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Information on Data Sources

The GHG data displayed on the UNFCCC website are data from official submissions of GHG
emissions/removals data by countries that are Parties to the Climate Change Convention. The
original version of the data as submitted by Parties are available on the UNFCCC website at the
following links:
• for Annex I Parties, the latest submissions of GHG data can be found here;
• for non-Annex I Parties, the usual source of GHG data is the national communication;
the list of submitted communications can be found here;
• some non-Annex I Parties have also made separate GHG data submissions to the
UNFCCC secretariat; such submissions are available here.
The UNFCCC data interface also contains data on population and gross domestic product
(GDP). These data are displayed on the GHG data interface with kind permission of the United
Nations and the World Bank, which are the primary sources of these data. They have certain
policies in place concerning the use of their data and these organizations must be consulted
before downloading population and GDP data for further use.
• for population data, the source is the UNSD Demographic Statistics
• for GDP (at market prices, constant 2000 US$) data, the primary source is the World
Bank
Both population and GDP data are accessed through the Common Database of the United
Nations.
Sources and availability of GHG data for Annex I Parties
Data availability by
Party Data source(s)
year
GHG inventory submission of
Australia 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Austria 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
Belarus 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.4
GHG inventory submission of
Belgium 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.4
GHG inventory submission of
1988 (base year), 1989–
Bulgaria 2010,
2008
version 3.3
GHG inventory submission of
Canada 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Croatia 2010, 1990–2008
version 2.1
GHG inventory submission of
Czech Republic 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Denmark 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.6
GHG inventory submission of
Estonia 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
European Union (15) 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
European Union (27) 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
Finland 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.7
GHG inventory submission of
France 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
Germany 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Greece 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.5
GHG inventory submission of
1985–1987 (base year),
Hungary 2010,
1985–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
Iceland 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Ireland 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.4
Italy GHG inventory submission of 1990–2008
2010,
version 1.4
GHG inventory submission of
Japan 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Latvia 2010, 1990–2008
version 2.1
GHG inventory submission of
Liechtenstein 2010, 1990-2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Lithuania 2010, 1990-2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Luxembourg 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Monaco 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.6
GHG inventory submission of
Netherlands 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
New Zealand 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Norway 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
1988 (base year), 1989–
Poland 2010,
2008
version 2.1
GHG inventory submission of
Portugal 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
1989 (base year), 1990–
Romania 2010,
2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Russian Federation 2010, 1990-2008
version 2.1
GHG inventory submission of
Slovakia 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.3
GHG inventory submission of
1986 (base year), 1987–
Slovenia 2010,
2008
version 1.4
GHG inventory submission of
Spain 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.5
GHG inventory submission of
Sweden 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
GHG inventory submission of
Switzerland 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Turkey 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
Ukraine 2010, 1990–2008
version 2.3
GHG inventory submission of
United Kingdom of Great
2010, 1990–2008
Britain and Northern Ireland
version 1.2
GHG inventory submission of
United States of America 2010, 1990–2008
version 1.1
Note: Data availability for CO2, CH4, N2O is meant in this table; data availability for HFCs,
PFCs and SF6 varies considerably from Party to Party.
top
Sources and availability of GHG data for non-Annex I Parties
Party Data source Data availability by year a
Afghanistan NCI not available yet –
Albania NCI (2002) 1990-1994
Algeria NCI (2001) 1994
Angola NCI not available yet –
Antigua and Barbuda NCI (2001) 1990
Argentina NC2 (2008) 1990, 1994, 1997, 2000
Armenia NCI (1998) 1990
Azerbaijan NCI (2000) 1990-1994
Bahamas NCI (2001) 1990, 1994
Bahrain NCI (2005) 1994
Bangladesh NCI (2002) 1994
Barbados NCI (2001) 1990, 1994, 1997
Belize NCI (2002) 1994
Benin NCI (2002) 1995
Bhutan NCI (2000) 1994
NCI (2000) 1990, 1994, 1998, 2000
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
NC2 (2009) 2002, 2004
Bosnia and Herzegovina NCI not available yet –
Botswana NCI (2001) 1994
Brazil NCI (2004) 1990, 1994
Brunei Darussalam NCI not available yet –
Burkina Faso NCI (2002) 1994
Burundi NCI (2001) 1998
Cambodia NCI (2002) 1994
Cameroon NCI (2005) 1994
Cape Verde NCI (2000) 1995
Central African Republic NCI (2003) 1994
Chad NCI (2001) 1993
Chile NCI (2000) 1993, 1994
China NCI (2004) 1994
Colombia NCI (2001) 1990, 1994
Comoros NCI (2003) 1994
NCI (2001) 1994
Congo
NC2 (2009) 2000
Cook Islands NCI (1999) 1994
Costa Rica NCI (2000) 1990, 1996
NC2 (2009) 2000, 2005
NCI (2001) 1994
Côte d'Ivoire
NC2 (2010) 2000
Cuba NCI (2001) 1990, 1994, 1996
Cyprus NCI not available yet –
Democratic People's Republic of
NCI (2004) 1990
Korea
Democratic Republic of the NCI (2000) 1994
Congo NC2 (2009) 1999-2003
Djibouti NCI (2002) 1994
Dominica NCI (2001) 1994
NCI (2003) 1990, 1994
Dominican Republic
NC2 (2009) 1998, 2000
Ecuador NCI (2000) 1990
Egypt NCI (1999) 1990
El Salvador NCI (2000) 1994
Equatorial Guinea NCI not available yet –
Eritrea NCI (2002) 1994-2000
Ethiopia NCI (2001) 1990-1995
Fiji NCI (2006) 1994
Gabon NCI (2004) 1994
Gambia NCI (2003) 1993
NCI (1999) 1990-1997
Georgia
NC2 (2009) 2000-2006
Ghana NCI (2001) 1990-1996
Grenada NCI (2000) 1994
Guatemala NCI (2002) 1990
Guinea NCI (2002) 1994
Guinea-Bissau NCI (2005) 1994
Guyana NCI (2002) 1990-1998
Haiti NCI (2002) 1994
Honduras NCI (2000) 1995
India NCI (2004) 1994
Indonesia NCI (1999) 1990-1994
Iran (Islamic Republic of) NCI (2003) 1994
NCI (2000) 1996
Israel
INV (2007) 2000, 2003-2005
Jamaica NCI (2000) 1994
NCI (1997) 1994
Jordan
NC2 (2009) 2000
Kazakhstan INV (2010) 1990-2008
Kenya NCI (2002) 1994
Kiribati NCI (1999) 1994
Kuwait NCI not available yet –
Kyrgyzstan NC2 (2008) 1990-2005
Lao People's Democratic
NCI (2000) 1990
Republic
Lebanon NCI (1999) 1994
Lesotho NCI (2000) 1994
Liberia NCI not available yet –
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya NCI not available yet –
Madagascar NCI (2004) 1994
Malawi NCI (2003) 1990, 1994
Malaysia NCI (2000) 1994
Maldives NCI (2001) 1994
Mali NCI (2000) 1995
Malta INV (2010) 1990-2008

Marshall Islands NCI (2000) *

NCI (2002) 1995


Mauritania
NC2 (2008) 2000
Mauritius NCI (1999) 1995
1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998,
Mexico INV (2007)
2000, 2002
Micronesia (Federated States of) NCI (1997) 1994
Mongolia NCI (2001) 1990-1998
Montenegro NCI not available yet –
Morocco NCI (2001) 1994
Mozambique NCI (2006) 1990, 1994
Myanmar NCI not available yet –
Namibia NCI (2002) 1994
Nauru NCI (1999) 1994
Nepal NCI (2004) 1994
Nicaragua NCI (2001) 1994
NCI (2000) 1990
Niger
NC2 (2009) 2000
Nigeria NCI (2003) 1994
Niue NCI (2001) 1994
Oman NCI not available yet –
Pakistan NCI (2003) 1994
Palau NCI (2003) 1994–2000
Panama NCI (2001) 1994
Papua New Guinea NCI (2002) 1994
Paraguay NCI (2002) 1990, 1994
Peru NCI (2001) 1994
Philippines NCI (2000) 1994
Qatar NCI not available yet –
NCI (1998) 1990
Republic of Korea
NC2 (2003) 2001
Republic of Moldova NC2 (2010) 1990-2005
Rwanda NCI (2005) 2002
Saint Kitts and Nevis NCI (2001) 1994
Saint Lucia NCI (2001) 1994
Saint Vincent and the
NCI (2000) 1990, 1994, 1997
Grenadines
Samoa NCI (1999) 1994
San Marino NCI (2009) 2007
São Tomé and Príncipe NCI (2005) 1998
Saudi Arabia NCI (2005) 1990
Senegal NCI (1997) 1994, 1995
Serbia NCI not available yet –
Seychelles NCI (2000) 1995
Sierra Leone NCI (2007) 1990-1995b
Singapore NCI (2000) 1994
Solomon Islands NCI (2004) 1994
South Africa NCI (2003) 1990, 1994
Sri Lanka NCI (2000) 1993-1995
Sudan NCI (2003) 1995
Suriname NCI (2006) 2003
Swaziland NCI (2002) 1994
Syrian Arab Republic NCI not available yet –
Tajikistan NC2 (2008) 1990-2003
Thailand NCI (2000) 1994
The former Yugoslav Republic
NC2 (2009) 1990-2002
of Macedonia
Timor-Leste NCI not available yet –
Togo NCI (2001) 1992-1998
Tonga NCI (2005) 1994
Trinidad and Tobago NCI (2001) 1990
Tunisia NCI (2001) 1994
Turkmenistan NCI (2000) 1994
Tuvalu NCI (1999) 1994
Uganda NCI (2002) 1994
United Arab Emirates NC2 (2010) 2000
United Republic of Tanzania NCI (2003) 1990, 1994
NCI (1997) 1990, 1994, 1998
Uruguay
NC2 (2004) 2000
Uzbekistan NC2 (2008) 1990-2005
Vanuatu NCI (1999) 1994
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic
NCI (2005) 1999
of)
Viet Nam NCI (2003) 1994
Yemen NCI (2001) 1995
Zambia NCI (2004) 1994
Zimbabwe NCI (1998) 1994
Note: NCI = initial national communication; NC2 = second national communication, INV =
separate GHG inventory. The "–" symbol indicates that data are not available, because either the
initial national communication is not yet available, or GHG data from the national
communication have not yet been processed and included in the database, or the national
communication does not contain GHG data.
a
Data are considered as available if data on CO2 emissions without LUCF are available; the
availability of data on other GHGs may be different.
b
The GHG inventory submitted by Sierra Leone for the period 1990-1995 appears to contain
technical errors, esp., for the Agriculture and LUCF Sectors. Therefore, this inventory is
currently not included in the data interface
* The NCI does not contain GHG data.

GHG data from UNFCCC

In accordance with Articles 4 and 12 of the Climate Change Convention, and the relevant
decisions of the Conference of the Parties, countries that are Parties to the Convention submit
national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to the Climate Change secretariat. These
submissions are made in accordance with the reporting requirements adopted under the
Convention, such as The UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annex I Inventories (document
FCCC/SBSTA/2004/8) for Annex I Parties and Guidelines for the preparation of national
communications for non-Annex I Parites (decision 17/CP.8). The inventory data are provided in
the annual GHG inventory submissions by Annex I Parties and in the national communications
under the Convention by non-Annex I Parties.
The GHG data reported by Parties contain estimates for direct greenhouse gases, such as:
CO2 - Carbon dioxide
CH4 - Methane
N2O - Nitrous oxide
PFCs - Perfluorocarbons
HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons
SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride
as well as for the indrect greenhouse gases such as SO2, NOx, CO and NMVOC.
The sources and availability of data are described in detail under "Information on data sources".
The major data definitions can be found under "Definitions"; for more information on definitions
and methodologies, relevant methodological publications of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) should be consulted (see http://www.ipcc.ch/).
Latest UNFCCC publications with GHG data
The latest UNFCCC publications with GHG data under the Climate Change Convention are
• for Annex I Parties: document FCCC/SBI/2009/12 (with GHG data for the period from
1990 to 2007)*;
• for non-Annex I Parties: document FCCC/SBI/2005/18/Add.2
The graphs below illustrate key GHG emission trends for Annex I Parties based on the latest
UNFCCC publication.
Note that the GHG data interface contains much more information on GHG data than the
documents listed above; the interface may also contain more recent information than the
documents.

Total aggregate greenhouse gas emissions of Total aggregate greenhouse gas emissions of
individual Annex I Parties, 1990-2007 individual Annex I Parties, 1990-2007
(excluding LULUCF) (including LULUCF)

Trends in aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, Trends in aggregate greenhouse gas emissions,
1990-2007 (excluding LULUCF) 1990-2007 (including LULUCF)

*After the publication of the document, Sweden resubmitted its national GHG inventory to revise
the value for the impact of recalculation on the base year GHG emissions including LULUCF.
The percentage change was corrected from 202.77% to -0.27%.

Time series - Annex I

Select the appropriate table for presentation of relevant data:


Link (ZIP
Data item CRF category
format)
Data for greenhouse gas (GHG) total
Total CO2 Equivalent Emissions without Land Full table in
GHG total excluding LULUCF
Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total CO2 Equivalent Emissions with Land Full table in
GHG total including LULUCF
Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Excel
Data by gas
Total CO2 Emissions without Land Use, Full table in
CO2 excluding LULUCF
Land-Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total CO2 Emissions with Land Use, Land- Full table in
CO2 including LULUCF
Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total CH4 Emissions without Land Use, Full table in
CH4 excluding LULUCF
Land-Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total CH4 Emissions with Land Use, Land- Full table in
CH4 including LULUCF
Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total N2O Emissions without Land Use, Full table in
N2O excluding LULUCF
Land-Use Change and Forestry Excel
Total N2O Emissions with Land Use, Land- Full table in
N2O including LULUCF
Use Change and Forestry Excel
Full table in
HFCs Total HFC Emissions
Excel
Full table in
PFCs Total PFC Emissions
Excel
Full table in
SF6 Total SF6 Emissions
Excel
Full table in
Sum of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Total emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6
Excel
Data by sector
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Energy
category 1 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Energy Industries
category 1.A.1 Excel
Manufacturing Industries and Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Construction category 1.A.2 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Transport
category 1.A.3 Excel
Other Sectors Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
category 1.A.4 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Energy - Other
category 1.A.5 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Fugitive Emissions from Fuels
category 1.B Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Industrial processes
category 2 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Solvent and other product use
category 3 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Agriculture
category 4 Excel
Land use, land-use change and Total net GHG (CO2 Equivalent) Full table in
forestry (LULUCF) emissions/removals from category 5 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Waste
category 6 Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Other
category 7 Excel
Emissions/removals from LULUCF
Net CO2 emissions/removals Total net CO2 emissions/removals from Full table in
from LULUCF category 5 Excel
Full table in
CH4 emissions from LULUCF Total CH4 emissions from category 5
Excel
Full table in
N2O emissions from LULUCF Total N2O emissions from category 5
Excel
GHG emissions from international bunker fuels
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Aviation
memo item/aviation Excel
Total GHG (CO2 Equivalent) emissions from Full table in
Marine
memo item/marine Excel

GHG emission profiles

A GHG profile is a 2-3-page summary of most representative GHG data (at the level of national
totals, major sectors and sub-sectors) for a Party or a group. It contains a data table and graphs
with trends for GHG totals; sectoral changes in GHG emissions; and GHG shares by gas, by
sector and by category.
GHG profiles are provided for:
• individual Annex I Parties, as well as for the major subgroups within Annex I (EIT, non-
EIT and the European Union)
• individual non-Annex I Parties

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data - Detailed data by Party


Top of Form

Please select Party, Inventory Years, Category and Gas. Then press GO.

Note 1: The reporting and review requirements for GHG inventories are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties.
The definition format of data for emissions/removals from the forestry sector is different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (see details).
Note 2: Base year data in the data interface relate to the base year under the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC).
The base year under the Convention is defined slightly different than the base year under the Kyoto Protocol.
An exception is made for European Union (15) whereby the base year under the Kyoto Protocol is displayed.
Bottom of Form

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data - Comparisons By Gas


Top of Form

Please select Category, Parties and Inventory Years. Then press GO.

Please select two different Parties for comparison

Please select two different years for comparison

Note 1: The reporting and review requirements for GHG inventories are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties.
The definition format of data for emissions/removals from the forestry sector is different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (see details).
Note 2: Base year data in the data interface relate to the base year under the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC).
The base year under the Convention is defined slightly different than the base year under the Kyoto Protocol.
An exception is made for European Union (15) whereby the base year under the Kyoto Protocol is displayed.
Bottom of Form
Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data - Comparisons By Category
Top of Form

Please select Category, Gas, Parties and Inventory Years. Then press GO.

Please select two different Parties for comparison

Please select two different years for comparison

Note 1: The reporting and review requirements for GHG inventories are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties.
The definition format of data for emissions/removals from the forestry sector is different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (see details).
Note 2: Base year data in the data interface relate to the base year under the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC).
The base year under the Convention is defined slightly different than the base year under the Kyoto Protocol.
An exception is made for European Union (15) whereby the base year under the Kyoto Protocol is displayed.
Bottom of Form
Flexible GHG data queries
Top of Form
Bottom of Form

Please select one item in every select box. Then press GO.
Category -- Select Category --

Classificati -- Select Classification --


on
Type of -- Select Type of value --
value
Gas -- Select Gas --

Unit -- Select Unit --

Change Layout >>>


Show item selection >>>

Note 1: The reporting and review requirements for GHG inventories are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties.
The definition format of data for emissions/removals from the forestry sector is different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (see details).
Note 2: Base year data in the data interface relate to the base year under the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC).
The base year under the Convention is defined slightly different than the base year under the Kyoto Protocol.
An exception is made for European Union (15) whereby the base year under the Kyoto Protocol is displayed.

Global map - Annex I


Please select Sector or Sub-sector, Gas and Inventory Year
Aggregate GHGs

1990-2008 grow th, %

Print Link

Gg CO2 eq., change, 1990 to 2008

All Annex I countries - Total emissions including LULUCF/LUCF


Aggregate_GHGs, Gg CO2 eq., change, 1990 to 2008
Sort: by name | by value descending
- -
1 Latvia 15 Germany 29 6.89% Switzerland
310.60% 18.43%
- United States of
2 -69.55% Estonia 16 Poland 30 15.32%
17.17% America
- European Union
3 -68.86% Lithuania 17 31 16.29% Liechtenstein
13.27% (27)
-
4 -52.14% Ukraine 18 France 32 18.29% Portugal
12.60%
Russian -
5 -50.83% 19 Monaco 33 19.06% Sweden
Federation 12.04%
6 -46.98% Romania 20 -9.47% Croatia 34 19.16% Iceland
7 -45.67% Belarus 21 -9.24% Luxembourg 35 19.82% Ireland
European Union
8 -39.92% Bulgaria 22 -7.71% 36 20.89% Slovenia
(15)
9 -36.12% Finland 23 -6.16% Belgium 37 22.72% Greece
10 -34.62% Norway 24 -4.04% Denmark 38 33.06% Australia
11 -34.61% Slovakia 25 -2.44% Netherlands 39 33.57% Canada
12 -28.67% Czech Republic 26 0.19% Japan 40 43.72% Spain
13 -27.34% Hungary 27 0.42% Italy 41 63.20% New Zealand
14 -19.01% United Kingdom 28 6.57% Austria 42 101.13% Turkey

Kyoto Protocol data


Under the Kyoto Protocol, Parties that are included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol are
required to report data on the issuance and transactions of assigned amount units (AAUs),
emission reduction units (ERUs), certified emission reductions (CERs), removal units (RMUs)
and also on various parameters and definitions that are necessary for accounting under the Kyoto
Protocol. This page provides access to this information as follows:
• Base year data: this page contains information on the emission levels in the base year
under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as information on national emission reduction targets
in the first commitment period 2008-2012;
• Compilation and accounting reports: this page provides access to annual compilation and
accounting reports (C&A) under the Kyoto Protocol. The first of these reports was
published by the UNFCCC secretariat on 17 November 2008.
All data are as officially reported by Parties and in accordance with the results of the review
process. The key reporting and review requirements under the Kyoto Protocol can be found in
decisions 15/CMP.1 (reporting) and 22/CMP.1 (review).
Kyoto Protocol base year data
Base year emissions, under the Kyoto Protocol, are defined as the aggregate anthropogenic
carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the GHGs listed in Annex A sources in a historical
base year. For most Annex I Parties, the historical base year is 1990 but Parties included in
Annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market economy may choose a year or period
other than 19901, in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 52. Annex I Parties may choose to use
1995 as the base year for total emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur
hexafluoride (F-gases), in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 8.
If the land use, land-use change and forestry sector constituted a net source of greenhouse gas
emissions in the base year or period, then net emissions from the part relating to the conversion
of forests (deforestation) will be included in the total national emissions for that year or period.
The table below provides, for Annex I Parties included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol:
1. Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment expressed as per cent of the
base year or period;
2. Selection of the base year for F-gases;
3. Base year level of total national emissions as determined by the initial review, expressed
in tonnes CO2 equivalent;
4. Source of information on the base year and base year emissions level.
Base year
Quantified
level of total
emission
national
limitation or
emissions as Source of base
reduction Base year for
Party determined by year data (initial
commitment F-gases
the initial review reports)
(percentage of
review (tonnes
base year or
CO2
period level)
equivalent)
FCCC/IRR/2007/A
Australia 108.0 1990 547,699,841
US

FCCC/IRR/2007/A
Austria 87.0 1990 79,049,657
UT
Belarus*a 92.0 1995
FCCC/IRR/2007/B
Belgium 92.5 1995 145,728,763
EL

FCCC/IRR/2007/B
Bulgaria* 92.0 1995 132,618,658
GR

FCCC/IRR/2007/C
Canada 94.0 1990 593,998,462
AN

FCCC/IRR/2008/H
Croatia*b 95.0
RV

FCCC/IRR/2007/C
Czech Republic* 92.0 1995 194,248,218
ZE
FCCC/IRR/2007/D
Denmark 79.0 1995 69,978,070
NK
FCCC/IRR/2007/E
Estonia* 92.0 1995 42,622,312
ST
FCCC/IRR/2007/E
European Union 92.0 1990 or 1995 4,265,517,719
C
FCCC/IRR/2007/FI
Finland 100.0 1995 71,003,509
N
FCCC/IRR/2007/F
France 100.0 1990 563,925,328
RA
FCCC/IRR/2007/D
Germany 79.0 1995 1,232,429,543
EU
FCCC/IRR/2007/G
Greece 125.0 1995 106,987,169
RC
FCCC/IRR/2007/H
Hungary* 94.0 1995 115,397,149
UN
FCCC/IRR/2007/IS
Iceland 110.0 1990 3,367,972
L
FCCC/IRR/2007/I
Ireland 113.0 1995 55,607,836
RL
FCCC/IRR/2007/I
Italy 93.5 1990 516,850,887
TA
FCCC/IRR/2007/J
Japan 94.0 1995 1,261,331,418
PN
FCCC/IRR/2007/L
Latvia* 92.0 1995 25,909,159
VA
FCCC/IRR/2007/L
Liechtenstein 92.0 1990 229,483
IE
FCCC/IRR/2007/L
Lithuania* 92.0 1995 49,414,386
TU
FCCC/IRR/2007/L
Luxembourg 72.0 1995 13,167,499
UX
FCCC/IRR/2007/M
Monaco 92.0 1995 107,658
CO
FCCC/IRR/2007/N
Netherlands 94.0 1995 213,034,498
LD
FCCC/IRR/2007/N
New Zealand 100.0 1990 61,912,947
ZL
FCCC/IRR/2007/N
Norway 101.0 1990 49,619,168
OR
FCCC/IRR/2007/P
Poland* 94.0 1995 563,442,774
OL
FCCC/IRR/2007/P
Portugal 127.0 1995 60,147,642
RT

FCCC/IRR/2007/R
Romania* 92.0 1989 278,225,022
OU

Russian FCCC/IRR/2007/R
100.0 1995 3,323,419,064
Federation* US
FCCC/IRR/2007/S
Slovakia* 92.0 1990 72,050,764
VK
FCCC/IRR/2007/S
Slovenia* 92.0 1995 20,354,042
VN
FCCC/IRR/2007/E
Spain 115.0 1995 289,773,205
SP
FCCC/IRR/2007/S
Sweden 104.0 1995 72,151,646
WE
FCCC/IRR/2007/C
Switzerland 92.0 1990 52,790,957
HE
FCCC/IRR/2007/U
Ukraine* 100.0 1990 920,836,933
KR
United Kingdom of
FCCC/IRR/2007/G
Great Britain and 87.5 1995 779,904,144
BR
Northern Ireland

Notes: (1) The base year data are as determined during the initial review process. (2) Targets
under the "burden-sharing" agreement of the European Community are shown in italics.
* A Party undergoing the process of transition to a market economy (an EIT Party).
a
The amendment to the Kyoto Protocol with an emission reduction target for Belarus adopted by
decision 10/CMP.2 has not entered into force yet.
b
The expert review team finalized the report of the review of the initial report of Croatia on 26
August 2009. The review report contained two questions of implementation relating to the
assigned amount and the commitment period reserve. Croatia has lodged an appeal to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol against the
final decision of the enforcement branch of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol
with respect to these two questions of implementation. The final values of base year emissions
level for Croatia will be available after the resolution of the questions of implementation. For
latest available information relating to the questions of implementation of with respect to
Croatia, see http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/compliance/enforcement_branch/items/5456.php.
The text of Croatia's appeal is available at
http://unfccc.int/documentation/documents/advanced_search/items/3594.php?
rec=j&priref=600005722#beg.

1
Annex I Parties with the base year other than 1990 are Bulgaria (1988), Hungary (average of
1985-1987), Poland (1988), Romania (1989), Slovenia (1986).
2
The Articles here refer to Articles of the Kyoto Protocol unless specified otherwise.
Compilation and accounting (C&A) reports
In accordance with decision 13/CMP.1, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) requested the secretariat to begin publishing the annual
compilation and accounting reports referred to in paragraph 61 of the annex to that decision after
completion of the initial review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol and resolution of any
questions of implementation relating to adjustments under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto
Protocol, or its assigned amount pursuant to Article 3, paragraphs 7 and 8, of the Kyoto Protocol.
The secretariat published the first compilation and accounting report in November 2008
containing the initial accounting parameters recorded in the compilation and accounting database
(CAD) as at 18 September 2008 after the completion of the initial review under the Kyoto
Protocol by expert review teams (ERTs) and the resolution of any questions of implementation.
The annual reports for future years will include detailed information on holdings and
transactions of Kyoto Protocol units as such information becomes available.
• 2008
FCCC/KP/CMP/2008/9/Rev.1
FCCC/KP/CMP/2008/9/Add.1 and Corr.1
• 2009
FCCC/KP/CMP/2009/15
FCCC/KP/CMP/2009/15/Add.1
Links to external sources of data on greenhouse gas emissions and to socio-economic data
and tools

At the request of the SBSTA at its 19th session , the secretariat is providing links to external
sources of emissions and socio-economic data. The list below focuses on so-called ‘primary’
sources (i.e. the original source of data), it does not include sources which reproduce data except
for secondary sources which are noteworthy for compiling and presenting large quantities of
data. Sources which provide only national data (such as national climate change web sites), or
sources of estimates of corporate emissions data are not included.

Web site
Organization Description/Data sources Scope* link
(access)

International organizations

United Nations Description By UNSTAT


Statistics The Statistics Division compiles statistics from country S
Division many international sources and produces global ,
updates, including the Statistical Yearbook, World by
Statistics Pocketbook and yearbooks in specialized region,
fields of statistics. It also provides, to countries, global
specifications of the best methods of compiling
information so that data from different sources can
be readily compared.
Original data sources
FAO, OECD, UNICEF, UNFCCC (carbon dioxide),
World Bank and others

Millineum Description By MDG


Development The Millineum Development Goals Indicators country Indicators
Goals presents official data, definitions, methodologies , by
Indicators and sources for more than 60 social and economic region,
indicators and related series since 1990. These global
indicators are used to measure the progress toward
the Millenium Development Goals.
Original data sources
The responsible specialized agencies provide data,
which may be adjusted, as necessary, to ensure
international comparability.

UN Data Description By UN Data


The UN Data is an internet-based data service for country
the global community. It serves as the single-entry , by
point to access statistical data of the UN system. region
The numerous databases cover a wide range of
themes including, among others, agriculture,
education, employment, environment, health,
human development, industry and population.
Original data sources
Statistics are supplied by the UN Statistics and
Population Division and other UN agencies.

Food and Description By FAOSTA


Agriculture FAO, as part of its mandate, compiles information country T
Organization and data on various aspects of food and agriculture
of the United from all countries in FAOSTAT. The user interface
Nations (FAO) to the database provides data under 18 domains. The
data can be classified into three groups: country-
level data referring to items such as agricultural
production and trade, producer prices, land use, and
means of production; derived data such as
agricultural production and trade indices and food
supply; and data referring to items such as
population and labour force that are derived by, or
in collaboration with, other international agencies.
FAOSTAT includes data on production, trade, food
balance sheets, fertilizer and pesticides, land use
and irrigation, forest products, fishery products,
population, agricultural machinery and food aid
shipments.
Data sources
Country-level data are collected through tailored
questionnaires sent annually to member countries;
magnetic tapes, diskettes, FTP transfers and
accessing web sites of the countries;
national/international publications; country visits
made by the FAO statisticians; and reports of FAO
representatives in member countries

United Nations Description By UNEP


Environment Data are from sets used by UNEP and partners in country GEOData
Programme the Global Environment Outlook Project – mainly ,
(UNEP) Global United Nations and other international organizations by
Environment and national data centres. region,
Outlook (GEO) The online database holds more than 400 different global
variables, as national, subregional, regional and
global statistics or as geospatial data sets (maps),
covering themes such as freshwater, population,
forests, emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4, aggregated
HFCs, PFCs,SF6) climate, disasters, health and
GDP. Data can be displayed in tabular or graphic
format.
Data sources
Emission data are provided by UNFCCC,
OECD/IEA, CDIAC, RIVM

United Nations Description Annex I GRID


Environment Graphical representation of greenhouse gas Parties Arendal
Programme/Gl emissions produced in preparation for the By
obal Resource Conference of the Parties at its seventh session. The country
Information graphs feature actual (1990–1999) and projected
Database (2000, 2010) emissions of the six greenhouse gases:
(UNEP/GRID) CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. The
Arendal emissions are aggregated and represented as CO2
equivalents.
Data sources
Data are taken from several UNFCCC documents
compiling data from submissions by Annex I
Parties, including first and second national
communications, and annual national inventory
data. Additional sources include updated reports
from individual countries.

The World Description By World


Bank – World WDI Online contains statistical data for more than country Bank Data
Development 550 development indicators and time series data for , World
Indicators more than 200 countries and areas and 18 country by Bank
(WDI) Online groups. Data cover social, economic, financial, region, Online
Database natural resources, and environmental indicators. global Databases
Results can be scaled, indexed against a particular
year, viewed by percentage change, and charted.
Data export options include standard formats such
as Excel.
Data sources
Environmental data and most socio-economic data
are taken from other sources such as CDIAC, IEA
(for data on CO2), UNEP

The World Description By WMO


Meteorological The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) country
Organization coordinates the activities of National , by
(WMO) Meteorological and Hydrological Services region,
worldwide. It is the United Nations System's global
authoritative source for scientific information on
weather, climate and water. Among other, it
provides critical information on the global state of
the atmosphere in a concise manner and highlights
recent accomplishments of research and technology
application.
The latest WMO annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin
shows that levels of climate-warming greenhouse
gases continue to increase in the atmosphere.
The latest Bulletin and press release, as well as
earlier issues, are available at the following URL:
http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/GHG
bulletin.html
Data sources
WMO prepares and distributes the annual
Greenhouse Gas Bulletins in cooperation with the
GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse
Gases, with the assistance of the NOAA Earth
System Research Laboratory and WMO’s World
Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). The
measurement data are archived and distributed by
the WDCGG, hosted by the Japan Meteorological
Agency (JMA).

Web site
Organization Description/Data sources Scope* link
(access)

Regional and national organizations

Carbon Description CO2 CDIAC


Dioxide CDIAC’s data holdings include records of the emissio
Information concentrations of CO2, CH4, SF6, and HFC-23 in the ns
Analysis atmosphere; emissions of CO2 from fuel by
Center combustion; emissions of CH4; and long-term country
(CDIAC) climate trends.The compendiumTrends Online: A
Compendium of Data on Global Change provides
synopses of frequently used time series of global-
change data, including:
• Estimates of global, regional and national
CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil
fuels, gas flaring, and the production of
cement Historical and modern records (from
ice cores and current monitoring stations) of
atmospheric concentrations of CO2
Atmospheric concentrations of CH4 Global
emissions estimates for CH4 Carbon flux
from land-cover change
• Long-term temperature records, whose
spatial coverage ranges from individual sites
to the entire globe and from the Earth's
surface to the lower stratosphere
Data sources
Calculations by CDIAC

International Description By IEA-


Energy Agency IEA provides data and information on energy country Energy
(IEA) consumption, products, prices and taxes. Energy- , Informatio
related statistical data include coal, oil, gas, by n Center
electricity and heat statistics, energy balances, region, IEA-
prices and emissions. IEA calculates and publishes global Energy
CO2 emissions from fuel combustion from its Statistics
energy data.
IEA-
Data sources Climate
The data are originally collected by official bodies Change
(often national statistical offices) in OECD member IEA-CO2
countries from firms, government agencies and Emissions
industry organizations. For non-OECD-member
countries they are collected directly from
government and industry contacts and from national
publications. CO2 emissions are calculated by IEA.

