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GREETINGS

GREETINGS Air Treatment Engineering P Ltd

Air Treatment Engineering P Ltd

Energy Efficient designs - 12 Lakhs sft

Energy Efficient designs - 12 Lakhs sft • 200 Sft / TR • 6.6 w /

200 Sft / TR

6.6 w / Sft

6000 TR

9000 KW

11250 KVA

Normal

Rs 200 / Sft (AC)

Rs 210 / sft ( Elec)

550 sft / TR

2.73 w / sft

2200 TR

2420 KW

2850 KVA

Energy design

Rs 150 / Sft (AC)

Rs 60 / sft

CCR of 2 crores/Yr

Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort
Thermal Comfort
Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort Factors defining thermal comfort are Metabolic rate Clothing Insulation Air Temperature Radiant

Factors defining thermal comfort are

Metabolic rate Clothing Insulation Air Temperature Radiant Temperature Air Speed

Humidity

Human Response to Heat

Human Response to Heat Heat Balance Equation, S = M – W – E – Q

Heat Balance Equation,

S = M – W – E – Q

S = rate of heat storage of human body, W/m 2

M

W

E

Q

Where,

= metabolic rate of human body, W/m 2

= mechanical work produced by human body, W/m 2

= rate of total evaporative loss due to evaporation of sweat, W/m 2

= total rate of heat loss from skin (dry heat exchange), W/m 2

Metabolic Rate

Metabolic Rate Metabolic Rate depends upon Degree of Muscular Activities Environmental Condition and Body Size The

Metabolic Rate depends upon

Degree of Muscular Activities Environmental Condition and Body Size

The unit of Metabolic Rate is ‘met’ which is equivalent to 58.2 W/m 2

Metabolic Rate of Various Activities

Metabolic Rate of Various Activities Activity Metabolic Rate (Met) W/m 2 Sleeping   0.8   47

Activity

Metabolic Rate (Met)

W/m 2

Sleeping

 

0.8

 

47

Seated, quiet

 

1.0

 

58.2

Standing, relaxed

 

1.2

 

70

Walking

2

to 3.8

116

to 221

House Cleaning

2

to 3.6

116

to 210

Washing by hand and ironing

1.2

to 1.4

70

to 81

Office Work

1.1

to 1.3

64

to 76

Drafting

 

3 to 4

175

to 233

to 1.4 70 to 81 Office Work 1.1 to 1.3 64 to 76 Drafting   3

Cont ,

Cont , Activity Metabolic Rate (Met) W/m 2 Carpentry 4 to 4.8 233 to 280 Sawing

Activity

Metabolic Rate (Met)

W/m 2

Carpentry

4

to 4.8

233

to 280

Sawing

3

to 3.4

175 to 198

Foundry work

2.2 to 3

128 to 175

Using pneumatic hammer

1.4 to 1.8

82 to 105

Garage work

3.5 to 4.5

204

to 262

Laboratory work

 

2

 

116

Machine work

 

1.6

 

93

Teacher

 

3.2

 

186

work   2   116 Machine work   1.6   93 Teacher   3.2   186

Evaporative Heat Loss

Evaporative Heat Loss Respired Vapour Loss Latent Respiration Heat Loss Sensible Respiration Heat Loss Evaporative Heat

Respired Vapour Loss

Latent Respiration Heat Loss Sensible Respiration Heat Loss

Evaporative Heat Loss from Skin Surface

Evaporative Heat Loss by Skin Diffusion Heat Loss due to Sweating

Clothing Insulation

Clothing Insulation Effect of Clothing Insulation Thermal Insulation of Clothing Evaporation Resistance of Clothing

Effect of Clothing Insulation

Thermal Insulation of Clothing Evaporation Resistance of Clothing

‘Clo’ represents clothing thermal resistance value. 1 “clo” = 0.155 m 2 K/W

‘Clo’ Values for Clothing

‘Clo’ Values for Clothing Clothing Clo m 2 K/W Combination   Naked 0   0

Clothing

Clo

m

2 K/W

Combination

 

Naked

0

 

