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WHAT ARE TENSES?.................................................................................... 1
PRESENT TENSE…………………………………………………………… 2
PRETERITE TENSE…………………………………………………………3-4
IMPERFECT TENSE………………………………………………………… 5
FUTURE TENSE……………………….……………………………………. 6
CONDITIONAL TENSE………………………….…………………………. 7
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE……………….….………………………………8
This project will educate you about tenses. It will teach you how to conjugate the verbs in
Spanish, how to use them as well as when they are to be used
The present tense is used when an action or event is being completed or done in the present or
present time.

How to break down ‘AR’,’IR’ and ‘ER’ verbs in the present tense.
When breaking down ‘AR’ verbs in the present tense you should drop the ‘ar’ endings and
add o,as,a,amos,an , for ‘ER’ and ‘IR’ you should drop the endings o, es ,e, emos ,en but for
the ‘we’ form of the verb for ‘ir’ verb it would be ‘imos’ and not ‘emos’.

The conjugation of the verbs Pensar, Leer and Dormir

Pensar-To think Leer- To read
Yo pienso- I think Yo leo- I read
Tu piensas- You think Tu lees- You read
El/ella/usted piensa- He/she thinks El/ella/usted lee- He/she reads
Nosotros/as piensamos- We think Nosotros/as leemos-We read
Ellos/ellas/ustedes piensan- They think Ellos/ellas/ustedes leen-They read

Dormir- To sleep
Yo duermo- I sleep
Tu duermes- You sleep
El/ella/usted- He/she sleeps
Nosotros/as dormimos- We sleep
Ellos/ellas/utedes-They sleep


Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.
The first verb is Pensar
1. El chico piensa que espanol es muy dificil asignatura practicar
The boy he thinks that Spanish is a difficult subject to practice

The ‘he’ form of the verb is necessary to use in this sentence because I am
saying what someone else thinks

The second verb is leer

2. Yo leo much libros de misterio
I read a lot of mystery book

The ‘yo’ form of the verb was used because I am stating what I do
The third verb is dormir
3. Yo duerme hasta son las nueve cada sabado
I sleep until nine o’clock every Saturday

The ‘yo’ form of the verb was used because I am stating what I do every
The preterite tense is used to relate to what happened on the given occasion in the past, or
when a time limit is given to an action.

How to you break down “AR” ‘IR’ and “ER” verbs in the preterite tense
When breaking down verbs in the preterite tense, for ‘AR’ verbs you drop the ‘ar’ endings
and add e,aste,o,amos,aron and for regular ‘ER’ and ‘IR’ verbs you would drop the er and ir
endings and add i,iste,io,imos and ieron.
NB: You will add the endings to the different forms of the verb

For example:
To break down the verbs bailar which is an ‘AR’ verb ‘salir’ which is an ‘IR’ verb and comer
which is an ‘ER’ verb you need to follow the rules stated above.
Conjugation of the verbs mentioned above (AR, ER, IR)
Bailar- To dance Salir- To leave
Yo baile- I danced Yo sali- I left
Tu bailaste- You danced Tu saliste- You left
El/ ella/usted bailo- He/ she danced El/ella/usted salio- He/she left
Nosotros/as bailamos- We danced Nosotros/as salimos- We left
Ellos / ellas/ustedes bailaron- They danced Ellos/ellas/ustedes salieron- They left

Comer- To eat
Yo comi- I ate
Tu comiste- You ate
El/ella/usted comio- He/she ate
Nosotros/as comimos- We ate
Ellos/ellas/ustedes comieron- They ate
To conjugate irregular verbs in the preterite is the same principle as how to conjugate the
regular ‘AR’,’ER’ and ‘IR’ verbs. The only difference with irregular verbs is that the stems
will change. Some examples of conjugating irregular verbs are illustrated below.

Hacer- To do Estar- To be
Yo hice- I did Yo estuve- I was
Tu hicicste- You did Tu estuviste- You was
El/ella/usted hizo- He/she did El/ella/usted estuvo-He/she was
Nosotros/as hicimos- We did Nosotros/as estuvimos – We were
Ellos/ellas/ustedes- They did Ellos/ellas/ustedes estuvieron-They were

Decir- To say
Yo dije- I said

Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.
The first verb is Comer
1. Yo comi pollo y frito por almuerzo ayer
I ate chicken and fries for lunch yesterday

The ‘yo’ form of the verb comer in the preterite tense was used because I am the
person who did the action.

