC line feeds two circuits in parallel. The current are
(2.2 – j6.5) A and (1.8 – j3.5) A . The power consumed by the two
circuits is approximately_____________________.
A. 1,185 watts B.440 watts C. 755 watts
D. 433 watts
AC CIRCUITS
REE – Sept. 2006
35. A two – element series circuit has V = 240 +j0 volts and current
51.96 – j30 A. What is the current in amperes which results when the
resistance is reduced 50% of its former value?
A. 68.57 – j59.39 B. 68.57 – j59.39 C. 59.39 – j68.57
D. 59.39 – j68.57
AC CIRCUITS
REE – March 1998
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
50. The maximum values of alternating voltage and current are 400 V
and 20 A, respectively, in a circuit connected to 50 Hz supply and these
quantities are sinusoidal. The instantaneous values of voltage and
current are 283V and 10 A respectively at t = 0 both increasing
positively. What is the power factor of the circuit?
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
AC CIRCUITS
AC CIRCUITS
REE – October 1998
66. One leg of a radio tuned circuit has a capacitance of 1 x 109 F. It is
tuned at 200 kHz. Hat is the inductance of the other leg in Henry?
A. 6.33 x 104 B. 20 x 103 C. 8.25 x 105
D. 129 x 103
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
AC Circuits Part 2
Three Phase Circuits / Systems
IL = Iф
Vф Zф
VL
VL
IL = Iф Zф Zф
VL
IL = Iф
VL
Relationships: Iф = IL ; Vф =
√3
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
IL Vф
Iф
VL Iф
Zф Zф
VL IL Zф
VL IL Iф
IL
Relationships: Vф = VL ;Iф =
√3
Where:
Vф – phase voltage
Iф – phase current
VL – line voltage
IL – line current
ST Zф
QT Xф
θT θT
0 PT 0 Rф
QT KVAR Xф
r.f. = cos θT = = =
ST KVA Zф
QT KVAR Xф
tan θT = = =
PT KW Rф
Where
PT = total real power drawn by the balanced 3ф load
QT = total reactive power drawn by the balanced 3ф load
ST = total apparent power drawn by the balanced 3ф load
p.f. = power factor of the balanced 3ф load
r.f. = reactive factor of the balanced 3ф load
θT = power factor angle of the balanced 3ф load
Power Sequence = the order in which the generated voltages in the phase
windings of an alternator reach or attain their peak or maximum value.
Current Coil1
Potential Coil1
IL
±
W1 VL
Balanced IL VL Balanced
3ф 3ф
Source Load
VL
W2 IL
√3 (W1 – W2)
tan θ = , if W1> W2
W 1 + W2
√3 (W2 – W1)
tan θ = , if W2> W1
W 2 + W1
Notes:
1. At unity p.f., the two wattmeter’s have equal reading. That is
W1 = W2
2. At 0.866 p.f., one wattmeter reading is twice the other.
3. At 0.5 p.f., one wattmeter reads zero while the other registers
the total circuit power.
4. At less than 0.5 p.f., one wattmeter gives a negative reading and
the other positive.
Symmetrical Components
For voltages:
𝟏
VA = VA0 + VA1 + VA2 VA0 = (VA + VB + VC)
𝟑
𝟏
VB = VA0 + a2VA1 + aVA2 VA1 = (VA + aVB + a2VC)
𝟑
2 𝟏
VC = VA0 + aVA1 + a VA2 VA2 = (VA + a2VB + aVC)
𝟑
Where:
a = 1∠120o = 0.5 + j0.866
a2 = 1∠240o = 0.5 + j0.866
VA, VB, VC = unbalanced voltages
V0, V1, V2 = zero, positive and negative symmetrical components of
voltage respectively
For currents:
𝟏
IA = IA0 + IA1 + IA2 IA0 = (IA + IB + IC)
𝟑
2 𝟏
IB = IA0 + a IA1 + aIA2 IA1 = (IA + aIB + a2IC)
𝟑
2 𝟏
IC = IA0 + aIA1 + a IA2 IA2 = (IA + a2IB + aIC)
𝟑
IN = IA + IB + IC
Where:
IA, IB, IC = unbalanced currents
I0, I1, I2 = zero, positive and negative symmetrical components of
current respectively
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
IN = neutral current
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
AC CIRCUITS
PART 2 – POLYPHASE SYSTEM
EXERCISES:
REE – Sept.2007
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
5. The wye connected three – phase voltage source has V sub c = 115 v
rms with – 240 degrees angle. Find the line to line.
A. – 99 – j173 v rms C. 199 + j0 v rms
C . 0 – j199 v rms D. 99 – j173 v rms
AC CIRCUITS
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
AC CIRCUITS
REE – Sept. 2007
20. A balanced three – phase, wye – connected load of 150 kw takes a
leading current of 100 A, when the line is 2,400 v, 60 Hz. What is the
capacitance per phase?
A. 21 mF B. 21 µF C. 205 mF D. 205 µF
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
21. A 50 – HP, three – phase induction motor with full load efficiency
of 85 % and power factor of 0.80 is connected to a three phase, 480 V
system. The equivalent star connected impedance that can replace this
motor is __________.
A. 7.3∠  36.87o Ω B. 7.3∠36.87o Ω
C . 4.2∠  36.87o Ω D. 4.2∠36.87o Ω
24. Find the average power absorbed by a balanced three – phase load
in an ACB circuit in which one line voltage is VAC = 480 ∠30o and one
line current to the load is Ib = 2.1∠80o A.
A. 1337 W B. 1122 W C. 1719 W D.112 W
REE – Sept.2001
25. The phase B line voltage and the phase A line current of a
balanced three – phase systems are V = 220 sin (𝜔t + 210o) volts and I =
10 sin (𝜔t + 180o) amperes, respectively. What is the power of the
system?
A. 1,905 W B. 3,300 W C. 5,716 W D.
3,810 W
26. The loads on 230 – volt three – phase generator consist of (a) three
groups of incandescent lamps, each group containing twenty 100 watts
lamps and (b) a 9 hp motor operating at 82 percent power factor and 87
percent efficiency. Find the total load current in amperes.
A. 30 B. 37 C. 40 D. 45
AC CIRCUITS
29. Two – wattmeter method is applied to three – phase motor running
at full load. The two wattmeters indicate 85.5 kW, respectively. What is
the operating power factor of the motor?
A. 87.45 % B. 80.69% C. 89.49 % D. 94.76%
34. Two wattmeters are connected for two – wattmeter method with
current coils in line A and B of a 208 V, ABC circuit that has a balanced
delta load. If the meter readings are 6 kW and – 3 kW, respectively, find
the load impedance per phase.
A. 18.8 ∠  35.2o Ω / phase B. 18.8 ∠  79.1o Ω / phase
C . 22.3 ∠  36.2o Ω / phase D. 32.2∠  36.2o Ω / phase
38. A three – phase, four – wire system has the following unbalanced
loads: Za = 10 +j10 Ω, Zb = 13  j2 Ω, Zc = 7.5 +j10 Ω. Determine the
total power delivered to the load if the line voltage is 208 V.
A. 4.48 kW B. 1.48 kW C. 2.49 kW D.
2.90 kW
AC CIRCUITS
REE – April 2005
39. A 3 – phase 4 – wire system has the following unbalanced loads:
Z1 = 10 +j5 Ω, Z2 = 8 +j4 Ω, and Z3 = 20 +j0 Ω. The line to neutral
voltage of the system is 120 volts. What is the reading of the wattmeter
in watts in Z3?
A. 900 B. 720 C. 1,000 D. 1, 050
DC Transient
Series RL Circuit
SW
𝑅
E k3 − 𝑡
i=  𝑒 𝐿
R R
−k3
R VR let k =
R
𝑅
𝐸 −𝐿𝑡
∴ i = + k𝑒 → general
𝑅
solution
E
VL
L where k = constant of integration to
find k,
At t = 0, i = 0
i
𝐸
When the switch is closed: 0= +ke0
𝑅
−𝐸
VR + V L = E k= , subs’t back in
𝑅
general solution
di
Ri + L − E → L.D.E. of the first order
dt
By variable separable Hence,
R
di 1 E E
= dt i =  e− L t
E−Ri L R R
1 1 E
 1n (E – Ri) = t + k1k2 where: = steady state current
R L R
component
R
−R E
1n (E – Ri) = t  Rk1  e− L t = transient current
L R
component
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
−R E
1n (E – Ri) = t +k2 Finally: i = (1 
L R
R
−Lt
e ) → particular solution
Current growth eq ‘ n. from i = 0
E
to i = Imax =
R
Open at t = 0 →i = 0
Note: for inductor with no initial current
E
Shorted at t = ∞ →i = Imax =
R
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
Voltage Across R (VR): Power Across L (Pt) :
R R R
−Lt −Lt E −Lt
VR = Ri = E (1  e ) PR = VR∙I =Ee )∙ (1  e )
R
R 2R
E2 − t − t
Voltage Across L (VL): PR = (e L e L
R
di
VL = L t = 0, PL = 0
dt
R −R
E −Lt ( L )
= L{ [0 − e ]} t = ∞, PL = 0
R
R
−Lt
VL = E e PT = PR + PL = Ei
R
E −Lt
Or =E ∙ (1  e )
R
R
E2
VL= E  VR *PR = (1  e− L t )2
R
R
−Lt
= E – E (1  e ) Energy Stored in the Magnetic Field
(WL):
R
−Lt di
VL = E e dWL = PLdt = VLi dt = L ∙i dt =
dt
L i di
Power across R (PR) when: t = 0, i = 0, WL = 0
𝑽𝟐𝑹
PR = VR∙i = i2R = t = 0, i = 1, WL = WL
𝑹
Using: Hence
WL 1
PR = VR∙i ∫0 dW2 = L∫0 idi
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
R R
E 1
=E (1  e− L t ) ∙ (1  e− L t ) * WL = L I2
R 2
R
E2 −Lt 2
PR = (1  e ) at maximum time condition
R
(t = ∞), I = Imax
1
When t = 0, PR = 0 Note: t = ∞(steady – state) WL = L I2max
2
E2
t = ∞PR =
R
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
Time Current (TC):
The time constant of any equation dealing with transient is in the value
of time (t, sec) which makes the magnitude or absolute value of the exponent
of the nos. e equivalent to unity or 1.
In both current growth and current decay curves the current tends to
approach the steady – state values after 5TC.
Thus, the transition interval is:
0 ≤ t ≤ 5 TC
For RL Circuit
TC = L/R
For RC Circuit
TC = RC
i
E
R
E
0.632
R
R
E −Lt
i= (1  e )→ exponential rise
R
t(sec)
0 1TC 5TC
Time constant at Subsidiency:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
is the time elapsed for the current to reach 36.8% of its initial value.
