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PART THREE

Environmental Setting

Regional and Sub-regional Offices of CEA


Environmental Impact Assessment Process
Environmental Clearances
High and Medium Polluting Industries
Water Quality
Air Quality
Environmental Education and Awareness
REGIONAL AND SUB-REGIONAL OFFICES OF CENTRAL ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORITY
The protection and control of the quality of environment and 10. Provide leadership for all environmental activities in the
also the prevention, abatement and control of pollution had region, being the lead governmental agency with a mandate
been the main functions of the CEA , overriding its role for and expertise to manage, protect and enhance the environment
management and enhancement of the environment. .
According to the provisions of the NEA, there are two main 09. Utilize the services of divisional environmental officers on a
regulatory tools for environmental management and control of planned programme for the implementation of Regional Action
Plans and develop their capacity.
pollution; implementation of EIA procedure for prescribed
projects , and issuing of EPL for prescribed activities. Since All Functions and the Role of Regional and Sub-regional
the CEA was located in Colombo, those who wanted its Offices
services had to travel to Colombo, with much inconvenience. In 1. Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) for development
order to provide environmental services more effectively to projects with localized impacts.
those residing in FAR off places, and at All levels, CEA opened two
regional offices in 1999 to cover the Southern and Central 2. Environmental recommendation for siting industries
Provinces. This arrangement was also in conformity with the 3. Environmental Protection Licence procedure for prescribed
Governments policy of decentralization of public services activities other than those delegated to local authorities.
Based on the experience gained from the functioning of these 4. Coordinate and monitor activities of local authorities on
two regional offices, and learning from their strengths and delegated functions, and provide technical guidance where
weaknesses, CEA completed the process of regionalization in necessary
2003 through the opening of 4 Regional offices in Kandy, 5. Implement programmes for Natural Resource Management.
Kegalle, Galle and Trincomalee and 4 Sub -regional offices
in Anuradhapura, Ampara, Weerawila and Jaffna, covering the 6. Assist in resolving non IEE/EIA projects which require CEA
entire country.( Please refer Regional Map) This strategy clearance, (e.g. gem mining, land filling, felling of trees etc.)
helped to strengthen linkages and liaison with local authorities 7. Implement awareness and educational programmes on
as well as the public, and thereby developing a sound environment.
mechanism at local level. 8. Participate and represent CEA at regional level meetings and
functions
Objectives of Regionalization 9. Co-ordinate with governmental organizations,
non-governmental organizations, community based
1. Meet the demand for environmental management and organizations, voluntary associations, industrialists, business
protection services in the regions, resulting from enhanced community, schools, youth groups, public officers and the
economic activity. general public at sub-national level.
2. Enhance effectiveness of environmental management , 10. Implement, review and monitor district, divisional and village
monitoring and enforcement in the regions. level projects and school projects.
3. Address environmental issues emerging in the regions 11. Develop, update and maintain a specially referenced regional
promptly and effectively. data base
4. Identify environmental issues specific to each region, and 12. Develop annual work plans for regional offices and sub-
develop strategies to mitigate them. regional offices within the 4-year work programme of the CEA
5. Coordinate environmental activities undertaken by various As an initial step towards creating better linkages with sub
governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations national level institutions, a cadre of Divisional Environmental
(NGOs), community based organizations (CBOs), private Officers (DEO) was created. DEOs were deployed at sub national
sector organizations and the general public, in order to develop level to work in close coordination with Local Authorities, District
an integrated approach to management and enhancement Secretaries and Divisional Secretaries and to function as focal
of the environment in the regions. points and field officers of the CEA in their respective areas. At
present 304 DEOs have been stationed all over the country at
6. Strengthen the implementation of “Power Delegation District Secretariats, Divisional Secretariats and Local Authorities
Programme” by providing technical guidance and support to, under the overall supervision of the CEA Regional and
local authorities, and monitoring their performance more Sub-regional offices.
closely and effectively.
7.Facilitate community participation for management, protection
and enhancement of the environment at sub-national level ,by
implementing education and awareness programmes for school
children, community based organizations and the general public.
08. Harmonize national priorities and regional concerns on the
one hand and functional specific dimension of the CEA, and
the area specific approach of the regional set up, on the other
hand.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCESS
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an internationally
accepted, simple and straight forward process of predicting
the potential impacts of development activities on the natural
and social environment, and suggesting measures to prevent
or minimize negative impacts, and to enhance positive impacts.
Thus, EIA ensures sustainability of development efforts and
.a liveable environment for the people
The legal requirement for EIA in Sri Lanka is provided under
the regulations of the National Environmental Act as well as
under few other legislations. Legal provision for EIA in Sri
Lanka was first included in the Coast Conservation Act of 1981.
These provisions were restricted to the coastal zone. EIA was
made mandatory islandwide by the National Environmental
(Amendment) Act of 1988. The EIA procedure under the
National Environmental Act came into operation on 24th of
June, 1993. Provisions for EIA have also been included in the Plate: 101. Canal Construction of Kuda Gal Amuna Project
0 1 0 1
North Western Provincial Environmental Status of 1990 and (06 31 N, 81 23 E)
Fauna and Flora Protection (amendment) Ordinance of 1993.
The EIA process in Sri Lanka is mandated only for "prescribed EIA process is now fully embodied in the decision making
projects". The development projects that are likely to have process in Sri Lanka. It is intended that the EIA process will
significant impacts on the environment are listed as prescribed achieve its objective of integrating environment with the
projects. If the environmental impacts of the projects are not sustainable economic development programme of the country. .
very significant then such projects may be subjected to Initial
Environmental Examination (lEE), which is a relatively short
. simple study
and
However if the potential impacts appear to be more significant,
such projects may be subjected to an EIA, which is a more
detailed and comprehensive study of environmental impacts.
The EIA report should provide an objective and comprehensive
analysis of the positive and negative impacts of the proposed
project. The decision whether to give environmental clearance
to the project is based primarily on the EIA report. The public
has also been given an opportunity to comment on the EIA
report.

