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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org


Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

CO2 Absorption using TiO2 nanoparticle


suspended water solvent in a packed bed
absorption column
Dr. A.S. Periasamy Manikandan1, G.Deepan Sundar2, C.Chendraya Perumal3, U.Aminudin4
1
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,
Tamilnadu, India,
2, 3, 4
Student, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,Tamilnadu,India.

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology provides application to the researchers for the utilization of nano particles in heat and mass transfer
operations. By considering this concept, research framework was made to study the CO2 absorption performance of TiO2
nanoparticle suspended water solvent in a packed bed absorption column. Initially the solvent with different TiO2 nanoparticle
concentration was prepared. The CO2 gas and TiO2 suspended water solvent is entered into the column counter currently. In the
present study, the impact of nanoparticle concentration and gas flow rate on the CO2 absorption was studied in the packed bed
absorption column. 35, 45 and 55 LPH of gas flow rate used and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 volume % (vol. %) of TiO2
nanoparticle suspensions were prepared and used in the study. The CO2 absorption was determined in terms of molar flux
(mol/m 2s). The obtained results of nanoparticle suspension were compared with the solvent without nanoparticle. It was
observed significant improvement in CO2 gas absorption by the TiO2 nanoparticle suspension. From the study it was revealed
that the TiO2 nanoparticle suspension increased the percentage of CO2 absorption, and the results indicated that the maximum
absorption was obtained at 1.0 vol% of TiO2 nanoparticle suspension concentration at the prepared gas flow rates.
Keywords: Absorption, CO2, TiO2, Nanoparticle, Packed Bed Absorption Column

1. INTRODUCTION
In recent decade, nanoparticle suspensions applied many energy saving processes such as heat transfer, mass transfer,
thermodynamics, solar heaters etc., the novel idea proposed currently by the researchers is enhancing CO2 absorption
with the help of nanofluid, since CO2 emission is the principle reason of the green house effect [1]. Hence, reducing
the harm caused by CO2 should be mitigated globally. For this purpose, nanoparticle suspension in a solvent is a novel
idea to improve the removal efficiency of a solvent. Metal and metal oxide Nanoparticle (100nm) suspended base fluid
is used by many researchers particularly in heat and mass transfer processes [2]. Choi et al. proposed a valuable idea of
inclusion of nanosized particle in conventional heat transfer fluid for enhancing the thermal conductivity and heat
transfer property [3]. Graphene and copper nanoparticle was suspended in a base fluid mixture of Ethylene glycol and
water by periasamy et al. and observed significant enhancement on thermo physical properties of base fluids [4], [5].
TiO2 and other metal nanoparticle suspension (CuO, Al2O3, SiO2, and ZnO) were made by Satti et al. with
Water/Propylene Glycol mixture[6]. They studied the changes in specific heat capacity with the nanoparticle
concentration between 0.5 and 6 vol. % and particle sizes of 15 and 76 nm. Yiamsawasd et al. measured the specific
heat capacity of TiO2 suspended in water-Ethylene glycol mixture [7]. Differential thermal analysis technique was used
by them to determine the specific heat. Their operating conditions were nanoparticle volume fraction of 8.0 vol. %. and
temperature between 15 and 65 °C. The study provided the new correlation for estimating the specific heat capacity of
suspension. TiO2 and ZnO were diluted in a base fluid (Ethylene Glycol+ Water) by Manikandan et al., to conduct the
heat transfer characteristics of suspended nanoparticle. They have conducted the experiment in a corrugated plate heat
exchanger and reported nanoparticle suspension enhances the heat transfer rate significantly [8], [9].
Komati et al. performed the mass transfer study, for the CO2 absorption rate in amine solutions for a 0.39 volume
fraction of ferro fluids and reported 92.8% enhancement in the CO2 absorption [10]. Kim et al. studied heat and mass
transfer performance of SiO2 suspended water fluid and observed the heat and mass transfer rate was enhanced
significantly [11]. They reported 18% and 47% enhancements of mass and heat transfer rate respectively. The mass
transfer study was conducted by Lee et al. in a bubble absorber to analyze the CO2 absorption performance of