Proof:
R
− t
i = Ioe L
L
When t = 1 TC =
R
−t
i = Ioe = 0.368% Io = 36.8% Io
i
R
i = Ioe− L t → exponential decay
Io
0.368 Io
t(sec)
0 1 TC 5 TC
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
Transient in Series RC Circuit (D.C.)
dq
E R VR = Ri = R
dt
1
i C VL = q/C = ∫ 𝑖 dt
C
dq t E t
CE – q = RC i = Ioe ⁄RC = e ⁄RC
dt R
dq 1
= dt voltage Across R:
CE−q RC
t E t
In (CE – q) = + k1 VR = Ri = R ∙ e ⁄RC
RC R
−t t
In (CE – q) = + k1 k2 VR = Ee ⁄RC
RC
t t
CE – q = e ⁄RC k1 = e ⁄RC ∙ e .k1 Voltage Across C:
t
−t CE (1−e ⁄RC )
q = CE – k2e ⁄RC VC = q/C =
C
−t t⁄
q = CE – ke ⁄RC → gen. solution VC = E(1 − e RC )
2 V2R q dq q
PR = VR∙i =i R dWC= PC dt = VCi dt = dt = dq
R C dt C
t E t⁄ 1 Q 1 q2 Q
= Ee ⁄RC ∙ e RC WC = ∫0 q dq = ] o
R C C 2
E2 t⁄ 1 Q2 1 1
PR = e RC WC= = Q VC= C VC2
R 2 C 2 2
E2
At t = 0, PR = since VC = Q/C; Q = CVC
R
At t = ∞, PR = 0 at maximum condition (t = ∞)
Q = Qmax = CE
Power Across C: Hence,
1 Q2max 1 1
PC = VCI WC= = Qmax E = CE2
2 C 2 2
t E t
PC= E(1 − e ⁄RC ) e ⁄RC
R
At t = 0, PC = 0
At t = ∞, PC = 0
R R
E E
Qo Qo
C C
i i
From, From,
t t
q = CE + ke ⁄RC q = CE + ke ⁄RC
At t = 0, q = Qo At t = 0, q =  Qo
Qo = CE + keo  Qo = CE + keo
K = Qo – CE K = (Qo + CE)
t
q = CE + (Qo – CE)e ⁄RC
t E− Qo/C t⁄
i = Ioe ⁄RC = e RC hence,
R
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
t
q = CE  (Qo + CE) e ⁄RC
t
Proof: E = VR+ VC = Ri + q/C i = ioe ⁄RC =
E+ Qo/C t⁄
e RC
R
At t = 0, q = Qo, i = Io Proof:
E = RIo +Qo/C At t = 0
E− Qo/C t⁄
Io= e RC E = RIo + ( Qo)/C; Io =
R
E+ Qo/C
R
Hence,
t E− Qo/C t⁄
i = Ioe ⁄RC = e RC
R
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
CASE 4 (For discharging of initially charged capacitor): CASE 5:
1 1
2 2
V C C1 V
R i R
i
C2
R
Q C
R C1 Qo i
i C2
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
t
q = Qoe ⁄RC
t − Qo/C t⁄ t
i = Ioe ⁄RC = e RC i = Ioe ⁄RC =
R
− Qo/C t⁄
e RC1
R
C1 C2
CT=
C1 +C2
Qo CT C1
RLC Circuit (Double Energy Transient) q= ( –1+
C1 CT
t
e ⁄RC1 )
Series RLC Circuit (DC):
R VR
E L VL
I
C VC
By KVL,
VR + VL + VC = E
di 1
Ri + L + ∫ 𝑖 dt = E
dt C
Differentiate “i” with respect to t
d𝑖 d2𝑖 𝑖 1
[R + L + = 0]
dt dt C L
d21 R di 𝑖
+ + = 0→L.D.E. of the second order with three possible solutions.
dt2 L dt LC
Or
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
R 1
(D2 + D )i = 0
L LC
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
Auxiliary Equation Case II – Critically – damped case:
R 1
m2 + m + = 0 when the roots are real and
L LC
equal/repeated
R 4
By Quadratic Equation Formula: Test: ( )2  = 0
L LC
R R 4
− ±√( )2−
L L LC
m= or b2 – 4ac = 0
2 (1)
R 4
R √( )2− R 1
L LC
=− ± or if ( )2 = ( )
2L √4 2L LC
R 4
R √( )2−
L LC
m= − ± 𝛽=0 0
2L √4
R R 4
m= − ± √( ) 2 − m=∝+𝛽
2L L LC
m = m1 = m2 = ∝
(D  ∝ )(D  ∝) i = 0
𝑡 𝑡
Gen. Solution: i = k1e𝑚1 + k2 te𝑚2 =
𝑡 𝑡
k1e𝑚1 + k2 te𝑚2
i = e∝𝑡 ( k1 + k2t)
R R 4
Let ∝ = − , 𝛽 √( ) 2 − CASE III – Under
2L L LC
dumped CASE: (Oscillatory Case)
Therefore,  when the roots contain a real and
imaginary part.
R 4
m = ∝ ±𝛽 test: ( )2  ( )< 0
2L LC
Roots; or
m1 = ∝ +𝛽 b2 – 4ac < 0
R 1
m2 = ∝ +𝛽 or if ( )2 < ( ) 𝛽 = is
2L LC
imaginary, 𝛽 = j𝜔
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT
From Euler’s Formula:
e±𝑗𝜔𝑡 = cos 𝜔t ± j sin𝜔t
i = e∝𝑡 [ kA(cos 𝜔t ± j sin𝜔t) + kB (cos 𝜔t ± j sin𝜔t)]
= e∝𝑡 [ kA + kB ] cos 𝜔t + (jkA  jkB) sin𝜔t]
i = e∝𝑡 [ kA(cos 𝜔t ± j sin𝜔t)
Where: 𝜔 = angular velocity of oscillation, rad/ sec
f = frequency of oscillation, cps or hertz
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
1 R
𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑓= √ − ( )2
LC 2L
1 1 R
f= √ − ( )2
2𝜋 LC 2L
AC Transients
R R
e j e j
j j
j L j C
j i j i
j j
h h
h h Em
e = Em sin ( 𝜔t + 𝜙) i = Cet⁄RC + sin (𝜔t + 𝜙 +
ǀZC ǀ
𝜃 z)
1
𝜙 = position of sinusoidal voltage ZC = R – j XC= R – j
ωC
XC 1
At the instant of switching/ application tan 𝜃 Z = =
R ωCR
1XC 1 1
For ex, 𝜃 Z = tan tan
R ωCR
1
At t = 0, e = 0 At t = 0, e = Em At t = 0, e = Em
2
1
0 = Em sin (0 + ϕ) 1 = sin ϕ Em= Emsin ϕ
2
ϕ =0 ϕ = 90o ϕ = 30o
\
Resultant
𝑅
Em
i = Ce−𝐿𝑡 + sin (𝜔t + 𝜙 − 𝜃 z)
ǀZL ǀ
ZL = R + j 𝜔L=ǀZL ǀ∠ 𝜃z
X ωL
tan 𝜃 Z = C =
R R
1XL ωL
𝜃 Z = tan tan 1
R R
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS
EXERCISES:
1. The field circuit of a 4 – pole DC motor has a resistance of 200 Ω and an
inductance of 100 H. If it is connected to a 400 – volt supply, find the
time taken for the current to each 1.5 A.
A. 0.125 sec B. 1.5 sec C. 0.369 sec D. 0.693
sec
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS
11. A resistance R and a 4 µF capacitor are connected in series across
a 200 V dc supply. Across the capacitor is a neon lamp that strikes
(glows) at 120 V. Calculate the value R to make the lamp strike(glow) 5
seconds after the switch have been closed.
B. 2.45 MΩ B. 1.98 MΩ C. 1.36 MΩ D.
3.62 MΩ
ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS
REE – April 2007
21. Find the current thru a 0.10 microfarad capacitor at t = 0 if the
voltage across it is – 2 e raised to – 10 raised to 7 x t V.
A. 200 mA B. 20 mA C. 2 A D. 20 A
Coil pitch – the distance between the two sides of a coil (the no. of slots
enclosed by the two coil sides).
𝑺
COIL PITCH
Ys =  K
𝑷
Where:
Ys = coil pitch, in slots
S = total no. of armature slots
P = no. of poles
K = any parts of S/P that is subtracted to make Ys an integer
Commutator Pitch –the distance between the two ends of a coil (the no. of
commutator bars between the two coil ends).
Yc =± m 𝑪 ±𝒎
Yc =
𝑷/𝟐
Where:
YC = commutator pitch, bars or segments
S = total no. of commutator bars or segments
P = no. of poles
K = plex or degree of municipality of the winding.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Frog – Leg Winding – a type of armature winding that combines the features
of ordinary lap and wave windings. It was Allis – Chalmers Manufacturing
Company who developed this type of winding.
Where:
Eg= total generated voltagein the armature, volts
Ф = flux per pole, lines/pole or Maxwell’s/ pole
P = no. of poles, an even no.
N = speed of the armature conductors
Z = total no. of active armature conductors
a = no. of parallel paths in the armature
DC Generator – a type of a dyno that converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Formulas:
Ia = Is = IL
Eg = Vt + Va + Vbc + Vs
Eg = Vt + Ia (Ra + Rbc) + IsRs
Pg = EgIa
Pg = po + electrical loses
Po = VtVL = IL2RL
Electrical Losses or Copper Losses:
a) Armature winding copper loss, Pa = Ia2 Ra
b) Brush contract resistance loss, Pbc = Ia2 Rbc
c) Series field winding copper loss, Ps = Is2 Rs
Pin = Pg +spL
Pin = Po + electrical losses + spL
Pin = Po + total losses
𝑷𝒐 𝑷𝒐 𝒑𝒈
𝜼= x 100 𝜼𝒄 = x 100 𝜼𝒎 = x 100
𝑷𝒊𝒏 𝑷𝒈 𝑷𝒊𝒏
Formulas:
Ia = IL = If
If = Vt /Rf
Eg = Vt + Va + Vbc
Eg = Vt + Ia (Ra + Rbc)
Pg = EgIa
Pg = po + electrical loses
Po = VtVL
Where:
If = shunt field current
Rf = shunt field winding resistance
3. Compound Wound DC Generator –it has both the series and shunt
field windings which are connected either long shunt or short shunt.
a) Cumulative Compound Generator – the series field flux is aiding
field to supply a power and lighting loads.
a.1) Under Compounded – the full – load terminal voltage is less
than the no – load voltage. It is used when the load is located near
from it.
a.2) Flat Compounded – the full – load terminal voltage is the same
as the no – load voltage. It is used when the load is at in medium
distance from it.
𝑽𝑵𝑳 ÷ 𝑽𝑭𝑳
% V.R. = x 100
𝑽𝑭𝑳
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
%V.R. = percent voltage regulation
VNL = no – load voltage
VFL = full – load voltage
Formulas:
Ia = IS = IL + If
If = Vt /Rf
Eg = Vt + Va + Vbc+ Vs
Eg = Vt + Ia (Ra + Rbc+ Rs)
Formulas:
Ia = IL + If
If = Is
𝑉𝑡+ 𝑉𝑠
If =
𝑅𝑓
Eg = Vt + Vs + Va + Vbc
Eg = Vt + IsRs + Ia(Ra + Rbc)
Formulas:
Ia = IL
If = Vf/Rf
Eg = Vt + Va + Vbc
Eg = Vt + Ia(Ra + Rbc)
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
DC MACHINES – PART 1
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
EXERCISES:
1. A 4 – pole simplex wave – wound generator has 57 slots, what is the coil
pitch?
A. 7 B. 14 C. 4 D. 14.25
REE – Sept.2008
9. When a generator is being driven at 1,200 rpm, generated emf is 230 V.
What is the generated emf if the flux is decreased by 10 % with the
speed remains unchanged.
A. 205 V B. 207 V C. 200 V D.203 V
DC MACHINES – PART 1
REE – Sept. 2005
11. What is the maximum voltage generated in a drum armature with
concentrated windings consisting of 300 series conductors in each path?
The armature speed is 1,200 rpm. Each conductor cuts twice through a
field of 1.5 x 106 lines of force per revolution.
A. 282 V B. 267 V C. 273 V D. 256 V
18. A 4 – pole, wave wound, 750 rpm shunt generator has an armature
and field resistances of 0.4 ohm and 200 ohms, respectively. The
armature has 720 conductors and the flux per pole is 28.95 mWb. If the
load resistance is 10 ohms, what is the terminal voltage of the machine?
A. 521 V B. 510 V C. 505 V D. 500 V
19. The voltage of a 100 – kW, 250 – volt shunt generator rises to 260
volts when the load is removed. What is the full – load current does the
machine deliver, and what it’s percent regulation?