0

Shorts

0.1

0.018

Typical Tropic Clothing Outfit

0.3

0.047

Light Summer Clothing

0.5

0.078

Working Clothes

0.8

0.124

Typical Indoor Winter Clothing Combination

1

0.155

Heavy Traditional European Business Suit

1.5

0.233

Typical Indoor Winter Clothing Combination 1 0.155 Heavy Traditional European Business Suit 1.5 0.233
Operative Temperature
Operative Temperature

Formula to Calculate Operative Temperature

Formula to Calculate Operative Temperature T m i n , I c l = [(I c

T min , I cl = [(I cl – 0.5 clo) T min , 1.0 clo+ (1.0 clo – I cl ) T min , 0.5 clo ] / 0.5 clo

T max , I cl = [(I cl – 0.5 clo) T max , 1.0 clo+ (1.0 clo – I cl ) T max , 0.5clo] / 0.5 clo

where T max , I cl =upper operative temperature limit for clothing insulation I cl , T min , I cl =lower operative temperature limit for clothing insulation I cl , I cl =thermal insulation of the clothing in question (clo).

Limits – Clothing insulation 0.5 to 1.0 clo

– Air speed not greater than 40 fpm

– Average metabolic rate 1.0 to 2.0 met

– Humidity ratio should not exceed 0.012

Operating Temperature for Working Clothes (0.8 clo)

Operating Temperature for Working Clothes (0.8 clo) Tmin = (0.8 – 0.5) 71 + (1 –

Tmin = (0.8 – 0.5) 71 + (1 – 0.8) 78 / 0.5

= (0.3 x 71) + (78 x 0.2) / 0.5

= 21.3 + 15.6 / 0.5

= 73.8 F

Tmax = (0.8 – 0.5) 77 + (1 – 0.8) 83 / 0.5

= (0.3 x 77) + (83 x 0.2) / 0.5

= 23.1 + 16.6 / 0.5

= 79.4 F

Operating Temperature for Working Clothes (1.5 clo)

Operating Temperature for Working Clothes (1.5 clo) Tmin = (1.5 – 0.5) 71 + (1 –

Tmin = (1.5 – 0.5) 71 + (1 – 1.5) 78 / 0.5

= (1 x 71) - (78 x 0.5) / 0.5

= 71 - 39 / 0.5

= 64 F

Tmax = (1.5 – 0.5) 77 + (1 – 1.5) 83 / 0.5

= (1 x 77) - (83 x 0.5) / 0.5

= 77 – 41.5 / 0.5

= 71 F

Human Comfort Zone Plotted on Psychrometric Chart
Human Comfort Zone Plotted on Psychrometric Chart
PPD Vs PMV For a PMV range -0.5 <PMV<0.5 – PPD < 10
PPD Vs PMV
For a PMV range -0.5 <PMV<0.5 – PPD < 10
Air Speed Air speed is limited to 160 fpm Max temperature shift in operative temp
Air Speed
Air speed is limited to 160 fpm
Max temperature shift in operative temp can be 3 o C
Bio-Climatic Chart Ogyays
Bio-Climatic Chart Ogyays
Large Fan with Low Power
Large Fan with Low Power
Large Fan with Low Power
Large Fan with Low Power

Radiant Temperature Asymmetry

Radiant Temperature Asymmetry PPD < 5% Radiant Temperature Asymmetry °C (°F) Warm Ceiling Cool Wall
PPD < 5% Radiant Temperature Asymmetry °C (°F) Warm Ceiling Cool Wall Cool Ceiling Cool

PPD < 5%

Radiant Temperature Asymmetry °C (°F)

Radiant Temperature Asymmetry °C (°F)

Warm Ceiling

Cool Wall

Cool Ceiling

Cool Wall

<5 (9)

<10 (18)

<14 (25.2)

<23 (41.4)

Ceiling Cool Wall Cool Ceiling Cool Wall <5 (9) <10 (18) <14 (25.2) <23 (41.4)
Vertical Air Temperature Difference Vertical Air Temp Diff is <3 o C (5.4 F) PPD
Vertical Air Temperature Difference
Vertical Air Temp Diff is <3 o C (5.4 F)
PPD < 5%

Draft

Draft Unwanted cooling of the body due to air movement DR = ([34-t a ] *

Unwanted cooling of the body due to air movement

DR = ([34-t a ] * [v-0.05]0.62) * (0.37 * v * Tu + 3.14) , where DR=predicted percentage of people dissatisfied due to draft t a =local air temperature, °C v=local mean air speed, m/s Tu=local turbulence intensity, %.