Organisation Description By OECD


for Economic OECD publishes socio-economic, environmental country sourceOE
Co-operation and emissions data for OECD member countries. . CD
and Energy statistics and energy-related CO2 emissions by
Development data are those of IEA. group
(OECD) Data sources (e.g.
OECD)
OECD collects statistics needed for the analysis of ,
economic and social developments by its in-house global
analysts, committees, working parties, and member
country governments from statistical agencies and
other institutions of its member countries.

Statistical Description By EUROST


Office of the EUROSTAT provides the European Union (EU) country AT
European with statistics at European level that enable ,
Communities comparisons between countries and regions. As part by
(EUROSTAT) of the European Statistical System (ESS), it focuses group
on EU policy areas, but, with the extension of EU (e.g.
policies, harmonization has been extended to nearly EU-15,
all statistical fields. The ESS also coordinates its EU-25)
work with international organizations such as
OECD, the United Nations, the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Data sources
Data collected by member States

European Description By EEA


Environment The European Environment Agency is an agency of country
Agency the European Union which provides environmental ,
data and indicator sets, assessments and thematic by
analyses that is the basis for environmental policies group
in the EU and Member countries. (e.g.
Data sources EU-15,
EU-25)
The information provided by the EEA comes from a
wide range of sources. These include a network of
national environmental bodies involving more than
300 institutions in Europe, as well as European and
international organizations (eg. Eurostat, the Joint
Research Centre (JRC) of the European
Commission, OECD, UNEP, FAO and WHO.

United States Description By USEPA


Environmental USEPA has published emissions and projections of country
Protection non-CO2 greenhouse gases from developing
Agency countries (CH4 and N2O) and from developed
(USEPA) countries (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCS and SF6).
Data sources
USEPA’s calculations

Web site
Organization Description/Data sources Scope* link
(access)

Sectoral institutions

International Description Global Worldstee


Iron and Steel IISI collects statistical data on amounts of steel (63 l
Institute (IISI) produced for several production technologies and countri
steel products per country and year, and production es)
data on crude steel and iron on a monthly basis. By
Data sources country
Data are reported by countries directly to the IISI.
International Description By World-
Aluminium IAI collects statistical data on worldwide aluminium region Aluminiu
Institute (IAI) production, production capacities, energy used in m
production, etc., from 1972 to 2003, grouped for
seven country areas. It also has data on surveys of
PFC emissions from the international aluminium
industry over the period 1990–2000.
Data sources
Data are provided directly by aluminium producing
companies.

International Description By IRRI


Rice Research The crop, soils and water sciences (CSWS) country
Institute Database on Methane Emissions from Rice Fields
(IRRI) provides records of methane emissions collected
from eight experimental stations in five countries in
Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and
Thailand). The records can be sorted by country,
experimental station, year, cropping season,
treatment, and replication.
Data sources
Data are calculated by IRRI.

Web site
Organization Description/Data sources Scope* link
(access)

Non-governmental organizations

World Description By WRI


Resources EarthTrends, an initiative of the WRI, is an online country Earthtrend
Institute (WRI) collection of information providing statistical, s
graphic, and analytical data on environmental,
social and economic trends. To facilitate the
comparison of data from different sources,
EarthTrends supplements its content with detailed
metadata that report on research methodologies and
evaluate the reliability of information.
Data sources
Emission data come from IEA, CDIAC sources and
WRI’s own analyses (e.g. calculation of cumulative
emissions, carbon intensity of economy) and from
EDGAR for non-CO2 gases.
World Description By WRI-
Resources The Climate Analysis Indicators Tool provides country CAIT
Institute (WRI) quantitative indicators by country relating to climate ,
Climate change. Data can be viewed and analysed. Included by
Analysis are emissions (cumulative and current and region,
Indicators Tool projected), contributions to concentration and global
temperature increase, socio-economic factors
(income, education, health, carbon intensity) and
natural factors (climate, natural resources,
geography and population).
Data sources
UNFCCC, United Nations statistics, IEA, World
Bank, FAO, CDIAC, RIVM and others

MNP Description By MNP


(Netherlands RIVM provides the following databases: country
Environmental ,
Assessment • International core data sets; such as for global
Agency) Integrated Environment Assessment and the
Global Environmental Outlook
• HYDE: History Database on the Global
Environment. The database consists of
statistical as well as geo-referenced
historical data sets (e.g. population, land use,
GDP, livestock, value added, energy
consumption, emission of greenhouse gases)
on global, regional and national levels for
the period 1700–1990.
• GEIA: Global Emissions Inventory Activity;
data sets at RIVM.
• GEAS: Global Environment Statistics.
Regional aggregates for indicators on
driving forces in society (population,
economy, land use, energy) and concomitant
environmental pressures (emissions).
• EDGAR: Emission Database for Global
Atmospheric Research. This database stores
global inventories of direct and indirect
greenhouse gas emissions including
halocarbons both on a per country basis and
on a 1o x 1o grid. Includes CO2, CH4, N2O,
HFCs, PFCs and SF6 and precursor gases
CO, NOX, NMVOC and SO2, by source
category, for 1990 and 1995.
• NH3 emission inventory: New global
inventory of ammonia emissions from
application of fertilizers and animal manure
to agricultural fields based on a Residual
Maximum Likelihood model.
• N2O / NO emission inventory: New global
inventory of N2O / NO emissions from
agricultural fields based on a Residual
Maximum Likelihood model.
Data sources
Statistical offices at the country level and own
calculations

*Note: The time coverage in the data series differs from one organization to another, and it may
also differ from one data set to another within an organization.
Online Help

This section provides answers to those questions on UNFCCC GHG data that may be asked
frequently. It also provides an online guide on how to query and access UNFCCC GHG data
using different modules of the GHG data interface. In addition, the section provides notes on the
GHG data highlighting certain special cases of methodologies used to prepare GHG inventories,
and potential discrepancies in the data.
Frequently Asked Questions: Contains a list of typical questions with answers.
Definitions: Contains a brief description of some expressions and source categories.
Data Interface Help: Contains an explanation for each GHG data interface module along with
essential definitions. It also contains a step-by-step explanation on how to conduct a GHG data
query using the flexible queries module.
Important Notes on GHG Data: The users are encouraged particularly to read this section as it
contains notes highlighting certain special cases of methodologies used to prepare GHG
inventories, and potential discrepancies in the data.
Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the UNFCCC GHG data interface?


2. What do the GHG data contain?
3. What are the sources of the GHG data presented?
4. What are the different elements of the GHG data interface?
5. Why aren't data available for all Parties and for all years?
6. How often are the GHG data updated?
7. Do you have estimates for historical and projected global GHG emissions, i.e., emissions
for the whole world?
8. Do Parties' data on national GHG emissions/removals under the Convention and the
Kyoto Protocol cover the same geographical area?
9. What are the definitions of the categories/sources for the reported data?
10. What are the definitions of activity data, an emission factor and an implied emission
factor?
11. What is the definition of the GDP?
12. What is "CO2 equivalent"?
13. What global warming potential (GWP) values do Parties use when they report their GHG
inventory data?
14. What are the most widely used units of measurement for GHG emissions and what are
their conversion factors?
15. How are comparison ratios calculated?
16. How can I access activity data, implied emission factor, population and GDP data on the
data interface?
17. In what format are the data available?
18. Is there a limit to the data that can be displayed on-screen?
19. Can I see what data were reported by each country?
20. What kind of internet browser do you need to run the online GHG data interface?
21. Can I obtain a CD or a downloadable full version of the data for off-line use?

What is the UNFCCC GHG data interface?


The UNFCCC GHG data interface is a simple but powerful and user-friendly online tool that is
designed to provide access to, search and sort available GHG inventory data submitted by
countries that are Parties to the Convention.
What do the GHG data contain?
The GHG data contain information on anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by
sinks of the six principal GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.
The data also include activity data and implied emission factors by gas for all source categories.
The GHG emission inventories are developed by Parties to the Convention using comparable
methodologies agreed upon by the Conference of Parties. All the Parties base their GHG
emission inventories on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Revised
Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996), IPCC Good Practice Guidance and
Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2000) and IPCC Good
Practice Guidance on Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (2003). In addition, the GHG
data interface also includes data on population and gross domestic product (GDP); these data
were provided to the UNFCCC by the Population Division, Department of Economic and Social
Affairs of the United Nations and by the World Bank.
What are the different elements of the GHG data interface?
The main elements of the interface are:
1. GHG data - UNFCCC: this page is an entry to the UNFCCC GHG data interface which
provides access to the most recent GHG data reported by countries that are Parties to the
Climate Change Convention
○ Time series - Annex I
○ GHG profiles
○ Detailed data by Party
○ Comparisons by gas
○ Comparisons by category
○ Flexible queries
○ Global map - Annex I
2. KP data - UNFCCC: this is a page with GHG data relating specifically to the Kyoto
Protocol; the data are as reported by Annex I countries that are Parties to the Kyoto
Protocol
○ Base year data
○ Compilation and accounting reports
3. GHG data - non-UNFCCC: this page provides links to the web sites of various
organizations that also collect, estimate and/or disseminate data on GHG
emissions/removals
4. Online help: the help page contains extensive explanatory information to assist the user
in finding the right GHG data
○ Frequently Asked Questions
○ Data interface help
○ Notes on GHG data
5. Contact: this page suggests an e-mail address that can be used to contact the UNFCCC
secretariat for questions, clarifications or more information relating to GHG data.
To see what data are provided under each element and what element may better serve your
purposes, click here.
What are the sources of the GHG data presented?
The GHG data are data officially reported by Parties to the UNFCCC secretariat. For non-Annex
I Parties, the data are taken from their national communications, and for Annex I Parties, from
their annual GHG inventory submissions. The exact sources of data are provided here. The
population data are provided by the Population Division, Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, United Nations. While the source of the GDP (at market prices, constant 2000 US$) data
is the World Bank, the data are accessed through the Common Database of the United Nations
Statistics Division. The population and GDP data are displayed on the GHG data interface with
kind permission of the United Nations and the World Bank; the United Nations and the World
Bank have regulations concerning the use of their data and these organizations must be consulted
before downloading population and GDP data for further use.
Why aren't data available for all Parties and for all years?
The data published on this site correspond to the data reported by Parties according to the
reporting requirement defined under the Climate Change Convention. In accordance with the
reporting requirements, Annex I Parties are required to submit the GHG inventories every year
while non-Annex I Parties submit information on the GHG emissions/removals as a part of the
national communications which are submitted only periodically.
How often are the GHG data updated?
Starting from 2010, the information presented on this website is updated three times a year: the
first update is released in March to include resubmissions of Annex I GHG inventories for the
previous year; the second one (which is the major update) in June/July to provide access to data
from the annual submission of Anex I GHG inventories due by 15 April; the third update in
September/October to include changes in Annex I data, if any. Non-Annex I GHG data are
reported in national communications, which are submitted at different points in time. Therefore,
along with the update of Annex I Parties' data, available non-Annex I data are updated as well.
The data from external sources, such as population and GDP data, are revised during the major
update (June/July), provided that they have been revised by the United Nations and the World
Bank (for example, population data are updated once every two years).
Do you have estimates for historical and projected global GHG emissions, i.e., emissions
for the whole world?
The UNFCCC secretariat does not collect or estimate GHG emissions for the world in total. The
reason is that, according to the reporting requirements under the Climate Change Convention
(UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, the format and coverage of GHG data are different for
Annex I Parties to the Convention (or the so-called "industrialized" countries) and non-Annex I
Parties ("developing countries"), and therefore we are not able to calculate a value for the world
total accurately. Estimates for global emissions are made by some other organizations (such as
the International Energy Agency) and they can be found at their websites, see a list of non-
UNFCCC sources of GHG data here.
Do Parties' data on national GHG emissions/removals under the Convention and the
Kyoto Protocol cover the same geographical area?
For most of the Parties, the geographical coverage for the inventory submissions are the same.
However, for two Parties, the coverage is as follows:
Denmark:
• The mainland Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands for the Convention
• The mainland Denmark and Greenland for the Kyoto Protocol
France:
• The Metropolitan France, overseas departments (Guadeloupe, Martinique, French
Guyana and Réunion), overseas collectivities (Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Mayotte,
French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna) and New Caledonia for the Convention
• The Metropolitan France and the overseas departments for the Kyoto Protocol
What are the definitions of the categories/sources for the reported data?
The emissions data are in accordance with the source categories of the Revised IPCC Guidelines
for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996). The definitions for major categories are
provided here.
What are the definitions of activity data, an emission factor and an implied emission
factor?
Activity data, according to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories, are defined as data on the magnitude of human activity resulting in emissions or
removals taking place during a given period of time.

An emission factor is defined as the average emission rate of a given GHG for a given source,
relative to units of activity.

An implied emission factor is defined as emissions divided by the relevant measure of activity:
IEF = Emissions / Activity data

For source/sink categories that are composed of several subcategories, the emissions and activity
data in the formula above are summed up across all subcategories. Hence, the implied emission
factors are generally not equivalent to the emission factors used to calculate emission estimates,
but are average values that could be used, with caution, in data comparisons. For information on
actual emission factors, the latest national inventory report for the relevant Party should be
consulted.
What is the definition of the GDP?
According to the World Bank, gross domestic product (GDP) is defined as the measure of the
total output of goods and services for final use occurring within the domestic territory of a given
country, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims.
Gross domestic product at purchaser values (market prices) is the sum of gross value added by
all resident and non-resident producers in the economy plus any taxes and minus any subsidies
not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for
depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. National
currency GDP is converted into U.S. dollars at the relevant year's conversion rate.

(Note: The definition is reproduced from the Technical Notes on Country At a Glance data interface of the World
Bank. The original definition can be accessed at this link: http://go.worldbank.org/NM88P907Q0)
What is "CO2 equivalent"?
GHG emissions/removals can be expressed either in physical units (such as grams, tonnes, etc.)
or in terms of CO2 equivalent (grams CO2 equivalent, tonnes CO2 equivalent, etc.). The
conversion factor from physical units to CO2 equivalent is the GWP of the corresponding GHG.
If X Gg of CH4 is to be expressed in terms of CO2 equivalent, then it is multiplied by 21, which
is GWP of CH4 over 100 years timescale.
How can I access activity data, implied emission factor, population and GDP data on the
data interface?
Such data are provided through the "Flexible queries" section. Click here to access the "Flexible
queries" section.
What global warming potential (GWP) values do Parties use when they report their GHG
inventory data?
A table with the values is provided here.
What are the most widely used units of measurement for GHG emissions and what are
their conversion factors?
The most widely used units and conversion factors are:
106 g = 1000 kg = 1 tonne = 1 Mg
109 g = 1 Gg = 1 kt
1012 g = 1 Tg = 1 Mt
1015 g = 1 Pg = 1 Gt
How are comparison ratios calculated?
In the Comparisons by gas and Comparisons by category modules, the percentage differences
are calculated as follows:
1. The difference between selected years for a Party is equal to:
(Year2/Year 1 - 1)*100
2. The difference between selected Parties for a particular year equals:
(Party2/Party1 - 1)*100
In what format are the data available?
The data interface presents GHG data in tabular and graphical forms. Many tables are also
available as Excel spreadsheets. In the part with dynamic queries, all data can be exported in the
Excel, CSV and PDF/HTML formats.
Is there a limit to the data that can be displayed on-screen?
There is a vast amount of data to be managed by the GHG database. In order to be able to serve
many users in parallel with acceptable response time, the data display is currently limited to
3,000 table cells. A message will be displayed if you choose a combination that would lead to
more table cells. This limitation depends mostly on the performance parameters of the hardware
equipment used in the UNFCCC secretariat and it can be reconsidered if more powerful
equipment becomes available.
Can I see what data were reported by each country?
The original national GHG inventory submissions are available on the UNFCCC website for
Annex I Parties here and for non-Annex I Parties here (for national communications) and here
(for other non-Annex I data submissions).
What kind of internet browser do you need to run the online GHG data interface?
The online GHG data interface has been tested with Internet Explorer version 6.0 and/or higher
and Mozilla Firefox version 2.0 and/or higher. It is required that your browser's JavaScript
option be turned on.
Can I obtain a CD or a downloadable full version of the data for off-line use?
An off-line tool, the UNFCCC Locator, can be provided by request to national UNFCCC focal
points. At present, the Locator contains data for Annex I Parties only. To obtain the tool, please
contact your UNFCCC national focal point.
Definitions
Activity data
Activity data, according to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories, are defined as data on the magnitude of human activity resulting in emissions or
removals taking place during a given period of time.
Emission categories
Emission estimates are presented in accordance with the categories of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996).
The category "National Total" does not include emissions resulting from fuel sold for use in
ships or aircraft engaged in international transport (international bunker fuel emissions).
Emission factors
An emission factor is defined as the average emission rate of a given GHG for a given source,
relative to units of activity.
Global Warming Potentials
The Global Warming Potentials (GWP) used for presentation of CH4 and N2O in terms of CO2
equivalent are 21 and 310, respectively. For HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 the GWP values for a 100
year time horizon have been used. (source of GWP: Climate Change 1995: The Science of
Climate Change, table 4, p. 22, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1996).
Gross domestic product
According to the World Bank, gross domestic product (GDP) is defined as the measure of the
total output of goods and services for final use occurring within the domestic territory of a given
country, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims.

Gross domestic product at purchaser values (market prices) is the sum of gross value added by
all resident and non-resident producers in the economy plus any taxes and minus any subsidies
not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for
depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. National
currency GDP is converted into U.S. dollars at the relevant year's conversion rate.

(Note: The definition is reproduced from the Technical Notes on Country At a Glance data interface of the World
Bank. The original definition can be accessed at this link: http://go.worldbank.org/NM88P907Q0)
Implied emission factor
An implied emission factor is defined as emissions divided by the relevant measure of activity:
IEF = Emissions / Activity data

For source/sink categories that are composed of several subcategories, the emissions and activity
data in the formula above are summed up across all subcategories. Hence, the implied emission
factors are generally not equivalent to the emission factors used to calculate emission estimates,
but are average values that could be used, with caution, in data comparisons. For information on
actual emission factors, the latest national inventory report for the relevant Party should be
consulted.,/p>

Definitions of selectable source categories in GHG tables


Fuel combustion (Sectoral Approach)
Total emissions of all greenhouse gases from all fuel combustion activities. CO2 emissions from
combustion of biomass fuels are not included (see Emissions from Biomass Burning). Other
greenhouse gases from biomass fuel combustion are considered net emissions and are included.
Incineration of waste for waste-to-energy facilities are included here and not under Waste.
Emissions from fuel used in ships or aircraft engaged in international transport are not included
here.
Energy Industries
Comprises emissions from fuels combusted by the fuel extraction or energy producing
industries.
Transport
Emissions from the combustion and evaporation of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of
the sector. Emissions from fuel sold to any air or marine vessel engaged in international
transport (international bunker fuels) are not included.
Industrial Processes
By-product or fugitive emissions of greenhouse gases from industrial processes. Emissions from
fuel combustion in industry are included under Fuel Combustion.
Solvent and Other Product Use
Emissions resulting from the use of solvents and other products containing volatile compounds.
When the solvents and other products are, or are produced from, petroleum products, the carbon
in the NMVOC emissions will be included in the CO2 inventory if the Reference Approach for
CO2 emissions from energy is used. All other non-energy emissions not included under
Industrial Processes are included here.
Agriculture
All anthropogenic emissions from agriculture except for fuel combustion and sewage emissions.
Land-use Change and Forestry
Total emissions and removals from forest and land use change activities (activities impact on
three different carbon sources/sinks: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and soil
carbon).
Land use, Land-Use Change and Forestry
Total emissions and removals from activities relating to land use, land-use change and forestry
(from the following categories: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other
land).
Waste
Total emissions from solid waste disposal on land, wastewater, waste incineration and any other
waste management activity. Any CO2 emissions from fossil-based products (incineration or
decomposition) are not included here. CO2 from organic waste handling and decay are not
included here.
Other
Emissions that do not fit under any other emission source/sink categories of the main categories
described above.
International Bunkers
Emissions resulting from fuel use in ships or aircraft engaged in international transport.
Aviation
Emissions resulting from fuel use in aircraft engaged in international transport.
Marine
Emissions resulting from fuel use in ships engaged in international transport.
Data Interface Help
Time series - Annex I
GHG profiles for Parties
Detailed data by Party
Comparisons by gas
Comparisons by category
Flexible queries
Flexible queries (page 2)
Flexible queries (page 3)
Global map - Annex I

Time series - Annex I


This page provides access to predefined GHG emissions/removals data from Annex I Parties.
Each table contains a time series for the selected GHG category for all Annex I Parties. The time
series covers the base year and the period from 1990 to the latest available inventory year. The
data on GHG emissions from only Annex I Parties are presented here, because GHG data for the
majority of non-Annex I Parties are available for one year (1990 or 1994) only.
The user also has the option to download the data in Excel spreadsheet format, which contains
data for the entire time series.
GHG profiles for Parties
This page provides access to "GHG profiles" for individual Annex I and non-Annex I Parties, as
well as for the major subgroups within Annex I (EIT, non-EIT and the European Union). A
"GHG profile" is a 2-3 page summary of most representative GHG data (at the level of national
totals) for a Party. It also contains information on the status of the GHG inventory submission.
The GHG profile for a Party contains the following elements:
• Data table;
• Graph with the trends for GHG totals;
• Graph with sectoral changes in GHG emissions;
• Graph with the GHG shares by gas;
• Graph with the GHG shares by sector;
• Graph with the GHG shares by category.
The user has the option to access the data either in PDF and/or Excel format.
Notes on GHG data

1. The UNFCCC data interface contains some data on population and gross domestic
product (GDP), which are shown in order to illustrate the national context for GHG
emissions/removals. The source of the population data is the UNSD Demographic
Statistics; the source of the GDP (at market prices, constant 2000 US$) data is the World
Bank. These data are accessed through the Common Database of the United Nations. The
population and GDP data are displayed on the GHG data interface with kind permission
of the United Nations and the World Bank; the United Nations and the World Bank have
regulations concerning the use of their data and these organizations must be consulted
before downloading population and GDP data for further use
2. Under the Convention, Parties are grouped together according to differing commitments.
Such groups are:
a. Annex I Parties include the industrialized countries that were members of the
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992, plus
countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties), including the Russian
Federation, and several Central and Eastern European States. This group can be
further sub-grouped into two.
i. Annex I (Economies in Transition) EITs include countries that are
Annex I but undergoing the process of transition to market economy.
ii. Annex I non-EITs include rest of the Annex I countries which are not
grouped as Annex I EITs.
b. Non-Annex I Parties are mostly developing countries.
3. The reporting and review requirements for GHG inventories are different for Annex I
and non-Annex I Parties. Annex I Parties report their GHG inventories annually by 15
April. Non-Annex I GHG data are reported in national communications, which are
submitted at different points in time.
4. The definition format of data for emissions/removals from the forestry sector is different
for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. For Annex I Parties, the sector is called Land Use,
Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) whereas for non-Annex I Parties, it is called
Land-use Change and Forestry (LUCF). These two definitions are close but not
equivalent.
5. Annex I Parties report GHG data in the common reporting format (CRF). The CRF data
prepared using the CRF Reporter software are readily available for import into the GHG
database. Non-Annex I Parties do not use the CRF Reporter software because of the
difference in reporting requirements and therefore the GHG data reported by non-Annex
I Parties need to be processed manually before the data reported can be imported into the
UNFCCC GHG database and displayed as part of the GHG data interface. Due to
resource limitations at the UNFCCC secretariat, activity data and implied emission
factors could not be prepared for import into the GHG database except for six Parties,
which have been selected as test cases. These six non-Annex I Parties are Argentina,
Kazakhstan, Mexico, Mozambique, Uruguay and Venezuela. Activity data and implied
emission factors for other non-Annex I Parties will be added later to the data interface, to
the extent they were reported and subject to resource availability.
6. The data interface includes GHG data received by the UNFCCC secretariat as of 28 May
2010.
7. As per the decisions 9/CP.2 and 11/CP.4, some of the Parties are allowed to use a
base year other than 1990. These Parties and their base years are Bulgaria (1988),
Hungary (average of 1985-1987), Poland (1988), Romania (1989) and Slovenia (1986).
8. Decision 26/CP.7 invited Parties to recognize the special circumstances of Turkey,
which place Turkey in a situation different from that of other Parties included in Annex I
to the Convention.
9. For Croatia, the base year level under the UNFCCC should be calculated as the sum of
1990 emissions and 3.5 Tg CO2 equivalent, as defined by decision 7/CP.12. The 2008
inventory of Croatia does not contain the addition of 3.5 Tg CO2 equivalent required
under decision 7/CP.12.
10. Belarus was included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol with quantified emission
reduction commitment of 92 per cent through an amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto
Protocol (decision 10/CMP.2). As of 17 November 2008, this amendment has not been
ratified by a sufficient numer of Parties to enter into force.
11. Base year data in the GHG data interface relate to the base year under the Climate
Change Convention (UNFCCC), which is a year with a historical level of anthropogenic
emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol chosen as a
reference (Article 4.6 of the Convention). The base year under the Convention is defined
slightly differently than the base year under the Kyoto Protocol. An exception is made
for European Union (15) whereby the base year under the Kyoto Protocol is displayed.
The base year emissions under the Kyoto Protocol are provided in the data interface
under the KP data - UNFCCC section.
12. Upon entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the European
Community was replaced and succeeded by the European Union.
13. Emission estimates of the 15 member States prior to May 2004 (EU-15) and of EU-27
are reported separately from those of its individual member States. Both estimates are not
included in the Annex I totals in order to avoid double counting.
14. Bolivia and Mexico reported in their national communications potential HFC emissions.
However, both Parties included those estimates in their national GHG totals, therefore
they are displayed in the data interface.
15. The GHG inventory submitted by Sierra Leone for the period 1990-1995 appears to
contain technical errors, especially for the Agriculture and LUCF Sectors. Therefore, this
inventory is currently not included in the data interface.
16. The data are reproduced here as reported, with the exception of corrections of
typographical or calculation errors or omissions. Note also the following:
a. Because of rounding, totals and subtotals may differ from the sum of the
individual components.
b. In estimation of CO2 emissions using reference approach, Parties, first report the
apparent consumption in either of physical (bbl, 106l, and grams) and energy (oil
eq. and joules) units and then converted into energy units if it is reported in
physical units. The data interface contains data on apparent consumption as
reported and also the converted ones. However, due to technical reasons, the
apparent consumption in energy units is reflected as fuel consumption.
17. Three modules of the GHG data interface (Detailed data by Party, Comparison by Gas
and Comparison by Category) use "---" to indicate that no data have been reported; "*" to
indicate that data are reported with notation keys (IE, NA, NE, NO); and "n.a." to
indicate that selection is not applicable for the Party. For the Flexible queries module, all
(no data reported, data reported with notation keys and not applicable) are shown as
blank/empty cells.
18. Some of the source categories under the industrial processes sector have unique country
specific activity data depending on the national circumstances. For such source category,
the data interface does not provide description of activity data and is noted by the generic
term 'activity data'. However, the details on the description of the activity data can be
found in the CRF tables reported by the respective Parties.
19. Contact
20.
21. If you have questions relating to the GHG data interface and data availability on the
UNFCCC website, please contact us by e-mail: GHGdata@unfccc.int.
22. You may also wish to check the list of frequently asked questions (FAQ) to see whether
an answer is already available there.
23. Methods & Science The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
(SBSTA) regularly undertakes work on methodological and scientific matters as they
relate to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol process. Some of the issues the SBSTA
is currently dealing with are mitigation; land use, land-use change and forestry
(LULUCF); bunker fuels; and research and systematic observation.
24.
25.

Mitigation of Climate Change


The ultimate objective of the Convention is the stabilization of greenhouse
gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
Accordingly, under Article 4.1(b) of the Convention, all Parties are required
to undertake efforts to mitigate climate change.

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in


developing countries (REDD)
This web portal aims to facilitate access by developing countries to
information made available by Parties, relevant organizations and
stakeholders in a number of areas related to reducing emissions from
deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.

Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)


The UNFCCC defines “sink” as “any process, activity or mechanism which
removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas
from the atmosphere”. The development of policy on “sinks” has evolved to
cover emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct
human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities
and thus, the acronym LULUCF is now used to refer to this sector.

Emissions Resulting from Fuel Used for International Transportation:


Aviation and Marine "Bunker Fuels"
In accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for the preparation of greenhouse
gas (GHG) inventories and the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual
inventories, emissions from international aviation and maritime
transportation (also known as international bunker fuel emissions) should
be calculated as part of the national GHG inventories of Parties, but should
be excluded from national totals and reported separately. These emissions
are not subject to the limitation and reduction commitments of Annex I
Parties under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
Research and Systematic Observation
The Convention calls on Parties to promote and cooperate in research and
systematic observation of the climate system, including through support to
existing international programmes and networks (see Articles 4.1(g) and 5).
In doing so, the Convention commits Parties to cooperate to improve the
capacities of developing countries to participate in research and systematic
observation. “Research and Systematic Observation” has regularly been an
agenda item of the SBSTA since its seventeenth session.

Other Methodological Issues


This section includes information about interactions with the ozone layer;
the Brazilian proposal; single projects; review of methodological work;
Third Assessment Report of the IPCC; and links to sources of data on
greenhouse gas emissions and to socio-economic data and tools.

Mitigation of Climate Change


Background

The ultimate objective of the Convention is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in
the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
climate system. Accordingly, under Article 4.1(b) of the Convention, all Parties are required to
undertake efforts to mitigate climate change.

Following consideration of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC, the COP, by its decision
10/CP.9, requested the SBSTA to initiate work on two new agenda items:
• scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of impacts of, and vulnerability and
adaptation to, climate change; and
• scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of mitigation.
This work is to focus on exchanging information and sharing experiences and views among
Parties on practical opportunities and solutions to facilitate the implementation of the
Convention.

Recent developments
The SBSTA, at its twenty-eight session, recognized that mitigation is currently being addressed
under the work and negotiations under the Bali Action Plan ( Decision 1/CP.13) towards a
post-2012 climate change agreement.
Parties agreed that further work on mitigation in needed, but that duplication of work between
the different bodies and processes under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol should be
avoided. Parties also agreed that further work should take into account the best available
scientific information on mitigation, particularly that of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC).

Next steps
The SBSTA, at its twenty-eight session, agreed to continue work on mitigation at its thirty-
second session (May–June 2010) (FCCC/SBSTA/2008/6 paras. 137-140).
Earlier Sessions
The SBSTA, at its eighteenth session, requested the secretariat to organize a pre-sessional
consultation before its nineteenth session to provide information and share experiences to
facilitate the development of these two new agenda items.
REDD Web Platform

Welcome to the REDD information sharing web platform.


Parties, relevant organizations and stakeholders are encouraged to submit information relating to
reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) to
this web platform.

Please submit information and/or any queries/feedback on this web platform to the following e-
mail address:
< redd_webplatform@unfccc.int >

Please also read the terms and conditions on use of and access to information on this web
platform.

Background
The agenda item on “Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing
countries and approaches to stimulate action” was first introduced into the
COP agenda at its eleventh session in Montreal (December 2005).
More

Scope of the Web Platform This web platform provides information


The COP, in its decision submitted by Parties, relevant
2/CP.13, requested the organizations and stakeholders with the
secretariat to develop a web aim of sharing such information provided.
platform where information The information can be found under the
submitted by Parties, relevant following areas:
organizations and stakeholders
will be made available. The
Technical Assistance
COP has invited Parties,
relevant organizations and Demonstration Activities
stakeholders to support ongoing
efforts, capacity building, Country Specific Information
demonstration activities and REDD+ Partnership
mobilization of resources Methodologies and Tools
relating to reducing emissions
from deforestation and forest
degradation in developing
countries and to share the
outcomes of these efforts with
the SBSTA by providing
corresponding information to
the secretariat.

Meetings and Events


Upcoming and past meetings and events related to REDD:
Calendar of meetings and events 2010 / Calendar of meetings and events
2008/2009
Further information about:
UNFCCC meetings and events related to REDD
Further submitted information about:
Meetings and events related to REDD – by relevant organizations and
stakeholders
REDD+ Partnership meetings:
- Oslo Climate and Forest Conference, Norway, 27 May 2010
- International Conference on the Major Forest Basins, Paris, 11 March 2010

Technical Assistance
Technical assistance, including both North–South and South–South
cooperation initiatives in different areas of work, remote sensing
methodology and ground based inventories as well as the necessary
associated infrastructure will be essential in order to guarantee the
implementation of adequate monitoring systems.