The second verb is Bailar

2. Las chicas bailaron mucho en la fiesta de anoche
The girls they danced a lot at the party last night

The “’ellos’ form of the verb was used because the girls are the ones who were doing
the action and it was more than one girl, so you have to use the ‘they’ form which is
The third verb is Salir
3. Salio casa son las nueve ayer
She left her house at nine o’clock yesterday

The ‘hr/she’ form of the verb was used because I am stating what a girl did yesterday
or in the past
The imperfect tense is used for the setting the scene when talking in the past or when talking
about actions which were repeated (I used to do…). It is used to say something that has
continued in the past for an unspecific period. The tense is used by removing the ‘ar’,’ir’ and
‘er’ endings from the infinitive and adding the following sets of endings to the stem. For
‘AR’ verbs you should add aba, abas, aba, abamos and aban. For ‘ER ’and ‘IR’ verbs add ia,
ias, ia, iamos and ian.

The conjugation of the verbs cocinar, tener and vivir

Cocinar- To cook Tener- To have
Yo cocinaba-I used to cook Yo tenia-I had used to
Tu cocinabas- You used to cook Tu tenias- You had used to
El/ella/usted cocinaba- He/she used to cook El/ella/usted tenia- He/she used to
Nosotros/as cocinabamos-We used to cook Nostros/as teniamos- We had use to
Ellos/ellas/ustedes cocinaban-They used to cook Ellos/ellas/ustedes tenian-They had used

Vivir-To live
Yo vivia- I used to live
Tu vivias- You used to live
El/ella/usted vivia- He /she used to live
Nostros/as viviamos-We used to live
Ellos/ellas/ustedes vivian- They used to live


There are only three verbs in the imperfect tense, and these are ser.ver and ir.
Ser-To be Ir-To go Ver-To see
Era iba veia
Eras ibas veias
Era iba veia
Eramoa ibamos veiamos
Eran iban veian
Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.
The first verb is Cocinar
1. El chico cocinaba en la fuego
He used to cook on the fire
The ‘he’ form of the verb was used because I am stating what the boy used to do.

The second verb is Vivir

2. Yo vivia con mi madre antes de accidente
I used to live with my mother the accident
The ‘yo’ form of the verb was used because I am saying what I used to do

The third verb is ser

3. Cuando yo era nina todo era muy anticuado
When I was a little girl everything was antiquate

The ‘yo’ form of the verb was used because I am stating what the surroundings were
like so the ‘i’ form is required.
The future tense is used when you are stating something that you are going to do in
the future or later or time in the future. The future tense is formed by adding the

The conjugation of the verbs hablar ,escribir ,aprender

Hablar-to talk
Yo hablare- I shall speak
Tu hablaras- You shall speak
El/ella/usted hablara- He/she shall speak
Nosotros/as hablaremas- We shall speak
Ellos/ellas/ustedes hablaran- They shall speak

Escribir- To write
Yo escribire- I will write
Tu escribiras-You will write
El/ella/usted escribira-He/she will write
Nosotros/as esribiremos-We will write
Ellos/ellas/ustedes escribiran- They will write

Aprender-To learn
Yo aprendere-I will learn
Tu aprenderas-You will learn
El/ella/usted aprendera-He/she will learn
Nosotros/as aprenderemos-We will learn
Ellos/ellas/ustedes aprenderan-They will learn


These verbs have an irregular stem, but they take the same endings as regular verbs in
the future tense. Three examples of these verbs are decir, hacer and poner.

Poner-to put
Yo pondre- I will put
Tu pondras-You will put
El/ella/usted pondra-He/she will put
Nosotros/as pondremos-We will put
Ellos/ellas/ustedes pondran-They will put

Hacer-To do
Yo hare-I will do
Tu haras-You will do
El/ella/usted hara-He/she will do
Nosotros/as haremos-We will do
Ellos/ellas/ustedes haran-They will do

Yo dire-I will tell
Tu diras-You will tell
El/ella/usted dira-He/she will tell
Nosotros/as diremos-We will tell
Ellos/ellas/ustedes diran-They will tell

Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.

