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2020 Jan 13

MBB 321 Tutorial 1

abel the y-axis on each graph. What does ‘at equilibrium’ mean?
1. Label the y-axis on each graph. What does ‘at equilibrium’ mean?


time time

equilibrium, the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal.

net change occurs in the system. / The concentrations of reactants and products do not change.
2. Choose the best definition for a near-equilibrium reaction:
e ratio [products] / [reactants] gives a constant called K’eq
(a) Always operates with a favorable free energy change.
(b) Has a free energy change near zero.
=0 (c) Is usually a control point a metabolic pathway.
(d) Operates very slowly in vivo.

3. Which of the following BEST describes the relationship between ΔG’° and the rate of a

(a) ΔG’° is linearly proportional to the rate.

(b) ΔG’° is inversely proportional to the rate.
(c) If ΔG’° is positive, the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction.
(d) If ΔG’° is negative, the reaction is at equilibrium.
(e) ΔG’° provides no information about the rate.

4. Consider the following two reactions

Reaction X: AàB ΔG'° = 10 kJ/mol

Reaction Y: BàC ΔG'° = - 30 kJ/mol

(a) Would reaction X occur spontaneously under standard conditions?

(b) How does reaction Y promote reaction X? What is the overall change in free energy for the
two reactions?
2020 Jan 13

5. In glycolysis, the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) catalyzes the reaction

Fructose 6-phosphate + ATP à Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + ADP

Given the data below, calculate ΔG’° and K’eq for the above reaction.

ATP à ADP + Pi ΔG’° = - 30.5 kJ/mol

Fructose 1,6-bisphophate à fructose 6-phosphate + Pi ΔG’° = - 16 kJ/mol

6. Predict whether creatine kinase will operate in the direction of ATP synthesis or
phosphocreatine synthesis at 25°C when [ATP] = 4 mM, [ADP] = 0.15 mM, [phosphocreatine] =
2.5 mM, and [creatine] = 1 mM.

ATP + creatine à phosphocreatine + ADP ΔG'° = 12.6 kJ/mol

7. Consider the reaction: Glucose 1-phosphate à glucose 6-phosphate

If, at equilibrium, the concentration of glucose 6-phosphate is greater than the concentration of
glucose 1-phosphate, is the ΔG’° for the reaction positive or negative?

8. The ΔG’° for the reaction ADP + Pi à ATP is + 30.5 kJ/mol. If all of the reactants are initially
present at equal concentrations of 1 M, what can you say about the relative concentrations of
ADP, Pi and ATP at equilibrium (assume standard conditions of pH and temperature)?

9. Consider the general reaction A à B, where ΔG’° = - 60 kJ/mol. Initially, 10 mM of A and 0

mM of B are present. After 24 hours, analysis reveals the presence of 2 mM of B and 8 mM of
A. What can you conclude from this result?

(a) A and B have reached equilibrium concentrations.

(b) Formation of B is thermodynamically unfavorable.
(c) The result described is impossible, given the ΔG’° of the reaction.
(d) Formation of B is kinetically slow; equilibrium has not been reached at 24 hours.
(e) An enzyme has shifted the equilibrium toward formation of A.
2020 Jan 13

10. The reaction for ‘activation’ of a fatty acid (RCOO–),

ATP + CoA + RCOO– à RCO-CoA + AMP + PPi

has ΔG'° = + 4.6 kJ/mol. What is the thermodynamic driving force for this reaction?

11. (a) Does the oxidation of glucose involve an increase or decrease in entropy?

Glucose (s) + 6O2 (g) à 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

(b) Using the relationship ΔG = ΔH - T ΔS, is ΔG for the above reaction positive or negative?

(c) Given that ΔH = - 2816 kJ/mol and ΔS = 181 J/mol K, what is the value of ΔG at 37°C?

12. Indicate whether each of the following statements about ATP is true or false.

a) It contains a β-N-glycosyl linkage.

b) It contains a furanose ring.
c) Its sugar moiety is glucose.
d) It is the highest-energy compound in cells.
e) It is used as a long-term storage form of energy in cells.
f) It is synthesized from ADP and Pi in an exergonic reaction.
g) It contains three phosphoanhydride bonds.
h) It contains three phosphoryl (or phosphate) groups.
i) Its free energy of hydrolysis can be used to drive other reactions.
j) Repulsion between the negatively charged phosphoryl groups is reduced when ATP
is hydrolyzed.
k) Its phosphoryl group transfer potential is higher than that of phosphoenolpyruvate.
l) During ATP hydrolysis to ADP, the α-β phosphoanhydride bond is cleaved.
m) During ATP hydrolysis to ADP, the P atom at the ω position serves as the
electrophilic target.
n) During phosphorylation of glucose by ATP (to form glucose 6-phosphate), the group
transferred from ATP is a phosphate.
2020 Jan 13

13. ATP is intermediate in the hierarchy of phosphorylated compounds with high standard free
energies of hydrolysis. Why is it advantageous for cells to use ATP as their primary energy-
carrying molecule?

(a) ATP can be regenerated by coupling with a reaction that releases more free energy than
does ATP hydrolysis.
(b) ATP is thermodynamically unstable but kinetically stable.
(c) Reactions that release more free energy than ATP hydrolysis do not occur in living cells.
(d) The phosphoryl groups of other high-energy compounds cannot be removed.
(e) The phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP is higher than that of any other
phosphorylated compound.

14. Which of the following does NOT contribute to the high phosphoryl group transfer potential
of ATP? ADP and Pi have __________________ than does ATP.

(a) More resonance stabilization

(b) Less electrostatic repulsion
(c) A greater degree of ionization
(d) A greater ability to isomerize
(e) A greater degree of hydration