Data Collection Information submitted by:


» U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

» U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


EPA is helping developing countries build national inventory management systems and offers
two sets of tools, consistent with UNFCCC reporting guidelines and available through the web-
link below.
• National System Templates that can accommodate varying levels of national
capacity and documents and institutionalize the inventory management process.
• Targeted data collection strategies and software tools to assist developing countries
in moving to higher Tier IPCC methods.
In particular, the U.S. EPA—along with USAID and the University of Colorado—is working
with forest inventory teams in developing countries to enhance technical capacity and develop
sustainable inventory management systems. This work has included development of a software
tool that provides support for estimating the majority of emissions and removals from Land Use,
Land Use Change and Forestry and Agriculture. Thus far, the program has assisted 7 Central
American countries and is currently working with 6 Southeast Asian countries on their national
greenhouse gas inventories for land use, land use change and forestry, and agriculture.
For more information on EPA’s GHG inventory capacity building programs, visit:
< http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghginventorycapacitybuilding/index.html >
For more information on the ALU software program, visit:
< http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/ghgtool/ >
If you have additional questions regarding these tools, please contact U.S. EPA's Climate
Change Division by sending an email to:
< climatechange@epa.gov >
Training Activities
Information submitted by:
» Coalition for Rainforest Nations: Capacity Development for Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation (CD REDD)
» U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
» U.S. Forest Service (USFS)

» Coalition for Rainforest Nations: Capacity Development for Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation (CD REDD)
The Coalition for Rainforest Nations is carrying out this capacity development initiative for
REDD with the support of the GTZ (German Technical Cooperation Agency), the BMU
(German Ministry of Environment), the FCPF (Forest Carbon Partnership Facility) of the World
Bank, the GEF (Global Environmental Facility), the INPE (Brazilian Space Research Agency),
the Indian Forest Service and GOFC-GOLD (Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover
Dynamics).
"CD REDD will work at the international level: global workshops and training courses will be
organized on topics of common interest and will provide the opportunity for information sharing
among countries. CD REDD is open to all possible REDD countries (delegates from almost 40
countries will participate) and at least two persons from each country will be financially
supported to attend all workshops. Experts from national institutions in charge of preparing
‘National Communications’, as required by the UNFCCC, will also be invited." (excerpt from
the CD REDD concept note).
For more information on CD REDD, see the following pdf-file:
CD REDD concept note (80 kB)
For more information on the Coalition for Rainforest Nations, visit:
< http://www.rainforestcoalition.org >

» U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)


USAID, along with the U.S. Department of State, spends approximately $90 million annually to
reduce deforestation, increase sequestration, and enhance sustainable forest management. Some
examples of USAID programs include:
• Spending $30 million annually for conservation in the Amazon, including the
Initiative for Conservation in the Andean Amazon and over $100 million since
2002 to targeted conservation programs as part of the Congo Basin Forest
Partnership.
• Working with the Center for International Forestry (CIFOR) to create a suite of
training modules on topics related to forests and climate change, including
modules on carbon accounting, forest management, trading carbon from forests,
and international policy.
• Assessing forest conservation and natural resources management programs – in
countries such as Indonesia, Liberia and Bolivia – to see how they can be
redesigned, to better incorporate forest climate practices and policies.
For more information on USAID programs, visit:
< http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/climate/policies_prog/carbon.html > ,
< http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/forestry/index.html > and
<
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/biodiversity/pubs/biodiversity_conservation_forest
ry_2007.pdf >

» U.S. Forest Service (USFS)


USFS has developed research-based adaptation strategies, carbon sequestration models and a
body of collaborative resource management practices applied in more than fifty countries around
the world. Some of the relevant areas where the USFS is working:
• Reducing deforestation and restoring degraded lands;
• Improving the management and conservation of forests and grasslands;
• Fostering the use of sustainably produced wood for energy, and as a substitute for
other more energy-intensive materials; and
• Research, decision support tools and innovative policies for the future.
In the past year, the USFS has continued to develop robust partnerships around the world to
address the threat of climate change. USFS scientists are cooperating with the Center for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR) to quantify the contribution of mangrove forests to
carbon sequestration and emissions. In collaboration with the International Union of Forest
Research Organizations (IUFRO) and the UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), the
USFS helped sponsor a large conference in Sweden focusing on the challenge of adapting forests
ecosystems and dependent communities to climate change. Finally, the USFS is providing
technical support to World Bank FCPF recipient countries such as Liberia, Vietnam and Mexico
and other bilateral partners to improve inventory and forest management systems in order to
advance global efforts at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
For more information, visit:
< http://www.fs.fed.us/global/topic/climate_change/welcome.htm >
Other Technical Assistance
Information submitted by:
» UNFCCC secretariat: Regional Capacity Building Project for Sustainable National
Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management Systems in Southeast Asia (SEA GHG Project)

» UNFCCC secretariat: Regional Capacity Building Project for Sustainable National


Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management Systems in Southeast Asia (SEA GHG Project)
The overall objective of this project is to strengthen the capacity of SEA countries to improve
the quality of their national GHG inventory for the development of sustainable inventory
management systems.
Background:
Based on the general mandate included in Article 8, paragraph 2 (c) of the Convention, as
recalled in Decision 17/CP.8, the UNFCCC secretariat will facilitate assistance to non-Annex
I Parties.
Participating Countries (having expressed interest)
1. Cambodia 5. Philippines
2. Indonesia 6. Singapore
3. Lao P.D.R. 7. Thailand
4. Malaysia 8. Viet Nam
Project duration: 3 years (2007–2010)
Specific project objectives are to:
• Strengthen the institutional arrangement, its functions, and operations of
managing national GHG inventories;
• Enhance technical capacity of designated personnel in each sector (special
attention to Agriculture and LULUCF)
• Improve national methodologies, Activity Data and Emissions Factors through
regional networking;
• Support the preparation of the Second National Communication and subsequent
National Communications to the UNFCCC; and to
• Develop sustainable inventory management systems in SEA.
Project components:
• Component 1: Improving National Inventory Management Systems
• Component 2: Comprehensive multi-tier GHG software for Agriculture and
LULUCF (SEAALU software)
• Component 3: Targeted improvements to LULUCF sector (Forest land)
• Component 4: Targeted improvements to Agriculture sector
• Component 5: Targeted improvements to Energy sector
Milestones
June 2007, Manila, Philippines – Scoping Meeting
- Introduced to the GHG Management Templates (Component 1)
April 2008, Singapore – Kick-off Workshop
- Introduced to ALU software overview (at that time still being developed)
- Introduced to ALU Workbooks including a workshop on how to fill in primary and
secondary data (manual distributed) (Component 2)
July 2008, Tsukuba, Japan – Follow-up meeting (half day)
- Reported on the progress of the use of Templates and ALU Workbook (Components 1 and
2)
October 2008, Manila, Philippines – First in-country Training on ALU Software (four day)
- Training with real data collected (15 workbooks) - Satellite imagery to be used soon
November 2008, Thailand – In-country Training on ALU Software (four day)
Next Steps
Planning for the remaining in-country training sessions (early 2010)
Completion date of current project: September 2010
Potential replication of this pilot initiative in other regions (Africa 2010)
Demonstration Activities

Demonstration activities are essential in order to establish a basic stock of


practical experiences related to REDD. This section informs about ongoing
and planned demonstration activities by Parties, relevant organizations as
well as joint initiatives.

Information submitted by:


» Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
» Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership
» UN-REDD Programme

» Forest Carbon Partnership Facility


(The following information is also available in a French version (116 kB) and Spanish
version (192 kB) )
The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), which became operational in June 2008, is a
global partnership focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation,
forest carbon stock conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest
carbon stocks (REDD+). The FCPF assists tropical and subtropical forest countries develop the
systems and policies for REDD+ and provides them with performance-based payments for
emission reductions. The FCPF complements the UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+ by
demonstrating how REDD+ can be applied at the country level.
In its first two years, the FCPF has created a framework and processes for REDD+ readiness,
which helps countries get ready for future systems of financial incentives for REDD+. Using this
framework, each participating country develops an understanding of what it means to become
ready for REDD+, in particular by developing reference scenarios, adopting a REDD+ strategy,
designing monitoring systems and setting up REDD+ national management arrangements, in
ways that are inclusive of the key national stakeholders.
The FCPF governance structure includes a 28-member Participants Committee elected by the
REDD Country Participants and the financial contributors, six Observers nominated by forest-
dependent indigenous peoples and other forest dwellers, NGOs and international organizations,
and the World Bank. The World Bank acts as trustee for the Readiness Fund and the Carbon
Fund, provides secretariat services, and delivery partner for the FCPF, providing technical
support to the REDD Country Participants and conducting due diligence on matters such as
fiduciary policies and environmental and social safeguards. It is expected that other entities will
soon join the World Bank as delivery partners for the FCPF.
Thirty-seven REDD countries (14 in Africa, 15 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and eight in
Asia and the Pacific) have been selected in the partnership. Eleven of these countries (Argentina,
Costa Rica, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico,
Nepal, Panama and the Republic of Congo) have so far submitted Readiness Preparation
Proposals (R-PPs), which were reviewed by ad hoc Technical Advisory Panels and the
Participants Committee. The World Bank is conducting due diligence on these proposals with a
view to entering into readiness grant agreements of up to $3.6 million to assist these countries
conduct the preparatory work they have proposed. Many more countries are already following in
the footsteps of the first eleven and will be presenting their R-PPs at the upcoming Participants
Committee meetings. All R-PPs are posted online at < www.forestcarbonpartnership.org >.
Fourteen financial contributors (Agence Française de Développement, Australia, Denmark, the
European Union, Finland, Germany, Japan, The Nature Conservancy, the Netherlands, Norway,
Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States) have committed about $165
million to the FCPF ($115 million to the Readiness Fund and $50 million to the Carbon Fund).
Discussions are ongoing with existing and new contributors (governments and organizations)
about additional contributions.
The focus to date has been on REDD+ readiness, though it is expected that the Carbon Fund,
which will provide payments for verified emission reductions from REDD+ programs in
countries that have achieved, or made considerable progress towards, REDD+ readiness, will be
launched in the course of 2010 as a public-private partnership.
The FCPF cooperates closely with other initiatives, in particular the UN-REDD Programme set
up by FAO, UNDP and UNEP, and the Forest Investment Program jointly administered by the
Multilateral Development Banks.
Summaries of all the FCPF meetings, including decisions made, are available at
< www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp/node/54 >.
A dashboard showing country progress in preparing for REDD+ is available at
< www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp/node/283 >.
REDD countries interested in joining the FCPF should send an expression of interest to <
FCPFSecretariat@worldbank.org >. Please note that the Participants Committee decided that
selection of additional countries would depend on the results of an evaluation of the FCPF,
which is ongoing, and sufficient financial resources being available.
More information on the FCPF is available at < www.forestcarbonpartnership.org >.

» Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership


Australia and Indonesia are currently working on a demonstration activity in the carbon rich
peatland forests of Central Kalimantan – the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership
(KFCP). This Partnership is the first, large-scale demonstration activity of its kind in Indonesia.
It trials an innovative, market-oriented approach to financing and implementing measures to
reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Australia has committed $30 million to establish the KFCP.
For more information on the KFCP visit:
< http://www.climatechange.gov.au/international/publications/pubs/kalimantan.pdf >
The KFCP is part of Australia’s International Forest Carbon Initiative (IFCI):
< http://www.climatechange.gov.au/en/government/initiatives/international-forest-carbon-
initiative.aspx >
More information about the IFCI can also be found under:
< Country Specific Information >

» UN-REDD Programme
The UN-REDD Programme
The UN-REDD Programme is the United Nations Collaborative initiative on Reducing
Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The
Programme was launched in September 2008 to assist developing countries prepare and
implement national REDD+ strategies, and builds on the convening power and expertise of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Support to Countries
The Programme currently supports REDD+ readiness activities in nine pilot countries, spanning
Africa, Asia and the Pacific and Latin America: Bolivia, Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC), Indonesia, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, United Republic of Tanzania,
Viet Nam and Zambia. To-date, the UN-REDD Programme’s Policy Board has approved a
total of US$42.6 million for eight of the Programme’s nine initial pilot countries. These funds
help to support the development and implementation of national REDD+ strategies. National
programmes in four UN-REDD pilot countries (DRC, Indonesia, Tanzania and Viet Nam) are
now in their implementation phase.
While current funding is programmed for its nine pilot countries, the Programme has also
welcomed 18 other countries to be observers to its Policy Board, and has given them access to
many other benefits of the Programme, such as networking, participation in regional workshops
and knowledge sharing, facilitated by the Programme’s interactive online workspace. These
partner countries are: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Central African Republic,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, the
Philippines, Republic of Congo, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka and Sudan.
Click here for more information on UN-REDD National Programmes.
Global Activities
The UN-REDD Programme brings together technical teams from around the world to help
develop analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification
(MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, ensuring that forests continue to provide multiple
benefits for livelihoods and the environment, and supporting the engagement of Indigenous
Peoples and civil society at all stages of the design and implementation of REDD+ strategies.
The UN-REDD Programme also seeks to build consensus and knowledge about REDD+, to
ensure a REDD+ mechanism is included in a post-2012 climate change agreement.
Click here for more information on the Programme’s Global Activities.
Funding
Norway continues to be the UN-REDD Programme’s first and largest donor. Since the
Programme was launched in the fall of 2008, Norway has committed US$52.2 million for 2008-
2009, and another US$32.1 million for 2010. Denmark became the second donor country to join
the UN-REDD Programme, committing US$2 million in June 2009. At the end of 2009, Spain
announced its pledge of US$20.2 million to the UN-REDD Programme over a period of three
years.
For more information on the UN-REDD Programme, visit < www.un-redd.org >.
Country Specific Information

This area shows country specific information submitted by Parties on


existing and planned approaches to address REDD. This may for example
be national programmes of work related to REDD or international
initiatives to address REDD.

Information submitted by:


» Australia: International Forest Carbon Initiative (IFCI)
» Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Preparations for REDD-plus over the period 2010–
2012
» Germany: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries in a post 2012
climate regime – A Quantitative Analysis
» Guyana: Experiences gained from undertaking work on REDD Monitoring, Reporting and
Verification (MRV) activities
» Norway: An Assessment of National Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical Non-Annex I
Countries, a report by GOFC-GOLD
» Norway: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing
Countries: An Options Assessment Report

» Australia: International Forest Carbon Initiative (IFCI)


The international community agreed in Bali that action must be taken now to address
deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries and to establish the necessary
systems and financial mechanisms to ensure long term emission reductions. The International
Forest Carbon Initiative is Australia's contribution to this global effort.

The International Forest Carbon Initiative is a key part of Australia's international leadership
on reducing emissions from deforestation. The Initiative will support international efforts to
reduce deforestation through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
It aims to demonstrate that reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation can
be part of an equitable and effective international agreement on climate change.

A central element of the Initiative is its focus on developing practical demonstration activities
in our region, particularly in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Australia has signed Forest
Carbon Partnerships with both Indonesia and Papua New Guinea under the Initiative.

For more information on the International Forest Carbon Initiative visit:


< http://www.climatechange.gov.au/international/publications/fs-ifci.html >

The Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership (KFCP) is part of the IFCI. Find more
information about the KFCP under:
< Demonstration Activities >

» Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Preparations for REDD-plus over the period
2010–2012
The Government of the DRC is firmly committed to the international process of reducing
emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD-plus), with the objectives of
contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, reduction of poverty, and the
sustainable management of its forest resources, while taking into account the valuation of
environmental services. There is a strong willingness to include REDD-plus as part of the
country's social and economic development programmes and preparedness for REDD-plus
over the period 2010–2012 has started.
The Ministry of the Environment, the Conservation of Nature and of Tourism (MECNT) of
the DRC has created the "National Coordination for REDD" (CN-REDD) that is responsible
for steering and implementing the REDD-plus process at the national level, including
preparation of a national REDD-plus strategy and building and ensuring technical,
institutional and legal readiness and capacities. The Government is also working in close
collaboration with the UN-REDD Programme, the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and
other organizations on a bilateral basis.
The following information has been submitted by the DRC as part of sharing their
experiences on preparing for REDD-plus implementation in the country.
1. The REDD-plus readiness process in the DRC: reports and presentations:
○ Groupe de Travail Climat REDD (GTCR) de la société civile de la
République Democratique du Congo - Communiqué de presse sur la mission
UN-REDD et FCPF (161 kB)
○ Coordination Nationale REDD de la République Démocratique du Congo -
Rapport des ateliers de pré-validation et de validation de la RPP, 18 et 19
février 2010 (502 kB)
○ Readiness Plan for REDD (R-PP draft) by the DRC for the period 2010-
2012, 02 March 2010 (3299 kB)
○ Plan de Préparation de la REDD+ en RDC, présentation, 18 février 2010
(1634 kB)
○ Le développement de la stratégie REDD - présentation at séminaire de
validation du R-PP, 18 février 2010 (2952 kB)
○ La RDC face au défi REDD+ - État d'avancement de l'ONU-REDD en
RDC, presentation at side event: developpement de l'initiative REDD en
Afrique Centrale, COP 15 at Copenhagen, 11 décembre 2009 (1777 kB)
○ L'accès au financement "fast start" pour la RDC, présentation, 17 juin 2010
(721 kB)
○ Plan de Préparation à la REDD (R-PP draft) 2010-2012 de la RDC, 02 mars
2010 (4899 kB)
2. Studies and/or papers on REDD-plus in the DRC:
○ The Democratic Republic of Congo's REDD+ Potential - Study by the
Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Tourism, DRC,
December 2009 (1108 kB)
○ Potentiel REDD+ de la RDC - Ministère de l'Environment, Conservation de
la Nature et Tourisme, RDC, décembre 2009 (1265 kB)
○ Rapport du atelier de sensibilisation et consultation des Parties prenantes de
la province du Katanga sur le processus REDD en RD Congo tenu a
Lubumbashi, 07 to 08 April 2010 (220 kB)
○ ABC REDD - Comprendre REDD et ses enjeux, Réseau Ressources
Naturelles (RRN), Dynamique des Groupes des Peuples Autochtones (DGPA),
séptembre 2009 (250 kB)
3. Presentations on activities relating to REDD-plus in the DRC at various meetings/
events:
○ The REDD+ challenge in DRC - presentation at Forest Day 3, COP 15 at
Copenhagen, 13 December 2009 (1783 kB)
○ Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment in the Democratic Republic
of Congo - National Coordination REDD, 28 June 2010 (1132 kB)
○ Le processus REDD+ en RDC - État d'avancement, organes de gestion et
contraintes majeures, presentation, 20 January 2010 (1486 kB)
○ Les négociations internationales pour la lutte contre le changement
climatique, présentation, 19 juin 2010 (603 kB)
○ Analyse exploratoire du potentiel REDD+ de la RDC, présentation, 07
décembre 2009 (603 kB)
○ La RDC face au défi REDD, présentation aux Nations-Unies, réunion de
l'equipe pays, 03 décembre 2009 (792 kB)

» Germany: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries in a Post


2012 Climate Regime – A Quantitative Analysis
The final report of a German research project on REDD discusses data availability and
methodological questions, especially for six countries (Brazil, Peru, Congo (Brazzaville),
Madagascar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea).
Emissions and removals from land-use, land use change and forestry activities in a post-
Kyoto regime - quantitative analysis of a framework for reducing deforestation (2322 kB)
Note: The main text of this report is in English, only the title and a 20 page summary are in
German.
See also:
< Methods and Tools – Other Methods and Tools >

» Guyana: Experiences gained from undertaking work on REDD Monitoring,


Reporting and Verification (MRV) activities
The Government of Guyana has embarked on a national programme that aims to protect and
maintain its forests in an effort to reduce global carbon emissions and at the same time attract
resources to foster growth and development along a low carbon emissions path.
The cooperation between the Governments of Norway and Guyana expresses a willingness to
work together to provide the world with a relevant, replicable model for how REDD+ can
align the development objectives of forest countries with the world's need to combat climate
change. The initiative will require the development of capacities for MRV of forest carbon
stocks and changes.
The outcomes from the preparatory work on MRV for REDD+ in Guyana are presented in
the documents below.
1. As an initial step to the implementation of a MRV system for Guyana, a road map for
the development of a MRV system for REDD+ participation for Guyana was
designed, following a stakeholder participation session. The development of such a
road map considered several aspects that were elaborated in a facilitation
process and used in the preparation of Terms of Reference for developing a REDD
MRV system.

Terms of Reference for Developing Capacities for a National Monitoring,


Reporting and Verification System to support REDD+ participation of Guyana (1633
kB) , prepared by the Guyana Forestry Commission.

2. A workshop of 90 national experts and stakeholders, and a series of consultations with


relevant agencies were conducted during 27–29 October 2009 in efforts to prepare
Guyana's participation in REDD+ mechanisms. The workshop and the consultations
produced significant progress to provide the foundations for developing the capacities
for a REDD MRV system for Guyana. The results of this progress are contained in
the following report:

Report and Summary of a Workshop and Consultation held on "Preparing Guyana's


REDD+ participation: Developing capacities for monitoring, reporting and
verification" (813 kB) , prepared by Prof. Dr. Martin Herold, Wageningen University,
Center for Geoinformation, and Pradeepa Bholanath, Guyana Forestry Commission,
for the Government of Norway.

» Norway: An Assessment of National Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical Non-


Annex I Countries, a report by GOFC-GOLD
The objective of this report was to specify and scope, for 99 tropical non-Annex I countries,
the near term capacity development activities that would be required to implement an
accurate forest area change and carbon monitoring system. The focus is on actions that can
be taken over the next five years to prepare for participation in a future REDD-mechanism
under the UNFCCC.
As such, the report provides relevant input and recommendations for MRV-activities and
investments in REDD-preparatory processes, such as UNREDD and the FCPF.
The report has been co-sponsored by the Prince's Rainforest Project and the Government of
Norway's International Forest and Climate Initiative.
An Assessment of National Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical Non-Annex I
Countries: Recommendations for Capacity Building (2095 kB)
For information on the Government of Norway's International Climate and Forest Initiative,
visit:
< http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/md/Selected-topics/klima/the-government-of-norways-
international-.html?id=548491 >
See also:
< Methodologies and Tools – Other Methodologies and Tools >

» Norway: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in


Developing Countries: An Options Assessment Report
A report prepared for the Government of Norway by the Meridian Institute assesses several
important considerations for a future REDD mechanism under the UNFCCC, and strives to
clarify and inform some of the critical choices that will need to be made about including
REDD in a Copenhagen agreement.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries
(REDD): An Options Assessment Report (1326 kB)

For more information and different language versions of the report, visit the REDD-OAR
website:
< http://www.REDD-OAR.org >
For information on the Government of Norway's International Climate and Forest Initiative,
visit:
< http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/md/Selected-topics/klima/the-government-of-norways-
international-.html?id=548491 >

Methodologies and Tools


Methodologies and tools to estimate and monitor changes in forest cover
and associated carbon stocks and GHG emissions, incremental changes due
to sustainable management of forest, and reduction of emissions from
deforestation and forest degradation are essential.
A combination of remote-sensing and ground-based assessments could be
one suitable approach for estimating and monitoring reductions in
emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Different
methodologies and tools exist that can be used to estimate emission
reductions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as carbon
stock changes associated; new methodologies and tools are emerging.

• IPCC Guidance

• Remote Sensing

• Ground Based Inventories

• Other Methodologies and Tools

• Information Sharing on Costs of Implementing Methodologies and Monitoring


Systems
• IPCC Guidance The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines
and good practice guidance provide methodologies that can form the basis for how
developing countries estimate and monitor emission reductions from deforestation and
forest degradation and changes in forest carbon stocks.

Web link
IPCC-NGGIP IPCC-National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme
2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (5
2006 IPCC Guidelines
Volumes)
Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and
GPG-LULUCF
Forestry
Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions
Degradation of Forest from Direct Human-induced Degradation of Forests and
Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types
Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National
GPG2000
Greenhouse Gas Inventories (accepted and published 2000)
Revised 1996 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
IPCC Guidelines Inventories (3 Volumes)(approved in 1996 and published in 1997)
IPCC Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software for the Workbook
Revised 1996 IPCC
(published in 1997; Microsoft Excel 5.0c or later version is
Guidelines Software
necessary)
IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (3
– Volumes) (approved in 1994 and published in 1995, out of print,
replaced by 1996 Revised Guidelines)

Remote Sensing
Information submitted by:
» FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA 2010), Remote Sensing Survey
» Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD)
» U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
» U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

»FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA 2010), Remote Sensing Survey
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and its member countries
and partners will conduct a global remote sensing survey of forests. This is part of the Global
Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010).
For more information on the FRA 2010 and the Remote Sensing Survey, visit:
< http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra2010-remotesensing/en/ >, and <
http://www.fao.org/forestry/media/16300/1/0/ > (brochure),

» Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD)


GOFC-GOLD is a panel of GTOS (Global Terrestrial Observing System) and its overall
objective is to improve the quality and availability of observations of forests and land cover at
regional and global scales and to produce useful, timely and validated information products from
these data for a wide variety of users.
For more information on GOFC-GOLD, visit:
< http://www.fao.org/gtos/gofc-gold/ >
GOFC-GOLD provides a sourcebook on methods and procedures for monitoring, measuring and
reporting activities related to REDD. Find more information about the GOFC-GOLD REDD
sourcebook under:
< Other Methodologies and Tools >
In partnership with the Government of Norway, GOFC-GOLD has carried out a study to
understand the needs to monitor REDD in the world's tropical forests. This study examines, in
99 tropical non-Annex I countries, the current monitoring capabilities and the availability of
remote sensing data and makes specific recommendations for the near term capacity
development activities that would be required to implement an accurate forest area change and
carbon monitoring system. Find more information about this study at:
< http://www.gofc-gold.uni-jena.de/redd/ > and under: < Other Methodologies and Tools >

» U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)


NASA’s Land-cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) program within its Earth Science
Enterprise seeks to further the scientific understanding of the consequences of land-cover and
land-use change for continued provision of ecological goods and services, the carbon and water
cycles and the management of natural resources. It uses NASA’s remote sensing technology to
monitor global land cover change and improve understanding of human interaction with the
environment, and thus provide a scientific foundation for sustainability, vulnerability and
resilience of land systems and their use.
NASA LCLUC is also involved in a joint initiative with the US Geological Survey (USGS),
called the “Global Land Survey” (GLS). Moderate resolution (c. 30m) data are useful for
monitoring forest change, but the cost of using such data has been prohibitively high for some
resources managers and scientists working in tropical forest countries. GLS will make freely
available a global time-series of moderate resolution satellite data, preprocessed to be directly
comparable between dates (orthorectified) for studying forest and land cover change. Currently
NASA and USGS are generating a data set for c. 2005, which will complement previous global
data sets for 1980, 1990, and 2000. The plan for the 2010 data set is to develop this into an
international initiative in the framework of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), by
including data from various international satellites of similar resolution. Partnerships are
currently being sought for this international collaboration.
NASA LCLUC also supports several large regional science campaigns and programs, including
the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, the Central African Regional
Program for the Environment, the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative, and
the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study. LCLUC is also a contributor to the international
Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, a project of
the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS).
For more information on NASA’s LULUC program, visit:
< http://lcluc.umd.edu/index.asp >

» U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)


USGS has a record of partnerships with developing countries studying land use, resource
management, and climate related issues. The international science team at the USGS' Earth
Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) has cooperative projects with developing
countries, using satellite based data to monitor the changes to land cover features. Additionally,
the North American Node of UNEP GRID, located at the USGS EROS Center, is in the forefront
of applying information technology tools such as remote sensing, Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) and web mapping to address the relationships between the environment and
human populations. Utilizing the expert knowledge of staff and visiting scientists, the
information created with these tools provide policy-makers a scientific basis for making
decisions.
USGS is also releasing satellite data at no cost. By the end of 2008 the entire archive of data
collected from the Landsat series, as far back as 1972 and current daily new acquisitions, will be
available over the Internet. This release will make land observation data available to a global
science community for monitoring land surface changes over a multi-decade period.
Landsat scenes can be previewed and downloaded using the USGS Global Visualization Viewer
at < http://glovis.usgs.gov > or through Earth Explorer at < http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov >.

Other Methodologies and Tools


Information submitted by:
» BioCarbon Fund, World Bank: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions
from Mosaic Deforestation
» Germany: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation of Developing Countries in a post 2012
climate regime – a Quantitative Analysis
» GOFC-GOLD: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring, Measuring and
Reporting
» John O. Niles: Forest Carbon Stock Estimates for 61 Developing Countries
» The Monitoring Matters Network: Local Participation in Natural Resource Monitoring – a
Characterization of Approaches
» Norway: An Assessment of National Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical non-Annex I
Countries, a report by GOFC-GOLD
» BioCarbon Fund, World Bank: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG
Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation - Updated: December, 2008
Description: The methodology is for estimating and monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions of project activities that reduce mosaic deforestation. Carbon stock enhancement of
degraded and secondary forests that would be deforested in absence of the RED project activity
is also included in this methodology. The underlying conceptual approach of this methodology
is based on drafts of the AFOLU Guidance Document of the Voluntary Carbon Standard. The
methodologies is currently being used by a number of projects around the world, including the
Madagascar Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor Project.
Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation (1394
kB)
For more information on the BioCarbon Fund, visit:
< http://wbcarbonfinance.org/Router.cfm?Page=BioCF >

» Germany: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation of Developing Countries in a Post


2012 Climate Regime - a Quantitative Analysis
The final report of a German research project on REDD discusses data availability and
methodological questions, especially for six countries (Brazil, Peru, Congo (Brazzaville),
Madagascar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea).

Emissions and removals from land-use, land use change and forestry activities in a post-Kyoto
regime - a quantitative analysis of a framework for reducing deforestation (2322 kB)
Note: The main text of this report is in English, only the title and a 20 page summary are in
German.
See also:
< Country Specific Information >

» GOFC-GOLD: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring, Measuring


and Reporting
This sourcebook is the outcome of an ad-hoc REDD working group of GOFC-GOLD (Global
Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics) that has been active since the initiation of the
UNFCCC REDD process in 2005. It provides a consensus perspective from the global
community of earth observation and carbon experts on methodological issues relating to
quantifying carbon impacts of implementation activities to reduce emissions from deforestation
and degradation in developing countries (REDD).
The current version is an update of the July 2009 edition, including a COP15 focus. It is to be
understood as a living document. Further methods and technical details can be specified and
added with evolving political negotiations and decisions. Respective communities are invited to
provide comments and feedback to evolve a more detailed and refined technical-guidelines
document in the future.
GOFC-GOLD, 2009, A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting
anghropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals caused by deforestation, gains and losses
of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation. GOFC-GOLD Report version
COP15-1, (GOFC-GOLD Project Office, Natural Resources Canada, Alberta, Canada) (13554
kB)
This updated version of the GOFC-GOLD REDD sourcebook is also available online at:
< http://www.gofc-gold.uni-
jena.de/redd/sourcebook/Sourcebook_Version_Nov_2009_cop15-1.pdf >
For more information on the REDD working group of GOFC-GOLD, visit:
< http://www.gofc-gold.uni-jena.de/sites/deforest.php >
Find more information about GOFC-GOLD under:
< Remote Sensing >

» John O. Niles: Forest Carbon Stock Estimates for 61 Developing Countries


A peer-reviewed paper submitted by Mr. John O. Niles, on behalf of the Tropical Forest Group,
addresses the issues of monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks. The paper has
tabular information with multiple estimates of total forest carbon stocks for many developing
countries. The IPCC guidelines (Tier 1) are used for one of the models, but the authors also use
other models.

Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality (614 kB)

» The Monitoring Matters Network: Local Participation in Natural Resource Monitoring


– A Characterization of Approaches
No system exists to guide the development and expansion of natural resource monitoring
schemes. To help develop such a protocol, the authors present a typology of monitoring
categories, defined by their degree of local participation, ranging from no local involvement with
monitoring undertaken by professional researchers to an entirely local effort with monitoring
undertaken by local people. The strengths and weaknesses of each monitoring category are
assessed. Locally based monitoring can lead to rapid decisions to solve the key threats affecting
natural resources, can empower local communities to better manage their resources, and can
refine sustainable-use strategies to improve local livelihoods.
For more information on the proposed typology of monitoring schemes, see:
Local Participation in Natural Resource Monitoring: a Characterization of Approaches (771
kB)
For more information on locally based natural resource monitoring, visit:
< http://www.monitoringmatters.org/publications.htm >
See also:
< Information Submitted by Stakeholders – Other information related to REDD >

» Norway: An Assessment of National Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical non-


Annex I Countries, a report by GOFC-GOLD
The objective of this report was to specify and scope, for 99 tropical non-Annex I countries, the
near term capacity development activities that would be required to implement an accurate forest
area change and carbon monitoring system. The focus is on actions that can be taken over the
next five years to prepare for participation in a future REDD-mechanism under the UNFCCC.
As such, the report provides relevant input and recommendations for MRV-activities and
investments in REDD-preparatory processes, such as UNREDD and the FCPF.
An Assessment of Forest Monitoring Capabilities in Tropical non-Annex I Countries:
Recommendations for Capacity Building (2095 kB)
Find more information on the report and on the Government of Norway's International Forest
and Climate Initiative under:
< Country Specific Information >

Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)


Background
The rate of build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere can be reduced by taking advantage of the fact
that carbon can accumulate in vegetation and soils in terrestrial ecosystems. Any process,
activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere is referred to as a
"sink."
more>>

Issues and agenda item topics relating to LULUCF


• Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries
• LULUCF under the Convention
• LULUCF under the Kyoto Protocol
• Harvested Wood Products

Cooperation with other organizations

The emergence of and continuing significance of issues related to LULUCF has stimulated
cooperation with many organizations and institutions with forestry and agriculture experiences.
The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF). The UNFF is an intergovernmental process with
the objective of promoting the management, conservation and sustainable development of all
types of forests. It succeeded a five-year period (1995-2000) of forest policy dialogue facilitated
by the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) and the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
(IFF).
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). For example, the forestry
department of FAO has considerable experience in building capacity in developing countries and
in assessing the global status of forests. Its work includes the development of definitions and the
publication of the Global Forest Resources Assessment as a contribution to knowledge on the
state of the world’s forests.
The Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF). The CPF is an informal body intended to foster
cooperation and coordination among international organizations working on forest issues.
Among its initiatives, the CPF has created a task force on streamlining reporting, to explore
ways to harmonize and improve reporting on forest issues under different international
processes, including the UNFCCC.