The first verb is poner

1. Yo pondre los libros en la mesa
I will put the books on the table

The second verb is Hablar

2. Tu hablare con el professor para tu examen
You shall speak with the teacher about your exam

The third verb is Escribir

3. Mis amigos y yo escribiremos un historia para grupo trabajo
My friends and I we will write a story for our group work
The conditional tense is used when saying something you could ,would or should
is formed by adding ia,ias,iaiamos and ian.

The conjugation of the verbs Visitar, Venir and traer

Vistar- To visit
Yo visitaria- I would visit
Tu vistarias- You would visit
El/ella/usted visitaria-He/she would visit
Nosotros/as visitariamos-We would visit
Ellos/ellas/ustedes visitarian-They would visit

Venir-To come
Yo veniria-I would come
Tu venirias-You would come
El/ella/usted veniria-He/she would come
Nostros/as veniriamos-We would come
Ellos/ellas/ustedes venirian-They would come

Traer-to bring
Yo traeria-I would bring
Tu traerias-You would bring
El/ella/usted traeria-He/she would bring
Nostros/as traeriamos-We would bring
Ellos/ellas/ustedes traerian -They would bring


Decir-To tell
Yo diria-I would tell
Tu diraias-You would tell
El/ella/usted diria-He/she would tell
Nosotros/as direiamos-We would tell
Ellos/ellas/ustedes dirian-They would tell

Hacer-To do
Yo haria-I would do
Tu harias-You would do
El/ella/usted haria-He/she would do
Nosotros/as hariamos-We would do
Ellos/ellas/ustedes harian-They would do
Poner-to put
Yo pondria- I would put
Tu pondrias-You would put
El/ella/usted pondria-He/she would put
Nosotros/as pondriamos-We would put
Ellos/ellas/ustedes pondrian-They would put

Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.

The first verb is hacer

1. Yo haria mi la tarea entiendo
I would do my homework if I understand it

The second verb is visitor

2. La nina dijo que visitaria a su abuela si supiera donde vivia
The girl said she would visit her grandmother if she knew where she lived

The third verb is

3. Yo viniria a la fiesta pero
I would come to the party, but I have my little brother to care for

The present perfect tense is used to describe an action that began in the past and
continues up to the present or an action that took place in the past and is connected
with the present. The present perfect tense is formed with the present tense of the
helping verb +verb ‘haber’.

For er and ir verbs drop the endings and add ‘ido and for ‘ar’ verbs drop the endings and drop

Banar-To bathe
He banado-I have already bathed
Has banado-You have already bathed
Ha banado-He/she has already bathed
Hemos banado-We have already bathed
Han banado-They have already bathed

Volver-To return
He vuelvido-I have already returned
Has vuelvido-You have already returned
Ha vuelvido-He/she has already returned
Hemos vuelvido-We have already returned
Han vuelvido-They have already returned

Oir-To hear
He oido-I have already heard
Has oido-You have already heard
Ha oido-He/she has already heard
Hemos oido-We have already heard
Han oido-They have already heard


Abrir-To open
He abierto- I have already opened
Has abierto- You have already opened
Ha abierto-He/she has already opened
Hemos abierto-We have already opened
Han abierto-They have already opened

Ver-To see
He visto-I have already seen
Has visto-You have already seen
Ha visto-He/she has already seen
Hemos visto-We have already seen
Han visto-they have already seen

Escribir- to write
He escrito- I have already written
Has escrito- you have already written
Ha escrito-he/she has already written
Hemos escrito- we have already written
Han escrito-they have already written
Examples of the verbs being used in sentences, the translation and explanation on why that
form of the verb was used.

The first verb is banar

1. Ya he banado
I have already bathed

The second verb is abrir

2. Ha abierto la Ventana
She has already opened the window

The third verb is oir

3. he oido la hitoria
I have already heard the story