PPD due to draft < 20%

Allowable air speed as a function of Air Temp and Turbulence Intensity
Allowable air speed as a function of Air Temp and Turbulence
Intensity

Drifts and Ramps

Drifts and Ramps Drafts – Refers to passive temperature change Ramps – actively controlled temperature change

Drafts – Refers to passive temperature change

Ramps – actively controlled temperature change

Limits on Temperature Drifts and Ramps

 

Time Period

0.25 h

0.5 h

1 h

2 h

4 h

Max Operative Temp Change allowed

1.1 (2)

1.7 (3)

2.2 (4)

2.8 (5)

3.3 (6)

0.5 h 1 h 2 h 4 h Max Operative Temp Change allowed 1.1 (2) 1.7
Naturally Conditioned Space Mean monthly outdoor air temperature 10<air temp<33.5 o C PPD < 20
Naturally Conditioned Space
Mean monthly outdoor air temperature 10<air temp<33.5 o C
PPD < 20 to 10%

HVAC

HVAC
HVAC

HVAC

HVAC • Glass load analysis • Fresh air management ( 33%) • Earth Air Tunnel Design

Glass load analysis

Fresh air management ( 33%)

Earth Air Tunnel Design

Slab Cooling

Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Glass Load Analysis

Glass Load Analysis
Glass Load Analysis
Glass Load Analysis

Design - Glass

Design - Glass Fix the LTC of the glass – required for harvesting Select multiple glasses

Fix the LTC of the glass – required for harvesting

Select multiple glasses with variable U factor and SF

Use the cost data from the respective vendors

Carry out a full study report for the whole year using good soft wares

Sample glass load analysis

Sample glass load analysis   Glass Load -Total Building   Glass Type Glass Code GlassCost
 

Glass Load -Total Building

 

Glass Type

Glass Code

GlassCost

Equip.cost

First Cost

Opera+Maintance cost

TR

DGU ST 408

1

348.72

38.46

416.10

53.24

149.73

Ref Green

2

140.76

118.38

348.08

163.83

460.72

ST 408

3

225.85

69.78

348.11

96.61

271.69

DGU Green

4

261.42

71.84

387.20

99.40

279.52

green laminate

5

265.57

118.69

473.46

164.28

461.99

DGU skyblue

6

268.13

69.18

389.21

95.68

269.07

ST Blue

7

214.50

104.65

397.77

144.82

407.27

DGU ST blue

8

341.86

55.74

439.42

77.09

216.79

low e

9

288.23

68.86

408.66

95.16

267.68

Ordinary Glass 6mm

10

42.33

167.05

334.61

230.97

649.51

Ordinary Plain Glass-DG

11

148.17

118.28

355.00

163.44

459.62

Deep Blue

12

469.90

32.58

526.92

45.06

126.71

Ultra Marine

13

463.55

45.14

542.51

62.39

175.46

Marine Blue

14

482.60

37.30

547.87

51.57

145.02

SGG Climailit

15

392.33

62.95

502.53

87.09

244.90

14 482.60 37.30 547.87 51.57 145.02 SGG Climailit 15 392.33 62.95 502.53 87.09 244.90
Cooling Cost Savings Product Running Cost A/C tonnage for cooling heat through glass Normal lacs
Cooling Cost Savings
Product
Running Cost
A/C tonnage for
cooling heat
through glass
Normal
lacs / annum
Choice
Ordinary Glass 6mm
532
189
Ordinary Plain Glass-DG
392
266
ST Blue
314
111
Low e
226
80
ST 408
202
72
Turquoise ST 436
151
54
DGU ST 408
113
40
Selected
Glass

