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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org


Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Harmonics Control of Inverter to Drive Nine


Phase Induction Motor by Using Unipolar and
Bipolar Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
Technique
Dr. Manjesh1, Nilima S. Dabhade2
1
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics Science, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India,
2
ResearchScholar, Department of Electronics Science, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India,

ABSTRACT
Trendy and compact machineries is the demand of present industrial sectors. All over industries most of the load is driven by
Motor Drives. Hence research on high torque density and heavy load becomes first choice of scientists.Multiphase motor drives
streamline the challenges of three phase motor drives by introducing higher answers for excessive torque density and heavy
loads. presented research focus on the design of Nine Phase Inverter to drive Nine Phase load. Almost all loads have nonlinear
characteristics. Therefore, due to these nonlinear loads additional harmonics induced at the output of the Inverter Drive with
fundamental frequency which affects the parameters like voltage and current. These additional parameters would not take any
part in the output but increase the harmonics content and generates heat in the load called Total Harmonics Distortion(THD).
Several methods are counseled to mitigate THD and to produce pure sinusoidal output signal. one in every of such schemes is
using a Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation SPWM-based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). In this work, the desired output
voltage is carried out by means of evaluating the preferred sinusoidal waveform (Reference signal) with a high frequency
triangular waveform (carrier signal). The harmonics and THD obtained using USPWM and BSPWM is compared using
Matlab/Simulink.
Keywords:BSPWM, Harmonics, Matlab/Simulink, Nine phase Inverter, Nine phase Induction Motor, THD, USPWM
Technique.

1. INTRODUCTION
Mostly Three phase motor drives are suitable for low torque density loads. The advantages of the use of a multiphase
drive motor rather than a three-phase motor are higher torque density and much less harmonics distortion, higher noise
suppression, smoother torque and reduction of the torque ripple magnitude[1]. Multiphase drives have predominant
applications in excessive torque motor drives like ship propulsion, electric powered aircraft, hybrid electric automobiles
and many others.
An inverter is a converter which converts DC supply to AC signal. The configuration of Inverter based on Voltage
Source Inverter (VSI) and Current Source Inverter (CSI) based on half bridge and full bridge topologies. Fig.1. shows a
full bridge Voltage source Inverter (VSI), including legs, every leg is equipped with two semiconductor switches
(MOSFET’S/IGBT’S) with complimentary operation. The center point of the each legs are related across the load. most
of the loads are nonlinear and gradual impact of nonlinear parameters on masses generates the harmonics.
Harmonics are the additional voltage or current signals which multiplies the frequencies with respect to fundamental
power supply frequency(50hz), causes noisy and distorted output signals which dissipated as heat in the load
deteriorates power factor, increases electrical losses, reduces efficiency and results equipment failure. Effect of
harmonics content in the output signal is called Total harmonics Distortion (THD). The Percentage of THD can be
control through several hardware and software techniques like “Filters”, “modulation”, “multilevel” techniques to
overcome harmonics distortion. Several modulating methodshave been evolving for operating the inverters. Most of the
inverters used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique to eliminate the percentage of harmonics at the output signal
of the VSI drive.[1-5].

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 38


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Figure.1.Topology of Single Phase Inverter


Presented research work focused on the Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) techniques. Control signals are
generated with Unipolar and Bipolar SPWM techniques for the Nine Phase Inverter to drive Nine Phase Induction
Motor. Unipolar and Bipolar SPWM Techniques are adopted for the Reduction of Total Harmonics Distortion (THD).
Hence, the comparative data analysis of THD using Matlab/Simulink is the main objective in this research work.

2. PWM TECHNIQUES FOR INVERTERS


Several PWM techniques are used in motor drives applications to drive variable speed machines with Voltage source
Inverters (VSI). In this technique the switching signals to the inverter are fed with modulated waveform where
amplitude of the waveform is constant with varying pulse width or duty cycle called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
The amplitude of the generated pulse decides the modulation index. The presence of harmonics depends on selection of
modulation index. Most of the VSI used Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique to control the
percentage of THD.
2.1. SPWM Technique
As illustrated in Fig.2(a). The switching control of SPWM technique formed by comparing the sinusoidal signal (Vr)
with triangular carrier signal (Vc). Modulation Index(Ma) controlled by peak amplitude of both signals. The width of
the output signals depends on the number of triangular carrier pulses per half cycle with respect to reference sinusoidal
signal estimated at the centre of the same pulse. [2]. The output frequency(fm) is the ratio of carrier triangular
waveform(fc) to the reference sinusoidal waveform(fr). The rms output voltage is the ratio of peak amplitude of
reference signal (Vr) to the carrier signal (Vc) called Modulation Index (Ma) is defined as in Equation (1) and (2) [6-
9]. SPWM employed with two switching techniques that are Unipolar SPWM (USPWM) and Bipolar SPWM
(BSPWM). Covered in the next section.

2.2. Unipolar Switching of SPWM


As illustrated in Fig.2(b). switching of unipolar SPWM (USPWM) for single phase H bridge VSI requires two
reference sinusoidal signals with same amplitude and complimentary phase shift compared with triangular carrier
signal with higher frequency. Generated modulating pulses are complimentary to each other (VAN and VBN) with
voltage of the fundamental frequency. output load to neutral voltage is a sequence of pulses with constant amplitude,
varying pulse width and phase shift of 180°(Vd)[10].