Emissions Resulting from Fuel used for International Transport: Aviation and Marine
"Bunker Fuels"

Background
In accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for the preparation of greenhouse gas (GHG)
inventories and the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories, emissions from
international aviation and maritime transport (also known as international bunker fuel emissions)
should be calculated as part of the national GHG inventories of Parties, but should be excluded
from national totals and reported separately. These emissions are not subject to the limitation
and reduction commitments of Annex I Parties under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.

Recent developments
SBSTA
The SBSTA, at its twenty-ninth, thirtieth and thirty-first sessions, received information from the
secretariats of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and of the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) on relevant ongoing work within these two organizations on
emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport.
During SBSTA 31, ICAO (94 kB) and IMO (95 kB) delivered statements informing
Parties of their work relevant to emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime
transport.

AWG-LCA
International bunker fuels has been a subject of discussions under the AWG-LCA in the context
of paragraph 1b(iv) of the Bali Action Plan, cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific
actions. In this context, various options have been put forward for discussions by Parties.
International bunker fuels was included in the mitigation chapter, and in the context of
cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions, of the negotiating text
(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8, paragraphs 135-138) prepared by the Chair of the AWG-LCA for the
sixth session of the AWG-LCA held in Bonn, Germany, on 1-12 June 2009. This negotiating
text included three options, proposed by Parties, for taking action on international bunker fuels.
During the sixth session of the AWG-LCA, Parties provided general comments on structure and
content, stated reservations and objections to elements of the negotiating text, and proposed
additions and modifications. This resulted in a revised negotiating text which expanded the
options on international bunker fuels(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1, paragraphs 135-138).
During the subsequent informal meeting of the AWG-LCA held in Bonn, Germany, on 10–14
August 2009, the AWG-LCA undertook further work on the revised negotiating text. However,
it did not include discussions specific to international bunker fuels
(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2).
In preparation for the first part of the seventh session of the AWG-LCA, held in Bangkok,
Thailand, on 28 September to 9 October, the facilitator (in his role of helping the Chair of the
AWG-LCA to support Parties) prepared background material and relevant additional
information to help Parties advance discussions on international bunker fuels.
(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2/Add.1, page 60 and FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2/Add.2, pages
3-8).
The AWG-LCA, at its resumed seventh session, held in Barcelona, Spain, 2-6 November 2009,
continued discussions on international bunker fuels in the context of cooperative sectoral
approaches and sector-specific actions (paragraph 1b(iv) of the Bali Action Plan). During the
two parts of AWG-LCA 7, three non-papers were prepared by the facilitator on cooperative
sectoral approaches (non-papers 2, 17 and 49), with each non-paper superseding the previous
one. The last non-paper was included in the report of the seventh session
(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/14, pages 101-102), as part of the compilation of texts contained in the
latest available non-papers produced by the chairs, co-chairs and facilitators of the groups during
the seventh session of the AWG-LCA.
At the eighth session of the AWG-LCA, held in Copenhagen on 7-15 December 2009, relevant
text on international bunker fuels contained in the report of AWG-LCA 7 served as a basis for
bilateral informal consultations held by the co-facilitators with Parties. The text prepared by the
co-facilitators as a result of their consultations in the context of the AWG-LCA was distributed
to Parties at a meeting of a contact group on Long-term Cooperative Action, in the context of the
Conference of the Parties, on 17 December 2009. Such text has been included in a document
which presents the work undertaken by the Conference of the Parties at its fifteenth session on
the basis of the report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under
the Convention (FCCC/CP/2010/2).

Next steps

The SBSTA shall further consider issues relevant to this agenda item at its thirty-second session
(May–June 2010), in accordance with the conclusions agreed upon at its twenty-eight session
(FCCC/SBSTA/2008/6, paras 117-119).
The COP, by its ( Decision 1/CP.15) extended the mandate of the AWG-LCA with one year.
The AWG-LCA may continue, at its forthcoming sessions, its deliberations on the issue of
international bunker fuels in the context of the paragraph 1 b (iv) of the Bali Action Plan.

Earlier sessions
The SBSTA, at its twenty-eighth session, received information from the secretariats of the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and of the International Maritime
Organization (IMO) on ongoing work within these two organizations on emissions from fuel
used for international aviation and maritime transport.
The SBSTA recognized the need to continue the cooperation and information exchange between
ICAO, IMO and the UNFCCC.

Research
Better understanding of the science behind climate change and the evidence and information
acquired from evolving understanding of the physical, natural, social and economic aspects of
climate change provide an essential basis for issues under consideration in the UNFCCC
process. The need for a better understanding of the global climate system and more accurate data
on its variability and change are addressed in the Convention, which calls on Parties to promote
and cooperate in research and systematic observation of the climate system, including through
support to existing international and intergovernmental programmes and networks or
organizations and exchange of information (see Articles 4.1(g,h) and 5). In doing so, the
Convention commits Parties to cooperate in improving the capacities of developing countries to
participate in research and systematic observation.
The UNFCCC secretariat works in close collaboration with a variety of international and
regional research programmes and organizations active in climate change-related research and
facilitates dialogue and communication on the research needs and priorities expressed by Parties
of the Convention to the scientific community.
more >>

Updates on negotiations
Meetings under the SBSTA research dialogue in the context of decision 9/CP.11 have
established continuity and are taking place at regular intervals during every second session of the
SBSTA.
The research dialogue held during SBSTA 32 (3 June 2010) was enhanced from previous
dialogues by allowing more time for in-depth consideration by Parties of updates on emerging
scientific findings and developments provided by regional and international research
programmes and organizations, and with time devoted to presentations by Parties.
In addition to the presentations delivered during the research dialogue meeting, relevant
information was also provided prior to the session. Views of Parties on topics for discussion at
SBSTA 32 research dialogue meeting are contained in document FCCC/SBSTA/2010/MISC.4,
and updates on developments in research activities relevant to the needs of the Convention
submitted by regional and international climate change research programmes and organizations
are included in document FCCC/SBSTA/2010/MISC.6.
SBSTA 32 recalled the valuable role that the research dialogue is playing in informing
deliberations within the UNFCCC process, and agreed that the dialogue should be continued at
SBSTA 34 and beyond.
In order to allow further in-depth consideration to be given to issues addressed in the research
dialogue, the SBSTA requested the secretariat to organize a workshop in conjunction with
SBSTA 34 on this matter. Parties were invited to provide to the secretariat, by 20 September
2010, their views on this workshop.
The SBSTA also noted the need to further enhance interaction between the science and policy
communities by strengthening the research dialogue, and identified possible ways to enhance its
effectiveness. Parties were also invited to provide their views in this regard, including on:
• Better identification and communiction of research themes and topics of interest to
policymakers;
• Greater opportunities for developing countries to present research results and related
capacity-building activities;
• Further activities to share information;
• Identification of additional ways to communicate research outcomes and findings to
Parties.
In its deliberations, the SBSTA also:
• Noted the challenges of communicating research results, including indication of level of
confidence and uncertainty, effectively to end-users and to a wider audience, including
the media and the public;
• Relevant to this challenge, welcomed the progress made in development of the Global
Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) under the WMO and its partner organizations;
• Invited the WMO to report, under the research dialogue, on progress made on the
development of the GFCS;
• Recognized the need to engage observation programmes in the research dialogue; and
• Encouraged the enhancement of existing efforts by Parties and research programmes and
organizations to build research capacity in developing countries, including by
strengthening research at regional climate centres.
For the full text of the SBSTA 32 conclusions on research and systematic observation, see
FCCC/SBSTA/2010/6, paragrapghs 42-54.
Next steps: Outlook for SBSTA 33 (November-December 2010) and SBSTA 34 (June
2011)
Parties have been invited to provide, by 20 September 2010, their views on:
• possible ways to enhance the effectiveness of the dialogue in the future;
• a workshop to be organized in conjunction with SBSTA 34 to allow further in-depth
consideration to be given to issues addressd in the research dialogue; and
• ways to make available information from the research programmes and organizations on
the UNFCCC website.
The secretariat will make this information available as a miscellaneous document prior to
SBSTA 33.
At SBSTA 33, research programmes and organizations are invited to provide updated
information on emerging scientific findings and research outcomes.
In conjunction with SBSTA 34, the secretariat, under the guidance of the Chair of the SBSTA,
will organize a workshop, to allow further in-depth consideration to be given to issues addressed
in the research dialogue.
The next SBSTA research dialogue meeting will be organized during SBSTA 34. Research
programmes and organizations are encouraged to continue to provide, for consideration under
the research dialogue, information on developments in research activities outlined in document
FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4, paragraph 47 (a-f), taking into account views expressed by Parties,
priorities emerging within the UNFCCC process and activities undertaken in support of the
IPCC towards the preparation of the AR5.
Research activities relevant to the needs of the Convention, contained in FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4,
paragraphs 47 (a-f), include the following:
1. Emerging scientific findings;
2. Research planning activities (including in response to key uncertainties and research
needs identified by the IPCC or raised by Parties);
3. Research priorities, and gaps in the implementation of these priorities;
4. Research capacity-building activities, particularly in developing countries;
5. Regional climate change research networks;
6. Relevant communication issues.
Other issues of relevance to climate change research are also being considered under other
agenda items, such as under the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and
adaptation to climate change. In particular, SBSTA 33 will have before it the outcomes from a
technical workshop on how regional centres and networks undertaking work relevant to climate
change could collaborate (Samoa, 2-5 March 2010).
Recent and earlier sessions
Research and systematic observation has been a regular and separate agenda item of the SBSTA
since its seventeenth session (October 2002).
more>>

Research dialogue
The importance of scientific research in meeting the needs of the Convention was reinforced by
decision 9/CP.11, which laid the foundation for enhanced communication between the
scientific community and Parties by requesting the SBSTA to regularly consider research needs
and systematic observation relating to the Convention in order to inform Parties about ongoing
and planned activities of regional and international climate change research programmes, and to
communicate Parties’ views on research needs and priorities to the scientific community, as
necessary; and inviting “national, regional and international climate change research
programmes and organizations to consider research needs, as viewed by the Parties and
communicated to the scientific community by the SBSTA, and to communicate to the SBSTA
how these programmes and organizations are addressing the research needs of the Convention.”
In response to this request, the SBSTA has initiated a dialogue between Parties and regional and
international climate change research programmes and organizations on research needs under the
Convention in the context of decision 9/CP.11, which regularly takes place during every
second SBSTA session.
As part of this dialogue, relevant regional and international research programmes and
organizations are invited to provide information on developments in research activities relevant
to the needs of the Convention, inculding emerging scientific findings, research planning
activities, research priorities and gaps, research capacity-building activities, particularly in
developing countries, regional climate change research networks and relevant communication
issues (see FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4, para. 47(a-f))
Previous research dialogue meetings
SBSTA 32 dialogue on developments in research activities relevant to the needs of the
Convention
SBSTA 30 dialogue on developments in research activities relevant to the needs of the
Convention
Informal discussion on developments in research activities SBSTA 28
Informal discussion on a more effective dialogue between Parties and regional and international
climate change research programmes and organizations SBSTA 26
Special side event on research needs relating to the Convention SBSTA 24

Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change

Research is one of the nine work areas of the Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) on Impacts,
Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change. This work area aims to promote research on
adaptation options and the development and diffusion of technologies, know-how, and practices
for adaptation, particularly addressing identified adaptation priorities and building on lessons
learned from current adaptation projects and strategies.

SBSTA 28 encouraged greater consideration of adaptation in future sessions of the research


dialogue. Adaptation-related research needs can be found in FCCC/SBSTA/2007/12.
More information related on Nairobi Work Programme

Systematic Observation
Worldwide systematic observation of the climate system is a key prerequisite for advancing
scientific knowledge on climate change. The Convention calls on Parties to promote and
cooperate in systematic observation of the climate system, including through support to existing
international programmes and networks, as indicated in Articles 4.1(g) and 5 of the
Convention. A key dimension for the implementation of those Articles has been the
cooperation with the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) secretariat of the World
Meteorological Organization (WMO) and other agencies participating in WMO's Climate
Agenda. more >>

Update on negotiations

COP 15 (Copenhagen, December 2009) adopted a decision on Systematic climate observations,


which inter alia:
• Urges Parties and invites relevant United Nations agencies and international
organizations to work towards addressing the priorities and gaps identified in the report
on progress with the GCOS Implementation Plan (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.7), in
particular the implementation of the regional action plans that were developed during
2001-2006, and ensuring sustained long-term operation of essential in situ networks,
especially for the oceanic and terrestrial domains, including through provision of the
necessary resources.
• Encourages Parties in a position to do so to support sustaining climate observations over
the long term in developing countries (especially in LDCs and SIDS);
• Invites GCOS to update, by SBSTA 33, the GCOS Implementation Plan, taking into
account emerging needs in climate observation, in particular those relating to adaptation
activities;
• Encourages GTOS to implement the framework for the preparation of guidance
materials, standards and reporting guidelines for terrestrial observing systems for climate,
as a joint terrestrial framework mechanism between relevant agencies of the UN and
ISO;
• Encourages the CEOS to continue coordinating and supporting the implementation of the
satellite component of the GCOS;
• Urges Parties that support space agencies involved in global observations to enable
continued implementation of actions identified in the updated report of the CEOS
(FCCC/SBSTA/2008/MISC.11), in order to meet the relevant needs of the Convention,
in particular by ensuring long-term continuity of observations and data availability.
For the full text of the COP decision on Systematic climate observations, see here.
COP 15 further noted with appreciation the outcome of World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva,
31 August to 4 September 2009) organized by the WMO and its partner organizations, in
particular the decision to establish a Global Framework for Climate Services to strengthen the
production, availability, delivery and application of science-based climate prediction and
services.
SBSTA 31
SBSTA 31 (December 2009) was provided with the provisional update of the GCOS
implementation plan (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.12), which was welcomed by the SBSTA.
SBSTA 31 also welcomed the information on the outcome of World Climate Conference-3
(Geneva, 31 August to 4 September 2009), provided by WMO.
For the full text of the SBSTA 31 conclusions on research and systematic observation, see
FCCC/SBSTA/2009/8, paragraphs 35-42.
Next steps: Outlook for SBSTA 32 (May-June 2010) and SBSTA 33 (November-December
2010)
SBSTA 32 will consider issues related to research.
For SBSTA 33, the following reports have been invited:
• An update of the GCOS implementation plan (by the GCOS secretariat)
• A report on the results of the implementation of the framework for climate-related
terrestrial observations and on the elaboration of a work plan for developing
observational standards and protocols for the 13 terrestrial ECVs assessed (by the GTOS
secretariat)
• A report on progress made on efforts by CEOS in meeting the relevant needs of the
Convention (by CEOS).
Other issues of relevance to systematic observation are also under consideration under other
agenda items, such as under the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and
adaptation to climate change. In particular, SBSTA 33 will have before it the outcomes from a
technical workshop on how regional centres and networks undertaking work relevant to climate
change could collaborate (Samoa, 2-5 March 2010).

Recent sessions
SBSTA 30 (Bonn, June 2009), expressed its appreciation for the following reports:
• Report on progress with the GCOS implementation plan (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.7);
• A synthesis report on national information on systematic observations for climate
(FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.7/Add.1);
• A report on progress in assessing the status of the development of standards for essential
climate variables in the terrestrial domain (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.8);
• A report on progress made by space agencies involved in global observations in
implementing actions in response to the GCOS implementation plan
(FCCC/SBSTA/2008/MISC.11).
Following consideration of the above reports, the SBSTA, inter alia:
• Noted the priorities stated in the GCOS progress report; and
• Invited GCOS to provide a provisional updated implementation plan in conjunction with
a provisional estimation of costs prior to COP 15.
For the full text of the SBSTA 30 conclusions on research and systematic observation, see
FCCC/SBSTA/2009/3.
more>>

Recent and earlier sessions

Research and systematic observation has been a regular and separate agenda item of the SBSTA
since its seventeenth session (October 2002).

Other Methodological Issues


• Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons
• Brazilian Proposal
• Single projects
• Review of methodological work
• Cooperation with the IPCC
• Links to sources of data on greenhouse gas emissions and to socio-economic data and
tools

Parties & Observers


Parties
The Convention divides countries into three main groups according to differing commitments:

Annex I Parties include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992, plus countries with
economies in transition (the EIT Parties), including the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and
several Central and Eastern European States.
Annex II Parties consist of the OECD members of Annex I, but not the EIT Parties. They are
required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emissions
reduction activities under the Convention and to help them adapt to adverse effects of climate
change. In addition, they have to "take all practicable steps" to promote the development and
transfer of environmentally friendly technologies to EIT Parties and developing countries.
Funding provided by Annex II Parties is channelled mostly through the Convention’s financial
mechanism.
Non-Annex I Parties are mostly developing countries. Certain groups of developing countries
are recognized by the Convention as being especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of
climate change, including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to
desertification and drought. Others (such as countries that rely heavily on income from fossil
fuel production and commerce) feel more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of
climate change response measures. The Convention emphasizes activities that promise to answer
the special needs and concerns of these vulnerable countries, such as investment, insurance and
technology transfer.

The 49 Parties classified as least developed countries (LDCs) by the United Nations are given
special consideration under the Convention on account of their limited capacity to respond to
climate change and adapt to its adverse effects. Parties are urged to take full account of the
special situation of LDCs when considering funding and technology-transfer activities.

Observer organizations
Several categories of observer organizations also attend sessions of the COP and its subsidiary
bodies. These include representatives of United Nations secretariat units and bodies, such as
UNDP, UNEP and UNCTAD, as well as its specialized agencies and related organizations, such
as the GEF and WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Observer
organizations include intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), such as the OECD and
International Energy Agency (IEA), along with non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Over 1,297 NGOs and 83 IGOs are admitted as observers. The NGOs represent a broad
spectrum of interests, and embrace representatives from business and industry, environmental
groups, farming and agriculture, indigenous populations, local governments and municipal
authorities, research and academic institutes, labour unions, women and gender and youth
groups. Constituency groupings have emerged from the above groups to facilitate interaction.

Parties to the Convention and Observer States


Afghanistan Germany Palau

Albania ** Ghana Panama

Algeria Greece Papua New Guinea

Andorra* Grenada Paraguay

Angola Guatemala Peru

Antigua and
Guinea Philippines
Barbuda
Argentina Guinea-Bissau Poland**

Armenia ** Guyana Portugal

Australia Haiti Qatar

Austria Holy See* Republic of Korea

Republic of
Azerbaijan Honduras
Moldova **

Bahamas Hungary** Romania**

Russian Federation
Bahrain Iceland
**

Bangladesh India Rwanda

Saint Kitts and


Barbados Indonesia
Nevis
Iran (Islamic
Belarus ** Saint Lucia
Republic of)
Saint Vincent and
Belgium Iraq
the Grenadines

Belize Ireland Samoa

Benin Israel San Marino

Sao Tome and


Bhutan Italy **
Principe

Bolivia Jamaica Saudi Arabia

Bosnia and
Japan Senegal
Herzegovina

Botswana Jordan Serbia


Brazil Kazakhstan ** Seychelles

Brunei
Kenya Sierra Leone
Darussalam

Bulgaria** Kiribati Singapore

Burkina Faso Kuwait Slovakia **

Burundi Kyrgyzstan Slovenia **

Lao People's
Cambodia Democratic Solomon Islands
Republic

Cameroon Latvia Somalia

Canada Lebanon South Africa

Cape Verde Lesotho Spain

Central African
Liberia Sri Lanka
Republic
Libyan Arab
Chad Sudan
Jamahiriya

Chile Liechtenstein ** Suriname

China Lithuania Swaziland

Colombia Luxembourg Sweden

Comoros Madagascar Switzerland

Syrian Arab
Congo Malawi
Republic
Cook Islands Malaysia Tajikistan

Costa Rica Maldives Thailand

The former
Croatia ** Mali Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
Cuba Malta Timor-Leste

Cyprus Marshall Islands Togo


Czech Republic
Mauritania Tonga
**
Côte d'Ivoire Mauritius Trinidad and
Tobago
Democratic
People's
Mexico Tunisia
Republic of
Korea
Democratic Micronesia
Republic of the (Federated Turkey **
Congo States of)

Denmark Monaco ** Turkmenistan **

Djibouti Mongolia Tuvalu

Dominica Montenegro Uganda

Dominican
Morocco Ukraine **
Republic
United Arab
Ecuador Mozambique **
Emirates
United Kingdom of
Egypt Myanmar Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
United Republic of
El Salvador Namibia
Tanzania
Equatorial United States of
Nauru
Guinea America

Eritrea Nepal Uruguay

Estonia Netherlands Uzbekistan **

Ethiopia New Zealand Vanuatu


Venezuela
European Union Nicaragua (Bolivarian Republic
of)

Fiji Niger Viet Nam

Finland Nigeria Yemen

France Niue Zambia

Gabon Norway Zimbabwe

Gambia Oman
Georgia ** Pakistan

* Observer State
** Party for which there is a specific COP and/or CMP decision

List of Annex I Parties to the Convention

Annex I
Australia

Austria

Belarus **

Belgium

Bulgaria

Canada
Croatia **
Czech Republic **

Denmark

Estonia

European Union

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy **

Japan

Latvia
Liechtenstein **
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Monaco **

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Russian Federation **

Slovakia **

Slovenia **

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey **

Ukraine **

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


United States of America
* Observer State
** Party for which there is a specific COP and/or CMP decision
List of Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention

Non-Annex I
Afghanistan

Albania **

Algeria

Angola

Antigua and Barbuda


Argentina

Armenia **

Azerbaijan
Bahamas

Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados

Belize

Benin

Bhutan

Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Botswana

Brazil

Brunei Darussalam

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cambodia

Cameroon

Cape Verde

Central African Republic

Chad

Chile

China

Colombia

Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus

Côte d'Ivoire

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Egypt

El Salvador

Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea

Ethiopia
Fiji
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Gabon

Gambia

Georgia

Ghana

Grenada

Guatemala

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Honduras
India

Indonesia

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Iraq

Israel

Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan **

Kenya

Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Lebanon

Lesotho

Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Madagascar

Malawi

Malaysia

Maldives

Mali

Malta
Marshall Islands

Mauritania

Mauritius

Mexico

Micronesia (Federated States of)


Mongolia
Montenegro

Morocco

Mozambique
Myanmar

Namibia

Nauru

Nepal

Nicaragua

Niger

Nigeria
Niue

Oman

Pakistan

Palau

Panama

Papua New Guinea

Paraguay

Peru

Philippines
Qatar

Republic of Korea

Republic of Moldova **

Rwanda

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


Samoa
San Marino

Sao Tome and Principe

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

Serbia
Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Solomon Islands

Somalia

South Africa

Sri Lanka
Sudan

Suriname

Swaziland

Syrian Arab Republic

Tajikistan

Thailand

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia


Timor-Leste

Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago

Tunisia

Turkmenistan **
Tuvalu

Uganda
United Arab Emirates
United Republic of Tanzania

Uruguay

Uzbekistan **
Vanuatu

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Viet Nam

Yemen

Zambia

Zimbabwe
* Observer State
** Party for which there is a specific COP and/or CMP decision
National focal points

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epol@ethionet.et
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Director- Authority Box 5876 4882
General/ 12760
Focal Addis
Point of Ababa
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Artur Avenue
European (32)
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Ms. Governm
Taina ent, Govern (679 (679
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Sirkka Ministry P.O. (358-
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M. Jean des
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Franc Quai d' 431 jean.lamy@diplo
directeur s et 4317- 4353-
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du climat européen 5336 9495
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Franc M. Paul Ministère Tour (33-6) paul@watkinson.


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New conrad@rainfore
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Level 7
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Mr. ent of P.O. (675 (675
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Wari Environ Box (675) (675)3 ) )
New warileaiamo@ya
Lea ment and 6601 325- 23- odir@daltron.com.pg 325- 325-
Guine hoo.com
Iamo, Conserva Nation 8166 0847 018 018
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Zoila del
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Gómez Av. (51- (51-
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a, o del Prado 611- 611-
Vicemini Ambient Oeste rgomez@minam.gob 600 600
Peru
ster, e No. .pe 0 0
Strategic (MINAM 1440 Ext. Ext.
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Mr. Departm
Roxas
Leslie ent of (632) (632)
Philip Boulev lgatan@hotmail.
Gatan, Foreign 834- 832-
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Pasay
Secretary (DFA)
City
Ms.
Marie
Yvette
Banzon
Abalos,
Director,
Division
2330
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Environ ent of (632) (632) 2) 2)
Philip Boulev ivybanzon.abalos@d ivybanzon@hot
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Science Affairs 4000 0683 481 132
Pasay
and (DFA) 4 2
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Technolo
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Ministry (48- (48-
Tomasz Wawel
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Chruszc ska St.
d Environ 579- 579- @mos.gov.pl
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ment 2326 2463
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Portu Mr. Ministry Rua (351- (351- nuno.lacasta@clima.
gal Nuno of Sao 21) 21) pt
Lacasta,
Domin
Coordina
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tor,
Environ Lapa, 392- 392-
Climate
ment 26 9900 9901
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Lisbon
Commiss
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Ms.
Rua da
Filomen
Murgu
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eira,
Boavida,
Ministry 9/9A, (351- (351-
Head of
Portu of Ap. 21) 21) filomena.boavida@a
Departm
gal Environ 7585 472- 472- pambiente.pt
ent
ment Zambuj 8293 8283
Climate
al
Change,
Amado
Air and
ra
Noise
Mr.
Abdulha
di
Nasser
Al-
Ministry P.O.
Marri, (974) (974)
of Box anmarri@moe.gov.q
Qatar National 4420- 4420-
Environ 7634 a
Coordina 7787 7942
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Mr. 710-1,
Ministry (82-
Tong-q 37
Repu of 2)
Lee, Sejong (82-2) (82-2)
blic Foreign 270 tqlee96@mofat.g
Director, no, 2100- 2100- climate@mofat.go.kr
of Affairs 0- o.kr
Climate Jongro- 7743 7991
Korea and 775
Change Gu
Trade 0
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Ms.
Moo-
Ministry 37 (82- (82-
kyung
Repu of Sejong 2) 2)
Cho, (82-2)
blic Foreign no, 210 210 mkcho09@mofat
Deputy 2100-
of Affairs Jongro- 0- 0- .go.kr
Director, 7991
Korea and Gu 774 799
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Roma Mr. Ministry 12, (40- (40- sorin.deaconu@anp
nia Sorin of Liberta 21) 21) m.ro
Deaconu Environ tii 207- 411-
, ment and Blvd., 1128 0298
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Point for
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Ms.
Florenti
na
Manea, 12,
Director, Liberta
Ministry (40-
Climate tii (40- (40-
of 21)
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ment and 649
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Dusabey
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Rwanda P.O. (250-
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da ment 6194 5033- oo.fr
National
Board Kigali 2575
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Point and
Environ
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Analyst
Saint Mr. Ministry P.O. (1- (1- minhwa@caribsurf.c
Kitts Elvis of Health Box 869)4 869)4 om
186
Newton,
and Church
and Permane 65- 66-
Environ Street
Nevis nt 2521 8574
ment Bassete
Secretary
rre
Ms. P.O.
June Box
Hughes, 597,
Senior Bladen (1-
Environ Comm 869) (1-
Saint (1-
ment ercial 465- 869)
Kitts 869) ccodoe@sisterisles.k
Officer Develo 2277 / 467-
and 465- n
and pment, 2521 125
Nevis 5842
National Weelin Ext. 1
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Point for Road
Climate Bassete
Change rre
P.O.
Box
Ministry 709
Mr. of Graeha (1- (1-
George Physical m 758)4 758)4
Saint James, Develop Louisy 68- 52-
sde@planning.gov.lc
Lucia Permane ment and Admini 4419/ 2506/
nt the strtive 468- 451-
Secretary Environ Buildin 5805 9706
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Mr.
Edmund 1st
Saint
Jackson, Floor (1-
Vince Ministry (1- (1-
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Environ rial 450- 784) svgenv@vincysurf.c
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Mr.
Aiono Ministry
Mose of P.O. (685)
(685)
Samo Pouvi Foreign Box 2-
2- mfat@mfat.gov.ws
a Sua, Affairs L1859 1171/
1504
Chief and Apia 4870
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Marin Dario of da 549) 549) eri@pa.sm ) -99- teri.sm
o Galassi, Foreign Omerel 88- 88- 88- 201
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2293
Mr.
Adérito
Manuel Ministry
Sao Fernand of P.O. (239 (239
Tome es Natural Box (239) (239) ) )
pofomucli@cstome. aderitosantana@
and Santana, Resource 670 222- 222- 222- 222-
net hotmail.com
Princi General s and Aeropo 6017 1975 130 130
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Environ
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Mr.
Moham Ministry
mad of P.O.
(966- (966-
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Arabi Sabban, m and 30304 alsabbanms@usa.net
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a Senior Mineral Jeddah
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Direction
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M. l'environ 106 rue (221
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5065 6212
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classes
(DEEC)
Ministry
Mr. Omladi
of
Nebojsa nskih (38- (38-
Environ
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ment and
a a, 1 Novi 8- 2- koplan.gov.rs
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Assistant Beogra 1555 2043
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Mr. Will
of English
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Environ River,
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Seych UNFCC w.agricole@meteo.g w.agricole@env.
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Mr.
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Singa Siew, terence_siew@mewr
Water Scotts 6731- 9456 /
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Ms.
Helena
Namest
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Andrej
Kranjc,
Governm Gregor
Head, (386- (386-
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Slove Internati 1) 1) Andrej.Kranjc@gov.
Office of 25
nia onal 478- 478- si
Climate Ljublja
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Ministry
Mr. of
Solo Rence Environ PO
(677) (677)
mon Sore, ment, Box 21 eps@meem.gov.
2- 2- ps@mecm.gov.sb
Island Permane Conserva Honiar sb
7751 8054
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Secretary Meteorol
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South Mr. Departm Private (27- (27- mkekana@environm (27-
Afric Maesela ent of Bag 12) 12) ent.gov.za 12)
a John Environ X447 310- 320- 322-
Kekana, mental Pretori 3120 1421 100
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Ms.
Judith
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Medio c/Alcal (34- (34-
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Sri 6-
Priyadar of Rajama 11) 11) 286-
Lank secoffice@menr.lk 661
shana Environ lwatta 287- 287- 661
a 3/
Yapa, ment Road 7290 7292 7/
287-
Minister Battara 18
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Party Groupings
Each Party to the Convention is represented at sessions of the Convention bodies by a national
delegation consisting of one or more officials empowered to represent and negotiate on behalf of
their government.

Based on the tradition of the United Nations, Parties are organized into five regional groups,
mainly for the purposes of electing the Bureaux, namely: African States, Asian States, Eastern
European States, Latin American and the Caribbean States, and the Western European and Other
States (the "Other States" include Australia, Canada, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway,
Switzerland and the United States of America, but not Japan, which is in the Asian Group).
The five regional groups, however, are not usually used to present the substantive interests of
Parties and several other groupings are more important for climate negotiations. Developing
countries generally work through the Group of 77 to establish common negotiating positions.
The G-77 was founded in 1964 in the context of the UN Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) and now functions throughout the UN system. It has over 130 members. The
country holding the Chair of the G-77 in New York (which rotates every year) often speaks for
the G-77 and China as a whole. However, because the G-77 and China is a diverse group with
differing interests on climate change issues, individual developing countries also intervene in
debates, as do groups within the G-77, such as the African UN regional Group, the Alliance of
Small Island States and the group of Least Developed Countries.
The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is a coalition of some 43 low-lying and small
island countries, most of which are members of the G-77, that are particularly vulnerable to sea-
level rise. AOSIS countries are united by the threat that climate change poses to their survival
and frequently adopt a common stance in negotiations. They were the first to propose a draft
text during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations calling for cuts in carbon dioxide emissions of 20%
from 1990 levels by 2005.
The 50 countries defined as Least Developed Countries by the UN regularly work together in
the wider UN system. They have become increasingly active in the climate change process, often
working together to defend their particular interests, for example with regard to vulnerability and
adaptation to climate change.
The 27 members of the European Union meet in private to agree on common negotiating
positions. The country that holds the EU Presidency - a position that rotates every six months -
then speaks for the European Union and its 27 member states. As a regional economic
integration organization, the European Union itself can be, and is, a Party to the Convention.
However, it does not have a separate vote from its members.
The Umbrella Group is a loose coalition of non-EU developed countries which formed
following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Although there is no formal list, the Group is
usually made up of Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian
Federation, Ukraine and the US. The Umbrella Group evolved from the JUSSCANNZ group,
which was active during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations (JUSSCANNZ is an acronym for
Japan, the USA, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway and New Zealand).
The Environmental Integrity Group (EIG), formed in 2000, comprises Mexico, the Republic
of Korea and Switzerland.
Several other groups also work together in the climate change process, including countries from
the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a group of countries of Central
Asia, Caucasus, Albania and Moldova (CACAM), and countries that are members of
organizations such as the League of Arab States and the Agence intergouvernementale de la
francophonie.

