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TIME MANAGEMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

OF GRADE 10 STUDENTS

In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for the Practical Research
Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National High School

ABELLON, GENEZA S.
ABOGATAL, ARLYN E
ALCASID, ANALIE G.
BARANGGIT, MILINE N.
BARIL, JASON
GAMIT, CARL ANTHONY O.
JUNTILLA, ADRIAN C.
LLOREN, STEVE KLIEN S.
MARCIAL, VINCENT POL B.
MATUAN, NORHANA M.

OCTOBER 2019

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Academic performance generally refers to how well a student is

accomplishing his or her task and studies, but there are quite a number of factors

that determine the level and quality of students’ academic performance included

grades, attendance, standardized test, extracurricular activities, Behavior,

Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to difference in

intelligence and personality. (Von Stumm, Sophie Hell, Benedikt, Chamorro

premuzic, Tomas 2011).

Hence, time management is a skill that perhaps impacts the student’s

academic performance. Effective time management techniques should not only

be applied to the students’ academic life but to their overall schedule to achieve

success and peace of mind. Grades in higher institutions often depend on the

completion of a range of tasks, including those with various deadlines, lengths

and priorities. These multiple tasks, and then grades are determined by the

quality of efforts put in. Thus, academic performance would be expected to be

influenced by time management skills. Therefore, as increasing demands are

placed on students, students’ ability to manage time becomes an essential

component for academic success.

Postgraduate students in Nigerian Universities appear entangled in how

best to manage time resource effectively and efficiently in both their academic

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pursuits and workloads in order to ensure performances in various fields of

endeavour. (Igun & Adogbeji 2007)

In Philippines, specifically in Manila, Students have a lot of going through

their life. Too many projects, too many subjects to study, too many things to

learn, too many terminologies to memorize, and they only have 24 hours per

day. No wonder it’s never easy to manage your time effectively. (Southville

international school and colleges 2017)

Time management plays a vital role in improving student’s academic

performance and achievements. Each and every student should have time

management ability which includes setting goals & priorities, using time

management mechanism and being organized in using time. Here time

management is only possible through self-motivation; performance, ability and

motivation (Brigitte, Claessens, Eerde, & Rutte, 2005).

In this premise, the researchers conducted this study to extend the

research by exploring the relationship between time management and academic

performance of Grade 10 students in Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National High

School. To determine on how they spend their time particularly in school, and

also if time management affects their grades. Most of the students spent their

time on recreational activities. Academic Performance is very significant for them

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to finish their studies. This study helps to find a solution in order to make the

best way on how to manage their time to become good in terms of academic

performance. Therefore, researchers felt the urgency to conduct this research.

Statement of the problem

Some observed problems in certain areas in the academic activities of

students may owe their causes largely to time management. This is when the

students do not manage their time properly. They may not come or may delay in

coming to school. There may be delay in planning for academic activities

postponement of time to do assignment and reading for tests and examination.

They may be facing interruptions during the lectures hours like receiving lengthy

calls, pinging, social networks and mingle with friends. This has some influences

on some areas of academic activities especially in the academic performance.

Consequent upon these, the study will investigate the effects of time

management on students’ academic performance.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

What is the extent of student’s time management in terms of:

1.1 Time Planning;

1.2 Time Attitudes;

1.3 Time Wasters?

2. What is the extent of students time management in terms of:

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2.1 Grades?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the time management and

academic performance of grade 10 students?

Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between the time management and the

academic performance of Grade 10 students.

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Review of Related Literature

This unit presented the gathered information that supported the study

about The Time Management and Academic Performance of Grade 10 Students.

The independent variable was the Time Management with the following

indicators: Time Planning, Time Attitudes and Time Wasters. On the other hand,

the dependent variable was the academic performance with an indicator of

grades.

People lose a lot when they waste their resources and wealth’s and losing

it; is more pronounced when time is wasted intentionally, and it is considered

among the main criteria considered in making judgments on the success and

efficiency of human contributions to themselves and societies too. People in

general, as well as in making positive efforts aiming to prevent time wasting.

