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16 Coatings and Adhesives

16.1 Introduction

Coatings and adhesives have become a prevalent part of the chemical industry, and
have found uses in or as literally tens of thousands of consumer end products. Our
discussion here will also include pigments, because these are often used as coatings.
Simply put, many of them are paints, and thus coat a great many objects and items.

16.2 Coating Types

A coating is a thin layer of any chemical material applied to another material or object,
often referred to as a substrate. The coating is applied to the main object or substrate
for one or more reasons, such as improving and lengthening the lifetime of the sub­
strate, enhancing or optimizing its properties, changing the appearance of the sub­
strate, or chemically altering the substrate. When coatings are paints and varnishes,
the twin end results are usually a better looking product, and one that is protected
from its environment.
Printing can be considered a type of coating, especially when we consider the
printing of images as well as lettering. While the term ‘printing’ invokes images of
black letters on white paper, there is a great deal more to it, including images and
lettering on placards, large signs, and billboards.
Coatings are usually applied as liquids, but these can be aerosolized during ap­
plication, or can even be in solid form, as a powder. While powders are often mixed
with some solid, this is not always the case. In some cases, they can be mixed just as
easily with liquids.
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16.3 Adhesives and Binders

As the name implies, adhesives and binders are chemicals that bind one object or ma­
terial to another. There are numerous ways to sub-divide adhesives, including natural
and synthetic, as well as single-component and double-component. Numerous adhe­
sives involve polyurethanes, which we have touched upon in previous chapters.
One part adhesives, as the name implies, require no mixing before the adhesive
is applied. Two-part, or multipart, adhesives require a mixing of the two components
just prior to applying the adhesive to the surfaces to be bonded.
Some adhesives are reactive enough that they are stored in some container pre­
mixed with a volatile organic solvent. The familiar smell of model glue is actually the

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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110 | 16 Coatings and Adhesives

toluene solvent in the glue. After applying it, the toluene evaporates, leaving the two
pieces that have been joined permanently together.

16.4 Fillers

Many composite materials and plastics have fillers added to them. The only real pur­
poses of a filler are to lower the amount of a more expensive material required in the
final product, or to in some way change the properties of the end material in a positive
way. In the best case scenario, one filler can do both, thus making a superior product,
and doing so at a lower cost to the producer.
The list of fillers can become long, but common ones include:
– Carbonates
– Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)
– Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)
– Dolomite
– Barium sulfates
– Silicates
– Feldspar
– Mica
– Nepheline syenite
– Talc
– Clay (i.a. kaolin)
– Wollastonite
– Quartz
– Diatomite
– Synthetic silicon dioxide
– Hydroxides
– Aluminum trihydroxide (ATH)
– Magnesium hydroxide (MDH)
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– Graphite
– Carbon black
– Fiberglass and glass spheres

This list is taken from a recently published Ceresana marketing report (Ceresana,
2013), and includes several materials we discuss in various chapters of this book.
There are many others in addition, but they are either less common than those
listed, or they are used in more specific, niche areas.
Among fillers, calcium carbonate (the subject of Chapter 5) is often listed first be­
cause it is so widely and heavily used. It can be added to cement mixtures, used as
a paint whitener, and added to the absorbent of infant disposable diapers, to name

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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16.5 Pigments | 111

just a few very different examples. It finds use as more than a filler however; calcium
carbonate can be ingested by patients who require more calcium in their diets.
Additionally, graphite and carbon black make this list, and are discussed in Chap­
ter 7. The market for carbon black as both a filler and a pigment remains a large one,
with carbon black finding uses in materials as widely different as paints and vehicle
tires.

16.5 Pigments

Pigments can be divided in numerous ways, with inorganic and organic being a rather
simple one.
Inorganic pigments are materials derived from an inorganic source that are added
to any material or blend of materials to produce a specific color. While the following
list is large, it cannot represent a complete list, as chemists and chemical engineers
continue to look for new materials that can produce desired colors in any material that
will eventually be used by consumers.
Since there is no overarching theory concerning pigments, the following list of
pigments in Table 16.1 is arranged simply using the time-worn acronym ROY G. BIV,
for the color spectrum.
Inorganic chemistry is not the sole domain from which pigments are derived, al­
though it has traditionally been one from which people have derived paints with bright
colors. There are certainly organic pigments as well. Indeed, a trade organization for
these latter exists in large part to ensure there is monitoring of any toxicity from pig­
ments added to consumer products (The Ecological and Toxicological Association of
Dyes and Organic Pigments Manufacturers, ETAD, 2013). Specifically, there is always
concern that colorants and dyes used in clothing and textiles, as well as leather goods
or what are called “food contact materials,” may have adverse effects on the immedi­
ate environment, or on the food packaged by a dyed or colored material. Some of the
more common organic dyes are shown in Table 16.2, again, simply listed according to
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the color spectrum.