Investment Cost

Investment Cost Product Running Cost A/C +Glass A/C tonnage for cooling heat through glass lacs /
Product Running Cost A/C +Glass A/C tonnage for cooling heat through glass lacs / annum
Product
Running Cost
A/C +Glass
A/C tonnage for cooling
heat through glass
lacs / annum
Cost in lac
Ordinary Glass 6mm
532
189
265
Ordinary Plain Glass-DG
392
266
265
ST Blue
314
111
271
Low e
226
80
276
ST 408
202
72
228
Turquoise ST 436
151
54
266
DGU ST 408
113
40
262
Resulting in 13% savings with no additional investment cost
Investment Cost
Remains the
same

Fresh Air Management

Fresh Air Management
Fresh Air Management
Fresh Air Management

Fresh Air Management

Fresh Air Management Fresh Air Load Peripheral Load Room Load

Fresh Air Load

Peripheral Load

Room Load

ADP and compressor power

ADP and compressor power ADP with out fresh air load 55 = ADP with fresh air

ADP with out fresh air load

55

=

ADP with fresh air load

51

=

Savings

+ 8 to 10%

Fresh Air Load

Fresh Air Load Fresh Air can be handled using Special Dedicated Outdoor Air Unit Active Heat

Fresh Air can be handled using

Special Dedicated Outdoor Air Unit

Active Heat Recovery Machines

Specially designed Treated Fresh Air Units (0.3 to 0.4 Kw/TR)

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems(DOAS)

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems(DOAS)
Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems(DOAS)

Fresh air – Load reduction

Fresh air – Load reduction Heat recovery wheel Determine the enthalpy drop required Estimate the SHF

Heat recovery wheel

Determine the enthalpy drop required Estimate the SHF of the fresh air Select the right HRW wheel Use an AHU with class B leak Room exhaust air – from the return air path Use CO2 sensors Vary the flow using VFDs on the fans based on CO2 diff Expected drop in load is around 12 to 15%

Heat Recovery Machine
Heat Recovery Machine

Earth Air Tunnel Cooling

Earth Air Tunnel Cooling PRE COOLING THE FRESH AIR

PRE COOLING THE FRESH AIR

Pre-cooling/Earth Air Tunnel Cooling

Pre-cooling/Earth Air Tunnel Cooling Input air is pre-cooled using earth air tunnels Pre-cooled air is then

Input air is pre-cooled using earth air tunnels

Pre-cooled air is then fed into HRW and then to the specially designed DOA for further cooling

Fresh air through a DOA can be designed to have a low grain content to facilitate moisture control in the room

Supply air could be around 25 deg C.

EAT Cooling
EAT Cooling
Geothermal Cooling
Geothermal Cooling
CFD Analysis of Earth Air Tunnel:
CFD Analysis of Earth Air Tunnel:

Chilled Beams

Chilled Beams
Chilled Beams
Chilled Beams
Chilled Beams
Chilled Beams
Chilled Beam
Chilled Beam
Cooling Panels
Cooling Panels
Induction Unit
Induction Unit

Slab Cooling

Slab Cooling
Slab Cooling
Slab Cooling

Slab Cooling

Slab Cooling Slabs at around 20 o C Water piping with pre-cooled water Air duct as

Slabs at around 20 o C

Water piping with pre-cooled water

Air duct as a part of concrete

Air duct connected to pre-cooling / EAT

Slab Cooling
Slab Cooling
Slab Cooling
Slab Cooling
Pre-casted Concrete Ducts
Pre-casted Concrete Ducts

Carpet

Modular Integrated Terminal (MIT)

Air Supply to Room

Carpet Modular Integrated Terminal (MIT) Air Supply to Room Air Inlet from Floor Void Cast Aluminium
Air Inlet from Floor Void
Air Inlet
from
Floor Void

Cast Aluminium Grill

to Room Air Inlet from Floor Void Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal
to Room Air Inlet from Floor Void Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal

Modular Integrated Terminal MIT

Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal MIT Damper Actuator F loor Panel Floor

Damper

Actuator

Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal MIT Damper Actuator F loor Panel Floor

Floor Panel

Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal MIT Damper Actuator F loor Panel Floor

Floor

Support

Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal MIT Damper Actuator F loor Panel Floor

FlexCool

Controller

Cast Aluminium Grill Modular Inte g rate d Terminal MIT Damper Actuator F loor Panel Floor

Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort

Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Floor Grille: Arranged in any of 16 flow patterns for personal comfort
Modular Fan Terminal (MFT) Summer Perimeter Zone cooling Glazing Occupied Space Room Warm Air Supply
Modular Fan Terminal (MFT)
Summer Perimeter Zone cooling
Glazing
Occupied Space
Room
Warm
Air
Supply
Minimum fresh air
from floor void
Air
Electric or
Hot Water Filter
Heater
Minim
Fresh
Air
MIT
MIT
MFT
Fan
Plenum
Plenum
Interior Zone Cooling 27.4 o C 26 o C Polluted Air I don’t care region
Interior Zone Cooling
27.4
o C
26
o C
Polluted Air
I don’t care region
24.4
o C
Breathing Zone
well mixed
22.8
o C
1.8 m
1.2 m
22.5
o C
15.5
o C
MIT
MIT
Floor Void Pressure maintained at 7 Pascal

Data Center Design

Data Center Design
Data Center Design
Data Centre Layout
Data Centre Layout
Under Floor Supply – ASHRAE
Under Floor Supply – ASHRAE
Aisle Air Containment
Aisle Air Containment

Data Center Design

Data Center Design Conventional way of designing data center claims 50 to 60 sft per ton

Conventional way of designing data center claims 50 to 60 sft per ton

Our innovative design claims only 200 to 250 sft per ton

This can be carried out with the help of Indirect Evaporative Cooling and CFD Analysis

CFD Analysis Showing Serer Surface Temperature
CFD Analysis Showing Serer Surface Temperature
Sectional Layout Showing Temperature
Sectional Layout Showing Temperature
CFD Analysis Showing Air Flow Velocity
CFD Analysis Showing Air Flow Velocity

Indirect Evaporative Cooling Design

Indirect Evaporative Cooling Design
Indirect Evaporative Cooling Design
Indirect Evaporative Cooling Design
Indirect Evaporative Cooling
Indirect Evaporative Cooling
Indirect Evaporative Cooling
Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Multi-Stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Multi-Stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling It is very useful in hot & dry climate Very low power

It is very useful in hot & dry climate

Very low power consumption

About 30% savings on installed capacity and 50-60% savings on energy

Multi-Stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling
Multi-Stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling

District Cooling

District Cooling
District Cooling

District Cooling

District Cooling District Cooling is the centralized p roduction and distribution of chilled water from a

District Cooling is the centralized production and distribution of chilled water from a central plant to individual buildings through a network of underground pipes

The energy produced can include heating / cooling or electricity

Heating is in the form of steam or high temperature hot water

Cooling is in the form of chilled water

If electricity is co-generated, it is usually used with in the central plant

 

District Cooling - Benefits

  District Cooling - Benefits Reduce capital investment cost of cooling system Lower operational and energy

Reduce capital investment cost of cooling system

Lower operational and energy expenses

Conserve space – No need of chillers in individual building

Application

Special Economic Zones

Townships

IT Parks Large Campuses

 

Airport

 

College Campus Shopping Malls

District Cooling Schematic
District Cooling Schematic

Zero Energy Design

Zero Energy Design
Zero Energy Design
Zero Energy Design
 

Assumption

  Assumption 2 stories building, 3 lakh sq.ft ea ch, totaling to 6 lakh sq.ft Occupancy

2 stories building, 3 lakh sq.ft each, totaling to 6 lakh sq.ft

Occupancy 60 sq.ft/person @ 80% diversity

Computers 150w/computer

Fresh air 20 CFM/person

Building is assumed to be operation between 9 AM to 6 PM for 6 days a week

 

Load Estimation – Normal Building

 
  Load Estimation – Normal Building   Total Load = RL - 1988 + FA –

Total Load = RL - 1988 + FA – 1022

=

3010 TR

Assuming use of Air cooled chillers, Power consumption @ 1.5 KW/TR Power cost @ Rs. 6 per KW Power cost per sqft per year

   

=

270 LKW/Yr 1625 Lakhs 270 Rs

=

=

=

Total Demand per day Power Demand per day

=

36600 TRH 54900 KWH

Total Demand per day Power Demand per day = 36600 TRH 54900 KWH 1

1

Solar Power Produced

Solar Power Produced Install solar panel on 80% of roof area Solar power that can be