2.3. Bipolar Switching of SPWM


As illustrated in Fig.2©. switching of Binipolar SPWM (BSPWM) for single phase H bridge VSI requires reference
sinusoidal signals compared with triangular carrier signal with higher frequency. Generated modulating pulses bipolar
PWm pulses (VAN and VBN) with voltage of the fundamental frequency. output load to neutral voltage is a sequence of
pulses with constant amplitude, varying pulse width and bipolar switching(Vd) [10-13]. The phase to neutral output
load voltage of the VSI is obtained by VAN and VBN. As shown in equation (2) the output voltage VAB, is;
VAB = VAN - VBN (2)
The modulating signals switches in between positive and negative phases hence called Bipolar SPWM(BSPWM).

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 39


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

(a) (b) (c)


Figure.2.Reference with carrier signal, modulated pulses and load output voltage of (a) SPWM (b)USPWM (c)
BSPWM

3. NINE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


A Nine Phase Induction Motor(IM) has been constructed, with the nine stator windings with phase shift by 40° is
provided to inverter with short circuit dead time. Rotor Windings are made squirrel cage to avoid internal locking.
Topology of the nine phase induction motor fed with a nine modulating signals of VSI plotted in Fig.3. Nine PWM
control signals which 40° out of phase with each other energized the winding with electromagnetic field to drive the
motor. The switches used in the 9-phase inverter conduct for a period of 180°[14-16].

Figure.3. Topology of Nine Phase Induction Motor feed by nine Phase Inverter

4. NINE PHASE VSI


Nine phase Voltage Source Inverter(VSI) constructed with nine legs and eighteen switches, 40° out of phase to control
the output of the Nine phase Induction Motor.A Nine phase VSI is fed by a fixed DC voltage and IGBT’s/MOSFET’s
are used as a semiconductor switching devices. In PWM technique, gate of semiconductor device is controlled by
SPWM control signals [17-19].
The complete setup of Unipolar and Bipolar SPWM technique for Nine Phase Inverter is shown in Fig.4. Simulink
model of Nine phase VSI is design with nine switching signals with 40° phase shift sequence. These Nine sinusoidal
waveforms are compared with a positive and a negative carrier waveform to generate positive and negative PWM
pulses for the inverter. The Nine phase consist of nine different positive and negative pulses which are provided to the
Nine different legs of the switching devices.

Figure.4.Simulink Model of Nine Phase VSI with USPWM and BSPWM switching Technique

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 40


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

4.1 Simulink Model of USPWM Technique

Simulink Model of USPWM Technique


The Fig.5(a). shows the switching signals for nine phase VSI Introducing USPWM signals, the switches of the inverter
are controlled by comparison of a sinusoidal modulating reference signal with triangular carrier signal. In nine phase
USPWM VSI two triangular signals are complimentary to each other. modulated signals of upper switch and lower
switch are complimentary to each other and amplitude varies in between zero to VAN and VBN.
4.2. Simulink Model of BSPWM Technique
The Fig.5(b). shows the switching signals for nine phase VSI Introducing BSPWM signals, plotted waveform shows
comparison of a sinusoidal modulating reference signal with triangular carrier signal and modulated sequence of pulses
with constant amplitude and bipolar phase sequence for upper and lower switches.

Figure.5. Gate signals of Nine phase (a) USPWM switching (b)BSPWM switching(fc=1KHz)

5. SIMULATION RESULTS
Simulated Output results of nine phase VSI for USPWM and BSPWM plotted in Fig.6. waveforms are generated for
load to output, load to load, load to neutral voltage and load to neutral current output. The Nine Phase Inverter Drive is
studied and simulated with RL load for rated frequency of 50Hz and dc voltage(Vdc) of 230v. The results obtained are
analyzed for harmonics and (THD). Each output waveform is generated at the different stage of the modulation index.

Figure.6.(a)Load-Output(b)Load-Load (c)Load-neutral Voltage and (d)Load-neutral Current waveforms with USPWM


and BSPWM VSI

As plotted in Fig.7. and Fig.8. The FFT analysis has been done to Nine Phase Inverter drive with USPWM and
BSPWM techniques for 50Hz respectively to obtained voltage and current THD .

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 41


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

(a) (b)
Figure.7. (a)v-THD(b)I-THD with USPWM Inverter (50Hz)

(a) (b)
Figure.8. (a)V-THD (b)I-THD with BSPWM Inverter (50Hz)

Table.1. shows the comparison of % of reduction in THD with USPWM and BSPWM Inverter drive. At fundamental
frequency f= 50Hz, Vdc= 230v, USPWM (Fc)=1KHz, BSPWM (fc)=1KHz, m=1.

Table I. THD comparison with USPWM and BSPWM Inverter (50 hz)
Switching V-THD % I-THD%

USPWM VSI 26.59.03% 6.23%


BSPWM VSI 15.48% 14.53%

6. CONCLUSION
Simulation of nine phase VSI to study the percentage of harmonics and THD has been explored at the output. Data
analysis has been done to compare the results obtained using USPWM and BSPWM techniques. It is observed that the
percentage in VTHD at the output of the BSPWM inverter is found to be less than USPWM Inverter Drive and the
percentage in ITHD at the output of the USPWM inverter is found to be less than BSPWM Inverter Drive. Therefore, it
is concluded that the SPWM techniques are suitable solutions for harmonics control at the output of the load. The
present work will be extended to carried out for the experimental based analysis of various modulation techniques used
for 9-Phase Induction Motor Drive.

References
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Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 42


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

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AUTHORS

Dr.Manjeshreceived his Ph.D in Electronic Science, Bangalore University, presently working as


Associate Professor, Electronic Science Department, Bangalore University, Karnataka, India. His
research area of specialization is on Power Electronics and Motor drives.

Nilima S. Dabhadereceived her M.Tech in Embedded and VLSI, Visvesvaraya Technological


University, Presently Ph.D student under Dr.Manjesh, Electronic Science Department, Bangalore
University, Karnataka. Her research area is power electronics and motor drives.

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