Request from a Group of Countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus, Albania and
Moldova Regarding Their Status under the Convention

Background
At COP 6, Part II (Bonn, July 2001), Armenia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, on behalf of the
Central Asia, Caucasus and Moldova (CACAM) countries submitted a letter dated 27 July 2001
to the Executive Secretary. The letter expressed concern regarding the definition of the term
"developing countries" as used in the Convention, the Protocol and COP decisions to determine
recipients of financial, technological and capacity building support. The CACAM countries
sought a clear definition of "developing countries" or a reference to relevant legal texts
containing such definition.
The term "developing countries" is not defined by the Convention and does not encompass all
the Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties), since some of these
do not consider themselves to be developing countries. The CACAM countries, for example,
consider themselves to be "countries with economies in transition." A number of non-Annex I
Parties other than the CACAM countries are also affected by this issue.
This issue was raised on behalf of the CACAM countries with respect to "The Bonn Agreements
on the implementation of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action" (decision 5/CP.6) adopted at COP 6,
Part II. In particular, their concerns addressed the decisions adopted at COP 7 on capacity
building in developing countries (non-Annex I Parties), development and transfer of
technologies, and additional guidance to an operating entity of the financial mechanism
(decisions 2/CP.7, 4/CP.7 and 6/CP.7).
In their letter, the CACAM countries made the following proposals:
• A clarification of the status of the CACAM countries in the context of decisions on the
Convention and the Protocol, including those prepared by the resumed COP 6 for
adoption at COP 7;
• If difficulties are encountered in providing such a clarification in a timely manner, a
decision should be adopted by COP 8 clarifying their status;
• Pending formal resolution of the issue, the words "developing countries" should be
substituted with "developing countries and other Parties not included in Annex I"
throughout the text of the COP 6 draft decisions. The COP may wish to consider the
issues raised by the CACAM countries and decide on any appropriate action.
At COP 7 (Marrakesh, October/November 2001), Parties adopted a decision which had been
prepared following consultations held by the Chairman of the SBI. The decision considers the
request of the CACAM countries and invites SBI 16 to consider the issue and make
recommendations to the COP.
At SBI 16 (Bonn, June 2002) Parties considered a proposal by the Chair, and requested the Chair
to continue consultations during the intersessional period and report to SBI 17.

Recent developments
At SBI 17 (New Delhi, October/November 2002), the Chair reported on his consultations. The
SBI decided to continue consideration of this matter at its next meeting.

Intergovernmental Organizations and the Climate Change Process


United Nations
Attending sessions
Article 7, paragraph 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
provides that representatives of the United Nations system may be represented as observers at
sessions. In order to attend sessions representatives of UN bodies need to be officially
nominated by the head of that body to the Executive Secretary of the secretariat.
• Mandate for admission: Article 7, paragraph 6 English Español Français
• The UN system and organizational chart
• Rio Conventions
• Key UN system organizations with a climate change agenda: UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP,
UNITAR, UNU, ISDR, WMO, WMO/IPCC, UNIDO, GEF, World Bank group and
others

Intergovernmental organizations
Attending sessions
Intergovernmental organizations which are not part of the UN system need to apply for
admission in order to attend sessions.
Admission: Article 7, paragraph 6, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change provides for the admission of intergovernmental organizations to sessions of the
Convention bodies as observers. New applicant organizations are formally admitted by the
Conference of the Parties (COP) following the successful completion of the admission process.
Admission to the Conference of the Parties also applies to the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Once an organization is admitted, its
representatives may attend sessions of the Convention bodies as observers.
Once an organization is admitted, its representatives may attend sessions of the Convention
bodies as observers. Those observer organizations that have been admitted to a COP in the past
or provisionally admitted to the SBs do not need to reapply for admission.
The deadline for applications for admission in time for COP 16/CMP 6 was 15 March 2010.
Attendance: Admission is not the only way to attend a COP. If your organization is not
admitted and has missed the deadline for admission, the representatives of your organization can
be nominated to attend a COP by an already admitted observer organization who agrees to
nominate them. The contact details of the admitted observer organizations are available here.
Nomination: UNFCCC has launched an online registration system for all sessions. Once the
notification for a session has been posted, the designated contact point (DCP) of the admitted
observer organization will have approximately four weeks in which to nominate names via the
online registration system. No nominations will be accepted after the deadline which will be set
in the notification. Information about the online registration system can be found at
https://onlinereg.unfccc.int/
For more information, please contact cool@unfccc.int
• Mandate for admission: Article 7, paragraph 6 English Español Français
• Single admission process for COP and CMP Decision 36/CMP.1 (75 kB) (paragraph
2c )
• Standard admission process English (172 kB) Español (21 kB) Français (148 kB)
• Contact details form English
• How I may attend sessions (46 kB)
• List of admitted organizations
Participating effectively
• Rules of procedure (Convention)
• Providing input under the SBSTA agenda item "Cooperation with relevant international
organizations"
• Making statements at the COP and CMP by the head of the organization in the context of
the high level segment
• Organizing a side event, an exhibit or a press briefing
• Interacting with other members of the climate change community

For further information contact :


Observer Organizations Liaison Officer
Megumi Endo
Climate Change secretariat
P.O. Box 260 124
D 53153 Bonn, Germany
Tel. +49 228 815 1523
Fax. +49 228 815 1999
cool@unfccc.int

Civil society and the Climate Change Process


Civil society
Attending sessions
Civil society engages with the climate change process through representative non-governmental
observer organizations.
Admission: Article 7, paragraph 6, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change provides for the admission of non-governmental organizations to sessions of the
Convention bodies as observers. New applicant organizations are formally admitted by the
Conference of the Parties following the successful completion of the admission process.
Admission to the Conference of the Parties also applies to the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Participation at sessions in between the SB
sessions and the COP is limited to those organizations that have been admitted or provisionally
admitted at previous SB sessions and COPs.
Once an organization is admitted, its representatives may attend sessions of the Convention
bodies as observers. Those observer organizations that have been admitted to a COP in the past
or provisionally admitted to the SBs do not need to reapply for admission.
The deadline for applications for admission in time for COP 16/CMP6 was 15 March, 2010.
Attendance: Admission is not the only way to attend sessions. If your organization is not
admitted and you have missed the deadline for application, the representatives of your
organization might be nominated to attend sessions by already-admitted observer organizations
who agree to nominate them. Visibility will be given to the name of the nominated organization
on the official list of participants under the name of the admitted organization. The contact
details of the admitted observer organizations are available here.
Notification: Official notification of sessions will be posted on our website three to four months
prior to the start date when sessions are known in advance. It is the responsibility of the
admitted observer organization to check for notification updates. You can find current
information at http://unfccc.int. On the left side of the screen click on parties and observers,
then click on notifications.
Nominations: UNFCCC has launched an online registration system for all sessions. Once the
notification for a session has been posted, the designated contact point (DCP) of the admitted
observer organization will have approximately four weeks in which to nominate names via the
online registration system. No nominations will be accepted after the deadline which will be set
in the notification. Information about the online registration system can be found at
https://onlinereg.unfccc.int/.
For more information please contact cool@unfccc.int
• Mandate for admission: Article 7, paragraph 6 English Español Français
• Single admission process for COP and CMP Decision 36/CMP.1 (paragraph 2c )
• Standard admission process English (198 kB) Español (183 kB) Français (207
kB)
• Contact details form English (146 kB) Español (145 kB) Français (174 kB)
• How I may attend sessions (59 kB)
• Cumulative admission of observer organizations COP 1-15 (43 kB)
• Participation breakdown COP 1-15 (34 kB)
• List of admitted organizations

Participating effectively
• Guidelines for Participation
• UNFCCC documentation relating to civil society
• Constituencies and you English (102 kB) Español (91 kB) Français (103 kB)
(version as of May 2010)
• Constituency contacts (109 kB) English French
• Guidance to observers in the process

Staying involved
• Providing input through submissions (68 kB)
• Participating in workshops English (56 kB) Español (62 kB) Français (67 kB)
• Subscribing to the UNFCCC newsletter
• Providing input to the project-based mechanisms [CDM, JI]. public awareness, education
and training [CC:iNet] or on technolgy transfer [TT:CLEAR]
Submissions by non-governmental organizations

2010

Standardized baselines under the clean development mechanism


• Carbon Markets and Investors Association (submitted 16 August 2010)
• Climate Action Network International (submitted 16 August 2010)
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2010/6, paragraph 94
Views and information on the effectiveness of the Nairobi work programme on impacts,
vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in fulfilling its objective, expected
outcome, scope of work and modalities
• Climate Action Network International (submitted 16 August 2010)
• GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice (submitted 16 August 2010)
• German Committee for Disaster Reduction (submitted 16 August 2010)
• International Institute for Environment and Development (submitted 16 August
2010)
• University of East Anglia (submitted 16 August 2010)
Other submissions from non-admitted organizations
• Stockholm International Water Institute (submitted 16 August 2010)

For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2010/6, paragraph 20

Modalities and procedures for the development of standardized baselines


• Climate Action Network International (submitted 22 March 2010)
• ClimateNet (submitted 22 March 2010)
• EURELECTRIC (submitted 22 March 2010)
• Global Wind Energy Council (submitted 22 March 2010)
• Transport Research Foundation (submitted 22 March 2010)
• International Emissions Trading Association (submitted 23 March 2010)
• Climate Action Reserve (submitted 23 March 2010)

For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2009/L.10

Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol


• Climate Action Network International (submitted 22 March 2010)

For mandate see FCCC/SBI/2009/8, paragraph 37


2008-2009

Possible further actions on the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 8, of the


Convention and decisoins 5/CP.7 and 1/CP.10
• Life e.V. and GenderCC (submitted 28 September)
For mandate see FCCC/SBI/2009/8, paragraph 45

Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change


submissions under the area of adaptation planning and practices
• Wetlands International (submitted 18 September 2009)
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/6, paragraph 63

Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change


submissions under the area of socio-economic information
• Population Action International (submitted 18 September 2009)
• India Youth Climate Network (submitted 18 September 2009)
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/6, paragraph 51

Views on possible improvements to emissions trading and the project-based


mechanisms.
• Greenpeace International (submitted 24 April 2009)
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/L.2, paragraph 2

Further views on information on potential environmental, economic and social


consequences, including spillover effects, of tools, policies, measures and methodologies
available to Annex I Parties.
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 24 April 2009)
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/L4, paragraph 4

Ideas and proposals on the elements of paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan.
• Climate Action Network Australia, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, Humane
Society International, The Wilderness Society (submitted 23 September 2009)
• International Alliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests
(IATP) on behalf of the International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Climate Change
(IIPFCC) (submitted 5 August 2009)
○ Proposed Language for Negotiating Text
○ The Anchorage Declaration
• United Nations Foundation (submitted 27 July 2009)
• Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) (submitted 26 June 2009)
• University of East Anglia on behalf of a consortium of 24 European research
institutes (submitted 30 June 2009)
• Christian Aid on behalf of APRODEV (submitted 25 June 2009)
• The Royal Society on behalf of the G8+5 national science academies (submitted 11
June 2009)
• The Climate Group (submitted 8 June 2009)
• Greenpeace, WWF, Germanwatch, David Suzuki Foundation, Indyact* and
NECU* (submitted 6 June 2009)
• International Coastal and Ocean Organization (ICO) (submitted 5 June 2009)
• Stakeholder Forum (submitted 22 May 2009)
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 24 April 2009)
○ An adaptation action framework for the Copenhagen agreement
○ Annex I Mitigation
○ Position on technology cooperation and sharing
• Global Witness on behalf of the Ecosystems Climate Alliance (submitted 25 April
2009)
• ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) (submitted 24 April 2009)
• International Food Policy Research Institute (submitted 22 April 2009)
• Life e.V. & GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice e.V. (submitted 22 April 2009)
• Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) (submitted 24 April 2009)
• Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future on behalf of Global Public Policy
Network (GPPN) (submitted 23 April 2009)
• Sustainable Population Australia Inc. (SPA) (submitted 27 April 2009)
• SustainUS on behalf of the International Youth Delegation (Position on REDD)
(submitted 24 April 2009)
• SustainUS in consultation with The International Youth Delegation (submitted 25
April 2009)
• Tebtebba (submitted 28 April 2009)
• Women's Environment & Development Organization (WEDO) on behalf of the
Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA) (submitted 08 April 2009)
• World Wildlife Fund (WWF) (submitted 24 March 2009)
*Not an admitted observer organization
For mandate see FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/8, paragraph 25 and FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.10,
paragraph 2(a)
• International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) (submitted 6 February
2009)
• Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) (submitted 6 February 2009)
• Global Witness on behalf of the Ecosystems Climate Alliance (submitted 6
February 2009)
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) (submitted 6 February 2009)
• International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (submitted 9 February 2009)
• Greenpeace International (submitted 6 February 2009)
• Climate Group (submitted 6 February 2009)
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 7 February 2009)
• Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) (submitted 6 February 2009)
• World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (submitted 6
February 2009)
• Wetlands International (submitted 5 February 2009)
Other submissions from non-admitted organizations
• Ethical Energy-Petrochem Strategies Pvt. Ltd. (submitted 21 August 2009)
• RJRD Consultores (submitted 7 August 2009)
• Pro-Natura - Friends of the Earth Switzerland (submitted 6 August 2009)
• Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (IIGCC) (submitted 29 May 2009)
• International Water Association (submitted 24 April 2009)
• Working Group on WASH and Climate Change (submitted 24 April 2009)
• Ohio State University (OSU) (submitted 5 february 2009)
For mandate see FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/17, paragraph 26 (b)

Views and proposals for further elaboration of the options, elements and issues
contained in the annex "Options and proposals on how to address definitions,
modalities, rules and guidelines for the treatment of land use, land-use change and
forestry" (LULUCF).
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 28 April 2009)
• Global Witness on behalf of the Ecosystems Climate Alliance (submitted 24 April
2009)
• SustainUS on behalf of the International Youth Delegation (submitted 29 April
2009)
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/L.3, paragraph 3

Views on the areas of focus set out in section IV of the terms of reference for the review
and assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation of Article 4, paragraphs 1(c)
and 5, of the convention agreed at the twenty-ninth session of the Subsidiary Body of
Implementation.
For mandate see FCCC/SBI/2008/L.28
• Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America (submitted 13 February
2009)
• Japan Business Federation (submitted 14 February 2009)
• International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (submitted 16 February 2009)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBI/2009/MISC.4

Views on issues relating to indigenous people and local communities for the
development and application of methodologies.
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/13 (paragraph 45)
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 18 February 2009)
• Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin (COICA)
(submitted 20 February 2009)
○ COICA map to provide support for submission
• Climate Law and Policy Project (submitted 16 February 2009)
• Global Witness on behalf of the Ecosystems Climate Alliance (submitted 11
February 2009)
• Fern and Rainforest Foundation (submitted 16 February 2009)
• Assembly of First Nations (AFN) (submitted 24 February 2009)
• Friends of the Earth International (FOEI) (submitted 16 February 2009)
• Global Forest Coalition (GFC) (submitted 16 February 2009)
○ Supporting document for submission
• International Alliance of Indigenous-Tribal Peoples of the Tropical forests (IAIP)
(submitted 9 February 2009)
• International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) (submitted
11 February 2009)
• International Institute of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC)
(submitted 13 February 2009)
• Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific
(RECOFTC) (submitted 13 February 2009)
• SustainUS (submitted 25 February 2009)
• The Nature Conservancy (TNC) (submitted 24 February 2009)
Other submission
• Forest Peoples Programme (submitted 16 February 2009)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.1

Experiences and views, including country-specific information where possible, on needs


for technical and institutional capacity-building and cooperation in, inter alia, the
implementation of methodologies for estimating and monitoring changes in forest cover
and associated carbon stocks and GHG emissions, incremental changes due to
sustainable management of forests, reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation, national and subnational monitoring and reporting systems, and
methodologies for forest inventories, ground-based and remote-sensing approaches
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/13 (paragraph 44)
• Greenpeace (submitted 16 February 2009)
• SustainUS (submitted 25 February 2009)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBSTA/2009/MISC.2

Further elaboration of the options, elements and issues contained in annex III to the
report of the first part of the sixth session, and annex IV to the report at the resumed
fifth session, including views on how and which proposals could address cross-cutting
issues (LULUCF)
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/L.19, paragraph 8 (b)
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 23 February 2009)
• SustainUS on behalf of the International Youth Delegation (submitted 16 March
2009)

Further input in relation to possible improvements to emissions trading and the project-
based mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/5 and annexes I and II to document
FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/INF.3
• Climate Action Network (CAN) (submitted 17 March 2009)
• Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF) (submitted 6 February 2009)
• The Wilderness Society (submitted 11 February 2009)
• Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) (submitted 14 January 2008)
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) (submitted 6 February 2009)
• Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) (submitted 6 February 2009)
Other submission
• Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (IIGCC) (submitted 29 May 2009)

Further input in relation to possible improvements to emissions trading and the project-
based mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/5, paragraph 22
• Greenpeace International (GPI)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations as clean development


mechanism project activities
For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/10/Add.1, decision 1/CMP.2, paragraph 21 and
FCCC/SBSTA/2007/L.19
• Carbon Capture and Storage Association (CCSA)
• Greenpeace International (GPI)
• International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)
• SustainUS
• World Coal Institute (WCI)
Other submission
• Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF)

Information, views and proposals on paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan


For mandate see FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1,, decision 1/CP.13 and FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/3,
paragraph 23
• Global Witness Limited and The Wilderness Society (corrigendum 19 December 2008)
• Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) (submitted 17 December 2008)
• ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) (submitted 9 December 2008)
• Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK) on behalf of 26 organizations and networks (submitted 7
December 2008)
• WWF (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Third World Network (TWN) (submitted 6 December 2008)
○ Long-term global goal for emission reduction
○ Update of the Assemply Document
○ Shared Vision
○ IPR
○ Technology
• The Wilderness Society (submitted 6 December 2008)
• The Nature Conservancy (TNC) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable Developments (NRG4SD) (submitted 6
December 2008)
• Life e.V. (submitted 6 December 2008)
• International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Heinrich Böll and Christian Aid (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Greenpeace International (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Global Witness Limited (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Germanwatch, Bread for the World and CARE International (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Friends of the Earth International (FOEI) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• FERN, Friends of the Earth International (FOEI), and Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK)
(submitted 6 December 2008)
• Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), Third Generation Environmentalism (E3G), Tearfund
and WWF (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Climatenet (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN International) (submitted 6 December 2008)
○ Comments
○ Summary of key issues
• Amazon Institute for Environmental Research (IPAM), Conservation International (CI).
Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), National Wildlife Federation (NWF), Natural Resources Defense
Council (NRDC), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Tropical Forest Group (TFG), Union of Concerned
Scientists (UCS), World Wildlife Fund (WWF) (submitted 6 December 2008)
• Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) (submitted 5 December 2008)
• Keidanren (submitted 26 November 2008)
• Wetlands International (submitted 20 November 2008)
• Humane Society International (HSI) (submitted 20 November 2008)
• International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (submitted 14 November 2008)
• International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) (submitted 06 October 2008)
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) (submitted 01 October 2008)
• Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) and Amazon Institut for Environmental
Research (IPAM) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Third World Network on shared vision (TWN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Third World Network on multilateral financial structure (TWN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Third World Network on technology and Intellectual Property Rights (TWN) (submitted 30 September
2008)
• Third World Network on technology transfer (TWN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Third World Network on sectoral approaches (TWN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Oxfram International (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) (submitted 30 September and updated 6 December
2008)
• Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development (ForUM) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Centre for Socio-Economic Development (CSEND) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Climate Action Network International on shared vision (CAN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Climate Action Network International on REDD (CAN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Climate Action Network International on mitigation (CAN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Climate Action Network International on adaptation (CAN) (submitted 30 September 2008)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
• Global Legislators for a Balanced Environment (GLOBE)
• International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
• Wetlands International
• Humane Society International (Reduced emissions from REDD)
• Tearfund (Disaster risk reduction in adaptation)
The latest submissions by Parties are currently available here. All submission by
intergovernmental organizations, including those received after the issuance of this
document, are currently available here.

Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: approaches to stimulate


action
For mandate see FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, decision 2/CP.13, paragraph 7 (a)
• Global Forest Coalition (GFC)
Other submission
• Programme D'Integration et de Developpement du Peuple Pygmee au Kivu
(submitted 25 March)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/MISC.4

Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change


For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11, paragraph 21
• SustainUS

Consideration of relevant methodological issues


For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/5, paragraph 19 (d) (iii)
• Climate Action Network Intermational (CAN)

Preparations for the second review of the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 9
For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2007/9/Add.1, decision 4/CMP.3, paragraph 6
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
• Climate Markets Association (CMA)
• Climate Markets Association (CMA)
• Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI)
• Autoridad National del Ambiente Panama, CARE, Centro Agronómico Tropical de
Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Conservation International, FACE Foundation ,
Global Public policy Institute and the United Nations Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBI/2008/MISC.2

Development and transfer of technologies under the SBI


For mandate see FCCC/CP/2007/L.2, paragraph 7
• Friends of the Earth International (FOEI)

Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2007/16, parargraph 51
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/SBSTA/2008/MISC.2

Means to achieve mitigation objectives of Annex I Parties


For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/2, paragraph 24
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
• Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC)
• International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
For submissions by Parties, please see FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/MISC.1

2007
A. Views on the development of a timetable to guide the completion of the work of the
AWG to be compiled by the secretariat for consideration by the AWG at its resumed
fourth session
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/4 (paragraph 25)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)

B. Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate


change. Information and views on matters relating to the availability of information on
the socio-economic aspect of climate change and improving the integration of socio-
economic information into impact and vulnerability assessments, including information
on the development of socio-economic scenarios and for understanding adaptive
capacity
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11 (paragraph 51)
• SustainUS

C. Further guidance relating to the CDM. Views on carbon dioxide capture and storage
in geological formations as CDM project activities
For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/10/Add.1 decision 1/CMP.2 (paragraphs 21 and 22)
• SustainUS

D. Views on the implications of possible changes to the limit established for small-scale
afforestation and reforestation clean development mechanism project activities under
decision 6/CMP.1
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4 (paragraphs 78 and 79)
• SustainUS

E. Comments on the scope and content on the second review under Article 9 of the
Kyoto Protocol and the preparations required for conducting the review
For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/10/Add.1
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)

F. Submissions on adaptation approaches, strategies, practices and technologies for


adaptation at the regional, national and local levels in different sectors, as well as on
experiences, needs and concerns
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11 (paragraph 56)
• Columbia University

G. Information on existing and emerging assesment methodologies and tools; and views
on lessons learned from their application; opportunities, gaps, needs, constraints and
barriers; possible ways to develop and better disseminate methods and tools; and
training opportunities
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11 (paragraph 3)
• International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
• University of East Anglia, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research

H. Mitigation potential of policies and measures


For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/L.2 (paragraph 8)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN International)
Additional information provided by CAN International
• Designing emissions pathways to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change
Paul Baer and Micheal Mastrandrea
• Factors underpinning future action: 2007 update
Niklas Höhne, Dian Phylipsen, Sara Moltmann
• Meeting the EU 2°C climate target: global and regional emission implications*
M.G.J. den Elzen and M. Meinshausen
* "The research has been performed with the support of the Dutch Ministry of
Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment as part of the International Climate
Change Policy Project (M/728001 International Klimaatbeleid)".
• <2°C Trajectories - a brief background paper
M. Meinshausen

I. Views on carbon dioxide capture and storage as clean development mechanism


project activities
For mandate see Decision 1/CMP.2 (paragraph 21)
Admitted non-governmental organizations
• Greenpeace International: Views on leakage
• Greenpeace International: Views on long-term liability
• Greenpeace International: Views on monitoring
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)
• International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)
• International Risk Governance Council (IRGC)*
• World Coal Institute (WCI)
• World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

* Provisionally admitted to attend the twenty-sixth sessions of the subsidiary bodies


Submissions from organizations which are not admitted may be viewed here.

J. Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries


For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4 (paragraph 39)
• Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE)

K. Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries


For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11 (paragraph 89)
Submissions from Parties and admitted IGOs, contained in miscellaneous documents
FCCC/SBSTA/2007/MISC.2 and FCCC/SBSTA/2007/MISC.3 respectively, may be viewed
here.
• Centre for International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL) and the Global
Public Policy Institute (GPPI)
• Centro Agrónomo Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) and German
Emissions Trading Association (BVEK)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
• Conservation International (CI)
• Environmental Defense (ED) and Amazon Institute for Environmental Research
(IPAM)
• Global Forest Coalition (GFC)
• Institute for Environmental Security (IES)
• Joanneum Research, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Woods Hole Research
Center (WHRC) and Amazon Institute for Environmental Research (IPAM)
• The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
• Vitae Civilis
• Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) and Amazon Institute for Environmental
Research (IPAM)

L. Information about external bodies and forums that could provide expert input to the
work of the AWG
For mandate see FCCC/KP/AWG/2006/4 (paragraph 20)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)

M. Views on the implications of possibly changing the limit established for small-scale
afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities
For mandate see Decision 1/CMP.2 (paragraph 27)
• Joanneum Research
• University of Göteborg

2006
A. Article 9 of the Kyoto Protocol
For mandate see FCCC/KP/CMP/2005/8 (paragraph 77)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)

B. Implications of the situation where the issuing of certified emission reductions


(CERs) for the destruction of hydrofluorocarbon-23 (HFC-23) at new
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) facilities could lead to higher global
production of HCFC-22 and/or HFC-23 than would otherwise occur
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2006/5 (paragraph 100)
• Kiko Forum
• The European Business Council for Sustainable Energy (e5)

C. Initial views on the issues to be discussed at the Dialogue on long-term cooperative


action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention
For mandate see Decision 1/CP.11 (paragraph 8)
• World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

D. Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries


For mandate see FCCC/CP/2005/5 (paragraph 81)
Submissions from Parties are contained in miscellaneous document
FCCC/SBSTA/2006/MISC.5.
• Centre for International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL)
• Climate Action Network International (CAN)
• Conservation International (CI)
• Environmental Defense
• Friends of the Earth International (FoEI)
• Fundacion Amigos Naturaleza
• Goteborg University
• Amazon Institute for Environmental Research (IPAM)
• Joanneum Research
• Sierra Club of Canada
• The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
• Vitae Civilis Institute for Development, Environment and Peace
• Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC)
E. Carbon dioxide capture and storage as clean development mechanism project
activities
For mandate see Decision 7/CMP.1 (paragraph 6)
• Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI)
• International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)
• International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)
• World Coal Institute (WCI )

2005

A. Implications of the establishment, under the clean development mechanism, of new,


hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) facilities seeking to obtain certified emissions
reductions for the destruction of hydrofluorocarbon-23 (HFC-23)
For mandate see FCCC/SBSTA/2005/L.3 (paragraph 2)
• Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy
• Climate Action Network Europe (CAN EU)
• Oeko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology e.V.)

B. Effective participation of observers


For mandate see FCCC/SBI/2004/10 (paragraph 99)
• Climate Action Network (CAN)

Notifications to Parties and Observers

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17 September
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10 August 2010 Message to Parties pertaining to early submission of information and


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30 July 2009 Notification - Communication from Sri Lanka (5915 kB)

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17 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Papua New Guinea for
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Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Algeria, Benin, Brazil,


Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, China, Congo, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Gambia, Ghana, India, Indonesia,
15 June 2009 Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Togo,
Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe for an
amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (9387 kB)

15 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Belarus for amendments
to the Kyoto Protocol (4018 kB)

12 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from the Philippines for
amendments to the Kyoto Protocol (1449 kB)

12 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from New Zealand for an
amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (2782 kB)

12 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a further proposal from Tuvalu for an
amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (2658 kB)

12 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Tuvalu for an amendment
to the Kyoto Protocol (2039 kB)

Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from the Czech Republic and


12 June 2009 the European Commission on behalf of the European Community and
its member states for an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (4182 kB)

Notification to Parties and observer States regarding the United


11 June 2009 Nations Climate Change Intersessional Informal Consultations, Bonn,
10-14 August 2009 (195 kB)

6 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Costa Rica for a new
protocol to the Convention (10090 kB)

6 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Australia for a new
protocol to the Convention (4460 kB)

Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from the United States of


6 June 2009 America for an implementing agreement under the Convention (4182
kB)
5 June 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Tuvalu for a new protocol
to the Convention (3202 kB)

5 June 2009 Information Note announcing the Fellowship Programme in its


second round (147 kB)

Note Verbale pertaining to a proposal from Japan for a new protocol


1 June 2009 to the Convention (1043 kB) fr (937 kB) es (934 kB) ru (1064
kB) ch (1012 kB) ar (751 kB)

29 May 2009 Information to Parties, Nomination of officers for election to


Convention and Kyoto Protocol bodies (61 kB)

19 May 2009 Note Verbale pertaining to proposed ammendment to Annex I of the


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (237 kB)

17 April 2009 Notification the Parties regarding early submission of information


and views (822 kB)

Notification to United Nations Secretariat units and bodies,


6 April 2009 specialized agencies and related organizations regarding the United
Nations Climate Change Talks, Bonn, 1 to 12 June 2009 (194 kB)

4 April 2009 Notification to NGOs and IGOs regarding the United Nations
Climate Change Talks, Bonn, 1 to 12 June 2009 (199 kB)

2 April 2009 Notification to Parties and observer States regarding the United
Nations Climate Change Talks, Bonn, 1 to 12 June 2009 (200 kB)

18 March 2009 Information Note pertaining to opening hours of registration for Pre-
sessional meetings and the AWG-KP 7 and AWG-LCA 5 (132 kB)

13 February 2009 Notification to Parties and observer States regarding the AWG pre-
sessional meetings and workshop (160 kB)

Notification to UN Specialized Agencies regarding the United


3 February 2009 Nations Climate Change Talks, Bonn, 29 March to 8 April 2009 (187
kB)

3 February 2009 Notification to NGOs and IGOs regarding the United Nations
Climate Change Talks, Bonn, 29 March to 8 April 2009 (192 kB)

29 January 2009 Notification to Parties regarding the United Nations Climate Change
Talks, Bonn, 29 March to 8 April 2009 (249 kB)

13 January 2009 Message to Parties regarding early submission of information and


views (209 kB)

6 October 2008 COP 14 - Notification to NGO / IGO (211 kB)

1 October 2008 COP 14 - Notification to Parties and observer States (222 kB)
05 September Message to Parties regarding early submission of information and
2008 views (180 kB)

10 July 2008 Information Note, Fellowship Programme (137 kB)

24 June 2008 Notification to UN specialized Agencies about Accra Climate


Change Talks (191 kB)

24 june 2008 Notification to NGOs and IGOs about Accra Climate Change Talks
(195 kB)

24 June 2008 Message to Parties regarding early submission of information and


views (210 kB)

23 June 2008 Notification to Parties and observer States about Accra Climate
Change Talks (196 kB)

17 April 2008 Notification to Parties and observer States about AWG-LCA 2 -


Provisional agenda (74 kB)

Notification to United Nations Secretariat units and bodies,


4 April 2008 specialized agencies and related organizations about SBSTA and SBI
28, AWG-LCA 2 and AWG-KP 5 (84 kB)

3 April 2008 Notification to NGOs and IGOs about SBSTA and SBI 28, AWG-
LCA 2 and AWG-KP 5 (86 kB)

2 April 2008 Notification to Parties and observer States about SBSTA and SBI 28,
AWG-LCA 2 and AWG-KP 5 (85 kB)

23 January 2008 Early submission of information and views - January 2008 (369 kB)

18 October 2007 Early submission of information and views (87 kB)

4 October 2007 COP 13 - Notification to NGO / IGO (612 kB)

2 October 2007 COP 13 - Notification to Parties (147 kB)

20 September Information Note - Initial eligibility of Austria, Hungary, Japan, New


2007 Zealand and Switzerland (91 kB)
17 September
New President of COP 12 and CMP 2 (24 kB)
2007

28 June 2007 Vienna 2007: Intersessional meetings - UN organizations (585 kB)

28 June 2007 Vienna 2007: Intersessional meetings - IGO, NGO (587 kB)

26 June 2007 Vienna 2007: Intersessional meetings - Parties and Observers (235
kB)

30 May 2007 Early submission of information and views (349 kB)

02 March 2007 Bonn 2007: Sessions of the subsidiary bodies (415 kB)
Venue of the thirteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP
14 Feb 2007 13) and the third sesssion of the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto
Protocol (CMP3) Nusa Dua, Bali, 3 to 14 December 2007 (55 kB)

06 Dec 2006 Early submission of information and views (215 kB)

12 Sep 2006 Notice to IGOS and NGOS about COP 12 and COP/MOP 2 (528 kB)

04 Sep 2006 Notice to Parties and observer States about COP 12 and COP/MOP 2
(644 kB)

02 June 2006 Notice to Parties and observer States about submission of information
and views (250 kB)

22 Mar 2006 Arrangements for press/media briefings during the May 2006
sessions (50 kB)

20 Mar 2006 Notice to United Nations Secretariat Units and bodies, and to
specialized agencies about AWG, SBSTA 24 and SBI 24 (441 kB)

20 Mar 2006 Notice to IGO and NGOs admitted as observers about AWG, SBSTA
24 and SBI 24 (478 kB)

15 Mar 2006 Notification to Parties and observer States about AWG, SBSTA 24
and SBI 24 (475 kB)

The Bureau of the Convention agreed on an Ad Hoc Working Group


6 Mar 2006 on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
(AWG) (236 kB)

21 Feb 2006 New President of COP 11 and COP/MOP 1 (73 kB)

20 Feb 2006 Announcement about proposed amendment, by Belarus, to Annex B


of the Kyoto Protocol (131 kB)

17 Jan 2006 Upcoming deadlines for submission of views or information by


Parties (282 kB)

18 Oct 2005 Candidacy for the post of Executive-Secretary (123 kB)

19 oct 2005 Ceremony to honour the life and work of Ms. Joke Waller-Hunter, 25
October 2005 (47 kB)

14 Oct 2005 Passing away of Ms. Joke Waller-Hunter, UNFCCC Executive


Secretary (66 kB)

12 Sep 2005 Notification to National Focal Points about Kyoto Protocol reports
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14 Sep 2005 Notification to intergovernmental and non-governmental


organizations about COP 11 and COP/MOP 1 (555 kB)
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30 June 2005 Message to Parties pertaining to the election of the Compliance


Committee at COP MOP 1 (385 kB)

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02 June 2005 Upcoming deadlines for submission of views or information by


Parties (564 kB)

26 May 2005 Amendment of the Kyoto Protocol (1911 kB)

02 May 2005 Second information note on the seminar of governmental experts


(259 kB)

Notice to United Nations Secretariat Units and bodies, and to


21 March 2005 specialized agencies, about the upcoming twenty-second sessions of the
subsidiary bodies (743 kB)

Notice to all intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental


21 March 2005 organizations admitted as observers about the upcoming twenty-second
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16 March 2005 Forthcoming twenty-second sessions of the subsidiary bodies (767


kB)

16 Feb 2005 Canada to host COP 11 and COP/MOP 1 in Montréal (120 kB)

16 Feb 2005 Seminar of governmental experts to promote information exchanging


about mitigation, adaptation, policies and measures (214 kB)

24 Jan 2005 Events and activities relating to the entry into force of the Kyoto
Protocol on 16 February 2005 (111 kB)

14 Jan 2005 Notice to parties about upcoming deadlines for submission of views
or information (320 kB)

8 Nov 2004 Meeting of G 77 and China on 4 and 5 December (66kB)

1 Oct 2004 Notice to Parties, observer States and accredited observer


organizations about relaunching unfccc.int on 11 October (250 kB)

6 Oct 2004 Notification to Observer Organizations (576 kB)

6 Oct 2004 Notification to Parties (608 kB)

15 Sep 2004 Information Note to Annex I Parties on new CRF Reporter software
(880 kB)
12 July 2004 Deadline for submissions 2004 (264 kB)

6 July 2004 Internal review of activities of the secretariat (decision 16/CP.9) (38
kB)

30 June 2004 Revised notification of contributions for the year 2004 (587 kB)
2 March 2004 Note to Parties: Dates and venue of COP 10 (95kB)
Roster of Experts
The UNFCCC Roster of Experts contains information on experts in the areas of greenhouse gas
inventory issues, in-depth reviews of national communications from Annex I Parties and
technology transfer. These experts have been nominated by their Party’s National Focal Point.
To be able to implement activities mandated by the subsidiary bodies, the COP and/or the CMP,
the secretariat continuously invites Parties to the Convention.
• To nominate new experts to the UNFCCCC Roster of Experts,
• To regularly check, and, where necessary, update the information on experts already
nominated to the Roster of Experts,
• To remove experts from the Roster of Experts who are no longer available for
cooperation with the secretariat
These updates can be performed by National Focal Points and roster custodians designated by
their respective National Focal Points. For new nominations, the following three steps should be
followed:
1. The expert provides the National Focal Point or the Roster custodian with his/her relevant
information (see form on the right).
2. The National Focal Point or the roster custodian enters the information online into the
UNFCCC Roster database.
3. The National Focal Point or the Roster custodian sends the expert’s Curriculum Vitae by e
mail to mailto:Roster@unfccc.int
Nominate an expert/Update the information

For questions, please contact Roster@unfccc.int

Press

Latest meeting
Bonn Climate Change Talks August 2010 - Press information
The thirteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I
Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 13) and the eleventh sessions of the Ad Hoc
Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 11)
was held from Monday 2 to Friday 6 August 2010 at Hotel Maritim, Bonn, Germany.
Closing press briefing with UNFCCC Executive Secretary
UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres briefed the press on the closing of the UN
Climate Change Talks in Bonn today, 6 August 2010 at 13:15 CEST. The briefing was
webcast live and is available on demand.
Speaking notes (68 kB)
-----------------------------------------------------------------

UNFCCC Press briefing Thursday, 22 July 2010


UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres briefed the press about the status of the
UN climate change process.

