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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource

Management

Desk Number ________

Student Number _______________________

Student Name _______________________

School of Environmental & Life Sciences


EXAMINATION
Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019

GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource Management


This paper is for all students.

Examination Duration: 120 minutes

Reading Time: 10 minutes

This exam has ___ questions

Exam Conditions:

This is a FORMAL examination

This is a RESTRICTED OPEN book examination

Notes permitted - Refer Materials Permitted

Calculators Permitted - Refer Materials Permitted

Materials Permitted In The Exam Venue:

1 A4 double sided sheet of handwritten or typed notes (Memory Aid sheet)

Non programmable scientific calculators are permitted

Materials To Be Supplied To Students:

1 x 12 Page Answer Booklet

Special Instructions:

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

PART A
Multiple Choice (15 questions worth 1 mark each)
Answer by circling the letter corresponding to the answer you most agree
with

1. Which of the following is a greenhouse gas?


a) CO2.
b) H2O.
c) CH4.
d) All of the above.

2. Which explanation best describes the ocean-atmosphere interaction known as


the IOD:
a) Abnormal warming or cooling of the Pacific Ocean occurring on a 2 to 5
year cycle.
b) Abnormal warming or cooling of the Indian Ocean occurring on a 2 to 5
year cycle.
c) Abnormal warming or cooling of the equatorial Pacific Ocean occurring on
a 2 to 5 year cycle.
d) Abnormal warming or cooling of the Pacific Ocean occurring on a 20 to 30
year cycle.

3. Which of the following is the name given to the phenomenon which alters the
latitudinal position of the southern hemisphere storm track?
a) SHST.
b) MJO.
c) Atmospheric Blocking.
d) SAM.

4. Which of the following adaptation strategies IS a climate-resilient method of


“creating potable water”:
a) Building a reservoir.
b) Increasing the price of water.
c) Installing rainwater tanks.
d) Desalination.

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

5. The temperature structure of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere is the result
of complex interactions among the energy transfer methods of conduction,
convection and radiation. Which one of the following statements about energy
transfer in the Earth/atmosphere system is true?
a) Some of the incoming radiation from the Sun is reflected directly back to
space by clouds and aerosols; the remainder manages to reach the
surface because it passes through the ‘atmospheric window’ and, at the
surface, some is reflected directly back to space.
b) All the radiation emitted by the surface is absorbed by the various layers of
the atmosphere, which then re-emit it in all directions.
c) Some of the incoming radiation from the Sun is reflected directly back to
space by clouds and aerosols; the remainder is absorbed by – and heats –
the surface.
d) Most of the radiation emitted by the surface is absorbed and re-emitted by
the atmosphere, although a small fraction passes straight through the
‘atmospheric window’ and can be observed directly in space.

6. What does “non-stationarity” mean in terms of climate-related risk?


a) The chance of a climatic event occurring this year, and into the future, is
different to what it was in the past.
b) The chance of a climatic event occurring this year, and into the future, is
the same as it was in the past.
c) The chance of a climatic event occurring this year, and into the future, is
the same as that indicated by the instrumental record.
d) None of the above.

7. Model predictions about future carbon dioxide concentrations indicate that:


a) there is close agreement on trends and values (for example, predicted
carbon dioxide concentrations).
b) there is no agreement at all.
c) there is close agreement on trends but little agreement on values.
d) there is close agreement on values but little agreement on trends.

8. Climate model predictions about changes to annual precipitation totals across


the Murray-Darling Basin by 2030 indicate:
a) General agreement on a 2-5% increase in rainfall.
b) General agreement on a 2-5% decrease in rainfall.
c) General agreement that there will be no change.
d) No agreement on the direction or magnitude of change.

9. Why are there winds?


a) Because air flows downhill.
b) Because of temperature differences.
c) Because air flows from high density to low density.
d) Because air flows along isobars.

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

10. Many of Earth's driest climate regions are located within several degrees of
30° north and south latitude. The very low annual average precipitation near
this latitude of the subtropics primarily results from:
a) heating of the ground surface by solar energy.
b) sinking of cool and dry air aloft that creates high pressure.
c) removal of moist air masses by the trade winds.
d) drying out of air masses as they rise into the cold air aloft.