A. 400 A, 4% B. 385, 3.85% C. 400 A, 2% D.
500 A, 5%
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
DC MACHINES
PART 2
When
Variables Losses = Constant Losses
Hence,
𝐏𝐨 ′𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝛈𝐦𝐚𝐱 =
𝑷𝒐 ′ + 𝐕𝐚𝐫𝐢𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐬𝐞𝐬 + 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭 𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐬𝐞𝐬
𝐕𝐭 𝐈𝐋 ′𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝛈𝐦𝐚𝐱 =
𝐕𝐭 𝐈𝐋 ′ 𝐈′𝟐𝐚 (𝐑 𝐚 + 𝐑 𝐛𝐜 ) + 𝐈𝐟𝟐 𝐑 𝐟 + 𝐬𝐩𝐋
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
𝛈𝐦𝐚𝐱 = maximum efficiency
Po’ = output power at maximum efficiency
Vt = terminal or output voltage (assumed to be practically
constant)
IL’ = load current at 𝛈𝐦𝐚𝐱
Ia’ = armature current at 𝛈𝐦𝐚𝐱
𝑰𝟐𝒇 𝑹𝒇 +𝒔𝒑𝑳
IL’ =√
𝑹𝒂 +𝑹𝒃𝒄
If condition (1) is not met, the generators will not deliver power in
proportion to KW ratings.
If condition (2) is not met, there will be big current that will circulate the
armature windings of the generators which may damage the windings.
Formulas:
IL = Is = Ia Pin = PbspL
Vt = Eb + Va + Vbc + Vs Pin = VtIL
Vt = Eb + Ia (Ra + Rbc) + IsRs Pin = Po + total losses
Pb = EbIa Pin = Pb + electrical losses
𝑷𝒐 𝑷𝒃 𝒑𝒐
𝜼= x 100 𝜼𝒄 = x 100 𝜼𝒎 = x 100
𝑷𝒊𝒏 𝑷𝒊𝒏 𝑷𝒃
II. Shunt Wound DC Motor – its field winding also called shunt
field winding is connected in across with the armature.
Formulas:
IL = Ia + If Pb= EbIa
Vt = If Rf Po= Pb spL
2
Vt = Eb + IaRa + Rbc + Ia Rbc Pin = Po + total losses
Vbc = IaRbc Pin = Vt IL
Where:
Vbc = brush contact resistance drop
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
III. Compound Wound DC Motor – it has the series field and the
field windings which are connected either long shunt or short
shunt.
Formulas:
IL = Ia + If
Vt = If Rf
Vt = Eb + IaRa + Rbc + IaRs
Vbc = IaRbc
Formulas:
IL = IS = Ia + If
Vt = If Rf + ILRs
Vt = Eb + IaRa + IaRbc + ILRs
Vbc = IaRbc
DC MACHINES – PART 2
EXERCISES:
1. A 60 kW, 250 V DC shunt generator has an armature circuit resistance
of 0.05 ohm, field resistance of 50 ohms and maximum efficiency of
91.2%. The approximate stray power loss is
A. 1785 W B. 160.25 W C. 1660 W D. 2135 W
10. A 440 – volt shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.8 Ω and a
field resistance 200 Ω. What is the back emf when giving an output of
7.46 kW at 85% efficiency?
A. 465.8 V B. 425.8 V C. 400 V D. 440 V
DC MACHINES – PART 2
DC MACHINES
PART 3
Force Exerted in a Motor Conductor
BI𝑙 F BIl dynes
F dynes
10
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
F = force exerted, dynes
B = flux density, gauss (lines/cm2)
I = current through the conductor, amperes
l = length of the conductor, cm.
Iab = current through the conductor, abampere
Note:
Iab = I/10
FT = FZ
𝐙𝐁𝐈 𝑙
FT =
10
But I = Ia/a
𝐙𝐁Ia 𝑙
FT =
10
Where:
FT = total force exerted, dynes
Z = total no. of armature conductor
Ia = total armature current
a = no. of parallel paths in the armature
Td = FT x r
𝐙𝐁Ia /𝑟
Td = dynes cm
10a
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
Td= developed torque, dyne – cm
r = average distance of Z conductors from the center of rotation,
cm.
Note:
445,000 dynes = 1lb
30.48 cm = 1 ft.
Motor Torque Relations
Pb = EbIa watts
But
𝝓𝒙𝑷𝒙𝒁𝒙𝑵
Eb = x 108 volts
𝟔𝟎 𝒙 𝒂
Therefore
𝝓𝒙𝑷𝒙𝒁𝒙𝑵
Eb = x 108 x Ia volts
𝟔𝟎 𝒙 𝒂
Also
2π TdN
Hpdev =
33,000
Where:
Hpdev= developed horsepower in the armature, hp
Td = developed torque, lb – ft
N = speed of the armature, rpm
Note:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
33,000 ft−lb
1 hp =
min
Equating 1 and 2
ϕxPxZxN 2π TdN
x 108x Ia (746)
60 x a 33,000
33,000 x10−8 P x Z
Td =(60)(2 )(746)x x 𝜙 x Ia
π a
0.1173 PxZ
Td =( 8 ) ( )x 𝜙 x Ia lb – ft
10 a
Where: k = proportionally constant
0.1173 PxZ
K =( 8 ) ( )
10 a
Td = k𝜙Ia lb – ft
Where:
𝑃𝑥𝑍𝑥𝑁
k=
60 𝑥𝑎
k = proportionally constant
Eb = k𝜙N
N = Eb/k𝜙
NNL − NFL
% = S.R. = x 100
NFL
Acceleration of DC Motors
At the instant of starting, Eb = 0 since N = 0
∴ Eb = Vt – Ia (Ra + Rbc)
0 = Vt – Ia ( Ra + Rbc)
Vt
Ia=
Ra + Rbc
From the above equation, since the armature circuit resistance (Ra + Rbc)
is very small, the armature tends to draw high and excessive value of armature
current. To prevent this, an external resistance (called starting resistance) must
be inserted in series with the armature. As the motor accelerates the starting
resistance may be cut gradually, because Eb rises, until the entire external
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
resistance is ultimately cut out (or short – circuited), under which condition
the motor is connected across the line and running at full speed.
Prony Brake – a device used to determine the output KW and output torque
of an electronic motor.
DC MACHINES – PART 3
EXERCISES:
REE – April 2001
1. A DC shunt motor develops 15 hp at 120 V. If the effective armature
resistance is 0.061 ohm and the field winding draws 2 amperes, what
is the overall efficiency?
A. 90% B. 93% C. 95% D. 94%
2. In a 5 – HP, 230 – volt, 1500 rpm shunt motor, the resistance of the
armature including brushes is 0.175 Ω, and that of the shunt field is
610 Ω. The stray power losses when the motor delivers rated load at
rated voltage are 305 watts. What is the efficiency of motor at the
rated load?
A. 85.32% B. 89.32 % C. 87.32 5 D. 91.32
%
DC MACHINES – PART 3
REE – Sept. 2007
9. A shunt motor with an armature resistance of 0.15 ohm is running
1,200 rpm for a load which requires an armature current of 50 A from
a 230 V source. At no – load, the armature current is 5 A. if the effect
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
of armature reaction has reduced the air – gap flux 2% from no – load
to full –load speed?
A. 1,213 rpm B. 1,210 rpm C. 1,208 rpm D. 1,212
rpm
11. The no – load speed of a compound motor is 1,650 rpm. How fast
will it operate when it delivers rated horsepower output, if the speed
regulation is 12.5 percent?
A. 1,444 rpm B. 1,856 rpm C. 1,467 rpm D. 1,500
rpm
AC MACHINES
Part 1
AC GENERATORS (ALTERNATORS)
GENERAL TYPES OF ALTERNATOR
1. Synchronous generator – its speed is called synchronous speed ant it is
used in almost all types of application.
2. Induction generator – (a synchronous generator) – it is an induction
motor which is run as a generator with a speed above the synchronous
speed. Its power factor is leading and usually connected in parallel with
a synchronous generator in order to supply lighting and power loads.
3. Inductor alternator – it generates voltages at higher frequencies (500
HZ to 10,000 HZ). It is used to supply power to induction furnaces in
order to heat and melt alloys and steel.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝛟
Or Eave = N volts (if ϕ is in webers/pole)
𝐭
Eave = 4 f N 𝛟 x 108 volts 1
Note: The whole – coiled winding is the more usual of the two
arrangements.
Coil Pitch – the distance between the two sides of a coil. It is usually
express as a percent of full pitch.
Coil Pitch
Coil Sides
A. Full – Pitch coil – a coil having a distance between its two sides exactly
equal to 10 electrical degrees.
A. Fractional Pitch coil – a coil having a distance between its two sides
exactly equal to 10 electrical degrees.
Pitch Factor – the ratio of the voltage generated in the fractional – pitch coil
to the voltage generated in the full – pitch coil.
𝐏𝐨
Kp = sin
𝟐
Where:
Kp= pitch factor in decimal
Po = span of the coil in electrical degrees
𝐝𝐨
𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝐧( 𝟐 )
Kd= 𝐝𝐨
𝐧 𝐬𝐢𝐧 ( 𝟐 )
Where:
Kd = distribution factor, decimal
n = no. of slots per pole per phase
do= no. of electrical degrees per slot
DC source
(Exciter)
To 3𝜙
 Load
b b
c
DC Field c
Winding armature windings
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS
a c a c
c IL
+ Iф
If Zs
Vf Rf +
~ Eф VL
c Eф  = Eф
+ ~~ + VL
Zs Zs
c Iф Iф b IL
c bc
c
IL VL
Cc
VL = √3 Vф ; IL = Iф ; EL = √3 Eф
+c a a
c
If c 
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Eф IL
Zs ~+
Vf Rf
+ Iф Iф ZS VL
Eф ~ Iф VL
c  IL
 C ~ c b bc
c Zs + 
Eф IL VL
c
C
VL = Vф ; IL = √3 Iф ; EL = Eф
Per phase Equivalent Circuit Diagram:
(Wye or Delta Connected)
Eф = Vф + Ia Zs →added vector ally
Iф = Ia Zs = Ra + j Xs
Zs Xs = Xar + XL
Vф L
+
Eф~

Where:
Eф = generated or open circuit or no – load voltage per phase
EL = generated or open circuit or no – load line to line voltage
Vф= terminal (output) voltage per phase
VL = line to line terminal voltage
Iф= Ia = armature current per phase
IL = line current
Ra = Re = effective or ac resistance of the armature per phase
Xs= synchronous reactance per phase
XL = armature leakage reactance per phase
Xar = reactance due to armature reaction per phase
Zs = synchronous impedance per phase
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Rf = field resistance
If = field current
Vf = voltage drop across the field
Eф Eф IaXs
IaZs Eф IaXs Ia
IaXs IaZs IaZs
0 0 θ
θ Vф 0 Vф IaR
IaRa Ia Vф IaRa
Iф = Ia θ=0
From the phasor diagrams:
1. In complex form, Eф= Vф+ IaZs
2. In magnitude, Eф= √(Vϕ cos θ + Ia R a )2 + (Vϕ sin θ ± Ia X s )2
Where:
θ = power factor angle of the load
= for lagging power factor
= for leading power factor
Three (3) tests necessary to perform in order to obtain data for the
calculation of the regulation an alternator:
1. Armature dc resistance test
2. Open –circuit or no – load test
3. Short – circuit test
1 2
Open DC field wdg.
DC source
Vdc
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
3
R12 + R23 + R31 Vdc rdg
Rt = ; (i.e. R12 =
3 Adc rdg
High current rheostat
R
For wye – connected armature windings. Radc= t
2
3R
For delta – connected armature windings, Radc= t
2
To get the equivalent effective or AC resistance armature, use a factor of
1.25 to 1.75. Say,
Ra or Re = 1.25 Radc
If F.R
V~t
Prime Mover
AC Voltmeter
Vt
Open Circuit voltage per phase, Eoc =
√3
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Highly Resistive A1
If F.R
A2
DC source Shorted
armature
Windings
Prime Move r
A3
AC Voltmeter
A1 + A2 + A3
Average short circuit per phase, Isc =
3
Eoc
Synchronous impedance per phase, Zs =
Isc
a. For wye – connected armature windings
Eoc 𝑉 𝑡 / √3
Zs = =
Isc Isc
Eoc Vt
Zs = =
I sc I sc
√3 √3
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
ALTERNATOR EFFICIENCY:
P Po x 100
η = 0 x 100 =
Pin Po +Total losses
2. Electrical losses
a. Field winding
b. Armature winding
c. Brush contacts (often neglected; quiet small)
If any of the above requisites is not met, there will be cross current
between the alternator windings thru the common bus bars. With the
cross – current, the alternator cannot be synchronized.