Then we can say that respecting time and realizing its real value makes an

important change at the level of individuals. One of the unique properties of time

is that it cannot be saved for future. Regardless of the way in which spend our

life’s time, which we spend our life, without any difference between

management and is related to our success in life (Alwan & Ahmid, 2009).

In addition, time is considered as one of the main recourses in life, and it

should be used positively because of its real capital. Those who realize

importance of time, are the ones who achieve their goals in their personal

occupational lives, and they realize that time is a wealth that cannot be

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compensated. Time is regarded as an opportunity, if used wisely; it enables us of

achieving our goals, also if it is wasted so it leads to failure especially in students.

Time management is a skill that every student should not only know, but

also apply. A lot of students complain about running out of time when asked to

do a certain task, they get frustrated because they are not able to make it before

the deadline. Time management is extremely important, especially when it

comes to students because it will boost their grades and enhance their

productivity (Laurie & Hellsten, 2002).

However, time management is the art of arranging, organizing,

scheduling and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more

effectiveness work and productivity. It is a priority-based structuring of time

allocation and distribution among competing demands since time cannot be

stored, and its availability can neither be increased beyond nor decrease from the

24 hours.

Gerard (2002) defined time management as a set of principles, practices,

skills, tools and systems that work together to help you get more value out of

your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life. Argarwal (2008) in

his contribution asserts that time management is usually a personal problem and

if one instinctively knows what the right is, then there is no need to worry. Daily

life is not actually a gamble and allocating time to every activity will help. Unlike

other things, time lost never comes back.

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Furthermore, most of the time students face problems like task aversion

and uncertainty, so they start to procrastinate because they lack organizational

skills. As a result, students will not be able to organize duties according to their

priorities, so they get distracted easily, ending up procrastinating. As we can see,

time management is quite essential to student, and it is one of the keys to higher

academic achievements (Kelly, 2004).

Alian (2011) asserts that time is considered as part of the logical

relationship between a certain activity or event and another, and it can be

expressed in the past, present or future. Time is unit of measurement fir the

rotation of earth around its axis and around the sun. Time is a regular

combination of seconds which is a sub-unit of minutes, hours, days, successively;

so, time passes regularly forward, and cannot be stopped, accumulated,

compensated, or substituted.

In the Relevant Literature, revealed that the students’ time management

skills affect their academic achievement at a significant level and the skills are

one of the predictors of academic performance. The relevant literature suggested

that students should start to acquire time management senses on their own in

their primary school years by reading materials on the issue or via the

framework of psychological counseling and guidance studies applied in schools

and adopt effective time management attitudes and techniques to determine how

and where they spend their time (Lisa & Robert, 2008). The various group of

students who exploited time-saving proficiencies notably had rich academic

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achievement. They accomplished those students who do not use time saving

techniques in their educational surrounding having significantly lower academic

as compared to results students who employ time- management tactics have

considerably higher achievement (Mercanlioglu, 2010).

Lastly, time management practices show the way not only to a high level

of academic performance, but to good physical condition and lower levels of

stress. The foremost purpose of the present study was educational competency,

using time managing techniques, test pressure, and test proficiency (Faisal,

Miqdadi, Abdulla & Mohammad, 2014).

To calculate the cumulative time spent working during a week, these

objects were also added. Time management practices have been proven to be

some of the top indicators toward achieving a high level of academic success and

performance. They not only influence on the achievement but using time

management techniques also serve only one reason meaning that there are

multipurpose fulfilled by time management (Fazal,2012). Taking part in

proceedings and being engaged in other outside class activities, not inevitably a

job, but being energetic in institution also has a strong correlation to reaching

high academic achievements. Various studies showed that time management

practices serve for many purposes not only for challenging performance of the

students. Time management practices show the way not only to a high level of

academic performance, but to good physical condition and lower levels of stress.

The foremost purpose of the present study was educational competency, using

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time managing techniques, test pressure, and test proficiency (Faisal, Miqdadi,

Abdulla & Mohammad, 2014). Academic competence scores were established to

some extent improved in the current sample indicating that students found

course material/content encouraging and enjoying their classes.