Install solar panel on 80% of roof area

Solar power that can be produced

=

12850 KWH

of roof area Solar power that can be produced = 12850 KWH 2 Since power demand

2

Since power demand per day (1) is more than the power produced by solar PV panel (2), we could not meet the load demand

Strategy Adopted

Strategy Adopted ECM Adopted Normal Building Energy Demand 54900 KWH 47850 KWH 42750 KWH 28950 KWH

ECM Adopted

Normal Building

Energy Demand

54900 KWH

47850 KWH 42750 KWH 28950 KWH 25300 KWH 25000 KWH 16960 KWH 12420 KWH

ECM1 – Select proper glazing ECM2 – Building Insulation ECM3 – Heat Recovery Wheel ECM4 – Earth Air Tunnel ECM5 – Demand Control Ventilation ECM6 – Water Cooled Chillers ECM7 – Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Actual Power produced with installed solar power

12850 KWH

Comparison Normal Normal Building Building Innovative Innovative Design Design
Comparison
Normal Normal Building Building
Innovative Innovative Design Design

Oil free Compressors

Oil free Compressors Energy efficient Oil free quiet operation Extended life with minimal maintenance Available in

Energy efficient

Oil free quiet operation

Extended life with minimal maintenance

Available in small capacities – 60 to 150 TR

efficient Oil free quiet operation Extended life with minimal maintenance Available in small capacities – 60

Customized VRV

Customized VRV Specially designed VRV machine with oil free compressor as outdoor unit. Floor mounted AHU

Specially designed VRV machine with oil free compressor as outdoor unit.

Floor mounted AHU acts as indoor unit

VRV Specially designed VRV machine with oil free compressor as outdoor unit. Floor mounted AHU acts

Integrated Chilled Water Control System

Integrated Chilled Water Control System CONTROL SEQUENCES Natural curve sequencing Equal marginal performance principle

CONTROL SEQUENCES Natural curve sequencing Equal marginal performance principle Demand Based Control

VFD VFD
VFD
VFD

Integrated Chilled Water Control System

Integrated Chilled Water Control System Ultra Efficient Integrated Chilled Water Control System Efficiency is about 0.5

Ultra Efficient Integrated Chilled Water Control System

Efficiency is about 0.5 KW/TR

Best for interoperability, Web- based access, automation interface, and remote location control

is about 0.5 KW/TR Best for interoperability, Web- based access, automation interface, and remote location control
VFD Vs CSD
VFD Vs CSD

De-Super Heater on Chillers

De-Super Heater on Chillers Every building requires hot water 40 to 45 o C of hot

Every building requires hot water

40 to 45 o C of hot water can be generated

Solar Powered Chillers

Solar Powered Chillers A solar collector array supplies hot wa ter as a source of energy

A solar collector array supplies hot water as a source of energy to the absorption cooling machine through hot storage

Electricity is generated by means of solar panels and the same is used to run the chillers

Refrigerator based hot water generator

Refrigerator based hot water generator Very efficient way to generate hot water Cool air and cold

Very efficient way to generate hot water

Cool air and cold water can be a by product

Can be applied in Hotels, Hospitals, Restaurants etc.,

Hot water generator
Hot water generator

AHU’s

AHU’s Low noise AHU’s Avoid silencers Equipments to maintain coil

Low noise AHU’s

Avoid silencers

Equipments to maintain coil

Ducting

Ducting Avoid plenum Use CFD for air flow study Reduce pressure drop

Avoid plenum

Use CFD for air flow study

Reduce pressure drop

Continuous Analysis

Continuous Analysis Set check points Input data from sites Keep analyzing on a weekly basis Bring

Set check points

Input data from sites

Keep analyzing on a weekly basis

Bring in SOP for corrections

VFD’s on Motor

VFD’s on Motor Most motors have VFD Latest statistical information is ve ry handy - Avoid

Most motors have VFD

Latest statistical information is very handy - Avoid bye-pass starters

CO 2 based Fresh Air

CO 2 based Fresh Air Supply and exhaust fan too have drives Fresh air supply duct