1. Three phase (3ϕ) fault at the alternator terminals (either wye or delta
connected alternator)
Note: In a 3ϕ fault, the fault currents are symmetrical (balanced).
100
IscL = ILrated ( )
% Z1
Where:
IscL = Three phase fault line current
ILrated = rated line current of the alternator
Iϕrated = rated phase current of the alternator
%Z1 = percent positive phase sequence impedance
%x1 = percent positive phase sequence reactance
%X2 = percent negative phase sequence reactance
%X0 = percent Zero phase sequence reactance
AC MACHINES PART 1  ALTERNATORS
EXERCISES:
1. The no. of cycles generated in a 10 pole alternator in one revolution is
_______________.
A. 2 B. 5 C. 10 D. 20
10. If the alternator winding has a fractional pitch of 4⁄5, the pitch
factor kp is ____________.
A. 0.833 B. 0.966 C. 0.972 D. 0.951
11. A six pole, three phase alternator has 72 slots and a coil span of 1
to 10, what is the Fitch factor?
A. 0.924 B. 0.939 C. 0.966 D.0.985
12. Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 – slot 4 pole three phase
winding?
A. 0.924 B. 0.951 C. 0.960 D. 0.975
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
A. 11% B. 9% C. 6% D. 3%
28. A 25 kVA alternator has a total loss of 2,000 watts when it delivers
rated kVA to a load at a power factor of 0.76. Calculate it’s percent
efficiency.
A. 90.48% B. 92.32% C. 91.58% D. 89.12%
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
REE – Sep.2001
33. A generator is being synchronized to a large system. The actual
system voltage and frequency are 13.7 kV and 60 HZ, respectively. The
generator voltage and frequency are 13.6 kV and 60 HZ, respectively.
When the generator is switched to the system, choose which one
happens.
A. Generator delivers MVAR B. generator takes MVAR
C . generator delivers MW D. generator delivers both MW
and MVAR
35. In prob. No. 34, when the voltage are in phase opposition, but one
voltage is 230 and the other is 200 volts.
A. 462 A B. 231 A C. 400 A D. 800 A
37. In Prob. No. 36, determine the fault currents delivered if a phase
fault occurs at the alternator terminals.
A. 1,562 A B. 902 A C. 1,804 A D. 3,125 A
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
AC MACHINES
PART 2
TRANSFORMER
Transformer construction
1. Core Type – the coil surround a considerable part of the magnetic
circuit (core).
Laminations
Coils
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Laminations
Primary and
Secondary Coils
L
± ~
AC
Circuit
Secondary
Circuit
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝐕𝐩 𝐈𝐒
= = a → approximate ratio of transformation
𝐕𝐬 𝐈𝐩
rp XP
IP INIb IS
L
Iф BO GO ES
VS
VP
EP
Iє
Where:
IN = no – load current
Iф = magnetizing current
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
rp Xp a2rs a2Xs
IS
Ip Ib
L
Vp
Iф B0G0 Iє
aVs
IP IP
L L
VP aVs VP aVs
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
Rep = total or equivalent resistance of the transformer referred to the
primary.
Xep = total or equivalent reactance of the transformer referred to the
primary.
Zep = total or equivalent impedance of the transformer referred to the
primary.
VP = no – load primary line voltage
θ= p.f. angle of the load
= for lagging p.f.
= for leading p.f.
Zes
𝑟𝑝 𝑋𝑝
rs xs Res Xes
𝑎2 𝑎2
IP IP
L L
𝑉𝑝 𝑉𝑝
Vs Vs
𝑎 𝑎
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where:
Res = total or equivalent resistance of the transformer referred to the
secondary.
Xes = total or equivalent reactance of the transformer referred to the
secondary.
Zes = total or equivalent impedance of the transformer referred to the
secondary.
𝑉𝑝
= no – load secondary line voltage
𝑎
Transformer Regulations
𝐕𝐍𝐋 − 𝐕𝐅𝐋
%V.R = x 100
𝐕𝐅𝐋
𝑽𝒑
𝐕𝐩 −𝐚𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝   𝒂 −𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 
%V.R = %V.R =
𝐚𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐚𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝
Note: The transformer regulation must be the same whether referred to the
primary or to secondary.
IPXe
p
VP IP VP
Vp IpZep IPZep
IpXep IPXep θ IPZep
IPRep
0 0 0
Θ aVs IP aVS IPRep aVS
IpRep
0 = 0o
a. Percent resistance
𝐑𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐂𝐮 𝐋𝐨𝐬𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐤𝐖
%R = = % Cu. Loss
𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐊𝐕𝐀
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
b. Percent Resistance
c.
𝐈𝐩 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐗 𝐞−𝐩 𝐈𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐗 𝐞−𝐩
%X = x 100 = x 100
𝐕𝐩𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝
d. Percent Impedance
𝐈𝐩 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐙𝐞−𝐩 𝐈𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐙𝐞−𝐩
%Z = x 100 = x 100
𝐕𝐩𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐕𝐬 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝
%Z = √(%𝐑)𝟐 + (%𝐗)𝟐
Transformer Losses
1. Core (Iron) loss – constant loss, its value is always rated
𝐄 𝟏.𝟔
a. Hysteresis loss, Ph = kh f Bm1.6
= k1( 𝟎.𝟔 )
𝐟
b. Eddy current loss, Pe = kh f Bm = k2 E2
2 2
Core loss, Pc = Ph + Pe
2. Copper (electrical loss) – varies as the square of the load
a. Primary copper loss = Ip2rp copper loss, Pcu = Ip2
rp + Is2rs
b. Secondary copper loss = Is2rs copper loss, Pcu = Ip2 Rep
copper loss, Pcu = Is2 Res
Note:
1. If the transformer is connected to the source, whether loaded or not
loaded, there is core loss in the transformer
2. If the transformer is loaded, there is copper loss in the transformer. At
no – load, copper loss is negligible.
𝐆𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 𝐥𝐨𝐚𝐝 2
Copper loss at any given = ( ) (Rated or full – load copper loss)
𝐅𝐮𝐥𝐥 𝐥𝐨𝐚𝐝
Where given load & full – load must be apparent powers.
Transformer Efficiency
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Po Po x 100
η= x 100 η= η=
Pin Po +total Losses
Po x 100
Po +copperl Losses+core loss
Condition for maximum Efficiency
Copper Loss = core loss
If IP’= primary current at maximum efficiency, then
IP’2 Rep = core loss
core loss
IP’ = √
Re−p
Similarly, the secondary current at maximum efficiency is
core loss
IP’ = √
Re−s
𝐜𝐨𝐫𝐞 𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐬
KVA load at 𝛈max = full – load KVA = √
𝐅𝐮𝐥𝐥 𝐥𝐨𝐚𝐝 𝐂𝐮 𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐬
Voltage Regulator to W
Adjust voltage across ±±
Low Side Accurately
V
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Adjusting Rheostat W
±± Irated
A
V
Low voltage Short
Low Voltage
To Low voltage windings
Windings
AC Source
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Transformer Priority
it refers to the relative directions of the induced voltages in the primary and
secondary windings of a transformer with respect how the terminal leads are
brought out and marked accordingly.
H1 X1 H1 X2
± ± ±
±
H1 X1 H1 X2
a. Subtractive polarity marking b. Additive polarity
marking
Where:
H1&H2 are the high voltage side terminals H1&X1 have the same
instantaneous polarity
X1&X2 are the low voltage side terminals H2&X2 have the same
instantaneous polarity
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
c
The autotransformer acts exactly like a two – winding transformer if
from the standpoint of transformer action, it is considered that the portion of
the windings ab is the primary and the portion of the windings bc is the
secondary. To prove this
IP IP
L 𝑉𝑝
VP (a – 1)Vs L VS
(𝑎−1)
Nab Eab Is
a = =
Nbc Ebc Ip
Nab Eab Is I𝑠
b V = = =
Nbc Ebc Ibc Is −Ip
1 1 1
VP IP VS Ip −Is =1 =
−1 1−𝑎
Is 𝑎
Ibc
Variable Autotransformer
IS
IP
movable
brush L
VP IC prepared VS
Winding
surface
Instrument Transformer
Two (2) kinds of instrument transformers
1. Current transformer(CT) – it is a special transformer used in
conjunction with ordinary AC measuring instruments to measure high
current, power at high current and energy at high current. Its
secondary is almost always designed for 5 A maximum.
2. Potential Transformer (PT) – it is a special transformer used in
conjunction with ordinary ac measuring instruments to measure high
voltage, power at high voltage and energy at high voltage. The
transformation ratios are usually designed for a nominal secondary
voltage of 120 V.
Note: Loads of instruments transformers are called ”burdens”.
No – load Operation
For two (2) transformers in parallel.
IS1
IS2
ILT
Ze−s2
𝐕𝐩 L
VS
𝐚
𝐈 𝐙 𝐞−𝐬𝟏
IS1 Z es1 = IS2 Z es2 ; 𝐬𝟏 = ;
𝐈𝐬𝟐 𝐙 𝐞−𝐬𝟐
𝐊𝐕𝐀 𝟏 𝐙 𝐞−𝐬𝟏
=
𝐊𝐕𝐀 𝟐 𝐙 𝐞−𝐬𝟐
𝑍𝑒−𝑠2 𝑍𝑒−𝑠1
IS1 = ID1( ) IS2 = ID1( )
𝑍𝑒−𝑠1 + 𝑍𝑒−𝑠2 𝑍𝑒−𝑠1 + 𝑍𝑒−𝑠2
𝑍𝑒−𝑠2 𝑍𝑒−𝑠1
S1 = ID1( ) S 2 = ST ( )
𝑍𝑒−𝑠1 + 𝑍𝑒−𝑠2 𝑍𝑒−𝑠1 + 𝑍𝑒−𝑠2
Where:
Es1 = secondary induced voltage of transformer 1.
Es2 = secondary induced voltage of transformer 2.
ZL = load impedance
b. In magnitude,
1. The high – voltage coil of a transformer is wound with 700 turns of wire,
and the low – voltage coil is wound with 292 turns. When used as a step
– up transformer (the low – voltage coil used as the primary), the load
current is 10.5 A. Find the component of the primary current.
A. 43.5 A B. 4.38 A C. 25.18 A D.2.518 A
loss under rated condition is 1,800 watts. Calculate the leakage reactance
and resistance of the low voltage (secondary) winding.
A. 7.56 Ω, 1.66 Ω B. 13.69 Ω, 3.42 Ω C. 0.25 Ω, 0.055 Ω
D. 13.9Ω, 3.48 Ω
20. In prob. #19, calculate the %V.R. and efficiency of the transformer
at full – load, 0.85 p.f. lagging and 2,400 V.
A. 4%, 97.8% B. 6%, 95.4% C. 5%, 96.8%
D. 3%, 98.4%
29. Two (2), 1ϕ, 100 – kVA transformers are connected in V (open
delta) bank supplying a balanced 3ϕ load. If the balanced 3ϕ load is 135
kW at 0.82 p.f. lagging and 0.823 efficiency, determine the overload
kVA on each transformer.
A. 10.5 B. 5.5 C. 15.5 D. 15
REE – Oct.1997
43. A power transformer rated 50,000 kVA, 34.5/13.8 kV is connected
Y – grounded primary and delta on the secondary. Determine the full –
load phase current at the secondary side.
A. 2092 A B. 1725 A C. 1449 A D. 1208 A
2. Wound rotor type – its rotor has insulated coils of wire and
resembles a DC armature. The rotor conductors are connected to slip
rings and short circuited thru the brushes.
The rotor of this motor is called salient pole rotor. Salient pole means
shaped pole.
Uses:
1. For constant speed drives like fan, blower, pump, compressor, prime
mover of DC generators, etc.
2. For power factor correction
Synchronous condenser – a SM without mechanical load, used
for power factor correction only.