The Color Pigments Manufacturers Association is another organization devoted to
pigments and their chemistry and manufacture, which appears to focus much more
on inorganic materials (Color Pigments Manufacturers Association, Inc, 2012).

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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112 | 16 Coatings and Adhesives

Table 16.1: Inorganic Pigments.

Color Name Formula Example Use

Red Cadmium red CdSe Artist paints


Red ochre Fe2 O3 Paints
Burnt sienna Fex Oy Paints
Red lead Pb3 O4 Primer paint
Vermillion HgS Oil paints
Orange Cadmium orange CdSSe Artist paints
Chrome orange PbCrO4 /PbO Minimal use today,
paints
Yellow Orpiment As2 S3 Paints
Cadmium yellow CdS Artist paints
Chrome yellow PbCrO4 Paints
Cobalt Yellow K3 Co(NO2 )6 Oil-based paint
Yellow ochre Fe2 O3 ·6H2 O Oil-based paint
Stannic sulfide SnS2 Coatings
Green Cadmium green Cr2 O3 Artist paints
Paris green Cu(C2 H3 O2 )2 ·3Cu(AsO2 )2 Paints, fireworks
Schloss green CuHSO3 Minimal use, paints
Viridian Cr2 O3 ·xH2 O Paints
Blue Cobalt blue CoSnO2 Ceramics and paints
Egyptian blue CaCuSi4 O10 Paints, security ink
Han blue BaCuSi4O10 Ceramics
Prussian blue Fe7 (CN)18 Paints, blueprints
Ultramarine Na8 Al6 Si6 O24 S2 Inks, paints
Purple Cobalt violet Co3 (PO4 )2 Paints
Han purple BaCuSi2 O6 Paints
Manganese violet Mn(NH4 )PO4 Ceramics
Brown Sienna Fex Oy Paints
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Raw umber Fe2 O3 /MnO2 /Al2 O3 Ceramics


Black Carbon black C6 Tires
Ivory black Cx Printing ink
Lamp black C6 Inks and paints
White Titanium white TiO2 Food
Antimony white Sb2 O3 Ceramics and glass
Barium sulfate BaSO4 Paper and paint
White lead (PbCO3 )2 ·Pb(OH)2 Oil paints
Zinc white ZnO Paper coating, paint

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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Bibliography | 113

Table 16.2: Organic Dyes and Pigments.

Color Name Use

Red Alizarin Textile dye


Cochineal red Food coloring
Lycopene Food coloring
Paprika/henna Hair dye
Rose madder Paint, textile dye
Orange Annatto Food coloring
Yellow Gamboge Textile dye
Indian yellow (euxanthin) Oil paints
Green Chlorophylin Food coloring
Blue Indigo Paint, textile dye
Purple Tyrian purple Textile dye
Mauveine Textile dye

16.5.1 Recycling

Most adhesives, binders, fillers, and pigments are not recycled, although some are
chosen for a commercial use specifically because they do not interfere with another
product that is recyclable and thus can be recycled themselves. The example of adhe­
sives used to close and seal cardboard or paperboard boxes is one in which a signifi­
cant tonnage of adhesive is used annually, that is later recycled along with the paper
product. The paper industry is discussed in more detail in Chapter 18.

Bibliography

Ceresana. Website. (Accessed 20 June 2013, at www.ceresana.com/en/market-studies/additives/


Copyright © 2013. De Gruyter, Inc.. All rights reserved.

fillers/.)
Color Pigments Manufacturers Association, Inc. Website. (Accessed 23 December 2012, at www.
pigments.org/cms/.)
The Ecological and Toxicological Association of Dyes and Organic Pigments Manufacturers, ETAD.
Website. (Accessed 20 June 2013, at www.etad.com/.)

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/inflibnet-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1524387.
Created from inflibnet-ebooks on 2019-07-14 08:13:41.
Copyright © 2013. De Gruyter, Inc.. All rights reserved.

Benvenuto, Mark Anthony. <i>Industrial Chemistry</i>, De Gruyter, Inc., 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/inflibnet-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1524387.
Created from inflibnet-ebooks on 2019-07-14 08:13:41.