Supply and exhaust fan too have drives

Fresh air supply duct to have VAV’s for each zone

Multiple CO 2 sensors in each zone

Avoid Impeller Trimming

Avoid Impeller Trimming Select the pump with full impeller Run it on low speed with drive

Select the pump with full impeller

Run it on low speed with drive

Do not use bye-pass starters

Free Air Cooling AHU’s

Free Air Cooling AHU’s Can be used in some parts of the country Use humidifiers if

Can be used in some parts of the country

Use humidifiers if RH is low

Use exhaust fans

Temperature Set Points

Temperature Set Points Peripheral heat load to be conducted Use right glass selection Vary the set

Peripheral heat load to be conducted

Use right glass selection

Vary the set point with respect to ambient

Increased draft using special fans

Serial Chillers

Serial Chillers Chilled water from a chi ller entering the next chiller for further cooling Help

Chilled water from a chiller entering the next chiller for further cooling

Help in improving system COP

Serial Chillers

Serial Chillers 1 No 500TR chiller with 6 & 13 chilled water in and out –

1 No 500TR chiller with 6 & 13 chilled water in and out – 0.637 IKW/TR

(265 x 1 + 251 x 1) chiller coupled together will give 0.604 and 0.554 IKW/TR respectively

By using serial chillers we can save up to 9% of energy

Cascade System
Cascade System

Low Flow System in Chilled Water Design

Low Flow System in Chilled Water Design 2.4 GPM/TR - 2500 GPM 1.4 GPM/TR – 730
Low Flow System in Chilled Water Design 2.4 GPM/TR - 2500 GPM 1.4 GPM/TR – 730

2.4 GPM/TR -

2500 GPM

1.4 GPM/TR – 730 GPM

Pumping load comes down drastically and there by we can save 70% of energy with out disturbing the efficiency of the system

load comes down drastically and there by we can save 70% of energy with out disturbing
load comes down drastically and there by we can save 70% of energy with out disturbing

Low Flow Condenser Design

Low Flow Condenser Design Saves pumping power Better cooling tower performance Less water losses

Saves pumping power

Better cooling tower performance

Less water losses

Information

Information Low delta T Syndrome Over sized coil & control valve Active load in the building

Low delta T Syndrome

Over sized coil & control valve Active load in the building is less Control valve throttles and reduces flow On minimum part load coil flow velocity falls below Reynolds no Flow becomes laminar Loss of conductivity and hence room not cooled Control valve opens again to maintain temperature in room Increased flow and low load on the coil results in reduction of DT Return water temperature falls down Chiller identifies – no load and starts part loading Pump continues to o over work and increase flow , further damaging the situation IKW / TR & KW/Sft goes up

Remote Monitoring

Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring
Schematic Arrangement
Schematic Arrangement

Performance contracting

Performance contracting Esco will implement the corrections Investment of Correc tion will be by Esco Savings

Esco will implement the corrections

Investment of Correction will be by Esco

Savings will be shared between Esco : Client by 80:20 ratio for the first five years and by 70:30 for the next five years

Assurance of a max operating cost on defined conditions

Computational Fluid dynamics

Computational Fluid dynamics • Wind tunnel study • Piping designs • Air moving equipments design •

Wind tunnel study

Piping designs

Air moving equipments design

Air distribution designs

Reduce power consumption

Statistics as a Design Tool

Statistics as a Design Tool Most important Mining of data of clients Statistical tools to be

Most important

Mining of data of clients

Statistical tools to be used for analysis

Live Spread Computation-Chennai
Live Spread Computation-Chennai

Project Costing

Project Costing Use Cost / Sq.ft Sq.ft / TR Watts / Sq.ft

Use

Cost / Sq.ft

Sq.ft / TR

Watts / Sq.ft

Water Quality

Water Quality Complex Science Not possible to manually maintain Use good automated equipments

Complex Science

Not possible to manually maintain

Use good automated equipments

 

ATE

  ATE Thank you Management & Staff Air Treatment Engineering P Ltd INDIA

Thank you

Management & Staff Air Treatment Engineering P Ltd INDIA