3. For voltage regulation of long transmission lines.
To reverse the direction of rotation of a 3ϕ motor, you interchange
the connection to the lines of any 2 motor leads.
Vice Versa
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
EXERCISES:
5. A three – phase 60 – cycle six – pole 220 – volt wound – rotor induction
motor has a stator that is connected in ∆ and a rotor that is connected in
Y. the rotor has half as many turns as the stator. For a rotor speed of
1,110 rpm, calculate.
i) The blocked rotor voltage per phase EBR
A. 110 V B. 220 V C. 440 V D. 16.5 V
v) The rotor current, if the rotor resistance per phase is 0.1 Ω and the
rotor reactance at standstill is 0.5 Ω/ phase
A. 77.25 A B. 7.725 A C. 16.18 A D. 28.02 A
9. A 3 – phase induction motor running with 2.5% slip takes 100 KW from
the mains. If the stator copper loss amounts to 1.8 KW. What is the rotor
copper loss?
A. 1.8 kW B. 2.2 kW C. 2.5 kW D. 2.45 kW
12. A 3ϕ induction motor draws 4.5 A from its lines at 230 V line to
line at a power factor of 0.153 while running at no – load. Its DC
resistance line to line between two phases of the stator is 0.863Ω. What
is its rational loss?
A. 274.28 W B. 32.77 W C. 52.43 W
D. 241.51 W
14. In Prob. #13, calculate the rotor current per phase and p.f. when
slip rings are connected to a star – connected rheostat of 3Ω per phase.
A. 8.16 A, 0.242 lag B. 11.2 A, unity C. 8.16 A, 0.707 lag
D. 11.2 A, 0.242 lag
16. In Prob. #15, what is the full – load current of the motor?
A. 28.79A B. 38.59 A C. 32.80 A D. 26.24 A
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
19. A 5 – hip four – pole 60cycle three – phase induction motor takes
4,500 watts from the power factor supply. The rotor and stator copper
losses are 92 and 292 watts, respectively. The friction and wind age
losses are 72 watts, and the core loss is 225 watts. Calculate the
efficiency/
A. 87.48% B. 84.87% C. 88.47% D. 89.74%
21. In Prob. #20, what is the maximum torque that can be developed
by the motor?
A. 22.99 lb. – ft. B. 68.96 lb. – ft. C. 137.93 lb. – ft.
D. 119.44 lb. – ft.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
22. In Prob. #20, what is the speed at which maximum torque will
occur?
A. 1,725 rpm B. 1,710 rpm C. 1,620 rpm
D. 1,440 rpm
24. An induction motor is tested in the blocked – rotor test. Its rated
line current of 8.5 A is drawn when the line voltage is 16.6 V and the
total wattage is 48.8 watts. Under this condition, what is the equivalent
reactance per phase in stator terms?
A. 1.128Ω B. 0.225Ω C. 1.105Ω D. 0.552Ω
38. The full –load losses in a 5,000 kVA three – phase 6,600 – volt
synchronous condenser are 160 KW. Calculate the full – load current
and p.f.
A. 438 A, 0.032 ldg B. 43.8 A, 0.32 ldg C. 483 A, 0.64 ldg
D. 483 A, 0.064 ldg
ILLUMINATION
1. Luminous flux (ф of F) is the light energy radiated out per second from
the luminous body in the form of light waves.
Its unit is lumen (lm). One lumen is defined as the flux emitted per unit
solid angle from a standard candle.
2. A lamp has luminous intensity of 250 Cd. Calculate the total luminous
flux emitted by it.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
ILLUMINATION
10. Two lamp posts are 13 m apart and are fitted with 1,000 Cd lamp
each at a height of 5 m above the ground. Calculate the illumination on
the ground:
11. What must be the candle power of a point source of light which
gives an illumination of 100 lm/m2 at a point A 2m vertically below the
source?
A. 200 Cd B. 400 Cd C. 100 Cd D. 300 Cd
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
12. In Prob. #11, if a plane mirror which reflects 75% of the light
falling on it is placed horizontally 30 cm. above the source, what will be
the illumination of A?
A. 100 lux B. 200 lux C. 44.4 lux D. 144.4 lux
REE – Sept.2008
18. Which is not found in a rapid start fluorescent lamp?
A. Ballast B. starter C. wire harness D.
capacitor
ILLUMINATION
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Line Drop Compensators – used to make up for the voltage drop along
the conductor connecting the generator and voltage regulator to ascertain
that the voltage sensed by the regulators is the correct value.
Main Exciter – it is the source of the current that produces the magnetic
field on the poles of the main generator.
Power circuit Breakers – these can be OCB, GCB or even VCB. They
are installed in conjunction with protective relays to protect the
alternator and its prime mover from the different failures that may occur.
Battery Bank – this will be the source of power for all control devices.
This is so because during shut downs, the power from the alternators is
not yet ready plus the fact that during faults, the system voltage becomes
abnormal and unreliable, hence, the need for an independent power
supply.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Substation Equipment
Surge Arresters
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Current Transformers
Bus Bars
Disconnect Switches
Power Transformers
Grounding System
Battery Bank
CLRs
Power Conductors
Power Cables
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Arcing Horns
Grounding Rods
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Disconnect Switches
Poles
Line Towers
Potheads
Pedestals
Switches
Motor Starters
Panel Boards
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
3. In relation to corona, these are ions that are both positively and
negatively charged simultaneously:
A. Zenith Ions B. Position Ions C. Swizzle Ions
D. Zwitter Ions
4. A reactor type water turbine with adjustable runner blades and especially
suitable for run – of – river installation with variable head and flow:
A. Koppel B. Kaplan C. Kirbey D. Knell
5. This is the specific gravity of lead – lead acid battery at 80 deg. Fah. At
.100% charged:
A. 1.225 B. 1.285 C. 1.290 D. 1.335
11. On a 480/277 volts 3 phase 4 wire system, the color code for the
three hot conductors are as follows except:
A. Brown B. Red C. Orange D. Yellow
24. CTs designed for protection purposes are laid out in terms of knee
– point Emf, exciting current at the knee point and secondary winding
resistance. Such current transformer are called class:
A. P B. I C. Y D. X
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
25. These are low power transformers in which the secondary and
primary voltages are proportional and in phase. The primary and
secondary windings are galvanically separated from each other.
A. IPT B. IVT C. CVT
D. CCR
26. When protecting a delta – wye power transformer with its neutral
floating with over current protection scheme, the relay to use is:
A. 50N/51N B. 86 C. 50/51 D. 27
28. The device function number for the relay to protect transmission
line is:
A. 67 B. 74 C. 21 D. 52
38. One standard Voltage of the DC system used on power plants and
substations for control purposes:
A. 24 volts B. 100 volts C. 12 volts D. 12
volts
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
39. N transmission line insulators, the ratio off the arc – over voltage
of a string of “n” insulators to the “n” of insulators multiplied to the arc
– over voltage of single insulator is called:
A. Insulator eff’cy B. arc – over eff’cy C. String eff’cy
D. Nota
41. The type of breaker contact with classification “de – ion contact”
was developed by:
A. ABB B. Siemens C. Westinghouse D.
GE
42. Among sealed type transformer, the gas used to purge them is:
A. Oxygen B. Nitrogen C. Helium D. Argon
44. This is type of induction motor where its rotor is provided with slip
rings:
A. Squirrel Cage B. Capacitor Start C. Capacitor Run D.
Nota
46. This is the timer relay that will shut down the diesel engine prime
mover of the stand – by generator when the normal power is back:
A. TDNE B. TDEN C. TDEC D. TDES
50. In the apparel operation of alternators, the giving away its load has
more _________ power factor.
A. Lagging B. Leading C. Positive D. Negative
52. The broken delta transformer has its greatest application on:
A. Metering B. Relaying C. Power supply D.
Balancing
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
54. It is used as power supply for hand lamps used on flammable areas
like liquifactions trains.
A. Tripping X’former C. Isolating X’former
B. Insulating X’former D. Exothermic X’former
56. This is used to reflect back the surge into the line if it approaches
electrical equipment, if its arrester fails:
A. CLF B. Overhead Ground C. De – ion gaps D. Choke
Coils
57. This is a motor similar to the DC series motor and can operate an
unflow and changing flow currents.
A. Repulsion B. Shaded Pole C. Universal
D. Nota
61. The basic insulation level of high voltage electrical machines and
equipment such as transformer is expressed in:
A. Megohm B. Begohm C. Kilovolt
D. Kiloamps
66. This is the instrument used to determine the different turns ratio of
a power transformer:
A. TRT B. TTR C. TRR D.
RTT
67. This is the common name given to the pressure relief value of the
sealed tank transformer:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
75. As a rule of the thumb, the transformer size to supply a motor is:
A. 1000 VA/1000 Hp B. 1 kVA/ 1 kW C. 1 kVA/ 1 Hp D. 1
Hp/ 1 ton
77. This kind of fuse is to designed to cause the abrupt escape of gas
when its element melts:
A. Cartridge B. Cassette C. Expulsion D.
Fast Acting
78. The type of the contact for oil circuit breaker popularly known as
explosion chamber saw patented by:
A. G.E B. Westinghouse C. ABB
D. Siemens
79. At this elevation, the voltage rating of power circuit breakers are to
be rated by close to 70%:
A. 15,000 ft. B. 17,500 ft. C. 20,000 ft.
D. 14,000 ft.
81. The type of circuit breaker that requires no de – rating event when
enclosed:
A. Thermal Compensated C. Atmosphere
Compensated
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
83. This is the device to act as lightning rod and is installed above the
structure it will serve:
A. Air Connector B. Lighting Bowl C. Air Terminal
D. Air Gap
84. On a three phase AC system, the use of the metallic conduct per
conductor is:
A. Redundant B. Dangerous C. Tedious D.
As per Code
87. Some of the AC bridges being used are the following, except:
A. Parson B. Anderson C. Hay’s D. Owen
91. The kilowatt rating of the pilot exciter with respect to the main
exciter it serves is:
A. 110% to 20% B. 1.5% to 5% C. 5% to 10% D.
10% to 25%
97. The following are all voltage regulators for alternators of the
rheostatic direct – acting type, except:
A. Silverstat B. Golden Rheo C. Diactor D.
Rocking Arm
Prepared by:
Camilo B. Regacho
PEE Board Exam 1st Placer
NOTE: To ascertain your passing if not top notching the REE board
examinations, supplement your review materials with the 6 reviewers of Engr.
C. B Regacho, available at all National Bookstores nation Wide.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
POWER SYSTEM
Transmission line. A mechanical Structure designed to transmit a certain
maximum amount of energy economically from one place to another with a
specified limit to the permissible voltage variation at the receiving end and
with the least possible risk of interruption to continuous service.
r jx r jx r jx
ig g jb i g ig g jb ig
PLOSS
RAC =
312
Skin Effect. The internal inductance of the conductor gives rise to a voltage
of self – induction so that the voltage drop in the conductor is the sum of the
voltage of self – induction and the ohmic resistance drop.
𝛒𝟏
R= Ω (for solid conductors)
𝐀
𝛒𝟏
R = (1.01) Ω (three strands)
𝐀
𝛒𝟏
R = (1.02) Ω ( above three strands)
𝐀
R = resistance in Ω
ρ = resistivity, Ω  cmil./ ft.
l = length, ft.
A = area, cmil.