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 51


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

aluminium oxide suspended water and reported the absorption rate was improved up to 5% of Al2O3 nanofluid at 20 °C
and a volume fraction of 0.01 % [12]. Ag nanoparticle was diluted in NH3/water mixture by Pang et al. to perform the
mass transfer studies in the absorption column and reported that the CO2 absorption rate was 55% increased with the
nanoparticle concentration of 0.02 wt% [13]. Al2O3 nanoparticle suspended in water was used in a mass transfer study
conducted by periasamy manikandan et al. reported that addition of nanoparticle increased the CO2 absorption and
obtained the maximum enhancement at 0.6 vol. % of nanoparticle concentration [14]. Torres Pineda et al. performed
the CO2 absorption study in a tray column and observed the rate of absorption enhancement of 9.7% for SiO2
nanoparticle suspension and 9.4% for Al2O3 nanoparticle [15]. Based on the literature studies, it was observed that the
studies related with heat transfer of nanofluid are presented many researchers, but the studies with respect to mass
transfer are very minimal [16]. Even though, there will be a scope for utilizing this nanofluid concept in mass transfer
operations, only limited studies were performed by the researchers. Also, TiO2 is a viable metal oxide for air
purification [17]. This nanoparticle also has excellent physio chemical properties such as chemical stability, good
dispensability, however only limited studies were performed with this nanoparticle [18]. Hence, in the current work
TiO2 nanoparticle was chosen to absorb CO2 in a packed absorption column. The impact of TiO2 nanoparticle
concentration on CO2 absorption in terms the molar flux were investigated for the different gas flow rates.
.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 TiO2/Water Solvent Preparation:
The TiO2 nanoparticle suspended solvent was prepared by mixing 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 vol. % TiO2
nanoparticle in water. For maintaining the stability of the nanoparticle suspension, mechanically agitated stirrers were
used and the solution kept under ultrasonic oscillations for Three hours [19]. After the verification of the stability, the
solvent was used in our study to absorb the CO2.

2.2 CO2 Absorption Process in a Packed bed absorption column:


Fig. 1 and 2 shows the photographic view and layout of the packed bed absorption column (experimental set up) used to
conduct CO2 gas absorption study.

Figure 1 Photographic view of the Experimental set up

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 52


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Figure 2 Layout of Experimental set up

The components of the experimental set up are solvent container, liquid distributor, CO2 vessel, liquid & gas flow
meters, pump along with the packed bed absorption column. The gas flow rate was adjusted at 35, 45 and 55 LPH and
solvent flow rate were in the range of 0.8–1.0 LPH. After arranging the experimental setup, the CO2 gas and TiO2
suspended water solvent is passed counter currently into a packed bed absorption column. The CO2 absorption in terms
of molar flux was determined after steady state condition is achieved, CO2 concentration in the liquid outlet is
measured by the titration method . The absorbed CO2 gas was titrated against NaOH (sodium hydroxide) with the help
of phenolphthalein resulted, the absorbed CO2 concentration. The study was repeated with different gas flow rates (35,
45 and 55LPH), the readings were taken with and without nanoparticle suspended solvent.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 Absorption at a gas flow rate of 35 LPH:
Figure.3 shows the experimental result on the impact of TiO2 nanoparticle suspended water solvent on the CO2
Absorption in terms of molar flux (mol/m2.s). It was observed from the figure that at a gas flow rate of 35 LPH, the
CO2 absorption enhanced at all the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration; however the maximum enhancement occurred at
the nanoparticle concentration of 1.0 vol. %. with a CO2 concentration of 0.196 mol/m2.s, Since the CO2 absorption
without nanoparticle is 0.145 mol/m2.s.

Figure 3 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 absorption at a gas flow rate of 35 LPH

Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 53


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

3.2 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 Absorption at a gas flow rate of 45 LPH:
By increasing the gas flow rate to 45 LPH, the study was repeated with TiO2 suspended solvent and without
nanoparticle addition; the result obtained is presented in Figure.4. At this flow rate also, the similar trend was observed
(increasing the nanoparticle concentration increases the CO2 absorption). The maximum enhancement was noted at
0.287 mol/m2.s with 1.0 vol.% of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration.

Figure 4 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 absorption at a gas flow rate of 45 LPH

3.3 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 Absorption at a gas flow rate of 55 LPH:
Figure 5 provides the impact of TiO2 nanoparticle suspension at the gas flow rate of 55 LPH. It was observed an
increasing trend with respect to TiO2 nanoparticle concentration similar to solvent flow rates of 35 and 45 LPH,
however the magnitude may vary based on fluid physical properties. The maximum absorption reached was 0.355
mol/m2s at 1.0 vol. % of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration, which is significantly higher when compared to the solvent
without nanoparticle (0.215 mol/m2s).

Figure 5 Impact of TiO2 nanoparticle concentration on CO2 absorption at a gas flow rate of 55 LPH
.
4. CONCLUSIONS
In the present study, the CO2 absorption performance by using TiO2 nanoparticle suspended water was experimentally
studied in a packed bed absorption column. The impact of nanoparticle addition on absorbing solvent performance was
investigated by varying the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration as well as the gas flow rate. The obtained results were
compared with the free solvent (without nanoparticle). The results shows that CO2 absorption in terms of molar flux
(mol/m2s), by the use of TiO2 nanoparticle was enhanced significantly at all the gas flow rates. The reason for this
enhancement is the movement of molecules is speeded up due to Brownian motion, thermal conductivity enhancement
of a added nanoparticle. It is also noted from the study that increasing the nanoparticle concentration increases the CO2
absorption. However, the maximum absorption of CO2 was noted at the 1.0 vol.% of nanoparticle concentration and
beyond this concentration , the increase in CO2 absorption is reduced due to increased viscosity and reduced diffusion
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 Page 54
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

coefficient. Hence it can be concluded that the nanoparticle suspended solvent possess good absorbing tendency. The
studies can be developed further by considering various property effect on mass transfer enhancement.

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