Tracy (2014) suggests a series of techniques for managing time: making

written plans, creating daily “to-do” list, setting clear priorities, staying on track,

determining key result areas, delegating power and authority to others,

concentrating on work, overcoming procrastination, controlling interruptions,

managing the telephone and conducting effective meetings.

The initial issue was named as time planning, and as a result it seems to

embrace a range of items that are related to planning in the short term (either at

intervals of the day or within the week) and within the long term (Alay & Koçak,

2002). On the other hand, Jekale and Tsega (2008) shown that time planning is

crucial for the construction of the development and classified it under four types

which are bar graph, network diagram, resources unnatural project programing

and time planning under uncertainty.

The term of time management in leisure means that time is available for

individual after work and can be spent in various activities based on the

planning and organization of the individual through setting goals and priorities.

This importance of time makes time management as an art and science related to

effective use of time. The effective utilization of time requires planning, as well

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as organization of time. Time management enables us of completing the largest

quantity of activities, using the same amount of time, which means using time

most effectively (Abawi, 2006).

The secret to achieving success in life is effectively managing this resource

that everyone possesses equally and paying sufficient emphasis to planning

Though effective and efficient use of time varies with respect to the tasks

performed, the further increase in the level of knowledge and skills expected

from modern employees has further increased the necessity of time planning.

The road to success in social life passes through effective and efficient working

which is only possible via time management. The competitive environment we

live in today encourages people from as early as their elementary education to

plan and manage time effectively (Macan, Shahani, Dipboye & Phillips, 2000).

The Second issue is time attitudes, is very attitudinal in nature (Alay &

Koçak, 2002). Time attitudes in agreement with Claessens (2004) connected

within the assessment of tasks that are being performed. And as mentioned

before in the same study by Britton and Tesser (1991), their study used time

attitude to gauge the possibility of undergraduate students. Alay and Koçak

(2002) in their study use time attitudes to conduct responsibility and validity of

the time management for collegians

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According to Mercanlioglu (2010), defined time management demands a

key shift in emphasis: concentrate on results, not on being busy. There are a lot of

cases with people who waste their lives in discolored doings and attain very

small since they are placing their labors into the incorrect responsibilities or

weakening to focus their activity successfully, established that two-time

management workings directly affect the collective academic achievements. The

perception of how their time requires to be used up or planning including

utilizing short and long period goals and time attitudes or students

accomplished that both planning and encouraging time attitudes initiated that

they had much more time to finish their everyday jobs because they experienced

more in control of how their time was exhausted therefore knowing when they

had to state no to activities (Kaushar, 2013). The literature revealed that time

management practices that connected to the individual's awareness and attitudes

about time management and is comparable the perception of having control over

time. Therefore, time attitudes comprise the perception that the individual is in

control of time the perception that the person is efficiently managing his time

and the perception that the individual is making constructive utilization of time

(Karim et al., 2015).

Alay and Koçak (2002) mentioned that time wasters is as a result of poor

time utilization habits and an inefficient use of private time. For example, sales

personnel are acutely aware that some 'customers' are not real customers. In

addition, developing ways that helps them get rid of 'time-wasters' to improve

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themselves in their work (Clark, 1983). According to Chioma and Ekpete (2011)

time wasters associated with attitudes, behaviours, and habits exhibited by

educators, researchers, directors, and students.

There are various studies that link time management to students’

academic performance. For instance, proper time management positively

correlates to better academic performance (Sevari and Kandy, 2011; Adebayo,

2015; Kearns and Gardiner; 2007; Kaushar, 2013). There are several factors that

can be considered to demonstrate time management. The study of Nashrullah

and Khan (2015) identified time management variables to include planning

(Short-range and long-range), time attitude as independent variables linking to

the students’ academic performance.

Findings showed that time management variables such as short-range, long-

range and time attitude are significantly correlated to students’ academic

achievement.

The students’ performance (academic achievement) plays an important

role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and

manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social

development (Ali et.al, 2009).

Academic performance most commonly measured through student

written and oral test, presentation, failed work, classroom activities, discussions,

homework, teacher observation. Academic performance does not only involve

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the students grades and exam, but other like behavior skills, communication,

situation handling, creativity and art (Bell, 2012).