𝐑𝟏 𝐑
= 𝟏
(𝐓+𝐭 𝟏 ) (𝐓+𝐭 𝟐 )
t2
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
t1
R
R1 R2
T
Conductivity
Annealed copper – international standard of conductivity
Hard drawn copper – 97.3% conductivity
Hard drawn aluminum – 61% conductivity
Conductors
𝚿 𝐍𝛟
L= = weber – turns ampere or Henry
𝐈 𝐈
DS = 𝟗√𝐃𝟏𝟏 𝐃𝟏𝟐 𝐃𝟏𝟑 𝐃𝟐𝟏 𝐃𝟐𝟐 𝐃𝟐𝟑 𝐃𝟑𝟏 𝐃𝟑𝟐 𝐃𝟑𝟑 (three – strand conductor)
𝟐
DS = 𝐧 √𝐃𝟏𝟏 𝐃𝟏𝟐 … . . 𝐃𝐥𝐧 𝐃𝟐𝟏 … . . 𝐃𝐧𝐧 ( n – strand conductor)
Illustration:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
a d
b e
m n
𝟒
𝐃𝐛𝐒 = √𝐃𝟐𝐒 𝐃𝟐 = √𝐃𝐒 𝐃(two – bundle conductor)
𝟗
𝐃𝐛𝐒 = √𝐃𝟑𝐒 𝐃𝟔 = √𝐃𝐒 𝐃𝟐 (three – bundle conductor)
𝟏𝟔
𝐃𝐛𝐒 = √𝐃𝟒𝐒 𝐃𝟏𝟐 = √𝐃𝐒 𝐃𝟑 (four – bundle conductor)
Parallel Circuits
a d
b e
𝐩
7
𝐃𝐞𝐪
L = 2 x 10 ln 𝐩
𝐃𝐒
𝐩 𝟔
Where: 𝐃𝐒 = √𝐃𝟑𝐒 𝐃𝐚𝐚 , 𝐃𝐛𝐛 , 𝐃𝐜𝐜 ,
𝐩
𝐃𝐞𝐪 = 𝟔√𝐃𝐚𝐛 , 𝐃𝐚𝐛 , 𝐃𝐛𝐜 , 𝐃𝐛𝐜 , 𝐃𝐜𝐚 , 𝐃𝐜𝐚 ,
𝟖.𝟖𝟓𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
C= 𝐃 F/m [line to line]
𝐥𝐧 𝐫
𝟏𝟕.𝟕𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
Cn = 𝐃 F/m [line to neutral]
𝐥𝐧 𝐫
IC = j𝝎CabVab(single phase)
IC = j𝝎CanVan(three phase)
𝟏𝟕.𝟕𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
Cn = 𝐃 F/m per phase [line to neutral]
𝐥𝐧
𝐫
With unsymmetrical
𝟏𝟕.𝟕𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
Cn = 𝐃𝐞𝐪 F/m per phase [line to neutral]
𝐥𝐧 𝐫
Bundled Conductors
𝟏𝟕.𝟕𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
Cn = 𝐃 F/m per phase [line to neutral]
𝐥𝐧 𝐛
𝐃 𝐒
Where: 𝐃𝐛𝐒
= √𝐫𝐝( 2  bundle)
𝐃𝐛𝐒 = √𝐫𝐝𝟐 ( 3  bundle)
𝟒
𝐃𝐛𝐒 = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟗 √𝐫𝐝𝟑 ( 4  bundle)
Parallel Circuits
𝟏𝟕.𝟕𝛑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐
Cn = 𝐩
𝐃𝐞𝐪
F/m
𝐈𝐧 𝐩
𝐃
𝐒
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝐩 𝟔
Where: 𝐃𝐒 = √𝑫𝟑𝑺 𝐃𝐚𝐚 , 𝐃𝐛𝐛 . 𝐃𝐜𝐜,
𝐩
𝐃𝐞𝐪 = 𝟔√𝑫𝒂𝒃 𝐃𝐚𝐛 , 𝐃𝐛𝐜 . 𝐃𝐛𝐜, , 𝐃𝐜𝐚 . 𝐃𝐜𝐚,
Short Transmission Line. for short lines, only the resistance and inductance
are being considered
VSN = VRN∠ 0o + IZ
Z = R + JX
PR
IR = ∠ ± cos1pf R
√3VR pfR
I
L
O
y y
VSN I2 I2` IR A VRN
2 2
D
𝒁𝒀
VSN = [𝟏 + ] VRN + IRZ
𝟐
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝒁𝒀 𝒁𝒀
IS = Y [𝟏 + ] VRN + [𝟏 + ]IR
𝟒 𝟐
pf R = cos𝛉R and pf S = cos𝛉S
PLOSS =𝟑𝟏𝟐𝐑 R
𝐕 −𝐕
%VR = 𝐑𝐍𝐋 𝐑𝐅𝐋 x 100%
𝐕𝐑𝐍𝐋
Z/2 Z/2
Is IR
Vsn V1 Y It VRN
𝑍𝑌 𝑍𝑌
VSN= [1 + ] VRN + Z [1 + ] IR
2 4
𝑍𝑌
IS= YVRN + [1 + ] IR
4
𝑅
PLOSS = 3 [12𝑠 + 12𝑅 ]
2
𝐏𝐑 𝐏𝐑
Efficiency = x 100 % = x 100%
𝐏𝐒 𝐏𝐑 + 𝐏𝐋𝐎𝐒𝐒
𝐕𝐒𝐅𝐋
𝐕𝐑𝐍𝐋 − 𝐕𝐑𝐅𝐋 − 𝐕𝐑𝐅𝐋
𝐀
VR = =
𝐕𝐑𝐅𝐋 𝐕𝐑𝐅𝐋
jb jb
𝐕𝐑𝐍 + 𝐙𝐂 𝐈𝐑 𝐕𝐑𝐍 − 𝐙𝐂 𝐈𝐑
VSN = [ ] 𝒆𝜹𝑿 + [ ] 𝒆𝜹𝑿
𝟐 𝟐
𝐕 𝐕
𝐈𝐑 + 𝐙𝐑𝐍 𝐈𝐑 + 𝐙𝐑𝐍
IS = 𝐂
𝒆𝜹𝑿 + 𝐂
𝒆𝜹𝑿
𝟐 𝟐
𝒛
Where : ZC = √ = characteristic impedance
𝒚
In hyperbolic Form
Velocity of Propagation
𝟐𝝅𝒇
V= unit length per second
𝜷
𝑉𝑅𝑁 + 𝑍𝐶 𝐼𝑅
[ ] 𝒆𝜹𝑿 – incident wave (voltage)
2
𝑉𝑅𝑁 − 𝑍𝐶 𝐼𝑅
[ ] 𝒆𝜹𝑿 – reflected wave (voltage)
2
Note: at infinite line, reflected wave is zero. If the line is terminated by its
characteristic impedance, ZC, the reflected wave is zero (both voltage and
current).
L
Therefore, ZC = √ – surge impedance, resistive impedance)
C
𝐓 𝐰𝐱
S = [ 𝐎] Sinh
𝐰 𝐓𝐎
𝐓𝐎 𝐰𝐱
y = [ ] Cosh( − 𝟏)
𝐰 𝐓𝐎
𝐰𝐱
T =√𝐓𝐎𝟐 + (𝐰𝐬)𝟐 = TO√𝟏 + (𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐡 )
𝐓𝐎
𝐰𝐱
T = TO Cosh
𝐓𝐎
Where: s = half – span length of the conductor, m
w = “dead weight” of the conductor, kg/m
y = sag
T = maximum tension
TO = Minimum tension (tension at the lowest point)
x = half – span length
Approximate Equations:
Applicable only for parabolic conductors. The sag is less than 10% of the
span. The weight is assumed to be uniformly distributed along the horizontal.
s=x
𝐰𝐱 𝟐
y= = d (sag)
𝟐𝐓
T = TO
d = sag
E = modulus of elasticity
A = cross – sectional area of the conductor
d1 h2
h1
C
X1 X2
hT hT
X1 = 1  X2 = 1 +
2wl 2wl
WW
C
P
WC WT
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
2
WT = √WC2 + WW
Note: if wind load is considered. All derived equations are still valid provided
that w is replaced by WT.
Submarine Cables – used to transmit electric energy across water that cannot
be spanned by overhead conductors.
𝟐𝛑𝐤 𝐨 𝐤 𝐫 𝐥
C= 𝐫
𝐥𝐧 𝟐
𝐫𝟏
𝟐𝛑𝐤 𝐨 𝐥
C= 𝐫 (if the insulation consists of different materials)
𝐥𝐧 𝟐
𝐫
∑( 𝟏)
𝐤𝐫
Cn – CS + 3CC
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝒒 𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐭𝐬
g=
𝟐𝛑𝐤 𝐨 𝐤 𝐫 𝐱 𝐦
𝐝−𝐫
VO= 21.2𝜹 r mO ln kV rms per voltage
𝐫
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Where: 𝛿 = ratio between density of air at P (cm Hg) and T (0C) and
density of air at 76 cm of Hg and 250C
d = distance between centers of conductors (cm)
r = radius of the conductors (cm)
mO = irregularity factor
= 1 for smooth, polished, cylindrical conductor
= 0.93 to 0.98 for weathered cylindrical conductor
= 0.87 to less than 0.93 for weathered, more than seven strands
= 0.80 to less than 0.87 for weathered having up to strands.
𝟐𝟒𝟐 𝐫 𝐤𝐖
PO = ( ) (f + 25) √ (Vф  VO)2 x 105 per phase
𝜹 𝐝 𝐤𝐦
Factors Affecting Corona
The breakdown strength of air which varies with atmospheric conditions
The irregularity of conductor surfaces
The conductor radius
The distance between the conductors
Effects of Corona
Interference with communications
Non – sinusoidal charging current which causes non – sinusoidal voltage
drop
Corona power loss
Corona helps to attenuate high voltage surges caused by lighting or
switching
Methods of Feeding
Feeding at one end
Feeding at both ends and equal voltages
Feeding at both ends with unequal voltages
Feeding at some intermediate zone
Types of Loads
Concentrated loading
Uniform loading
Combination of a and b
A C D E B
I1 I2 I3 I4
𝚺VD = IACRAC + ICDRCD + IDERDE + IEBREB
A C D E B
I1 I2 I3
With Unequal Voltages
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝚺VD = VA  VB
𝚺VD = IACRAC + ICDRCD + IDERDE + IEBREB
𝚺VD = VA  VB
𝟎 = IACRAC + ICDRCD + IDERDE + IEBREB
A B
I I I I I I
𝚺VD(AB) = ½ IR
When fed at both ends voltages, the point of minimum potential is the middle
point.
𝟏
VD(MIDDLE POINT) = IR
𝟖
Per Unit Value. A value by which voltage, current, power, impedance and
admittance are represented to simplify the calculations in power system
problems such as load flow studies, fault analysis, etc.
𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐮𝐚𝐥 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐮𝐞
Per unit value =
𝐛𝐚𝐬𝐞 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐮𝐞
Bases:
SB – base power IB = base current
ZB – base impedance VB – base voltage
YB – base admittance
𝐒𝐁 𝐒𝐁
YB = YB =
𝐕𝐁𝟐 𝐕𝐁𝟐
𝐕𝐁𝟐 𝐕𝐁𝟐
SB = SB =
𝐙𝐁 𝐙𝐁
𝐒𝐁(𝐍𝐄𝐖) 𝐕𝐁(𝐎𝐋𝐃)
ZPU(NEW) = ZPU(OLD)[ ][ ]
𝐒𝐁(𝐎𝐋𝐃) 𝐕𝐁(𝐍𝐄𝐖)
𝐒𝐒𝐂
I F= (amperes)
√𝟑𝐕𝐁
√𝟑𝐒𝐁
IF= IF(PU) x IB=
𝐕𝐁 (𝐗 𝟏𝐏𝐔 + 𝐗 𝟐𝐏𝐔 + 𝐗 𝟎𝐏𝐔 )
NOTE: If the base values are not given, the rated values may be used (rated)
values are normally selected as base values).
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
POWER SYSTEM
EXERCISES:
2. The fact that the outer layer of the conductor carries more current as
compared to core is known as _____.
A. Corona B. permeability C. fault D.
skin effect
3. How many stands are there for a three – layer stranded conductor?
A. 19 B. 37 C. 53 D. 27
REE – Sept.2002
12. A three – phase transmission line is 30 km long. The outside
diameter of the conductors is 0.721 inch and has an equilateral spacing
of 4 ft. Determine the capacitance per phase of the line.