11. During El Niño events the temperature rises rapidly once every three to eight
years along the coast of:
a) Peru and Ecuador.
b) Spain and France.
c) India and Pakistan.
d) Australia.

12. Agriculture accounts for what percentage of Australia’s water use?


a) 10%
b) 30%
c) 70%
d) 90%

13. The word climate means:


a) condensation in the atmosphere.
b) a description of an ecosystem.
c) the usual weather in a place.
d) the amount of air pressure on a certain day.

14. What is the Goyder Line in South Australia?


a) The observed boundary between agricultural land and livestock land.
b) A survey line delineating regions with lower/higher rainfall patterns.
c) The southern extent of saltbush.
d) All of the above.

15. During Australia’s settlement history many changes to the environment have
occurred. With respect to water quality in our rivers, what has been the major
contributor to increased sediment loads?
a) Urban development.
b) Wastewater discharges.
c) Land-clearing and farming practices.
d) Use of fertilisers and pesticides.

PART B COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE.

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

PART B

Short answers (10 questions worth 3 marks each)

You should try to answer ALL questions

16. List THREE (3) of the identified and recognised unknowns of climate change
science:

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17. Briefly explain the difference between climate variability and climate change:

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18. List THREE (3) current limitations of General Circulation Models (GCMs):

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

19. List THREE (3) things that indicate an La Niña event is occurring:

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20. Explain what causes freezing conditions and snow in central and northern
tablelands of New South Wales and even sometimes as far north as
Queensland (as per what happened 8th to 12th August 2019)?

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21. Describe three differences between the Millennium drought and the Federation
drought.

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

22. List three things that a climate change adaptation strategy should do for it to be
considered successful.

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23. Briefly describe ONE (1) positive and also ONE (1) negative associated with
water trading?

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

24. List and briefly describe THREE (3) issues that would arise (or worsen) as a
result of sea level rise of 50-100 cm over the next 90 years?

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25. List and explain the FOUR (4) different sources of scientific information (i.e.
types of literature) covered in the first tutorial of this subject. Give an example
for each of the four cases.

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PART C COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

PART C

Climate drivers (worth 10 marks)

You should try to fill in all the blank spaces in the table below

26. Fill in the gaps in the table below with the best possible answer:

The acronym SAM stands for ________________________________________.

ENSO refers to the warming and cooling of the ______________________________.

The two extreme phases of ENSO are known as _____________ and ____________.

In eastern Australia, IPO negative epochs are associated with an increased probability
of _________.conditions.

With no _________________, Earth’s surface would be on average 33 OC ___________


than at present.

GHGs stands for ________________________________.

GHGs can be emitted by either by ______________ processes (e.g. volcanoes) or


_____________ sources (e.g. coal fired power plants).

PART D COMMENCES ON THE NEXT PAGE

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Semester 2 Rescheduled, 2019 GEOS3340 Climate Change and Resource
Management

PART D

Long answers (3 questions worth 15 marks each)

Answer either (a) OR (b) for the following THREE (3) questions.

Questions are to be answered in a short essay format. Use diagrams to


assist with your answer if appropriate.

27. (a) Explain what is meant by the terms natural climate variability, natural
climate change, and anthropogenic climate change. Include in your answer an
explanation of the role of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming.

OR

27. (b) Consider the statement: “there is consensus on climate change”. Outline
what you think this statement means and the various viewpoints on this matter.
Do you agree with the statement? If so why? If not, why not?
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28. (a) Explain the concept of decision making under uncertainty and why it is
important for adapting to the impacts of climate variability and change.

OR

28. (b) Explain the precautionary principle and why it is important for adapting to
the impacts of climate variability and change.
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29. (a) Discuss what you consider to be the benefits and drawbacks of water
storage methods (e.g. reservoirs) versus desalination plants for adapting to a
future with potential water shortages.

OR

29. (b) Briefly explain the stationary climate assumption and the challenges and
implications associated with it with respect to water resources management,
infrastructure design and climate change adaptation.

END OF EXAMINATION

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