Reeves (2008) defined student achievement as levels in which students

acquire Measurable and attainable educational goals according to which

activities the students Participated. Student goals were measured by grade point

averages, standardized test scores, and by the particular extracurricular activity,

the student took part in during school.

Academic performance generally refers to how well a student is

accomplishing his or her task and studies, but there are quite a number of factors

that determine the level and quality of students’ academic performance included

grades, attendance, standardized test, extracurricular activities, Behavior,

Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to difference in

intelligence and personality. (Von Stumm, Sophie Hell, Benedikt, Chamorro

premuzic, Tomas 2011).

Academic achievement or Academic Performance is a combination of

ability and effort, presumably ability being equal to those with higher

motivation, more effort and will, who achieve higher grades. Academic

achievement is the accomplishment or acquired proficiency in the performance

of an individual in a given skill or body of knowledge. Academic achievement

means “knowledge attained and skill developed in the school subjects usually

designated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers or by both”.

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Achievement can be measured with the help of tests, verbal or written of

different kinds. Since academic achievement is the criterion for selection,

promotion or recognition in various walks of life, the importance of academic

achievement can't be ignored (Chenna Reddy, 2007). Academic achievement or

academic performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a

student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Theoretical Framework

Pickle Jar Theory

This study is anchored on the pickle jar theory which is the latest theory

of time management taught in leadership course. Jeremy Wright developed

the theory after his series of studies (Olubor & Osunde, 2007). The pickle jar

theory states that activities and responsibilities of people need be balanced

using effective time management system. Time is approximately allocated for

everything and things fit well where they are expected to fit. This theory is

predicated on the fact that individuals have many large priorities in lives such

as studies, workload, leisure, family responsibilities, sleep and rest. According

to the theory none of these tasks is bad, but what is important is efficient

management in the midst of time constraints in order to enhance performance

in various areas of life.

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Model of Time Management

There are three main models of time management, but only one of those

three models are related to this study which is the Britton and Glynn's (1989).

They visualize time management in terms of three elements: macros, medium

and small levels. The macro level refers to the choice and prioritization of goals,

mid-level tasks involving the creation of goals and sub-targets and the small

level that consists of design and implementation. There are three factors of time

management developed by Britton and Glynn (1989) to assess time management

practices are time planning, time attitudes and time wasters.

Thus, instead of using a theory for the indicator of academic performance

which is grade, we used the DepEd Order No. 36, s. 2016, Policy Guidelines on

Awards and Recognition for the K to 12 Basic Education Program states that

award have been designed for formally recognize the outstanding performance

and achievement of learners in academics, leadership, and social responsibility,

among other aspects of student progress and development. In support of the

holistic development of Filipino learners, it is important to veer away from

valuing only academic achievement based on high grades and move toward

valuing and celebrating a wide range of student achievement.

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Conceptual Framework

The major concept of this study is focused on Time Management and

Academic Performances of Grade 10 Students in Atty. Orlando S. Rimando

National High School. The figure 1 shows t

he conceptual framework of the study that includes the following variables. The

independent variable was the Time Management which have the following

indicators: Time Planning, Time Attitudes and Time Wasters. On the other hand,

the dependent variable was the Academic Performance of the students.

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Time Management Academic


Performance
Time Planning
Grades
Time Attitudes
Time Wasters

Figure 1: Conceptual framework illustrated the variables of the research

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Significance of the study

The significance of the study is to examine the relationship of time

management and academic performances of grade 10 students. The result of this

study could be beneficial specifically to the following:

First, to the students because they can improve their grades and their academic

performance may affect due to the progressiveness of their time management

skills.

Second, to the teachers for them to know the reason behind the struggles

of students when it terms to their academic performance, it can enable them to

adjust and administer their teaching skills effectively.

Third, to the school because when there is a good academic performance

among the students, the school will also be recognized by others. This may bring

a positive feedback or comments about the school from other people.

Fourth, to the parents. In this study, they could give advice to their sons

and daughters to say that education is important and by engaging in different

aspects is necessary to attain good performance.

Lastly, to the future researchers. The study may help them to get some

important details about time management and academic performance to have

some background of the effect of particular study.