A. 4.57 µF B. 1.023 µF C. 0.341 µF D. 6
µF
POWER SYSTEM
REE – Sept.2006
20. A three – phase short transmission line having per phase
impedance of 2 + j4 ohms has an equal line to line receiving end and
sending end voltages of 115 KV, while supplying a load of 0.8 p.f.
leading. Find the power supplied by the line?
A. 872.8 MW B. 860.2 MW C. 839.2 MW
D. 822.4 MW
25. When the load at the receiving end of a long transmission line is
removed or the line is lightly loaded, the end voltage is less than the
receiving end voltage. This phenomenon is called ______________
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
REE – Oct.2006
27. A 60 Hz, three phase transmission line delivers 20 MVA to a load
at 66 kV and 80% power factor lagging. The total series impedance of
each line is 15 + j75 ohms. If nominal “pi” circuit is used, what would
be the transmission efficiency if the admittance is j6 x 10 4mhos?
A. 90.8% B. 91.7% C. 94.67% D. 95.90%
POWER SYSTEM
28. A single circuit, 60 Hz, three – phase transmission line is 300 mile
long and has the following parameters: R = 0.30Ω/mi, L = 2.10 mH/mi,
C = 0.014µF/mi. What is the surge impedance loading of the line if the
receiving end voltage is 132 kV?
A. 45 MW B. 54 MW C. 15 MW D. 38 MW
A. B B. C C. D D. E
REE – Oct.1996
40. The causes of nearly all high voltage flashovers in transmission
lines are due to one of the following. Which one is the following?
A. High humidity C. corona
B. dust and dirt D. lightning and discharge
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
41. a 500 kV line has a total corona loss of 280 kW. When energized
at 230 kV, the corona loss is 42 kW. What will be the corona loss if
used to transmit power a voltage of 385 kV?
A. 117 kW B. 153 kW C. 207 kW D. 183 kW
j0.55 p.u. Calculate the fault current if a line fault occurs. The base is 50
MVA.
A. 3,511 A B. 1,890 A C. 420 A D. 2,414 A
It is the art of designing and installing generating plant that will result in
maximum return on investment over the expected life of the equipment. And
also operating this equipment to achieve reliable, continuous and cheap power
service.
Turbine Components:
1. Base Load Plant – Plant that assumes load requirement under normal
condition.
2. Peaking plant – Plant that is normally operated to provide power only
during peak load periods.
3. Regulating Plant – plant capable of carrying load for the interval either
during off – peak or peak period and usually respond to the change in
system frequency.
4. Reserve or Stand by Plant – For peak or system deficiencies.
Definition of Terms
9. Load Diversity – the difference between the sum of the maxima of two
or more individual loads and the coincident or combined maximum load,
usually measured in kilowatts over a specified period of time.
13. Seasonal Diversity – load diversity between two (or more) electric
systems which occurs when their peak loads are in different seasons of
the year.
MD
DF = ≤ 1
CL
17. Diversity Factor – it is the ratio of the sum of the individual
maximum demands to the simultaneous maximum demand on the power
station.
Σ MD
= ≥1
Simulataneous MD
19. Load Factor (LF) – it is the ratio of the average load (AL) to the
maximum demand during a given period.
AL TEP
= = Sh= service hours or
MD MD x Sh
operating hours
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
TEP
= IC = installed capacity or rated
IC x Pr
capacity as an individual
Pr = Period
Capacity factor – It is the product of the Utilization factor (UF) and
local factor (LF)
21. Plant Use (Output) Factor – it is the ratio of the energy generated
to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the
plant was in operation.
TEP
=
IC x Sh
22. Utilization factor (UF) – it is the ratio of the maximum generator
demand to the generator capacity.
MD
=
IC
23. Operating Plant Factor – it is the ratio of the average load for a
given period to the operating capacity in actual service only (for multi –
set plant)
TEP
= OPC = Operating Plant Capacity
OPC x Sh
24. Operating Load Factor – it is the ratio of the average load for a
given period of time to the average of daily maximum demand during
the same period.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Sh
=
Pr
26. Plant Ratio – it is the per annum measure of the plant’s capacity
factor of the ratio of Net k Wh output for the year to the nameplate
capacity of the plant times hours of the year.
27. Connected Load Factor – it is the product of the load factor (LF)
and the demand factor (DF).
Types of Tariff
5. Maximum Demand Tariff – I is similar to two part tariff with the only
difference is that maximum demand is actually measured by installing a
maximum demand meter in the premises of the consumer. It is mostly
applied to the large users.
From Calculus:
= kW (tan ∅1±∅2)
∅1= original power factor angle ∅2 = corrected
power factor
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
1. Static Capacitor
Three Three
phase phase
2. Synchronous Condenser
Three
phase
3. Phase Advancers.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
7. Three Phase Tariff – also called “Three charge rate” od “Doherty rate”;
total charge is split into three.
Rate Making
1. Domestic Consumer
2. Industrial Consumer
3. Public Utilities
4. Public Institution
5. Commercial Consumer
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
POWER PLANT
REE – Oct. 1998
1. To produce 1 kW – hr a power plant burns 0.9 lb. of coal with a heating
value of 13,000 BTU per lb. What is the heat rate of the plant?
A. 6,250 BTU/ kW – hr C. 9,500 BTU/ kW 
hr
B. 11,700 BTU kW/hr D. 8,700 BTU/ kW  hr
REE – Oct.1998
2. A 100 MW power plant has a heat of 2.88 x 106 calories per kW – hr. It
is a base load plant and runs at full load 24 hours a day. How Many tons
of coal is needed per day?
A . 250 B. 625 C. 830
D. 960
POWER PLANT
REE – March 1998
10. A power plant gets water from the dam from a height of 122.45
meters at the rate of 1,000 cubic meters per minute. If the output of the
plant is 15,000 kW. What is the efficiency?
A . 80% B. 70% C. 75% D.
65%
18. The metering of power customer was read and gave the following
data:
KW – hr = 200,000 KVAR – HR = 180, 000 Maximum demand =
380 kW
What is the load factor?
A . 68% B. 80% C. 73% D.
62%
POWER PLANT
20. The power customer has four circuits of 220 – volt three phase.
The circuits have the maximum demands as follows:
Circuit no.1 = 35 amperes Circuit no. 3 = 72
amperes
Circuit no.2 = 46 amperes Circuit no. 4 = 57
amperes
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
The diversity factor is 1.5, the load factor is 50% and the power factor is
80%. What is the approximate KW demand of the customer?
A . 15 KW B. 21 KW C. 43 KW D. 53 KW
21. The power customer has four circuits of 220 – volt three phase.
The circuits have maximum demand as follows:
Circuit no.1 = 35 amperes Circuit no. 3 = 72
amperes
Circuit no.2 = 46 amperes Circuit no. 4 = 57
amperes
The diversity factor is 1.5, the load factor is 50% and the power factor is
80%. Determine the maximum KVA of the customer?
A . 46 B. 80 C. 26.5 D. 53
24. A 100 MW coal fired power plant has an average heat rate of 9,500
BTU/kwhr. The plant load factor is 75% and the heating value of coal is
12,000 BTU/lb. Calculate the amount of coal usage for one day.
A . 1.425 x 106lbs. B. 2.235 x 105 lbs. C. 1.425 x 108 lbs.
D. 1.826 x 106lbs.
POWER PLANT
REE – Oct.1998
29. A diesel generator set burns diesel with a heating value of 18,000
BTU per lb. The diesel engine has an efficiency of 30% and the
alternator has an efficiency of 95%. Determine the fuel cost component
of producing one kW – hr if diesel cost P2.8 per lb.
A . P0.15 B. P 2.1 C. 3.28 D.
1.86
POWER PLANT
36. Online load flow program of a SCADA system
A . Used the actual operating data
B . Used calculated valued of loading of lines and equipment
C . Cannot Provide transmission loss factor
D . Are used only on system designed function
39. Power plant using coal work closely on which of the following
cycle
A . Rankine Cycle C. Otto Cycle
B . Binary Vapour cycle D. size of coal
particle
41. For low head and high discharge the hydraulic turbine used is.
A . Kaplan B. Francis Type C. Pelton Wheel D. Jonvas
Output – is the actual response obtained from a control system. it may or may
not be equal to the specified response implied by the input.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Input Output
system
r(t) c (t)
(a)
r(t) c(t)
(b)
CONTROL SYSTEM
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
R + E C
G
±
B
H
In the following equation, the () sign refers to a positive feedback system,
and the (+) sign refers to a negative feedback system.
C/R = G / (1 ± GH)
B/R = GH / (1 ± GH)
E/R = 1/ (1 ± GH)
2 u(t) 1
s
3 tu(t) 1
S2
4 tn u(t) n!
sn+1
5 at
e u(t) 1
s+a
6 Sin 𝜔 tu(t) ω
s 2 + ω2
7 cos 𝜔 tu(t) s
s 2 + ω2
CONTROL SYSTEM
Item No. Theorem Name
∝
1 L[ƒ(t) ] = F(s) = ∫ ƒ (𝑡)e – Definition
0
st
dt
2 L[kƒ (t) ] = kF (s) Linearity Theorem
3 L[ƒ1(t) + ƒ2 (t) ] = F1(s) + Linearity Theorem
F2(s)
4 L[eat ƒ(t) = F (s+ a) Frequency Shift Theorem
5 L[f(t – T)] = e–sT F(s) Time Shift Theorem
6 1 𝑠 Scaling Theorem
L[ƒ(at)] = F ( )
𝑎 𝑎
7 𝑑ƒ Differentiation Theorem
L[ ]= sF(s) – ƒ(0)
𝑑𝑡
8 𝑑2 ƒ Differentiation Theorem
L[ 2 ]= s2 F(s) – sƒ(0) –
𝑑𝑡
ƒ(0)
9 𝑑𝑛 ƒ Differentiation Theorem
L[ 𝑛 ]= s2 F(s) –
𝑑𝑡
𝑛
∑𝑘−1 𝑠 𝑛−𝑘 ƒ k1 (0)
10 1 𝐹(𝑠) Integration Theorem
L [∫0− ƒ (𝜏)𝑑𝜏]=
𝑠
11 ƒ(∝) = lim sF (s) Final Value Theorem1
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
s
→0
12 ƒ(0 +) = lim sF (s) Initial Value Theorem2
s
→∝
CONTROL SYSTEM
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝟏 𝟏 𝒅𝒗(𝒕) 𝟏 𝟏
v(t)= ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝝉)𝒅𝝉 i(t) = C v(t) = q(t)
𝐂 𝒅𝒕 𝐂 𝐂𝐬
Cs
capacitor
𝟏 𝒅𝒒(𝒕)
v(t) = Ri (t) i(t) = v(t) v(t) = R R
𝐑 𝒅𝒕
𝟏
=𝑮
𝑹
resistor
𝒅𝒊(𝒕) 𝟏 𝟏 𝒅𝟐 𝒒(𝒔)
v(t) = L v(t)= ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝝉)𝒅𝝉 v(t) =
𝒅𝒕 𝐋 𝒅𝒕𝟐
𝟏
Ls
𝑳𝒔
Inductor
Note: The following set of symbols and units is used throughout this book:
v(t) = V (volts). i(t) = A (amps.), q(t) = Q (coulombs), C = F (farads), R = Ω
(ohms), G = Ʊ (mhos.), L = H (henries).
Spring
v(𝝉)
𝟏
f(t) f(s) = K ∫𝟎 𝒗(𝒕)𝒅𝒕 f(s) = Kx(t) K
Viscous Damper
v(t)
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
𝒅𝒙(𝒕)
f(s) f(s) = fv(t) f(t) = fv fv
𝒅𝒕
fN
mass
v(t)
𝒅𝒗(𝒕) 𝒅𝟐 𝒙(𝒔)
M f(s) = M f(t) =M Ms2
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕𝟐
f(t)
Note: The following set of symbols and units is used throughout this book.