View webcast

Upcoming meetings

Press accreditation
Accreditation for the fourteenth session of the AWG-KP and the twelfth session of the
AWG-LCA to take place from Monday, 4 to Saturday, 9 October 2010 in Tianjin, China is
now open. Deadline is Thursday, 30 September 2010.

Accreditation for the UN Climate Change Conference in Cancún (29 November to 10


December 2010) will open in the fall, approximately two months before the conference.

Fact sheets

Why is a global climate Introduction to the UNFCCC and Nairobi


change deal so important? (178 its Kyoto Protocol (18 kB) Framework (105
kB) kB)

Financing responses to The Kyoto Protocol (45 kB) The need for
climate change (136 kB) adaptation (258 kB)

Why technology is so The need for mitigation (399 kB) Climate change
important (55 kB) science (56 kB)

UNFCCC terminology (17 UNFCCC Emissions Reporting UNFCCC


kB) (27 kB) secretariat (15 kB)

Fact sheet reducing What is the United Nations


emissions from deforestation Climate Change Conference
(38 kB) (COP/CMP)? (60 kB)

More information
Frequently requested Quick facts

• Press releases • GHG emission profiles for Annex I


• Statements Parties
• Kyoto ratification • External GHG emissions data
• CDM projects • UNFCCC GHG data FAQs
• UNFCCC events
• Accreditation: Frequently Asked
Questions (Section 4)
• Use of cameras and audio/video
recording devices by participants at
sessions of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate
Change and other meetings and
workshops - pdf (24 kB)

The Secretariat Secretariat staff vision


We support cooperative action by States to combat climate change and its
impacts on humanity and ecosystems. This is our contribution to a
sustainable world and to realizing the vision of peace, security and human
dignity on which the United Nations is founded.
Guided by the Parties to the Convention, we provide organizational support
and technical expertise to their negotiations and institutions and facilitate
the flow of authoritative information on the implementation of the
Convention. We are committed to performing these tasks to the highest Historic Haus
standards of professionalism and objectivity. Carstanjen where
the Marshall Plan
We strive to be a dynamic team, committed to the promotion of a was signed
participatory and caring work environment. Our respect for each other and
our blend of diverse cultures, gender and backgrounds enrich and enhance our work.
UNFCCC is committed to:
• Making a contribution to sustainable development through support for action to mitigate
and to adapt to climate change at the global, regional and national level.
• Providing high-quality support to the intergovernmental process in the context of the
Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
• Creating and maintaining necessary conditions for an early, effective and efficient
implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
• Providing and disseminating high-quality, understandable and reliable information and
data on climate change and on efforts to address it.
• Promoting and enhancing the active engagement of NGO's, business and industry, the
scientific community and other relevant stakeholders in our work and processes,
including through effective communication.
• Creating and maintaining a caring working environment that is conducive to self-
actualization of staff, information sharing and teamwork and allows the delivery of the
highest quality products.
• Cooperation & Support International cooperation, and the provision of support to
developing countries and to countries with economies in transition, are crucial to ensure
the implementation of the Convention by all Parties. These would be impossible without
support from the Convention's financial mechanism - the Global Environment Facility
(GEF), its implementing agencies, and a host of other international organizations. Both
the SBI and the SBSTA have a number of standing agenda items that fit under this
overall heading, and this section of the website gives access to the key areas of that work.

Financial Mechanism
The Financial Mechanism pages contain information on the financial
mechanism of the Convention - the Global Environmental Facility (GEF),
as well as details about three special funds: Special Climate Change Fund
(SCCF), Adaptation Fund (AF), and the Least Developed Countries Fund
(LDCF). There is also information on guidance provided by the Parties to
the financial mechanism as well as on the review process of operations of
the financial mechanism. The pages also provide a list of all relevant
decisions related to the financial mechanism and links to relevant external
sites.

Technology
The Technology section has links to the Convention's technology clearing
house information system (TT:CLEAR), and to work done by the SBSTA
in implementing the Technology Transfer Framework (Decision 4/CP.7),
including through the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT).

Least Developed Countries


The Least Developed Country (LDC) page provides links to information
that is of specific interest for LDCs, such as work on National Adaptation
Programmes of Action (NAPA), and the work of the LDC Expert Group
(LEG), which are contained in other parts of the UNFCCC website, as well
as to relevant information on selected external websites.

Education and Outreach


The section on Education and Outreach includes information on the
implementation of the New Delhi Work Programme on Article 6 of the
Convention: "Education, Training, Public Awareness, Public Participation,
Public Access to Information and International Cooperation." It also hosts
the information network clearing house on Article 6 of the Convention (
CC:iNet).

Response Measures
The impact of the implementation of response measures generally refers to
the negative side effects resulting from the implementation of climate
change mitigation activites. The Convention and its Kyoto Protocol commit
Parties to minimize adverse economic, social and environmental impacts on
developing countries when responding to climate change.
Capacity-building
The section on Capacity Building looks at the implementation of the
capacity building frameworks by developing countries and countries with
economies in transition, and contains information on the activities and
information products of supporting organizations.

Cooperation with International Organizations


Cooperation with International Organizations, such as with scientific
bodies, UN agencies and other conventions, is an important and essential
dimension of the implementation of the Convention.

Activities Implemented Jointly


A pilot phase of activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was launched in 1995
under which Annex I Parties may implement projects in other countries that
reduce emissions of greenhouse gases or enhance their removal through
sinks. AIJ under the pilot phase are undertaken on a voluntary basis.

Financial mechanism
Introduction

The contribution of countries to climate change and their capacity to prevent and cope with its
consequences vary enormously. The Convention and the Protocol therefore foresee financial
assistance from Parties with more resources to those less endowed and more vulnerable.
Developed country Parties (Annex II Parties) shall provide financial resources to assist
developing country Parties implement the Convention. To facilitate this, the Convention
established a financial mechanism to provide funds to developing country Parties.
The Parties to the Convention assigned operation of the financial mechanism to the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) on an on-going basis, subject to review every four years. The
financial mechanism is accountable to the COP, which decides on its climate change policies,
programme priorities and eligibility criteria for funding, based on advice from the SBI.
The Kyoto Protocol also recognizes, under its Article 11, the need for the financial mechanism to
fund activities by developing country Parties.
In addition to providing guidance to the GEF, Parties have established three special funds: the
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), under the
Convention; and the Adaptation Fund (AF), under the Kyoto Protocol.
Funding to climate change actvities is also available through bilateral, regional and multilateral
channels.
More information on funding

Recent developments

Financial needs assessments


At its 28th session, the SBI gave the mandate to the secretariat, to provide, upon request,
information on the assessment of financing needs of non-Annex I Parties to implement
mitigation and adaptation measures. The National Economic, Environment and Development
Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change Project was launched in response to this mandate, and
eleven countries have availed of technical assistance from the secretariat to conduct financial
needs assessments as part of the project.
An interim report summarizing initial findings gathered by participating countries was prepared
by the secretariat and presented at a high-level side event held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 17
December 2009.
The final summary report of the NEEDS Project is expected to be published in the second half of
2010, once all participating countries submit their final reports.
At its 32nd session, the SBI requested the secretariat to compile and synthesize the information
contained in the NEEDS reports of participating eleven countries for consideration by SBI 33 in
December 2010.
More on the NEEDS Project
Investment and financial flows to address climate change: An update

The AWG-LCA 2 has requested the UNFCCC secretariat o prepare an update of the technical
paper on investment and financial flows to address climate change, taking into account
paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan. The objective is to present analysis that would move
forward the discussion on financing from broad investment and financial needs to options, tools
and mechanisms for enhancing funding for mitigation, adaptation and technology cooperation
for an effective response to climate change.

Investment and financial flows to address climate change: An update (FCCC/TP/2008/7)

Updated 23 June 2010

Development and Transfer of Technologies


Recent developments
Outcomes of the thirty-first sessions of the SBSTA and SBI
The SBI and the SBSTA welcomed the report of the EGTT for 2009. The SBI and the SBSTA
noted the oral report by the Chair of the EGTT on the outcomes of the group’s fourth meeting,
held from 23 to 25 September 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand. They welcomed the continued
dialogue of the EGTT with the business community that took place in conjunction with this
meeting. The SBI and the SBSTA recalled their conclusions at their thirtieth sessions that
consideration should be given to establishing an effective means of engaging the private sector
more fully in the process.
The SBI and the SBSTA endorsed the rolling programme of work of the EGTT for 2010–
2011. The SBI and the SBSTA noted that the EGTT will convene its special meeting in
February 2010 to update this programme of work, taking into account the outcome of the
fifteenth session of the COP, and will submit the updated programme of work for consideration
by the SBI and the SBSTA at their thirty-second sessions.
The SBI and the SBSTA welcomed the final report of the EGTT on performance indicators.
The SBI noted that the report contains a set of indicators that would be used by the SBI, to the
extent possible, as one of the tools to conduct the review and assessment of the effectiveness of
the implementation of Article 4, paragraphs 1(c) and 5, of the Convention, and to regularly
monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the technology transfer
framework, as requested by decision 4/CP.13
The SBI noted the second interim report of the GEF on the progress made in carrying out the
Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer. The SBI invited the GEF to provide a report
on the progress made on the implementation of this programme at its thirty-second session,
including on the long-term aspects of the Poznan strategic programme.

Background

Under the Convention, the developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in
Annex II shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the
transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties,
particularly to developing countries to enable them to implement the provisions of the
Convention (Article 4.5). This commitment is echoed in similar provisions under the Kyoto
Protocol (Article 10 c). Parties have taken decisions to promote the development and transfer of
environmentally sound technologies at each session of the COP more >>

Framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article
4.5 of the Convention

As part of the Marrakesh Accords, at COP 7, Parties were able to reach an agreement to work
together on a set of technology transfer activities, grouped under a framework for meaningful
and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4.5 of the Convention. This
framework, contained in the annex to decision 4/CP.7, has five main themes:
• Technology needs & needs assessments
• Technology information
• Enabling environments
• Capacity building
• Mechanisms for technology transfer
At COP 13, Parties adopted a set of actions for enhancing the implementation of the
technology transfer framework and agreed that these activities would complement the actions in
the technology transfer framework. These actions include the organization of meetings and
workshops, the implementation of the results of technology needs identified in TNAs, the further
development of the technology transfer information clearinghouse, including a network of
technology information centres, actions by governments to create enabling environments that
will improve the effectiveness of the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, capacity
building activities and technical support for project developers in developing countries. Funding
to implement the framework complemented by the set of actions is to be provided through the
GEF.

Expert group on technology transfer

The Marrakesh Accords provide also for the establishment of an Expert Group on Technology
Transfer (EGTT), nominated by the Parties. The COP at its thirteenth session agreed to
reconstitute the EGTT for a further five years. The Expert Group comprises 19 experts,
including three members from each of the developing country regions (Africa, Asia and the
Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean), one from the small island developing states,
eight from Annex I Parties, and one from other non-Annex I Parties. The objectives of the
Expert Group are to enhance the implementation of Article 4.5 of the Convention and to advance
technology transfer activities under the Convention and to make recommendations to this end to
the SBSTA and the SBI. more >>

Technology transfer information clearinghouse - TT:CLEAR

The secretariat upon the request by the COP and SBSTA has developed a technology
information system (TT:CLEAR), including an inventory of environmentally friendly
technologies and projects, as well as its technology web page. The main objective of TT:CLEAR
is to improve the flow of, access to and quality of information relating to the development and
transfer of environmentally sound technologies under the Article 4.5 of the Convention and to
contribute to more efficient use of available resources by achieving synergy with other ongoing
efforts. more >>
Least Developed Countries Portal

Français - The Least Developed Countries (LDC) entry page provides links to information that is
of specific interest for LDCs, such as work on National Adaptation Programmes of Action
(NAPA), the work of the LDC Expert Group (LEG), the LDC Fund, Relevant LDC Decisions
and Conclusions and Frequently Asked Questions on NAPAs, LEG and LDCF. Information on
these LDC issues can also be found on other parts of the UNFCCC website, as well as on
selected external websites.
Least Developed Countries (LDC) Work Programme and the NAPA
The LDC Work Programme and the NAPA pages provide information on the situation of LDCs
under the Climate Change convention, the NAPA rationale and focus as well as on the NAPA
prepation and implementation. Additional information on the LDC Work Programme and
capacity building follows.
Submitted NAPAs

This section presents information on the list of countries which have submitted their NAPAs and
the date of submission. NAPAs are available for download in the language initially submitted.
NAPA Priorities Database
The NAPA Priorities Database pages present the list of ranked priority adaptation activities and
projects, as well as short profiles of each activity or project, designed to facilitate the
development of proposals for implementation. Projects are also arranged by sector.
LDCF/NAPA Projects
The LDCF/NAPA Projects pages provides updated information on the status of implementation
of NAPA project under the LDCF.
LDC Expert Group (LEG)
The section on LDC Expert Group includes information on the function, members and work
porgramme of the accompanying Body to the LDCs which have engaged the NAPA processes. It
also contains information on various LEG meetings and workshops.
Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)
This section provides links to the Least Developed Countries Fund which was established to
support a work programme for the Least Developed Country Parties on the preparation and
implementation of their NAPAs. Key documents and decisions about funding issues to LDCs
can be found on this page.
Relevant COP Decisions and SBI Conclusions
This page presents links to decisions and conlusions on LDC matters, including on the LEG and
the LDCF.
Frequently Asked Questions
The section on Frequently Asked Questions refers to a list of questions and answers, frequently
asked in the context of LDCs, NAPA and the LEG.

Last modified: 12 July 2010

Chronological Evolution of LDC work Programme and Concept of NAPAs

Français

LDCs under the Convention

Article 4.9 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
recognizes the special situations of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and states:
"The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the Least
Developed Countires in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology".
Five major decisions were adopted at COP 7 as follows:
• Decision 2/CP.7: Capacity builing in developing countries (non-Annex I Parties);
• Decision 5/CP.7: Implementation of Article 4, paragraph 8 and 9, of the Convention
(decision 3/CP.3 and Article 2, paragraph 3, and Article 3, paragraph 14, of the Kyoto
Protocol);
• Decision 27/CP.7: Guidance to an entity entrusted with the operation of the financial
mechanism of the Convention, for the operation of the least developed countries fund;
• Decision 28/CP.7: Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of
action;
• Decision 29/CP.7: Establishment of a least developed countries expert group.
The national adaptation programme of action (NAPA)

Rationale and Focus for NAPAs

In order to address the urgent adaptation needs of LDCs, a new approach was needed that would
focus on enhancing adaptive capacity to climate variability, which itself would help address the
adverse effects of climate change. The NAPA takes into account existing coping strategies at the
grassroots level, and builds upon that to identify priority activities, rather than focusing on
scenario-based modeling to assess future vulnerability and long-term policy at state level. In the
NAPA process, prominence is given to community-level input as an important source of
information, recognizing that grassroots communities are the main stakeholders.
NAPAs provide a process for LDCs to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and
immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change. The rationale for NAPAs rests on
the limited ability of LDCs to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.
The NAPAs focus on urgent and immediate needs - those for which further delay could increase
vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. NAPAs are designed to use existing
information; and no new research is needed. They must be action-oriented and country-driven
and be flexible and based on national circumstances. Finally, in order to effectively address
urgent and immediate adaptation needs, NAPA documents should be presented in a simple
format, easily understood both by policy-level decision-makers and by the public.
The NAPA Preparation Process

The steps for the preparation of the NAPAs include synthesis of available information,
participatory assessment of vulnerability to current climate variability and extreme events and of
areas where risks would increase due to climate change, identification of key adaptation
measures as well as criteria for prioritizing activities, and selection of a prioritized short list of
activities. The development of a NAPA also includes short profiles of projects and/or activities
intended to address urgent and immediate adaptation needs of LDC Parties. Upon completion,
the NAPA is submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat, where it is posted on the website, and the
LDC Party becomes eligible to apply for funding for implementation of the NAPA under the
LDC Fund. A copy of the NAPA is also sent to the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
The NAPA Implementation Process

Once a NAPA has been submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat, the LDC Party can start the
process of implementation under the LDC Fund, which is managed by the GEF. To initiate
implementation, an LDC Party prepares a concept note and requests an implementing agency of
the GEF (currently there are 10 of them), to assist it in submitting a proposal for funding to the
GEF under the LDC Fund. The GEF agency then works with the country to develop the concept
into a full project that is ready for implementation under the GEF project cycle.
The GEF cycle includes a sequence of steps that includes submission of a project
identification form (PIF), followed by a project preparation grant (PPG), then a full-sized project
(FSP) proposal. Each of these stages is either approved by the GEF Chief Operating Officer
and/or the GEF Council. This interactive process with the country is supported by funds to assist
the country fully develop the project and prepare the relevant project documents for submission.
The GEF agency works very closely with the country during each successive step, and
ultimately supports the country in implementing the project.

The LDC Work Programme and Scope for Capacity-building

Decision 5/CP.7 of the 7th Conference of the Parties (COP) acknowledged the specific decisions
of LDCs, in that they do not have the means to deal with problems associated with adaptation to
climate change, and established an LDC work programme, which includes:
• Preparation and implementation of NAPAs
• Strengthening climate change Secretariat and Focal Points
• Training in negotiation skills and language
• Promotion of public awareness
• Developing and transfer of technology
In the capacity-building framework for developing countries, in annex to decision 2/CP.7,
paragraph 17, the specific scope for capacity building in Least Developed Countries is presented
and includes:
The Least Developed Countries, and Small Islands Developing States amongst them, are among
the most vulnerable to extreme weather events and the adverse effects of climate change. They
also have the least capacity to cope with and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. The
following is the initial assessment of needs and priority areas for capacity building in these
countries:
(a) Strengthening existing and, where needed, establishing national climate change secretariat
or focal points to enable the effective implementation of the Convention and effective
participation in the Kyoto Protocol process, including preparation of national communications;
(b) Developing an integrated implementation programme which takes into account the role of
research and training in capacity building;
(c) Developing and enhancing technical capacities and skills to carry out and effectively
integrate vulnerability and adaptation assessment into sustainable development programmes
and develop national adaptation programmes of action;
(d) Strengthening existing and, where needed, establishing national research and training
institutions in order to ensure the sustainability of the capacity-building programmes;
(e) Strengthening the capacity of meteorological and hydrological services to collect, analyse,
interpret and disseminate weather and climate information to support implementation of
national adaptation programmes of action;
(f) Enhancing public awareness (level of understanding and human capacity development).

Last modified: 09 August 2010

NAPAs received by the secretariat - Last update: 01 March 2010

The following NAPAs have been made available to the UNFCCC Secretariat and are reproduced
here in pdf for download, in the original language. A translation to other languages is also
provided where available. The date of submission is provided, as this determines eligibility to
apply for funding for implementation under the LDC Fund, which is managed by the Global
Environment Facility (GEF). The latest NAPA received is Chad in February 2010.

Number:
National Adaptation Date NAPA
alphabetical Country
Programme of Action posted
order

September
1 Afghanistan English
2009
2 Bangladesh English November 2005

3 Benin French January 2008

4 Bhutan English May 2006

5 Burkina Faso French December 2007

6 Burundi French / English February 2007

7 Cambodia English March 2007

8 Cape Verde English December 2007


9 Central African Republic French June 2008

10 Chad French February 2010


11 Comoros French / English November 2006
Democratic Republic of September
12 French
Congo 2006

13 Djibouti French October 2006

14 Eritrea English May 2007

15 Ethiopia English June 2008

16 Gambia English January 2008

17 Guinea French July 2007

18 Guinea-Bissau English February 2008

19 Haïti Français December 2006

20 Kiribati English January 2007

Lao People's Democratic


21 English May 2009
Republic

22 Lesotho English June 2007

23 Liberia English July 2007

24 Madagascar Français December 2006

25 Malawi English March 2006

26 Maldives English March 2008

27 Mali French December 2007

28 Mauritania French / English November 2004

29 Mozambique English July 2008

30 Niger French, English July 2006

31 Rwanda French, English May 2007

32 Samoa English December 2005

33 Sao Tome and Principe English November 2007

34 Senegal French November 2006


35 Sierre Leone English June 2008

36 Solomon Islands English December 2008

37 Sudan English June 2007

September
38 Tanzania English 2007
September
39 Togo French 2009

40 Tuvalu English May 2007

41 Uganda English December 2007

42 Vanuatu English December 2007

43 Yemen English April 2009

44 Zambia English October 2007

NAPA Priorities Database


NAPAs contain a list of ranked priority adaptation activities and projects, as well as short
profiles of each activity or project, designed to facilitate the development of proposals for
implementation. To facilitate access to this information based on the NAPAs that have been
submitted to date, below are listings of projects and project profiles, grouped by country and
according to main sectors for which an activity falls. Some projects and activities are very cross-
sectoral in nature, and difficult to classify into any one sector. Such projects have been put into a
'cross-sectoral' group. The information is given below for project titles by country, as well as
downloadable as files in the Adobe portable document format (pdf).

Lists of All NAPA Project Titles (319 kB)

by Country (319 kB) by Sector (294 kB)

Lists of NAPA Priority Projects by Sector

Cross-sectoral (2298 kB) Health (1717 kB)

Food Security (4859 kB) (Agriculture,


Livestock, Fisheries, and other Infrastructure (1425 kB)
Livelihood sources)

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems


Insurance (195 kB)
(2495 kB)

Terrestrial Ecosystems (4398 kB) (Land


Early Warning and Disaster
Management, Forest Ecosystems,
Management (2041 kB)
Wetlands/lakes, Natural Sites)
Education and Capacity Building (1582
Tourism (460 kB)
kB)

Energy (979 kB) Water Resources (3082 kB)


Lists of NAPA Priority Projects by Country showing indicated project cost and
downloadable file with list of projects

Afghanistan

Project Indicative Project Cost


Project Title
Number (USD)

Improved water management and use


1 2,200,000
efficiency
Community based watershed
2 2,200,000
management

Bangladesh ( Project Profiles (623 kB) )

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

Reduction of Climate Change Hazards through


1
Coastal afforestation with community participation 23,000,000

Providing drinking water to coastal communities to


2
combat enhanced salinity due to sea level rise 1,525,000

Capacity building for integrating Climate Change


in planning, designing of infrastructure, conflict
3
management and land-water zoning for water 5,050,000
management institutions
Climate change and adaptation information
dissemination to vulnerable community for
4
emergency preparedness measures and awareness 7,050,000
raising on enhanced climatic disasters
Construction of flood shelter, and information and
5 assistance centre to cope with enhanced recurrent
5,050,000
floods in major floodplains
Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change into
policies and programmes in different sectors
6 1,025,000
(focusing on disaster management, water,
agriculture, health and industry)
Inclusion of climate change issues in curriculum at
7 525,000
secondary and tertiary educational institution
Enhancing resilience of urban infrastructure and
8 2,025,000
industries to impacts of climate change
Development of eco-specific adaptive knowledge
(including indigenous knowledge) on adaptation to
9 5,050,000
climate variability to enhance adaptive capacity for
future climate change
Promotion of research on drought, flood and
10 saline tolerant varieties of crops to facilitate 5,050,000
adaptation in future
Promoting adaptation to coastal crop agriculture
11 6,550,000
to combat increased salinity
Adaptation to agriculture systems in areas prone to
12 enhanced flash flooding–North East and Central 6,550,000
Region
Adaptation to fisheries in areas prone to enhanced
13 flooding in North East and Central Region through 4,550,000
adaptive and diversified fish culture practices
Promoting adaptation to coastal fisheries through
14 culture of salt tolerant fish special in coastal areas 4,050,000
of Bangladesh
Exploring options for insurance to cope with
15 225,000
enhanced climatic disasters

Benin ( Project Profiles (574 kB) )

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Implementation of a forecasting system for early warning


1 and climatic risks for food security in four (4) vulnerable 8,190,000
agroecological regions

Adaptation of households to climate change through


awareness-raising and capacity building on the use of
2 renewable energy (solar energy) and energy-efficient stoves 2,106,600
in the areas vulnerable to climate change and with highly
degraded soils
Exploitation of surface water as a means to adapt to climate
3 change in the most vulnerable areas in the Centre and 2,875,000
North Provinces

Protection of children under five (5) and pregnant women


4 against malaria in the areas most vulnerable to climate 1,112,500
change

5 Protection of coastal areas against sea level rise 1,296,000

Bhutan (Project Profiles) (840 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

Disaster Management Strategy – planning for food


1 security and emergency medicine to vulnerable 619,110
communities

2 Artificial Lowering of Thorthomi Lake 3,188,942

Weather Forecasting System to Serve Farmers and


3 420,000
Agriculture

Landslide Management & Flood Prevention (Pilot


4 894,179
Schemes in Critical Areas)

Flood Protection of Downstream Industrial and


5 453,488
Agricultural Areas

6 Rainwater Harvesting 895,000

GLOF Hazard Zoning (Pilot Scheme – Chamkhar


7 232,493
Chu Basin)

Installation of Early Warning System on Pho Chu


8 400,000
Basin

Promote Community-based Forest Fire Management


9 423,000
and Prevention
Burkina Faso (Project Profile) (1213 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Mitigating vulnerability to Climate Changes through the


1 strengthening of a prevention and food crisis management 400,000
system

Securing cereal production through the promotion of


supplemental irrigation in the following areas: North
2 408,660
Region (Oudalan Province) and Centre-North region
(Namentenga Province)

3 Restoration and management of Oursi pond 275,000

Fodder production and development of fodder stocks for


4 330,000
livestock in the Sahelian Region of Burkina Faso

Rehabilitation, sustainable management of natural


5 vegetation, and valorisation of Non-timber Forest Products 700,000
in the Eastern region of Burkina Faso

Control of sand encroachment/mud silting in the river


6 352,000
basins of Mouhoun, Nakanbé and Comoé

Implementation of irrigated crops in Gourma, Namentenga,


7 443,300
Tapoa and Sanmatnga regions

Protection of pastoral-suited regions in the Sahelian and


8 320,000
Eastern regions

Securing agricultural production through the use of


9 appropriate technological packages in the South-East and 297,924
East regions

Promoting community-based fauna management in the


10 810,000
Mouhoun region

11 Implementation of safety zones and backup devices to 330,000


control pollution of underground and surface water
catchment infrastructures (lakes, wells, boreholes) in the
cotton belts of Burkina (Mouhoun, South-West, Comoé and
the Easetern part of Nakanbé)

Promoting the use of energy saving equipment (improved


stoves, M'Bora stew pan) and renewable energy-based
12 1,230,000
technologies (pressure-cooker, water heater and solar
dryers, etc.)