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Definition of Terms

For a clearer and better understanding of the study, the following terms

used in the study are defined conceptually and operationally.

Time Management

Time management is a skill that every student should not only know, but

also apply. A lot of students complain about running out of time when asked to

do a certain task, they get frustrated because they are not able to make it before

the deadline. Time management is extremely important, especially when it

comes to students because it will boost their grades and enhance their

productivity (Laurie & Hellsten, 2002).

In this study, time management is the independent variable. It refers on

how student maximize their time for them to perform in school effectively.

Academic Performance

Academic performances involve the students’ classroom participation,

attitude towards learning and teaching, learning capabilities, motivation and

discipline and soon. Academic performance refers to the quality and quantity of

knowledge skills techniques and positive attitudes, behavior and philosophy that

learners achieve or acquire (Oxyford advanced learners dictionary, 1994).

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CHAPTER 2
METHODS

This chapter described and discussed how the researchers gathered the

necessary data information that were used in the entire study. This also showed

the procedure of the data collection and instrument used; this chapter also

discussed the research design, population and sample, and the research locale

where the study will be conducted.

Research Design

This non-experimental quantitative research design utilizing the

descriptive-correlation techniques was used in the study. This study is

descriptive because it aims to describe the variables which are the time

management and academic performances of the students. This study was also

correlational because it aims to identify the relationship between the time

management and academic performances of students.

According to Downie and Health (2002), descriptive-correlation method of

research is a measure of variables with varying level of measurements in certain

cases, two variables become related because they were related to or caused by

another variable. Hence, two variables tend to vary together, or the presence of

the other; or even can be predicted from the presence of the other.

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It is for the purpose that this method is used since the focal point of the

two variables, study is to measure the significance of the relationship between

trace the relationship of two or more variables and gives an indication of how

one variable may predict another (Anatasi, 2005).

Research Locale

This study was conducted at Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National High

School Located at Binuangan, Maco, Compostela Valley Province the target of

the study is located at Purok- Mabuhay, Binuangan, Maco, Compostela Valley

Province Region 11, Philippines. The Municipality of Maco is 12.9 kilometers

away from Tagum City, Davao del Norte, Philippines. In Figure 2 is shown the

map of the Philippines and Compostela Valley, which is the first-class province,

located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. The third newest province of the

Philippines and is subdivided into 11 Municipalities, and Maco as one of the

first-class Municipalities. This place was selected for the efficiency of the said

study.

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Figure 2: Map of the Philippines, Compostela Valley, Municipality of Maco, Atty.

Orlando S. Rimando National High School.

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Population and Sample

The respondents of this study were the Grade 10 Students who were

officially enrolled students in Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National High School

with the school year 2019-2020.

Distribution of Respondents

Grade – 10 Population Sample Percentage

Male 260 107 44.60

Female 323 130 55.40

TOTAL 583 237 100

Research Instrument
This study utilizes and adopt questionnaire from the study of ZAMAN

VÖNETiMi ANKETi: GEÇERLiK VE GÜVENiRLiK which entitled: Validity and

reliability of time management to know whether the time management in time

planning, time attitudes, and time wasters can affect to academic performance of

the selected Junior High Student. Some part of the Questionnaire is eliminated

which are the time management for the reason that it makes our study too

lengthy. The questionnaire was composed of 3 variables, and in each variable

had a questionnaire about students. All three questionnaires have been

generalized as time management; time planning, time attitudes, and time

wasters.

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Before the administering of the said instrument, it will be present to our

adviser as our examiner to check for the appropriateness of the items and submit

to the group of experts for validation of the items in the instrument which is

three teachers having a Mastered degree. The comments of experts will be

properly write down, take and incorporate in the finalization of the said

instrument.

The Likert Scale is use as basis in describing the relationship of time

management and academic performances of the selected Grade 10 students.

According to Santos (2007), the Likert Scale requires individuals to tick inside a

box/blank in response to a larger number of items concerning an attitude, object

and stimulus. It was common to treat the number obtained from a rating scale by

calculating averages or more generally any arithmetic operations. The five

orderable gradations of time management with their respective range of means

and descriptions were as follows:

Range of Means Descriptive Level Interpretation

This means that the


time management that
4.50 – 5.00 Always affects the academic
performance of the
students is very high.