F(t) = N (newtons), v(𝜏) = m (meters), v(t) = m/s(meters/ second), K = N/m
(newtons/meters) fN= Nms m (newtons* seconds/meter), M = ky 1kilograms =
newton* seconds2/meters
CONTROL SYSTEM
Spring
𝟏
T(t) = K ∫𝟎 𝝎(𝝉)𝒅𝝉 T(s) = K𝜽 (t)
K
Viscous
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
damper
𝒅𝜽(𝒕)
T(t) = D𝝎(𝒕) T(t) = D
𝒅𝒔
Ds
inertia
𝒅𝝎(𝒕) 𝒅𝟐 𝜽(𝒕)
T(s)= j T(s) = d
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕𝟐
2
ds
J
Note: The following set of symbols and units is used throughout this book:
T(s) = Nm(newton – meters), D(t) = rad(radians), 𝜔(t) rad/s (radian /second,
K = N –m rad (newton – meters/radian, D = N – ms/rad(newton meters
seconds/ radian), J = kgm2 (kilogram meters2 = newton – meters – second
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
CONTROL SYSTEM
1. Find the inverse Laplace transform of
2
F(s) = (s+1)(s+2)
A. (2 et  2 e2t) u (t) C. (2 e2t  2 et) u (t)
B. (2 et  2 e2t) D. 2 et
2. Given the following differential equation, solve for y(t) if all initial
conditions are zero
d2 y 12dy
+ + 32 y = 32 u (t)
dt2 dt
A. (1 – 3e4t + e 7t )u(t) C. (1 – 2e4t + e 8t
)u(t)
B. (1 – 5e2t + 6e 8t )u(t) D. (1 – 2e4t)u(t)
dc(t)
3. Find the transfer function represented by +2c(t) = r(t)
dt
1 1 1
A. B. C. D. 1
(s+1) (s+2) s
Resistor = fv Resistor = fv
Capacitor = 1/K Capacitor = K
Voltage source = applied force Voltage source = applied
force
Mesh current = velocity Mesh current = velocity
CONTROL SYSTEM
B. Inductor =fv D. Inductor =M
Resistor = M Resistor = fv
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
B. Capacitor = M C. Capacitor = M
G 1 GH
A. B. C.
1±GH 1±GH 1±GH
D.1 ± GH
14. Two blocks are in series. One block has a transfer function of P1
and the other one has transfer function P2. The equivalent transfer
function of the two blocks would be
P P
A. P1/P2 B. P1P2 C. P1 + P2 D. 1 2
P1 +P2
CONTROL SYSTEM
16. In an undamped second – order system the time required for the
transients damped oscillations to reach and stay within ± 2% of the
steady – state value.
A. Setting time B. rise time C. fall time
D. over time
36
17. In the transfer function G (s) = , determine the natural
S2 +4.2 s+36
frequency and the damping ratio.
A. 8, 0.35 B. 7, 0.35 C. 6, 0.23 D. 6, 0.35
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Antenna
Wireless
Information information
Transmitter Receiver
Wired
Band Frequency
ELF (Extremely Low Frequency)Below
300 Hz
ILF (Infra Low Frequency) 300 to
3000 Hz
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Example: If 300 Hz is the fundamental, its 2nd , 3rd,4th,….. harmonics are 600
Hz, 900 Hz, and 1200 Hz and so on, respectively.
*Octave – range of frequencies wherein the ratio of the highest to the lowest
frequency is equal to two.
Transmission Modes:
a. Simplex – information is sent in only one direction
b. Half Duplex – information is sent in both directions but not
simultaneously
c. Full – duplex – information is sent in both directions simultaneously.
Tx Rx Tx Rx
Rx Tx
Tx Rx
Rx Tx
c . Full  duplex
Types of modulation
1. Amplitude Modulation (AM)
2. Angle modulation
a. Frequency Modulation (FM)
b. Phase Modulation (PM)
Em
Emax
Ec
Emin
Em
Modulation Index (m) =
Ec
Emax − Emin
=
Emax + Emin
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Instantaneous AM Voltage
mEc mEc
CC(t) = ECsin𝜔Ct + cos (𝜔c– 𝜔m ) t cos (𝜔c– 𝜔m )t
2 2
Power in AM
Modulating
Wave
Output FM
waveform
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
FM Equation, CC (t):
Forms of AM Transmission
1. Double sideband Full Carrier (Standard AM ) – A3E
2. Single sideband Suppressed Carrier – J3E
3. Single Sideband Reduced Carrier – R3E
4. Single Sideband Full Carrier – H3E
5. Independent sideband Emission (ISB) – B8E
6. Vestigial Sideband – C3F
δ
mt=
fm
FM Bandwidth
1. Approximate bandwidth (Carson’s Formula)
BW = 2 (𝛿 +fm )
2. Exact bandwidth
BW = 2 x fm x no. of significant sidebands pairs.
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIONS
Fiber to
Current to Analog or
Light Light
Current Digital
Detector Detector
Converter Interface
Interface
Fiber Types
1. Plastic Core and Cladding
2. Glass Core with plastic Cladding (PCS)
3. Glass Core and Glass Cladding (SCS)
Modes of Propagation
1. Single Mode – one path
2. Multimode – more than one path
Index Types:
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Configurations:
1. Single mode step index
2. Multimode step index
3. Multimode graded index
Antenna – a length of wire or metal tubing designed to radiate and receive
electromagnetic waves through/from free space.
Basic Types:
1. Ungrounded (half wave) = Hertz
2. Grounded (Quarter Wave) = Marconi
Networking
Types of Network:
1. LAN – Local Area Network
 Limited within a building or cluster of building
2. MAN – Metropolitan Area Network
 Formed by connecting 2 LAN, communication spreads over a city
or state.
3. WAN – Wide Area Network
 Communications spreads over countries and Continents.
Network Topology
1. BUS
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
2. STAR
3. RING
Transmission Lines
a. Parallel two – wire line: (balanced line)
Space s
d
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
276 2S
ZO = log Ω where:
√k d
d = wire diameter
s = separation distance
k = permittivity constant
ZO = characteristic impedance
b. Coaxial Cable: (Unbalanced Line)
inner conductor
jacket d
outer conductor
138 D
ZO = log Ω D
√k d
Equivalent Circuit:
R+jωL L
ZO = √ ≈√
G+jωC C
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
2. Find the carrier and modulating frequencies, modulation index and the
maximum deviation of the FM wave represented by the voltage equation
v = 12 sin (6x 108 + 5 sin 1250t).
A. 199 Hz, 5995 Hz B. 199 Hz, 990 Hz C. 199 Hz, 6,980 Hz
D. none of these
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
16. A technique that enables more than one data source to share the
use of a common facility
A. Companding B. multiplexing C. sharing D. all of
these
17. A hardware and software rules and procedures for making sure that
any transmission errors are detected.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
18. The input is 0.1 W and the network gain is 13 dB, the output is
A. 2.0 W B. 2.5 W C. 1.5 W D. 1. W
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION
21. The farthest distance from the earth a satellite obit reaches is called
A. Perigee B. line of apsides C. altitude D. apogee
32. Between any two adjacent super groups there is a void band of
frequencies called
A. Empty band B. null band C. guard band
D. clearance band
40. If the transmitter output is 700 watts, transmission lines loss is 100
watts and the antenna gain is 10, what is affective radiated power?
A. 610 kW B. 6 kW C. 811 kW D. 7 kW
41. The earth’s area that the satellite can receive from or transmit to
A. Primary area B. footprint C. secondary area D.
coverage area
Fig.1
Schematic symbol for a rectifier diode
VS VD
When an external voltage opposes the
barrier potential, the diode is forward –
biased. If the applied voltage is greater
than the barrier potential, the current is
large. In other words, current flows
Fig. 2 easily in a forward – biased diode.
Forward – biased diode
R
When an external voltage aids the
barrier potential, the diode is reverse –
biased. The width of the depletion layer
increases when the reverse voltage
VS VD increases. The current is approximately
zero. In other words, a reverse –biased
diode acts approximately like a switch.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Fig. 3
reverse – biased diode
Diode approximations:
First approximation
IDEAL
I
V reverse = biased
Fig. 4
Ideal diode curve forward biased
Common – emitter
configuration
The emitter is grounded or common is
in a CE circuit. The base – emitter part
RC of the transistor acts like an ordinary
diode. The base – collector parts acts
like a current source that is equal to 𝛽dc
Rb VCC times that the current.
Vbb
Common  base
configuration
In the CB connection, the
common or ground side of each
supply is connected to the base.
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
Re Rc
Vee Vcc
gate
cathode
anode
Triac – acts like two SCR’s in Opt isolator – a
parallel. On account of this, the package that contains
triac can control current in either an infrared LED and a
direction. photo detector. The
wavelength response of
each is tailored to be as
gate identical as possible to
permit the highest
cathode measure of coupling
possible.
Mosfet (metal Oxide
drain semiconductor field effect
transistor) – off when the gate
source voltage is zero. Fully on
gate when gate – source voltage is
around 15V.
Second Approximation
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
I 2ND Approximation
0.7 V V
Reverse biased
Forward  biased
Third Approximation
I 3RD Approximation
0.7 V V
Reverse biased
Forward  biased
Rectifiers
Half wave
A rectifier diode conducts
current in one direction and
opposes direction. On account of
this, it is utilized to convert
alternating current to direct
current.
Full Wave
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
ELECTRONICS
1. Electrons at the outermost shell are called
A. Free electrons B. outer electrons C. valence electrons
D. active electrons
12. A simple half – wave rectifier consists of a diode and a load. If the
internal resistance of the diode is 1 Ω and the load is 5 Ω, what is the
DC load current if the supply voltage is 12 V AC?
A. 2.7 A B. 2.4 A C. 2.0 A D. 3.6 A
13. The forward voltage across a 1N4001 diode is 0.93 V when the
current is 1A. What is the power dissipation for these values?
A. 0.93 W B. 0.1 W C. 0.0 W D. 1.0 W
ELECTRONICS
19. In a full – wave bridge rectifier with a capacitor filter, the output
voltage is 30 V with a ripple of 9%. Assuming an input frequency of 60
Hz, determine the ripple voltage (rms) and its output frequency
A. 1V. 120 Hz B. 30 V, 100 Hz C. 0 V, 60 Hz D.
2.7 V,120 Hz
ELECTRONICS
27. The minimum voltage required before the diode can totally
conduct in a forward direction
A. Triggering voltage B. saturation voltage C. breakdown voltage
D. threshold voltage
29. Diode circuit that is used to cut a portion of the input signal.
A. Clipper B. clamper C. peal detector D. level
shifter
34. The ripple of a filter output voltage with the following output
signal measurement of Vdc = 30 volts and vrms = 1.5 V is
A. 9.5% B. 95% C. 5% D.
50%
ELECTRONICS
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
44. In a CE connection, the base and collector supply voltages are both
15 V. the base and collector current limiting resistances are 470K and
3.6 K respectively. Determine the collector emitter voltage.
A. 8.03 V B. 2.30 V C. 3.56 V D. 4.06 V
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
45. The reason, why a metal tab of a power transistor is fasten to the
chassis of an electronic equipment is
A. To hold the transistor firmly
B. For aesthetic value purposes
C. For heat to escape easily
D. To contribute to the rigidly of the equipment
49. A JFET
A. Voltage – controlled device C. both a and b
B. Current controlled device C. frequency –
controlled device
ELECTRONICS
51. The depletion – mode mosfet normally ________ when the gate –
source voltage is zero.
A. Is off C. does not depend on gate
voltage
B. Is on D. fails
MULTIVECTOR REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER
54. The ____ diode is a diode with almost zero reverse recovery time.
A. Varactor B. SCR C. schottky
D. light emitting
55. The _____ can be used for turning radio and television sets.
A. Varactor B. opt isolator C. triac
D. Schmitt trigger
60. Ideally. For fast switching, the base emitter voltage should start at
zero volts and the base – current should be at large at switch on, but
rapidly settle down to the minimum required for saturation. Also, switch
– off should be accomplished by a large reverse bias voltage which
quickly returns to zero. This problem can easily be solved by means of a
A. Schottky diode C. SCR
B. Commutating capacitor D. zener diode
ELECTRONICS
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