Burundi (Project Profiles) (780 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

Improvement of seasonal early warning climate


1 500,000
forecasts

2 Rehabilitation of degraded areas 500,000

3 Safeguarding of the natural environments 200,000.00

4 Rainwater Valorisation 1,000,000

5 Erosion control in the region of Mumirwa 600,000

Protection of buffer zones in Lake Tanganyika


6 200,000
floodplain and around the lakes of Bugesera

Popularisation of short cycle and drought resistant


7 294,000
food crops

8 Zero grazing technique 300,000

Capacity building to promote energy-wood saving


9 700,000
techniques

Stabilisation of river dynamics of watercourses and


10 torrents in Mumirwa, including the city of 2,000,000
Bujumbura

11 Education on climate change adaptation 500,000

12 Increase hydropower micro stations 500,000


Cambodia (Project Profiles) (704 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

Rehabilitation of a Multiple Use Reservoir in Takeo


1 4,000,000
Province

Rehabilitation of Multiple Use Dams in Takeo and


2 2,500,000
Kampong Speu Provinces

Community and Household Water Supply in


3 1,000,000
Coastal Provinces

Development and Rehabilitation of Flood


4 5,000,000
Protection Dykes

Rehabilitation of Upper Mekong and Provincial


5 30,000,000
Waterways

Rehabilitation of Multiple-Use Canals in Banteay


6 1,500,000
Meas District, Kampot Province

Vegetation Planting for Flood and Windstorm


7 4,000,000
Protection

Strengthening of Community Disaster


8 5,000,000
Preparedness and Response Capacity

9 Water Gates and Water Culverts Construction 10,000,000

10 Safer Water Supply for Rural Communities 5,000,000

Development and Improvement of Small-Scale


11 4,000,000
Aquaculture Ponds

12 Promotion of Household Integrated Farming 2,500,000

13 Rehabilitation of Coastal Protection Infrastructure 2,000,000


Development and Improvement of Community
14 45,000,000
Irrigation Systems

Community Mangrove Restoration and Sustainable


15 1,000,000
Use of Natural Resources

Community Based Agricultural Soil Conservation


16 2,000,000
in Srae Ambel District, Koh Kong Province

17 Production of Biopesticides 3,000,000

18 Development of Healthcare Centres and Posts 750,000

Provision of Safe Water in High Risk Malaria


19 100,000
Regions

Malaria Education and Mosquito Habitat


20 500,000
Clearance Campaigns

Cape Verde (Project Profiles) (353 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

Mobilization and integrated water resource


1 13,680,000
management project

Modernization and diversification of agricultual


2 1,500,000
production for food security improvement

Integrated Protection and management of coastal


3 1,500,000
zones

Central African Republic (Project Profiles) (589 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

1 Building community institutional capacities for eco- 250,000


development

2 Promoting urban and suburban forests 250,000

Management of the native vegetation for the restoration


3 250,000
of degraded pastoral areas in Bossemptele

Community Participation in the reforestation and forest


4 250,000
management in Southeast of Ombella M’Poko

Implementation of climate change-resistant varieties in


5 250,000
the Centre, North and Southeast of the country

Promotion of the carbonization of wood byproducts from


6 250,000
forest companies

Improvement of the drinking water system in the area of


7 250,000
Imohoro

Implementation of an early warning and prevention


8 system/Mitigation of harmful effects of abrupt climate 500,000
change in local communities in RCA

Strengthening local community/authority capacities on


9 250,000
the risks of abrupt climate change
Prevention against water-borne diseases and other
10 500,000
seasonal pathologies in rural areas

Chad

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Capture of surface water for agriculture and provision


1 1,800,000
of food for livestock
Diversification of cultures in Sudanese and Sahelian
2 1,200,000
areas
Improvement and development of outreach activities to
3 1,000,000
promote cultural calendar
Improvement of the information, education and
4 1,100,000
communication means for adaptation to climate change
Construction of infrastructure to protect and preserve
5 1,100,000
soils for the development of agricultural activities

6 Improvement of intercommunity pasture areas 1,500,000

Improvement of the quality of seasonal forecast for rain


7 fall and surface water flow and thier integration into an 1,700,000
overall strategy for vulnerability
National observatory for climate change adaptation
8 1,600,000
policies

9 Food bank for livestock 1,000,000

Reduction of the climate change related vulnerability of


10 the populations/ management of risks induced by 2,000,000
climate change

Comoros (Project Profiles) (698 kB)

Project Indicative Project Cost


Project Title
Number (USD)

Varieties that are more adapted to


1 420,000
drought

2 Increase in water supply 95,000

3 Improvement of water quality 80,000

4 Defence and restoration of degraded soils 500,000

5 Fight against malaria 175,000

6 Reconstitution of basin slopes 580,000

Use of local non metallic construction


7 1,025,000
materials

8 Early warning 75,000

9 Introduction of FCM 132,000

10 Support to eye medical and surgical care 122,000


11 Short conservation of fish under ice 308,000

12 Provender production 900,000

13 Fodder production for goat breeding 100,000

Democratic Republic of Congo (Project Profiles) (637 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

1 Energy related projects 10,577,520

The strengthening of agricultural production


2 capacities: Multiplication of improved seeds of Corn, 5,658,760
Rice and Cassava

Biodiversity conservation and restoration of


3 239,374
Mangroves Marine Park

Djibouti ( Project Profiles) (753 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Mitigation of climate change-related risks for the


production system of coastal areas through an integrated,
1 1,000,000
adapted and participatory management involving
grassroots organisations

Promoting the fencing of forest areas in Day and Mabla


2 294,000
coupled with the introduction of improved stoves

Implementation of restoration and management actions


3 1,447,000
adapted to surface water

Improvement of rangeland management to mitigate the


4 1,700,000
risks associated with traditional extensive livestock

5 Promotion of the integrated agro-pastoral industry and 765,000


the development of irrigation techniques to control the
salinisation of soils

Promoting the regeneration of pastures endogenous to the


6 882,000
areas of Doda and Grand Bara

Restoration of protected sites through the protection of


7 529,000
coral reefs and mangrove vegetation

Promoting protection measures adapted to the water


8 820,000
supply infrastructures of the City of Djibouti

Eritrea (Project Profiles) (431 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Introducing community based pilot rangeland


improvement and management in selected agro-ecological
1 7,230,000
areas in the eastern and northwestern lowlands
rangelands

Introducing community based pilot projects to intensify


existing production models, area and species specific in
2 5,077,000
eastern and northwestern lowlands selecting suitable
sheep and goat breeds

Encourage Afforestation and Agroforestry through


3 5,050,000
Community Forestry Initiative

4 Groundwater recharge for irrigation wells 7,252,000

Increase agricultural production through spate irrigation


5 8,540,000
and range development

Ethiopia (Project Profiles) (429 kB)

Project Indicative Project Cost


Project Title
Number (USD)
Promoting drought/crop insurance program in
1 8,000,000
Ethiopia

Strengthening/enhancing drought and flood


2 10,000,000
early warning systems in Ethiopia

Development of small scale irrigation and water


3 harvesting schemes in arid, semi-arid, and dry 30,000,000
subhumid areas of Ethiopia

Improving/enhancing rangeland resource


4 management practices in the pastoral areas of 2,000,000
Ethiopia

Community based sustainable utilization and


5 management of wet lands in selected parts of 2,000,000
Ethiopia

Capacity building program for climate change


6 3,000,000
adaptation in Ethiopia

Realizing food security through multi-purpose


7 largescale water development project in Genale– 700,000,000
Dawa Basin

Community Based Carbon Sequestration Project


8 1,000,000
in the Rift Valley System of Ethiopia

Establishment of national research and


9 2,000,000
development (R&D) center for climate change

Strengthening malaria containment


10 6,000,000
program(MCP) in selected areas of Ethiopia

Promotion of on farm and homestead forestry


11 and agro-forestry practices in arid, semi-arid 5,000,000
and dry-sub humid parts of Ethiopia

Gambia (Project Profiles) (716 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)
Rehabilitation of Early Warning Systems on Climate
1 450,000
Related Natural Hazards

2 Improvement of Fresh Water Availability 910,000

Diversification and Intensification of Agricultural


3 2,710,000
Production, Processing, and Marketing

Expansion of Community Participation in the


4 1,412,000
Management of Forests and Protected Areas

Expansion and Intensification of Agro-forestry and


5 2,753,000
Reforestation Activities

6 Briquetting and Carbonization of Groundnut Shells 230,000

7 Reduction of climate change related diseases 1,217,000

Improved livestock and rangeland management for


8 2,800,000
food security and environmental sustainability

9 Restoration/Protection of coastal environments 2,300,000

Increasing fish production through aquaculture and


10 300,000
conservation of post harvest fishery products

Guinea (Project Profiles) (925 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Promotion of sylviculture 1. Support to the development


1 600,000
of community and private plantations of cashew

Promotion of sylviculture 2. Assistance for the


2 implementation of community-based forest management 600,000
plans

3 Valorisation of positive local knowledge and practices 300,000


Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 1. Training
4 of the coastal community on environmental friendly 250,000
techniques to exploit oysters from mangrove ecosystems

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 2.


5 300,000
Promotion of sea salt production based on solar energy

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 3.


6 300,000
Dissemination of soil conservation practices

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 4.


7 Intensification of bulrush millet crops in the North region 600,000
of Guinea

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 5.


8 Implementation of a system of early warning climate 350,000
forecasts to protect agricultural production

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 6.


9 Promoting the use of solar energy for fish drying to 200,000
reduce pressure on mangroves

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 7. Training


on and dissemination of techniques of making compacted
10 350,000
bricks to mitigate the environmental impacts of cooking
bricks

Promoting adaptation-oriented technologies. 8.


11 Promotion of wire fencing and hedge planting in 150,000
Moyenne Guinea

12 Promotion of fire management techniques and fencing 300,000

13 Protection of cultivated areas neighboring the coast 350,000

Promotion of and sensitization on Multilateral


Agreements on Environment and national legal texts
14 300,000
related to the protection and sustainable use of natural
resources

Promoting Environmental Education for coastal


15 200,000
communities

16 Promoting the restoration and integrated management of 600,000


small-scale hydraulic infrastructures. 1. Construction of
multiple use small-scale dams

Promoting the restoration and integrated management of


17 small-scale hydraulic infrastructures. 2. Construction of 180,000
artificial lakes

Promoting the restoration and integrated management of


18 small-scale hydraulic infrastructures. 3. Construction of 250,000
improved wells

Promoting the restoration and integrated management of


19 small-scale hydraulic infrastructures. 4. Surface water 320,000
potabilisation by means of hydropur

Promoting the restoration and integrated management of


20 small-scale hydraulic infrastructures 5. Dissemination of 280,000
techniques of impluvia

Protection of spawning areas in Fatale, Konkoure and


21 250,000
Mellacore estuaries

Rehabilitation of hydro-agricultural system of plains and


22 lowlands 1. Implementation of irrigated rice cultivation in 300,000
Moyenne and Haute Guinea

Promoting income-generating activities 1. Intensification


23 325,000
of small ruminant breeding

Promoting income-generating activities 2. Development


24 250,000
and promotion of vegetable growing

Promoting income-generating activities 3.


25 Implementation of a ranch for cane rats to prevent 300,000
unsustainable hunting of wildlife

Guinea Bissau (Project Profiles) (562 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)
Support to Diversification of Production and Food Di
1 600,000
et Project

2 Improvement of Water Supply in Rural Zones Project 1,000,000

Capacity building in Prevention and Protection of


3 Mangrove Bolanhas against High-Tide Invasion 600,000
Project

Observatory for Mangrove Monitoring and


4 800,000
Evaluation Project

5 Monitoring of Coastal Area Erosion 400,000

Assessment of Impact of Climate Changes in


6 350,000
Producers’ Sectors Project

Promotion of Small-scale Irrigation in Geba and


7 800,000
Corubal rivers Project

8 Prevention of Natural Catastrophes Project 300,000

Protection, Conservation and Enhancement of Fishing


9 450,000
and Coastal Resources Project

Integrated System of Information on Food S ecurity


10 300,000
Project (SISA)

Environmental Education and Communication in


11 200,000
Coastal Areas Project

Rehabilitation of Small Perimeters of Mangrove Soils


12 for Rice Growing in Tombali, Quinara, Bafata and 500,000
Oio Project

Support to Produ ction of Short-Cycle Animals


13 400,000
Project

14 Project of Reforestion of Degraded Areas 500,000

Haiti (Project Profiles) (931 kB)


Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Watershed restoration, soil conservation and


1 1,656,250
reforestation in South and Grand-Anse Provinces

2 Watershed restoration of River Grise in West Province 1,176,470

Watershed restoration of River la Quinte (Durée Ravine)


and Support to the agricultural production in Artibonite
3 1,938,548
Province against negative effects of extreme climatic
conditions

Project of flood mitigation and improvement of


4 agricultural production through the rehabilitation of 3,564,479
watersheds in Northwest and Northeast Provinces

Watershed restoration, soil conservation and


5 2,813,060
reforestation in Southeast Province

Restoration and protection of coastal areas in Northwest


6 3,004,466
and Northeast Provinces

Restoration and protection of coastal areas in West


7 2,775,960
Province

Restoration and protection of coastal areas in South and


8 2,123,500
Grand-Anse Provinces

Reforestation, preservation and protection of fruit and


9 892,650
forest species in Southeast Province

Restoration and protection of natural sites in Northeast


10 2,785,000
Province

Improved management of natural resources in Artibonite


11 266,200
Province

Support to the enhancement of agricultural production


12 417,353
capacity in Jean Rabel

13 Construction of reservoirs at household and community 828,955


levels in Grand-Anse Province

Rehabilitation of twenty five (25) water supply


14 220,932
infrastructures in four (4) Farwest districts

Kiribati (Project Profiles) (426 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (AUD)

1 Water Resource Adaptation Project 3,168,405

2 Simple well improvement 336,470

Coastal zone management and resilience


3 1,937,280
enhancement for adaptation

Strengthening Environmental, Climate Change


4 317,410
Information and Monitoring

Management of Institutional Strengthening for


5 319,440
NAPA

6 Upgrading of meteorological services 492,310

7 Agricultural food crop development 1,555,230

Coral Reef Restoration, monitoring and stock


8 586,750
enhancement

Upgrading, restoring, enhancing resilience of


9 5,670,750
coastal defenses and causeways

Enabling Kiribati effective participation at regional


10 105,000
and international forums on climate change

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)
Strengthen the capacity of the National Disaster
1 1,000,000
Management Committees
Promote secondary professions in order to improve the
2 livelihood of farmers affected by natural disasters 820,000
induced by climate change
Continue the slash and burn eradication program and
3 12,600,000
permanent job creation program
Strengthen capacity of village forestry volunters in
4 forest planting, caring and management techniques as 900,000
well as the use of village forests
Awareness raising on water and water resource
5 100,000
management

6 Mapping of flood-prone areas 650,000

Establish an early warning system for flood prone


7 areas, and improve and expand meteorology and 2,200,000
hydrological networks and weather monitoring systems
Strengthen institutional and human resource capacities
8 200,000
related to water and water resource management
Survey underground water sources in drought prone
9 2,350,000
areas
Study, design and build multi-use reservoirs in drought
10 2,350,000
prone areas
Improve systems for the sustainable use of drinking
11 water and sanitation with community participation in 440,000
flood and drought prone areas
Improve knowledge and skills of engineers who design
12 300,000
and build water sanitation system

Lesotho (Project Profiles) (632 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Improve Resilience of Livestock Production Systems


1 Under Extreme Climatic Conditions in Various 2,980,000
Livelihood Zones in Lesotho

2 Promoting Sustainable Crop Based Livelihood Systems 4,235,000


in Foothills, Lowlands and Senqu River Valley

Capacity Building and Policy Reform to Integrate


3 1,260,000
Climate Change in Sectoral Development Plans

Improvement of an Early Warning System Against


4 920,000
Climate Induced Disasters and Hazards

Securing Village Water Supply for Communities in the


5 1,170,000
Southern Lowlands

Management and Reclamation of Degraded and


6 Eroded Land in the Flood Prone Areas (Pilot Project 966,000
for Western Lowlands)

Conservation and Rehabilitation of Degraded Wetlands


7 690,000
in the Mountain Areas of Lesotho

Improvement of Community Food Security Through


8 the Promotion of Food Processing and Preservation 620,000
Technologies

Strengthening and stabilizing ecotourism based rural


9 NA
livelihoods

Promote Wind, Solar and Biogas Energy Use as a


10 NA
Supplement to Hydropower Energy

Stabilising Community Livelihoods which are


11 Adversely Affected by Climate Change Through NA
Improvement of Small Scale Industries

Liberia ( Project Profiles) (184 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Integrated Cropping/Livestock Farming: Enhancing


resilience to increasing rainfall variability through the
1 5,000,000
diversification of crop cultivation and small ruminants
rearing
Improved Monitoring of Climate Change: Enhance
adaptive capacity through the rebuilding of the national
2 3,000,000
hydro-meteorological monitoring system and improved
networking for the measurement of climatic parameters
Coastal Defense System for the Cities of Buchanan and
Monrovia: Reducing the vulnerability of coastal urban
3 60,000,000
areas (Monrovia, Buchanan) to erosion, floods, siltation
and degraded landscapes

Madagascar (Project Profiles) (571 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Rehabilitation and/or construction of protective dams


1 250,000
and dykes
Implementation and Mobilization of water management
2 60,000
associations
Support to the intensification of crop and livestock
3 270,000
production
Implementation of erosion control measures through soil
4 135,000
conservation techniques and dune stabilization
Implementation of simple structure and/or capacity
5 113,620
building plan for the decentralized Meteological service
Implemention of dams and dykes to control the gradual
6 150,000
rise of sea level

7 Rehabilitation of degraded coastal areas 32,500

Reforestation of rural areas with their specific


8 74,250
reforestation plans based on locally appropriate species
Promoting the transfer of forest management to local
9 94,980
communities (GELOSE, GCF)

Implementation of communication infrastructure in


10 areas of high potential production capacity to increase 199,980
exchange and trade

Promoting the use of information-, education- and


11 communication-sharing systems to reach rural 270,000
communities
Promoting the use of communication system to educate
12 and raise awareness on health issues among the 135,000
population
Implementation of Capacity building to strengthen the
13 135,000
health system
Mobilization of necessary resources to prevent and
14 150,000
control disease vectors
Elaboration of, Information-sharing and awareness
15 raising on the design and construction principles about 60,000
infrastructures adapted to climate change

Malawi (Project Profiles) (660 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Improving community resilience to climate change


1 4,500,000
through the development of sustainable rural livelihoods
Restoring forests in the Upper, Middle and Lower Shire
2 Valleys catchments to reduce siltation and the associated 2,000,000
water flow problems
Improving agricultural production under erratic rains
3 3,000,000
and changing climatic conditions
Improving Malawi’s preparedness to cope with droughts
4 8,000,000
and floods
Improving climate monitoring to enhance Malawi’s early
5 warning capability and decision making and sustainable 5,430,000
utilization of Lake Malawi and lakeshore areas resources

Maldives (Project Profiles) (626 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Integration of Future Climate Change Scenarios in the


1 Safer Island Strategy to Adapt Sea Level Rise and 248,820
Extreme Weather Risks Associated with Climate Change
Coastal Protection of Safer Islands to Reduce the Risk
2 3,055,000
from Sea Induced Flooding and Predicted Sea Level Rise
Enhance adaptive capacity to manage climate change
3 related risks to fresh water availability by appropriate 9,300,000
technologies and improved storage facilities
Coastal Protection of Male' International Airport to
4 Reduce the Risk from Sea Induced Flooding and 900,000
Predicted Sea Level Rise
Enhance adaptive capacity to manage climate change
5 related risks to fresh water availability by appropriate 1,500,000
wastewater treatment technologies
Increase the resilience of local food production through
enhancing the capacity of farmers, local communities to
6 825,000
address food security issues caused by climate change and
climate variability
Improve the health status of the population by the
prevention and management of vector-borne diseases
7 350,000
caused by changes in temperature and flooding due to
extreme rainfall
Improve resilience of Island communities to climate
8 change and variability through sustainable building 1,970,000
designs
Investigating alternative live bait management, catch,
culture and holding techniques in the Maldives to reduce
9 1,027,000
vulnerability of the tuna fishery sector to the predicted
climate change and variability
Improve the design and construction of access
10 infrastructure in Maldives to increase the resilience of 3,800,000
access infrastructure and island beaches to climate change
Increase resilience of coral reefs to reduce the
11 vulnerability of islands, communities and reef dependant 1,062,000
economic activities to predicted climate change

Mali (Project Profiles) (1022 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Agricultural extension of improved food crop varieties


1 300,000
adapted to climate change
Agricultural extension of animal and plant species with
2 350,000
the highest adaptation potential to climate change
Promotion of income-generating activities and
3 350,000
development of mutual assistance

4 Rehabilitation of aquaculture sites in Mali 25,760,000

5 Promoting cereal stocks 500,000

Promoting the use of meteorological information to


6 improve agricultural production and contribute to food 2,000,000
security

7 Low land Improvement 2,000,000

Implementation of drilling equipped with solar- or wind-


8 1,500,000
driven systems

9 Energy Valorisation from Typha australis 2,000,000

Contribution to barrier removal for the promotion of


10 1,500,000
the use of solar energy in Mali
Implementation of a runoff water harvesting system and
11 280,000
restoration of water points (backwater, ponds and lakes)
Sensitization and organization of the population for the
12 preservation of natural resources (elaboration of local 2,000,000
conventions on reforestation and agroforestry)

13 Management of brush fire in Mali 3,000,000

Intensification of soil conservation actions and


14 1,500,000
composting

15 Intensification of fodder crop 500,000

Elaboration of a technological package of training for


16 the population with simple adaptation practices to 500,000
climate change

17 Promotion of fodder stock for livestock 220,000

18 Promotion of Jatropha oil 5,000,000

Implementation of an information system on climate


19 500,000
change risk-related diseases

Mauritania (Project Profiles) (987 kB)


Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Contribution to a better knowledge of the surface water


1 423,990
regimes in twenty (20) catchment areas
Contribution to increased value of surface water by
construction of twelve (12) flooding deceleration gates:
2 604,170
pluvial zones (Guidimakha) and especially oasis zones
(Adrar)

3 Promotion of water-saving techniques in oasis zones 1,200,000

4 Introduction of 50 electric Moto-Pumps in the valley 1,050,630

Support to the dissemination of the drip technique in the


5 river valley and the oasis zones for the development of 433,990
300 hectares

6 Promotion of livestock mobility 300,000

Reorganisation of the communities adversely affected by


7 600,000
climate change

8 Promotion and development of domestic poultry-farming 300,000

9 Improvement of cultivation methods in pluvial zones 1,270,000

10 Substitution of ligneous fuel 700,000

Participatory reforestation for energy and agro-forestry


11 1,000,000
in agricultural zones

12 Genetic improvement of locale bovine breeds 500,000

Improvement of the management of underground water


13 250,000
in Aftout

Protection of the diversity of the fish population and


14 prevention of over-fishing with a view to sustainable 1,337,000
development

15 Introduction of new fodder species in the natural routes 600,000

16 Protection and reinforcement of the dune bar 1,018,000


17 Training and informing of SPOs and CEs 1,180,000

Treatment of unrefined fodder and manufacture and use


18 300,000
of multi-nutritional blocks
Restoration and integrated management of the lowlands
19 NA
and wetlands

20 Development of fodder crops 600,000

The study and monitoring of water quality in Magta


21 1,000,000
Lahjar, Tintane and Wompou

22 Establishment of production unit for livestock fodder NA

Support for the experimental use dissemination of the


23 400,000
drip method in the oasis zones
The implementation of a safeguard plan for the town of
24 2,091,000
Nouakchott and its infrastructures
Improvement of knowledge about, and sustainable
25 300,000
management of, the forest resources

Fixation of shifting dunes threatening the country’s socio-


26 1,500,000
economic infrastructures

Support for better monitoring of the piezometric


27 networks of the Aioun sandstones and of the Hodhs 800,000
Pelites

Institutional reinforcement of the structure responsible


28 400,000
for nature conservation

Mozambique (Project Profiles) (669 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

1 Strengthening of early warning system 2,700,000

Strengthening of capacities of agricultural


2 2,500,000
producers to deal with climate change
Reduction of the impact of climate change in
3 2,000,000
coastal zones
Management of Water resources under the
4 2,000,000
framework of climate change

Niger (Project Profiles) (744 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

1 Introducing fodder crop species in pastoral areas NA

2 Creating Livestock Food Banks NA

3 Restoring basins for crop irrigation NA

4 Diversifying and Intensifying crop irrigation NA

Promoting peri-urban market gardening and


5 NA
livestock farming

Promoting income-generating activities and


6 NA
developing mutual benefit societies

7 Exploitation of surface and ground water NA

8 Producing and disseminating meteorological data NA

9 Creating Food Banks NA

Contributing to fight against climate-related


10 NA
diseases
Improving erosion control actions (CES/DRS) for
11 NA
agricultural, forestry and pastoral purposes

Improving erosion control actions (CES/DRS) for


12 NA
agricultural, forestry and pastoral purposes

Disseminating animal and crop species that are


13 NA
most adapted to climatic conditions
Watershed protection and rehabilitation of dump-
14 NA
off ponds
Building of material, technical and organizational
15 NA
capacities of rural producers
Rwanda (Project Profiles) (497 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Lands conservation and protection against erosion and


1 floods at districts level of vulnerable regions to climate 1,450,000
change

Mastering hydro meteo-rological information and early


warning systems to control extreme phenomena due to
2 1,900,000
climate change: - Installation and rehabilitation of
hydrological and meteorological stations

Development of irrigated areas by gravity water systems


3 from perennial streams and rivers in often vulnerable zones 750,000
to prolonged droughts

Support to Districts of vulnerable regions to climate change


in planning and implementing measures and techniques
4 related to land conservation, water harvesting and intensive 560,000
agriculture, and promoting existing and new resistant
varieties of crops adapted to different bioclimatic soil

Increase adaptive capacity of grouped settlement


"Imidugudu" located in vulnerable regions to climate
5 change by the improvement of potable water, sanitation and 1,650,000
alternative energy services, and the promotion of non
agricultural jobs

Increase food and medicine modes of distribution to respond


6 to extreme climate change and sensitize to stocking and 850,000
conservation of agriculture products

Preparation and implementation of woody combustible


7 substitution national strategy to combat deforestation and 950,000
erosion as well

Samoa (Project Profiles) (863 kB)

Project Indicative Project


Project Title
Number Cost (USD)

1 Securing Community Water Resource Project 505,000


Reforestation, Rehabilitation & Community Forestry
2 417,500
Fire Prevention Project

3 Climate Health Cooperation Program Project 620,000

4 Climate Early Warning System Project 4,500,000

5 Agriculture & Food Security Sustainability Project 320,000

6 Zoning & Strategic Management Planning Project 400,000

Implement Coastal Infrastructure Management Plans


7 450,000
for Highly Vulnerable District Project

Establishing Conservation Programs in Highly


8 Vulnerable Marine & Terrestrial Areas of 350,000
Communities Project

9 Sustainable Tourism Adaptation Project 250,000

Sao Tome E Principe (Project Profiles) (759 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Training and readapt project of the new navigation


1 350,000
technologies and fishing equipment for fishermen

2 Establishing a system of climate alert 500,000

3 Communication action for behavior change 152,500

Construction and installation of Device for Fish


4 250,000
Concentration (DFC) on costal zone

Construction of two drinking water supply systems in the


5 1,000,000
rural zone

Reinforcement and diversification of agricultural


6 1,650,000
production
Integrated project of development (cow and sheep) in the
7 900,000
north part of S. Tomé island

8 Sustainable management of forestall resources 2,915,000

Relocation of local community (Malanza, Sta Catarina


9 500,000
and Sundy) at risk of floods and landfalls
Construction of Infrastructure for protection of
10 300,000
vulnerable communities
Introduction of the new technology for use firewood and
11 500,000
to make charcoal
Establishing agricultural tourism at Monte Café e Porto
12 600,000
Real

Make an epidemic data base about potential diseases


13 21,250
related to CC

Elaboration of strategic and emergency plans


14 36,250
emphasizing the health sector

Reinforcement of Human Technical Capacity of National


15 200,000
Civil Protection and Firework

Training and study visits (doctors, nurses, volunteers,


16 215,000
students, etc..) for emergency needs

17 Sustainable management of water and energy 300,000

Correlate data diseases of vector origin, focus on malaria,


through system GIS with MARA/OMS initiative
18 200,000
foreseeing the spatial risk of the problem (epidemic
malaria)

19 Introduction of renewable energy 500,000

Construction of two hydro power-stations, at Claudino


20 500,000
Faro and Bernardo Faro

21 Evaluation and planning the water resources 400,000

Strengthening the car parking of the National Civil


22 350,000
Protection and Firework
Senegal (Project Profiles) (721 kB) (721 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Implementation of agroforestry in: A) North Region, B)


1 Bassin Arachidier Region, C) South Region: Tambacounda, 11,746,000
Kolda, Ziguinchor, D) Niayve Region
Sustainable use of water. 1. Revitalization of lowland water
2 system, temporary ponds and artificial lakes in support to 6,652,000
the retention basin program. 2. Promoting drip irrigation

Protection of the coastal region. 1. Reforestation of coastal


sites. 2. Implementation of technical infrastructures. 3.
3 Restoration of mangrove vegetation. 4. Implemention of 40,624,000
alternative measures to the exploitation of coastal sand. 5.
Implemention of institutional measures

4 Awareness raising and Education 160,000

Sierra Leone (Project Profiles) (1570 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

1 Develop an Early Warning System in Sierre Leone 751,950

Rehabilitation & Reconstruction of meteorological/climate


2 1,231,651
monitoring stations throughout the country

Capacity building of the Meteorological Department


3 through training of personnel for the country’s adaptation 152,800
to climate change
Sensitization and awareness raising campaigns on climate
change impacts on women relating to the three
4 132,000
conventions of biodiversity, desertification and climate
change
Development of Inland Valley Swamps for Rice
5 1,075,000
Production in the Moyamba District

6 Development of an Integrated Natural Resources and 1,265,000


Environmental Management programme for Sierra Leone

Development of Irrigation and drainage systems for


7 1,055,000
agricultural production in the Bombali District

Promotion of the use of renewable energy (Solar Energy)


8 in Sierra Leone and improvement of energy efficiency and 1,500,000
conservation of energy resources

Establishment of new Forest Reserves, Protected Areas


9 2,500,000
and National Parks in Sierra Leone

Management and Protection of Forest Reserves and


10 5,000,000
Catchment areas including Wetlands
Institutional Strengthening of the Water Resources Sector
11 2,250,000
in Sierra Leone

Improvement of The Efficiency of Existing Water Supply


12 2,950,000
Systems in both Urban And Rural Areas of Sierra Leone

Promotion of Rain Water Harvesting and Development of


13 an Integrated Management System for Fresh Water 2,800,000
Bodies
Establishment of a Permanent Study Programme of the
14 395,000
Multi Species Fisheries in Sierra Leone
Delineation and Restoration of Vulnerable Habitats And
15 420,000
Ecosystems in The Western Area of Sierra Leone
Improve on the Quality on Fisheries Related Data and
16 455,000
Research

Development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management


17 90,000
Plan for Sierra Leone

Rehabilitation of degraded coastal habitats in the


18 317,000
Northern Region of Sierra Leone

Develop and enact appropriate policies and regulations


relevant to the development of coastal communities, urban
19 60,000
growth planning, and critical coastal ecosystems
preservation

Establishment of a National Sea-Level Observing System


20 180,000
for Sierra Leone
Monitoring and control of malaria in the Moyamba
21 520,000
district of Sierra Leone
Monitoring and control of water and sanitation activities
22 1,680,000
in the Koinadugu District of Sierra Leone
Monitoring and control of HIV/AIDS prevention activities
23 1,200,000
in the Koinadugu district of Sierra Leone
Monitoring, evaluation and control of water and sanitation
24 activities in slum areas of Freetown, the capital city of 2,070,000
Sierra Leone

Solomon Islands (Project Profiles) (574 kB)


Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)
Managing the impact of, and enhancing resilience to,
climate change and sea-level rise, on agriculture and food
1 6,500,000
security, water supply and sanitation, human settlement,
human health and education, awareness and information
Climate change adaptation on low-lying and artificially
2 3,500,000
built-up islands in Malaita and Temotu

3 Waste management 1,500,000

4 Coastal protection 1,750,000

5 Fisheries and marine resources 1,500,000

6 Infrastructure development 2,000,000

7 Tourism 500,000

Sudan ( Project Profiles) (500 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Enhancing resilience to increasing rainfall variability


1 through rangeland rehabilitation and water harvesting in 2,800,000
the Butana area of Gedarif State
Reducing the vulnerability of communities in drought-
2 prone areas of southern Darfur State through improved 2,500,000
water harvesting practices

Improving sustainable agricultural practices under


3 2,350,000
increasing heatstress in the River Nile State

Environmental conservation and biodiversity restoration


in northern Kordofan State as a coping mechanism for
4 2,400,000
rangeland protection under conditions of increasing
climate variability
Adapting to Strategies to adapt to drought-induced water
5 shortages in highly vulnerable areas in Central Equatorial 5,000,000
State

Tanzania (Project Profiles) (398 kB)


Project Project Cost
Project Title
Number (USD)
Improving food security in drought-prone areas by
1 8,500,000
promoting drought-prone tolerant crops
Improving Water availability to drought-stricken
2 800,000
Communities in the Central part of the country
Shifting of Shallow Water Wells Affected by Inundation
3 on the Coastal Regions of Tanzania Mainland and 3,300,000
Zanzibar
Climate change adaptation through participatory
4 3,300,000
reforestation in Kilimanjaro Mountain
Community Based Mini-hydro for Economic
5 Diversification as a result of Climate Change in Same 620,000
District
Combating Malaria Epidemic in Newly Mosquito-infested
6 650,000
areas

Togo
Project Project Cost
Project Title
Number (USD)
Adaptation of the agricultural production systems in
three regions through the development of techniques that
1 3,500,000
integrate climate change and improve agro-
meteorological information
Development of an early warning system for real time
2 information on floods in the Maritime and Savanes 6,250,000
regions
Reinforcing the coastal protection system against coastal
3 3,000,000
erosion in the East part of Lomé
Support and assistance to the rural communities of the
4 regions of Savanes and Plateaux to prevent and fight 2,000,000
vector borne diseases
Developing the irrigation zones of the low-lands for the
5 market gardener communities in the Centrale, Kara and 2,150,000
Savanes regions as a mean to stop rural exodus
Enhancing the livelihood of market gardener
6 communities and fishermen in the coastal zone to increase 2,150,000
capacity to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change

Assisting the collection of surface water in Savanes and


7 4,250,000
Kara regions through watersheds with multiple goals

Uganda (Project Profiles) (498 kB)

Project Project Cost


Project Title
Number (USD)