This means that the

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3.50 – 4.49 Often time management that
affects the academic
performance of the
students is high.

This means that the


2.50 – 3.49 Sometimes time management that
affects the academic
performance of the
students is moderate.

This means that the


1.50 – 2.49 Rarely time management that
affects the academic
performance of the
students is low.

This means that the


1.00 – 1.49 Never time management that
affects the academic
performance of the
students is very low.

Meanwhile, below is the grading scale is use in describing the level of

academic achievement. The five orderable stages of academic achievement with

their respective range of grades and descriptions are as follows:

Range of Grades Descriptive Level Interpretation

90 – 100 Outstanding This means that their


grades are very high

85 – 90 Very Satisfactory This means that their


grades are high

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80 – 84 Satisfactory This means that their
grades are moderate

75 – 79 Fairly Satisfactory This means that their


grades are low

Below 75 Did not Meet This means that their


Expectations grades are very low

Data Collection
The research was conducted to analyze the relationship between the time

management and academic performance of grade 10 students of Atty. Orlando S.

Rimando National High School. In the course of gathering data for this study,

questionnaire was used by the researchers to collect data for this quantitative

research. The questionnaires were then presented to the adviser for some

comments and suggestions. The adviser devised for the appropriateness of

questionnaire to the study. The adviser then suggested that the questionnaire

should be modified. The names of the authors of the questionnaires and where

they were retrieved were listed on the references.

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After the modifications of the questionnaire and upon the approval of the

adviser, the researchers made a letter to the principal of the school to get

permission that enables them to conduct their study among the Senior High

School students of Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National High School.

After the approval of their permission to conduct the study inside the

school and researchers set a schedule and informed the respondents the day

before they conducted their study. Before they started giving their respondents

the survey questionnaire, the researchers oriented the respondents regarding the

study and on the manner of answering the given questionnaire, the researchers

will explained and translated the items for the respondents for thorough

understanding of the study. After an hour, the respondents were done answering

the questionnaire. The researchers will then gather the questionnaires in an

orderly manner. They use the Microsoft Excel to tally the responses of the

respondents. They gave their collected data to the statistician and had

interpreted the data given.

Statistical Tool

This study utilized the following statistical tools:

Mean. This was used to answer the level of the time management and academic

performance of grade 10 students. To identify the average.

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Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (Pearson-r). This was utilized to

determine the significant relationship of the time management to academic

performance in selected grade10 students. The statistical tool determined

whether the hypothesis was accepted or rejected.

The Pearson’s r is a measure of the linear relationship between two

interval or ratio variables and can have a value between -1 and 1. It is the same

measure as the point-biserial correlation; a measure of the relationship between a

dichotomous (yes or no, male or female) and an interval/ratio variable (Cramer,

1998).

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QUESTIONNAIRE
TIME MANAGEMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCES
OF GRADE 10 STUDENTS

Name: _______________________________ Grade: ______________


(Optional)

Directions: Put check (√) and rate yourself honestly based on what you
actually observed given the statements using the following scales.
1- Never 2- Rarely 3-Sometimes 4- Often 5- Always

Parameters 1 2 3 4 5
Time planning
1. I plan my day before I start it
2. I have a set of goals for each week
ready at the beginning of the week
3. I spend time each day planning
4. I write a set of goals for myself for
each day
5. I make a list of the things I have to
do each day
6. I make the schedule of activities I
have to do on school days?
7. I have a clear idea of what I want
to accomplish during the next week?
8. I set deadlines for myself for
completing work
9. I try to schedule my best hours for
my most demanding work
I0. I keep my important dates (eg.
Exam dates, research paper due
dates, etc.) on a single calendar
11. I have a set of goals for the entire
quarter
12. I clip or xerox articles which,
although not presently important to
me, may be in the future
13.I regularly review my class notes,
even when a test is not imminent

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14. I keep things with me that I can
work on whenever I get spare
moments
15. I set and honour priorities
16. I do things as they naturally occur
to me, without an effort to make a
plan in advance and compulsively
Time Attitude
1. I make constructive use of my
time?
2. I believe that there is room for
improvement in the way I manage
my time
3. I feel I am in charge of my own
time, by and large
4. I am able to make minor decisions
quickly
5. Generally, I think I can usually
accomplish all my goals for a given
week
6. I often find myself doing things
which interfere with my school work
simply because I hate to say "no" to
people
7. I find myself waiting a lot without
anything to do
Time wasters
1.On an average class day I spend
more time with personal grooming
than doing schoolwork
2.I continue unprofitable routines or
activities
3.I smoke an average of at least one
pack of cigarettes per day
4.The night before a major
assignment is due, I usually still
working on it

This questionnaire is adapted from the study of ZAMAN VÖNETiMi ANKETi:


GEÇERLiK VE GÜVENiRLiK entitled VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF TIME
MANAGEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (2002)

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CHAPTER 3

RESULTS

The data obtained from the respondents on Time Management and

Academic Performance of Grade 10 Students were presented analyzed and

interpreted in this section based on the research objectives previously stated. The

order of discussion on the mentioned topic was as follows between the level of

time management and academic performance of the respondents.

Level of Time Management

The level of time management was calculated and translated based on the

acquired mean rating per indicator: time planning, time attitudes and time

wasters. Table 1.1 is time planning has a total mean of 3.37 and 0.63 as standard

deviation with a descriptive equivalent as sometimes. However, the Table 1.2 is

Teaching Skills has 3.44 as a total mean and a standard deviation of 0.62which

considered as sometimes in the description. Whereas, the Table 1.3 is the

Instructional Materials which is labeled as Often with the total mean of 2.71 and

0.76 as standard deviation. The grand mean score was 3. 17 considered as

sometimes.

31
Table 1.1

Time Planning Mean SD Description

1. I plan my day before I start it 3.82 1.06 Often

2. I have a set of goals for each week 3.50 1.04 Often


ready at the beginning of the week
3. I spend time each day planning 3.39 1.06 Sometimes

4. I write a set of goals for myself for 3.20 1.17 Sometimes


each day
5. I make a list of the things I have to do 3.04 1.18 Sometimes
each day
6. I make the schedule of activities I 3.24 1.04 Sometimes
have to do on school days?
7. I have a clear idea of what I want to 3.39 1.01 Sometimes
accomplish during the next week?
8. I set deadlines for myself for 3.57 1.10 Often
completing work
9. I try to schedule my best hours for my 3.34 1.09 Sometimes
most demanding work
I0. I keep my important dates (e.g. 3.50 1.21 Often
Exam dates, research paper due dates,
etc.) on a single calendar
11. I have a set of goals for the entire 3.40 1.10 Sometimes
quarter
12. I clip or xerox articles which, 3.06 1.14 Sometimes
although not presently important to me,
may be in the future
13.I regularly review my class notes, 3.37 1.03 Sometimes
even when a test is not imminent
14. I keep things with me that I can work 3.38 0.92 Sometimes
on whenever I get spare moments
15. I set and honour priorities 3.33 1.03 Sometimes

16. I do things as they naturally occur to 3.33 0.96 Sometimes


me, without an effort to make a plan in
advance and compulsively
Total 3.37 0.63 Sometimes

32
Table 1.2

Time Attitudes Mean SD Description

1. I make constructive use of my time? 3.43 0.90 Sometimes

2. I believe that there is room for 3.71 0.96 Often


improvement in the way I manage my
time
3. I feel I am in charge of my own time, 3.55 0.93 Often
by and large
4. I am able to make minor decisions 3.40 0.96 Sometimes
quickly
5. Generally, I think I can usually 3.39 0.95 Sometimes
accomplish all my goals for a given
week
6. I often find myself doing things 3.29 1.00 Sometimes
which interfere with my school work
simply because I hate to say "no" to
people
7. I find myself waiting a lot without 3.30 1.05 Sometimes
anything to do
Total 3.44 0.62 Sometimes

Table 1.3

Time Wasters Mean SD Description

1.On an average class day I spend more 3.06 1.11 Sometimes


time with personal grooming than
doing schoolwork
2.I continue unprofitable routines or 3.05 1.02 Sometimes
activities
3.I smoke an average of at least one 1.53 1.09 Rarely
pack of cigarettes per day
4.The night before a major assignment 3.21 1.06 Sometimes
is due, I usually still working on it
Total 2.71 0.76 Sometimes

33
Level of Academic Performance

Table 2 presented the level of academic performance which was the

response of the second objective of the study. As the results revealed, the overall

mean rating of the dependent variable was 86.43 which was interpreted as very

satisfactory.