1 Community Tree Growing Project 5,500,000

2 Land Degradation Management Project 4,700,000

3 Strengthening Meteorological Services 6,500,000

4 Community Water and Sanitation Project 4,700,000

5 Water for Production Project 5,000,000

6 Drought Adaptation Project 3,000,000

7 Vectors, Pests and Disease Control Project 8,000,000

Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Natural Resources


8 1,200,000
Management Project

9 Climate Change and Development Planning Project 1,200,000


Tuvalu (Project Profiles) (600 kB) (600 kB)

Project Project Cost


Project Title
Number (USD)

Increasing resilience of Coastal Areas and Settlement to


1 1,906,500
climate change
Increasing subsistence pit grown pulaka productivity
2 2,220,000
through introduction of a salt-tolerant pulaka species
Adaptation to frequent water shortages through increasing
3 household water capacity, water collection accessories, and 2,675,300
water conservation techniques
Strengthening of Community health through control of
4 vector borne/climate sensitive diseases and promotion 381,500
access to quality potable water
Strengthening of Community Based Conservation
5 Programmes on Highly Vulnerable near-shore Marine 636,500
Ecosystems
Strengthening Community Disaster Preparedness and
6 388,000
Response Potential
Adaptation to Near-Shore Coastal Shellfish Fisheries
7 462,000
Resources and Coral Reef Ecosystem Productivity

Yemen
Project Indicative Project
Project Title
Number Cost (USD)
Develop and implement integrated coastal zone
1 3,200,000
management
Water construction through reuse of treated waste water
2 and grey water from mosques, and irrigation saving 3,200,000
techniques

3 Awareness raising on adaptation to climate changes 650,000

Establishment and maintaining of climate change


4 350,000
database
Planting and re-planting of mangroves and palms for
5 2,450,000
adaptation to sea level rise
Develop and implement programs to improve Yemen's
6 5,000,000
preparedness to cope with extreme weather events
Rainwater harvesting through various techniques
7 2,810,000
including traditional methods

8 Rehabilitation and maintenance of mountainous terraces 4,780,000

Promotion of research on drought, heat and salinity


9 3,150,000
tolerant varieties
Sustainable land management to combat desertification
10 2,330,000
and land degradation

11 Sustainable management of fisheries resources 1,180,000

Incorporation of climate chnage and adaptation into


12 820,000
school education

Zambia (Project Profiles) (393 kB)

Indicative
Project
Project Title Project Cost
Number
(USD)

Strengthening of early warning systems to improve


1 services to preparedness and adaptation to climate 1,800,000
change
Promotion of alternatives sources of livelihoods to
2 reduce vulnerability to climate change/variability to 175,000
communities living around GMAs
Adaptation to the Effects of Drought in the context of
3 3,000,000
Climate Change in Agro-Ecological Region I of Zambia

4 Management of critical habitats 1,400,000

5 Promote natural regeneration of indigenous forests 1,000,000

Adaptation of land use practices (crops, fish, and


6 1,200,000
livestock) in light of climate change
Maintenance and provision of water Infrastructure to
7 75,000
communities to reduce Human-Wildlife Conflict
8 Eradication of Invasive Alien Species 1,000,000

Capacity building for improved environmental health in


9 3,000,000
rural areas

10 Climate proofing sanitation in urban areas 2,000,000

Last modified: 01 March 2010

Status of NAPA implementation under the LDCF As of July 2010


Total
LDC
proje
F
PIF 1st CEO ct
LDCF Project (US GEF Executing
Country submiss endorse cost (
title $ agency agencies
ion ment US $
milli
milli
on)
on)
Building
adaptive National
Afghanist capacity and Februar 21.39 Environmental
N/A 5.390 UNEP
an resilience to y 2010 0 Protection
climate change Agency
in Afghanistan
Community Department of
based Forest,
Banglade adaptation to April Decemb 5.40 Ministry of
3.300 UNDP
sh climate change 2007 er 2008 0 Environment
through coastal and Forest
afforestation (MOEF)
Integrated
adaptation
programme to
combat the
effects of June January 11.8 Ministry of
Benin 3.839 UNDP
climate change 2008 2010 19 Agriculture
on agricultural
production and
food security
in Benin
Bhutan Reducing August March 3.987 8.273 UNDP N/A*
climate 2007 2008
change-
induced risks
and
vulnerabilities
from glacial
lake outbursts
in the
Punhakha-
Wangdi and
Chamkhar
Valleys
Strengthening
adaptation
capacities and
Burkina reducing the August April 23.44
3.300 UNDP N/A
Faso vulnerability to 2008 2009 5
climate change
in Burkina
Faso
Burundi Geogr
aphical
Enhancing
Institute, in the
climate risk
April 3.526 19.32 Ministry of
Burundi management N/A AfDB
2010 4 Land
and adaptation
Management,
in Burundi
Tourism and
Environment
Promoting
capacities-
resilient water
management
Cambodi May April 2.145
and 4.485 UNDP N/A
a 2007 2009
agricultural
practices in
rural
Cambodia
Building
adaptive
National
capacity and
Institute for
Cape resilience to Decemb Septemb 3.41 67.39
UNDP Water
Verde climate change er 2007 er 2009 0 9
Resources
in the water
Management
sector in Cape
Verde
Comoros Adapting Decemb N/A 4.224 13.54 UNDP National
water resource er 2008 0 & Direction of
management in UNEP Environment
Comoros to and Forests
increase under the
capacity to Ministry of
cope with Agriculture,
climate change Fisheries and
Environment
Building the
capacity of the
agriculture
sector in
Congo DR to
Ministère de
plan for and
l'Environnemen
Congo respond to the July January 3.41 7.56
UNDP t, Conservation
DR additional 2008 2010 0 0
de la Nature,
threats posted
Eaux et Forêts
by climate
change on
food
production and
security
Implementing
NAPA priority
Ministry of
interventions
Urbanism,
to build
June May 4.775 Habitat,
Djibouti resilience in 2.360 UNEP
2007 2010 Environment
the most
and Land-use
vulnerable
Planning
coastal zones
in Djibouti
Integrating
climate change
risks into
community-
based livestock May August 3.756 10.46 Ministry of
Eritrea UNDP
management in 2007 2009 8 Agriculture
the
Northwestern
Lowlands of
Eritrea
Federal
Promoting Environment
autonomous Protection
adaptation at Februar 5.83 28.48 Agency
Ethiopia N/A UNDP
the community y 2010 9 9 & Addis Ababa
level in Environment
Ethiopia Protection
Agency
Guinea Increased June Decemb 3.377 8.627 UNDP Ministry of
resilience and 2008 er 2009 Environment
adaptation to
adverse
impacts of
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in Guinea's
vulnerable
coastal zones
State
Strengthening Secretariat for
resilience and the Sustainable
adaptive Development &
capacity to Ministry of
Guinea- June 17.11
climate change N/A 4.400 UNDP Agriculture and
Bissau 2009 0
in Guinea- Rural Technical
Bissau's Committee &
agrarian water General
sectors Directorate for
Meteorology
Strengthening
adaptive
capacities to
address
climate change
threats on August 3.960 11.06 Ministry of
Haiti N/A UNDP
sustainable 2008 0 Environment
development
strategies for
coastal
communities
in Haiti
Strengthening
climate
resilience and
reducing
disaster risk in Februar 2.200 7.200 Ministry of
Haiti N/A FAO
agriculture to y 2010 Agriculture
improve food
security in
Haiti post-
earthquake
Office of the
President, Mini
stry of Land
Increasing and
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August 3.300 6.600 World
Kiribati climate N/A Development,
2009 Bank
variabilty and Ministry of
hazards Public Works
and Utilities,
Meteorological
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resilience of
the agricultural
August 4.999 9.544
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2009
PDR to
climate change
impacts
Ministry of
Planning,
Economic and
Improvement Manpower
of early Development;
warning National
system to Curriculum,
reduce impacts Development
of climate Centre
Novem
change and 1.81 3.590 (NCDC);
Lesotho ber N/A UNEP
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2008
building to Communicatio
integrate ns, Science and
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into Disaster
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plans Authority; Mini
stry of
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resilience of
Ministry of
vulnerable Februar June 3.300 8.053
Liberia UNDP Lands, Mines
coastal areas to y 2009 2010
and Energy
climate change
risks in Liberia
Enhancing
resilience to
climate change
by
mainstreaming
June 2.620 8.700 Ministry of
Liberia adaptation N/A UNDP
2010 Agriculture
concern into
agricultural
sector
development
in Liberia
Malawi Climate April N/A 3.255 24.39 AfDB The
adaptation for 2007 4 Environmental
rural Affairs
livelihoods and Department
(EAD) in the
Ministry of
Mines, Natural
Resources and
Environment; t
he Department
agriculture
of Irrigation
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Ministry of
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Water
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risks into the Novem of Housing,
Novemb 4.93 9.85
Maldives Maldives safer ber UNDP Transport and
er 2009 9 0
island 2008 Environment
developmment (MHTE)
programme
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adaptive Ministère de
Septem
capacity and March 3.410 10.27 l'Agriculture,
Mali ber UNDP
resilience in 2010 5 de l'élevage et
2008
the agricultural de la pêche
sector in Mali
Integrating
climate
resilience into Ministère de
agricultural April 6.600 l'Agriculture,
Mali N/A 2.400 FAO
production for 2009 de l'élevage et
food security de la pêche
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of Mali
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l'Environnemen
t et du
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vulnerable Ministère du
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agricultural N/A IFAD Développement
a y 2009
production Rural,
systems in Ministère de
Mauritania l'Hydraulique
et de
l'Assainissemen
t
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Mozambi the coastal 4.876 13.74 for Coordinatio
N/A N/A UNDP
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Mozambique Environment
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interventions
to build National
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August 3.960 15.0
Niger adaptive ber UNDP Environment
2009 20
capacity of the 2007 and Sustainable
agricultural Development
sector to
climate change
in Niger
Reducing
vulnerability to
climate change
by establishing
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and disaster
UNDP Ministry of
preparedness October March 3.984 16.4
Rwanda & Natural
systems and 2008 2010 12
UNEP Resources
support for
integrated
watershed
management in
flood prone
areas
Ministry of
Natural
Resources and
Integrated Environment,
climate change Ministry of
Avril February 2.255 4.40
Samoa adaptation in UNDP Health,
2007 2009 5
Samoa National Health
(ICCAS) Services,
Ministry of
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Fisheries
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of climate Natural
change risk Resources and
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Samoa and resilience N/A UNDP Environment,
er 2009 0 0
into forestry Ministry of
management Agriculture and
(ICCRIFS) Fisheries
Ministry of
Sao Tome and
Sao Natural
Principe: May 3.889 7.359 World
Tome and N/A Resources,
adaptation to 2009 Bank
Principe Energy and
climate
Environment
Ministry of
Agriculture,
Ministry of
Climate
Hydraulics and
change
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adaptation
system, and
project in the
5.50 14.32 Ministry
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watershed
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and water
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retention
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climate change Lands, Country
into Planning and
Sierra July 3.07 6.00
agricultural N/A IFAD Environment,
Leone 2008 4 9
production and Ministry of
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in Sierra Food Security
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interventions
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to build
for
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August Septemb 3.740 Environment
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2007 er 2009 and Natural
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adverse
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coastal areas
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2008 er 2009 6 Resources and
community
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and natural 2008 Service
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LDC Expert Group


Français - The Conference of Parties, at its seventh session decided to establish a Least
Developed Countries (LDC) Expert Group (LEG), to be nominated by Parties, with the objective
of supporting the preparation and implementation strategy of NAPAs.

The Conference of the Parties, at its thirteenth session, reviewed the progress of the work and
terms of reference of the expert group, decided to extend the LEG for three years under its
current mandate.
Function of the LEG

The LEG is mandated as follows (Decision 8/CP.13, Decision 4/CP.11, Decision 29/CP.7):

(a) To provide technical guidance and advice on [preparation] including the identification of
possible sources of data and its subsequent application and interpretation, upon request by Least
Developed Countries (LDC) Parties;
(b) To provide technical guidance and advice on the preparation and on the implementation
strategy of NAPAs, including the identification of possible sources of data and its subsequent
application and interpretation, upon request by LDC Parties;

(c) To develop a work programme that includes implementation of NAPAs;

(d) To serve in an advisory capacity to the LDCs, for the preparation and strategy for
implementation of NAPAs through, inter alia, workshops, upon request by LDC Parties;

(e) To advise on capacity-building needs for the preparation and implementation of NAPAs and
to provide recommendations, as appropriate, taking into account the Capacity Development
Initiative of the Global Environment Facility and other relevant capacity-building initiatives;

(f) To facilitate the exchange of information and to promote regional synergies, and synergies
with other multilateral environment conventions, in the preparation and in the implementation
strategy of NAPAs;

(g) To advise on the mainstreaming of NAPAs into regular development planning in the context
of national strategies for sustainable development;

(h) To develop a work programme that takes into account the Nairobi work programme.

Membership of the LDC Expert Group


The LEG is constituted of 12 experts, as follows:
(a) Five from African LDC Parties;
(b) Two from Asian LDC Parties;
(c) Two from small island LDC Parties;
(d) Three from Annex II Parties.

Current members are:

Mr. Mirza Shawkat ALI, Bangladesh


Mr. Ibila DJIBRIL , Benin
Mr. Adérito Manuel FERNANDES SANTANA, Sao Tome and Principe
Mr. Pa Ousman JARJU, Gambia
Mr. Benjamin KARMORH, Liberia
Mr. Erwin KUNZI, Austria
Ms. Beth LAVENDER, Canada
Mr. Fred MACHULU ONDURI, Uganda
Mr. Douglas YEE, Solomon Islands
Mr. Ali SHAREEF, Maldives
Mr. Batu Krishna UPRETY, Nepal
Mr. Jan VERHAGEN, Netherlands

Work Programme of the LEG (FCCC/SBI/2008/6)

The LEG has prepared a work programme as part of its ongoing efforts to fulfil its mandate to
support NAPA implementation. The complete work programme is attached in the above file,
however the table below presents the key priority activities of the work programme of the Least
Developed Countries Expert Group for the period 2008–2010 (FCCC/SBI/2008/14).

Activities Main deliverable and target dates

Enhance efforts to support least developed


countries (LDCs) with special needs in preparation
Ongoing
and implementation of national adaptation
programmes of action (NAPAs)

Further support NAPA preparation and


implementation through preparation of a technical Distribute technical paper by December
paper for NAPA preparation and development of 2008
implementation strategies

Finalize guide by the fifteenth meeting


Prepare and disseminate a step-by-step guide on of the Least Developed Countries
NAPA implementation Expert Group (LEG) (March 2009) and
distribute soon afterwards

• Collaborate with relevant


agencies to provide ongoing
Organize training in the design of NAPA training
implementation strategies and preparation of
projects based on the step-by-step guide • Conduct regional training based
on the guide from April 2009
onwards

Conduct a survey of LDC Parties, United Nations Ongoing follow-up with LDC Parties,
agencies and other relevant actors to collect conduct next complete survey at the
information on the status of implementation of thirtieth session of the Subsidiary Body
NAPAs for Implementation (SBI)

Conduct capacity-building and outreach activities Training activities, workshops and


as requested by Parties at the 2007 stocktaking other forms of technical support,
meeting and through surveys ongoing

• Distribute a brochure on NAPAs


Summarize key aspects of NAPAs with a view to by the fourteenth session of the
identifying key vulnerabilities, adaptation options Conference of the Parties (COP)
by sector and opportunities for regional synergy, • Analyse results at LEG 15 and
and to show evidence of alignment with, and include results in LEG report to
integration of NAPA activities into, national SBI 30
development priorities and plans • Produce outreach materials as
appropriate

Conduct activities to promote synergy during • Continue to explore synergy in


implementation of projects
addressing multiple objectives,
ongoing
implementation
• Regional initiatives including
workshops to exchange
experiences, to be scheduled

• Support the Global Environment


Facility and its agencies in
Catalyse action by United Nations organizations producing a "Quick Guide" to
and bilateral and multilateral agencies in support of accessing the Least Developed
NAPA implementation and implementation of the Countries Fund
LEG work programme • Participate in joint training
activities and knowledge
exchange initiatives

• Expand the LDC website to


include a portal withNAPA
projects
• Produce a publication on the
NAPA approach byLEG 16
Awareness raising of the NAPA process with a
• Hold as side event at COP 14
view to advancing adaptation and encouraging
for launch of NAPAs
effective implementation of NAPA
• Produce outreach materials for
NAPA teams
• Participate in collaborative
efforts and initiatives by partner
organizations

Develop an approach paper on the collection of


information for assessing the effectiveness of the
Finalize working paper at LEG 16
NAPA programme and NAPA projects at the
national and global level
SBI documents on LDCs: Reports of LEG Meetings
Meetings Venue Related Documents
Seventeeth Meeting of the LEG Bonn, GERMANY FCCC/SBI/2010/5
Sixteenth Meeting of the LEG Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2009/13
Fifteenth Meeting of the LEG Cotonou, BENIN FCCC/SBI/2009/6
Fourteenth Meeting of the LEG Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA FCCC/SBI/2008/14
Thirteenth Meeting of the LEG Sana'a, YEMEN FCCC/SBI/2008/6
Twelfth Meeting of the LEG Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2007/31
LEG Stocktaking meeting on progress
made by
Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2007/32
Parties in NAPA preparation and
implementation
Honoria, SOLOMON
Eleventh meeting of the LEG FCCC/SBI/2007/12
ISLANDS
Tenth Meeting of the LEG Kampala, UGANDA FCCC/SBI/2006/20
Ninth Meeting of the LEG Dhaka, BANGLADESH FCCC/SBI/2006/9
Eighth Meeting of the LEG Tarawa, KIRIBATI FCCC/SBI/2005/20
Seventh Meeting of the LEG Bonn, GERMANY FCCC/SBI/2005/12
Sixth Meeting of the LEG Banjul, GAMBIA FCCC/SBI/2004/17
Fifth Meeting of the LEG Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE FCCC/SBI/2004/3
Fourth Meeting of the LEG Timphu, BHUTAN FCCC/SBI/2003/16
Third Meeting of the LEG Apia, SAMOA FCCC/SBI/2003/6
FCCC/SBI/2002/Inf.1
Second Meeting of the LEG Dhaka, BANGLADESH
6
First Meeting of the LEG Arusha, TANZANIA FCCC/SBI/2002/5

Workshop to develop draft guidelines


for the
preparation of National Adapation Kampala, UGANDA FCCC/SBI/2001/7
Programme
of Action (NAPA)

LEG Documents on Preparation and Implementation of NAPAs

Information paper 2009: Support needed to fully implement NAPA

Step-by-step guide for the implementation of NAPA


Technical paper 2009 - NAPA preparation, implementation and submission
of revised projects and projects profiles

LDC brochure 2009 - LDCs under the UNFCCC

LEG annotations to the NAPA guidelines

Selection of Examples and Exercises Drawn from Regional NAPA


Workshops

The NAPA Primer

Technical Paper-2005-2: Synthesis of available information

Technical Paper-2005-3: Synergy among multilateral environmental


agreements

Technical Paper-2005-4: Regional synergy in the context of NAPA


Technical Paper-2005-5: Elements for an implementation strategy for
NAPAs

Regional Workshops on NAPA


• LEG Lusophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Sao Tome, Sao
Tome and Principe, September 2010
• LEG Asian LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Vientiane, Lao PDR,
May 2010
• LEG Francophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Bamako, Mali,
February 2010
• LEG African Anglophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania, October 2009
• Workshop to develop draft guidelines for the preparation of National Adaptation
Programmes of Action (NAPA), Kampala, Uganda, April 2001
• Global launch and capacity-building workshop for the preparation of NAPA, Dhaka,
Bangladesh, September 2002
• LEG SIDs regional NAPA Workshop, Apia, Samoa, March 2003 (in collaboration with
UNITAR)

• LEG African Anglophone regional workshop on NAPA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June
2003 (in collaboration with UNITAR)

• LEG Asian regional workshop on NAPA, Timphu, Bhutan, September 2003 (in
collaboration with UNITAR)
• Atelier régional francophone du LEG sur les PANA, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso,
October 2003 (in collaboration with UNITAR)

• Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) stocktaking meeting on the preparation
and implementation of National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Bangkok,
Thailand, 3-5 September 2007
Databases
• Local coping strategies databases
• Submitted NAPAs
• NAPA Priority Project Profiles
• Projects under Implementation

Last modified: 14 July 2010


LDC Expert Group
Français - The Conference of Parties, at its seventh session decided to establish a Least
Developed Countries (LDC) Expert Group (LEG), to be nominated by Parties, with the objective
of supporting the preparation and implementation strategy of NAPAs.

The Conference of the Parties, at its thirteenth session, reviewed the progress of the work and
terms of reference of the expert group, decided to extend the LEG for three years under its
current mandate.
Function of the LEG

The LEG is mandated as follows (Decision 8/CP.13, Decision 4/CP.11, Decision 29/CP.7):

(a) To provide technical guidance and advice on [preparation] including the identification of
possible sources of data and its subsequent application and interpretation, upon request by Least
Developed Countries (LDC) Parties;

(b) To provide technical guidance and advice on the preparation and on the implementation
strategy of NAPAs, including the identification of possible sources of data and its subsequent
application and interpretation, upon request by LDC Parties;

(c) To develop a work programme that includes implementation of NAPAs;

(d) To serve in an advisory capacity to the LDCs, for the preparation and strategy for
implementation of NAPAs through, inter alia, workshops, upon request by LDC Parties;

(e) To advise on capacity-building needs for the preparation and implementation of NAPAs and
to provide recommendations, as appropriate, taking into account the Capacity Development
Initiative of the Global Environment Facility and other relevant capacity-building initiatives;

(f) To facilitate the exchange of information and to promote regional synergies, and synergies
with other multilateral environment conventions, in the preparation and in the implementation
strategy of NAPAs;

(g) To advise on the mainstreaming of NAPAs into regular development planning in the context
of national strategies for sustainable development;

(h) To develop a work programme that takes into account the Nairobi work programme.

Membership of the LDC Expert Group


The LEG is constituted of 12 experts, as follows:
(a) Five from African LDC Parties;
(b) Two from Asian LDC Parties;
(c) Two from small island LDC Parties;
(d) Three from Annex II Parties.

Current members are:


Mr. Mirza Shawkat ALI, Bangladesh
Mr. Ibila DJIBRIL , Benin
Mr. Adérito Manuel FERNANDES SANTANA, Sao Tome and Principe
Mr. Pa Ousman JARJU, Gambia
Mr. Benjamin KARMORH, Liberia
Mr. Erwin KUNZI, Austria
Ms. Beth LAVENDER, Canada
Mr. Fred MACHULU ONDURI, Uganda
Mr. Douglas YEE, Solomon Islands
Mr. Ali SHAREEF, Maldives
Mr. Batu Krishna UPRETY, Nepal
Mr. Jan VERHAGEN, Netherlands

Work Programme of the LEG (FCCC/SBI/2008/6)

The LEG has prepared a work programme as part of its ongoing efforts to fulfil its mandate to
support NAPA implementation. The complete work programme is attached in the above file,
however the table below presents the key priority activities of the work programme of the Least
Developed Countries Expert Group for the period 2008–2010 (FCCC/SBI/2008/14).

Activities Main deliverable and target dates

Enhance efforts to support least developed


countries (LDCs) with special needs in preparation
Ongoing
and implementation of national adaptation
programmes of action (NAPAs)

Further support NAPA preparation and


implementation through preparation of a technical Distribute technical paper by December
paper for NAPA preparation and development of 2008
implementation strategies

Finalize guide by the fifteenth meeting


Prepare and disseminate a step-by-step guide on of the Least Developed Countries
NAPA implementation Expert Group (LEG) (March 2009) and
distribute soon afterwards

• Collaborate with relevant


agencies to provide ongoing
Organize training in the design of NAPA training
implementation strategies and preparation of
projects based on the step-by-step guide • Conduct regional training based
on the guide from April 2009
onwards

Conduct a survey of LDC Parties, United Nations Ongoing follow-up with LDC Parties,
agencies and other relevant actors to collect conduct next complete survey at the
information on the status of implementation of thirtieth session of the Subsidiary Body
NAPAs for Implementation (SBI)

Conduct capacity-building and outreach activities Training activities, workshops and


as requested by Parties at the 2007 stocktaking other forms of technical support,
meeting and through surveys ongoing

• Distribute a brochure on NAPAs


Summarize key aspects of NAPAs with a view to by the fourteenth session of the
identifying key vulnerabilities, adaptation options Conference of the Parties (COP)
by sector and opportunities for regional synergy, • Analyse results at LEG 15 and
and to show evidence of alignment with, and include results in LEG report to
integration of NAPA activities into, national SBI 30
development priorities and plans • Produce outreach materials as
appropriate

• Continue to explore synergy in


implementation of projects
addressing multiple objectives,
Conduct activities to promote synergy during ongoing
implementation
• Regional initiatives including
workshops to exchange
experiences, to be scheduled

• Support the Global Environment


Facility and its agencies in
Catalyse action by United Nations organizations producing a "Quick Guide" to
and bilateral and multilateral agencies in support of accessing the Least Developed
NAPA implementation and implementation of the Countries Fund
LEG work programme • Participate in joint training
activities and knowledge
exchange initiatives

• Expand the LDC website to


include a portal withNAPA
projects
• Produce a publication on the
NAPA approach byLEG 16
Awareness raising of the NAPA process with a
• Hold as side event at COP 14
view to advancing adaptation and encouraging
for launch of NAPAs
effective implementation of NAPA
• Produce outreach materials for
NAPA teams
• Participate in collaborative
efforts and initiatives by partner
organizations
Develop an approach paper on the collection of
information for assessing the effectiveness of the
Finalize working paper at LEG 16
NAPA programme and NAPA projects at the
national and global level
SBI documents on LDCs: Reports of LEG Meetings
Meetings Venue Related Documents
Seventeeth Meeting of the LEG Bonn, GERMANY FCCC/SBI/2010/5
Sixteenth Meeting of the LEG Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2009/13
Fifteenth Meeting of the LEG Cotonou, BENIN FCCC/SBI/2009/6
Fourteenth Meeting of the LEG Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA FCCC/SBI/2008/14
Thirteenth Meeting of the LEG Sana'a, YEMEN FCCC/SBI/2008/6
Twelfth Meeting of the LEG Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2007/31
LEG Stocktaking meeting on progress
made by
Bangkok, THAILAND FCCC/SBI/2007/32
Parties in NAPA preparation and
implementation
Honoria, SOLOMON
Eleventh meeting of the LEG FCCC/SBI/2007/12
ISLANDS
Tenth Meeting of the LEG Kampala, UGANDA FCCC/SBI/2006/20
Ninth Meeting of the LEG Dhaka, BANGLADESH FCCC/SBI/2006/9
Eighth Meeting of the LEG Tarawa, KIRIBATI FCCC/SBI/2005/20
Seventh Meeting of the LEG Bonn, GERMANY FCCC/SBI/2005/12
Sixth Meeting of the LEG Banjul, GAMBIA FCCC/SBI/2004/17
Fifth Meeting of the LEG Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE FCCC/SBI/2004/3
Fourth Meeting of the LEG Timphu, BHUTAN FCCC/SBI/2003/16
Third Meeting of the LEG Apia, SAMOA FCCC/SBI/2003/6
FCCC/SBI/2002/Inf.1
Second Meeting of the LEG Dhaka, BANGLADESH
6
First Meeting of the LEG Arusha, TANZANIA FCCC/SBI/2002/5

Workshop to develop draft guidelines


for the
preparation of National Adapation Kampala, UGANDA FCCC/SBI/2001/7
Programme
of Action (NAPA)
LEG Documents on Preparation and Implementation of NAPAs

Information paper 2009: Support needed to fully implement NAPA

Step-by-step guide for the implementation of NAPA

Technical paper 2009 - NAPA preparation, implementation and submission


of revised projects and projects profiles

LDC brochure 2009 - LDCs under the UNFCCC

LEG annotations to the NAPA guidelines

Selection of Examples and Exercises Drawn from Regional NAPA


Workshops

The NAPA Primer

Technical Paper-2005-2: Synthesis of available information


Technical Paper-2005-3: Synergy among multilateral environmental
agreements

Technical Paper-2005-4: Regional synergy in the context of NAPA

Technical Paper-2005-5: Elements for an implementation strategy for


NAPAs

Regional Workshops on NAPA


• LEG Lusophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Sao Tome, Sao
Tome and Principe, September 2010
• LEG Asian LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Vientiane, Lao PDR,
May 2010
• LEG Francophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Bamako, Mali,
February 2010
• LEG African Anglophone LDCs regional workshop on implementing NAPA, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania, October 2009
• Workshop to develop draft guidelines for the preparation of National Adaptation
Programmes of Action (NAPA), Kampala, Uganda, April 2001
• Global launch and capacity-building workshop for the preparation of NAPA, Dhaka,
Bangladesh, September 2002
• LEG SIDs regional NAPA Workshop, Apia, Samoa, March 2003 (in collaboration with
UNITAR)

• LEG African Anglophone regional workshop on NAPA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June
2003 (in collaboration with UNITAR)
• LEG Asian regional workshop on NAPA, Timphu, Bhutan, September 2003 (in
collaboration with UNITAR)
• Atelier régional francophone du LEG sur les PANA, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso,
October 2003 (in collaboration with UNITAR)

• Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) stocktaking meeting on the preparation
and implementation of National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Bangkok,
Thailand, 3-5 September 2007
Databases
• Local coping strategies databases
• Submitted NAPAs
• NAPA Priority Project Profiles
• Projects under Implementation

Last modified: 14 July 2010

LDC Fund Introduction


The Least Developed Countries Fund was established to support a work programme to assist Least Developed
Country Parties (LDCs) carry out, inter alia, the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes
of action (NAPAs).
The Global Environment Facility (GEF), as the entity that operates the financial mechanism, has been entrusted to
operate this Fund through decision 27/CP.7.
Recent Developments

The Conference of the Parties (COP), at its eleventh session, agreed on provisions to operationalize the LDCF to
support the implementation of NAPAs. In particular, the COP provided guidance with regards to priority areas and
provisions on full-cost funding and co-financing scale (Decision 3/CP.11).
The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 26, May 2007) (FCCC/SBI/2007/L.2) recognized the need for the
GEF to continue its efforts to mobilize additional resources to support the implementation of NAPAs, and invited
Parties and intergovernmental organizations to submit to the UNFCCC secretariat, by 19 September 2008,
information on implementation of NAPAs, including on accessing funds from the LDCF.
The SBI 26 also asked the Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) to consider experiences in accessing
funding from the LDCF as one of the issues to be discussed at a stocktaking meeting and report to the SBI.
The SBI decided to continue its deliberations on the LDCF at its twenty-ninth session (December 2008), with a
view to preparing an input for COP 14 (December 2008), to enable the COP to assess progress in the
implementation of Decision 3/CP.11 and consider the adoption of further guidance on the LDCF, taking into
consideration:
• Submissions by Parties and IGOs of information on implementation of NAPAs (FCCC/SBI/2008/MISC.5);
• Report by the LEG based on the stocktaking meeting on NAPAs (Bangkok, September 2007 -
FCCC/SBI/2007/32) and;
• Information to be provided by the GEF in its report to the COP 14 (December 2008).
The COP, at its fourteenth session (COP 14), requested the SBI to review, at its thirty-third session (COP16),
the experiences gained in preparing and implementing NAPAs, including in accessing funds from the LDCF. As a
contribution to the review, the COP also invited Parties and relevant organizations to submit to the secretariat by 17
August 2010, information on the preparation and implementation of NAPAs, including on accessing funds from the
LDCF.
The COP 14 also requested the GEF, in parallel to supporting the ongoing implementation of NAPAs, to facilitate
the implementationo of the remaining elements of the LDC work programme.
Key Decisions
5/CP.14: Further guidance for the operation of the LDCF

3/CP.11: Further guidance for the operation of the LDC fund;

6/CP.9: Further guidance for the operation of the Least Developed Countries Fund;

8/CP.8: Guidance to an entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism of the Convention, for the
operation of the Least Developed Countries Fund;

28/CP.7: Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action (see paragraph 4);

27/CP.7: Guidance to an entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism of the Convention, for the
operation of the least developed countries fund;

7/CP.7: Funding under the Convention (see paragraph 6);

5/CP.7: Implementation of Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention (decision 3/CP.3 and Article 2,
paragraph 3, and Article 3, paragraph 14, of the Kyoto Protocol) (see paragraph 12).
Key Documents

GEF Operational Guidelines for Expedited Funding for the Preparation of National Adaptation Programs of Action
by Least Developed Countries (April 2002)

GEF Programming Paper for Funding the Implementation of NAPAs under the LDC Trust Fund (GEF/C.28/18,
May 12, 2006)

GEF Comparative Advantages of the GEF Agencies (GEF/C.31/5 rev.1, June 18, 2007)

GEF Results-Based Management Framework for LDCF and SCCF (GEF/LDCF.SCCF.5/3, October 16, 2008)

GEF Implementation of Results-Based Management Framework under the LDCF and SCCF
(GEF/LDCF.SCCF.7/4, November 27, 2009)

GEF Accessing Financing under the Least Developed Countries Fund (GEF/LDCF.SCCF.8/3, July 1, 2010)

The latest updates on the SCCF/LDCF


Latest GEF Annual Reports to the COP
Stocktaking Meeting Report (FCCC/SBI/2007/32)
Submissions by Parties and relevant organizations on the LDC Fund
• SBI 29, December 2008 (FCCC/SBI/2008/MISC.8)