Table 2.

Item Ave. SD Descriptive


Mean Equivalent
Grades 86.43 3.70 Very Satisfactory

Relationship Between the level of time management


And academic performance of Grade 10
Junior High School Students

The relationship of Time Management and Academic Performance of the

Grade 10 students was calculated and interpreted based on the results of its R-

value per indicator as shown in Table 3.

The figures presented in Table 3 revealed the relationship between time

management and academic performance. As shown in the table, time

management of the students has a mean of 3.17 and 0.52 as its standard

deviation. This study has an over-all R-value of and p-value of that is lesser than

0.05 significance level set in this study which signified that those is a significant

34
relationship between the two variables in this study, leading to the rejection of

the null hypothesis.

Table 3.
Relationship Between the level of time management and academic performance of Grade
10 Junior High School students.

Description
Mean Score

Qualitative

Computed
Deviation
Standard

Decision
Indicators N

R-value

p-value

on H0
Time
Management 3.17 Sometimes 0.52
Reject
235 0.16 -0.09
Academic Very 3.70 H0
86.43
Performance Satisfactory

𝑟2 Coefficient of Determination 0.026

35
CHAPTER 4

DISCUSSION

This chapter presented the discussion of data, conclusions, intervention

scheme and recommendations on the time management and academic

performance of the grade 10 students in Atty. Orlando S. Rimando National

High School.

Level of Time management

Time management is an important aspect in student’s life. Thus, in order

for a particular student to gain high grades, a student must consider the

following indicators; time planning, time attitudes, and time wasters particularly

in this study.

The first objective of this study is to determine the relationship between

time management and academic performance of grade 10 students, with the

following indicators that has been mentioned above.

The level of time management of grade 10 students with indicator of time

planning shown the second highest mean rating which indicates on how

students plan their time under time management has been interpreted as

sometimes, the second indicator which is time attitudes which has the highest

mean among indicators has been interpreted as sometimes, and lastly, time

36
wasters with the lowest mean among indicators has been also interpreted as

sometimes. The general interpretation of all indicators is sometimes.

In time planning which is the first indicator is interpreted as sometimes, as

a result it seems to embrace a range of items that are related to planning in the

short term (either at intervals of the day or within the week) and within the long

term (Alay & Koçak, 2002). The result also shows that the students is not that

very active in planning their time.

Also, the second indicator which is time attitudes is interpreted as

sometimes, as a result of a very attitudinal in nature (Alay & Koçak, 2002). Time

attitudes in agreement with Claessens (2004) connected within the assessment of

tasks that are being performed. It also shows that the students attitude when in

terms of time particularly on the task that has been given is not that active nor

inactive.

Thus, the last indicator which is time wasters is interpreted as sometimes,

is as a result of poor time utilization habits and an inefficient use of private time.

For example, sales personnel are acutely aware that some 'customers' are not real

customers (Alay and Koçak, 2002). It also indicates that the students was

moderately manage their time.

37
Level of Academic Performance

The second objective of the study is to determine the level of students’

academic performance in terms of grades. Focusing on the academic

performance, the grades are observed in this study. As stated by Simpson and

Weiner (1989), as the observable or measurable behaviour of a student in a

particular situation usually experimental situation. It measured the

characteristics of behaviour that could be observed at a specific period through

performing a test. Also, Singer (1981) defined the performance test as the type of

mental test in which the subject was asked to do something rather than to say

something. Achievement test was the type of test which throws light on the

ability to deal with things rather than symbols (Drever, 1981).

38
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