Plate: 100. Kuda Gal-Amuna across Manik Ganga

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Table:09 List of EIA/ IEE projects approved under National Environmental Act during 1999 -2003

List of EIA/IEE Projects approved during 1999-2003


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
District EIA IEE EIA IEE EIA IEE EIA IEE EIA IEE
Colombo 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 2
Gampaha 1 3 2 2 1 1
Kalutara 1 1 1 1 1
Galle 1 2 1 2 1 1
Matara 1 1 1
Hambantota 1 1
Monaragala 1 1 1
Kandy 1 1 2 6
Anuradhapura 2 1
Polonnaruwa 1
Kegalle 1
Ampara 1
Ratnapura 2 3 1
Nuwara Eliya 1 2

Plate: 102. Expressway Construction (070 091N, 790 531E)

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ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCES
The Natural Resources Management Unit is involved in
granting of environmental clearance for projects which do not
require lEE or EIA. The environmental clearance for large
number of small and medium scale projects such as urban
development projects, filling up of paddy/ marshy lands, gem
mining projects, felling of trees, small scale hotel projects,
blocking out of lands, telecommunication towers, timber
extraction-and special projects (water bottling projects float
plane etc.) are granted by this unit. Site inspections are
carried out prior to grant of clearance. Investigating of public
complaints on illegal gem mining, sand mining, removal of
earth, felling of trees, filling up of land, earth cutting are also
major functions of this unit.

Plate:104 A Land Filling Site


Preparation of guidance documents/guidelines on natural
resources management to assist project proponents and
other relevant agencies are also handled by the Unit.
Declaration of Wetlands and other environmentally significant
areas as Environmental Protection Areas is another major
function of the unit. At present Muthurajawela Buffer Zone area
has been declared as an Environmental Protection Area. After
declaring of Environmental Protection Areas under NEA, all
physical planning and other related activities will be handled
by this unit. Activities of the Proposed Wetland Management
Unit and implementation of proposed wetland regulations will
Plate:103 Timber from Logging Operation
also be new functions of this unit in the near future.

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HIGH AND MEDIUM POLLUTING INDUSTRIES
Most of industrial units are located within a radius of about The industrial pollution caused by waste materials is controlled
30km from Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The haphazard by implementing provisions of section 23A of the National
disposal of wastes from industries in Moratuwa - Ratmalana Environmental Act (NEA). Under this section, it is mandatory for
and Ekala - Ja-Ela areas, prime and old industrial areas in the the industries to obtain Environmental Protection Licences
country, has become a major issue, as these industries do not (EPLs) and comply with standards and criteria. The subsequent
have proper wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. regulations published two lists of industrial activities for which
Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) has decided to develop EPLs are mandatory. The list 'A' consists of 80 categories of
industrial estates to site high polluting industries through activities (high polluting activities) while list 'B' consists of 45
which pollution could be localized and mitigated viably. At activities (low polluting activities). The CEA has delegated powers
present, a total of 52 industrial estates are available in of the NEA to Local Authorities to grant EPLs and control
Sri Lanka (Table 11). Small scale industries are not attracted to pollution with respect to 'B' category activities.
industrial estates due to various constraints including limited
A Total of 2224 'A' category industrial activities have
capital investment.
been issued EPLs after implementing necessary pollution
Significantly high polluting industrial units proposed to be control measures by the CEA and BOI of Sri Lanka, while nearly
located outside industrial estates should obtain an initial site 4000 of 'B' category industries are licensed by the Local
approval from a special committee chaired by the CEA. The Authorities. The eligibility of an industry to obtain an EPL is for
approval would be subject to conditions and the industry must compliance with the standards and criteria stipulated with
construct its own wastewater treatment plant to treat the waste respect to discharge of wastewater, emission of noise/vibration/
water to prescribed standards prior to discharge into the smoke and deposit of solid waste in the environment by
environment industries.
* ‘A” category industrial activities will posses EPLs
Table :10 Provincial Distribution of Industrial Estates and High ( See Annex 03)
Polluting Individual Industries in Sri Lanka
Province No. of No. of high
Industrial polluting Individual
Estates Industries

Western 24 1444
North Western 08 N/A
Southern 07 246
Sabaragamuwa 04 149
Central 03 199
North East 03 43
North Central 02 89
Uva 01 54
Total 52 2224

Table :11 Distribution of Various Categories of Industries in Sri Lanka


Province BM CH FD ME MP PP SL SP ST SZ TL TR
Western 112 411 141 19 130 13 52 09 122 09 260 07
Southern 04 26 30 01 45 00 31 01 68 05 23 00
Sabaragamuwa 04 32 06 00 28 00 03 00 48 01 04 00
Central 05 30 42 00 37 00 17 00 40 01 26 00
North East 00 01 06 00 15 01 03 01 15 00 01 00
North Central 00 05 14 00 13 00 08 00 27 02 18 00
Uva 01 02 08 00 14 00 01 00 20 00 04 00
Total 121 507 247 20 282 14 115 11 340 18 337 07

BM: Basic Metals, CH: Chemical, FD: Food, ME: Mechinery & Equipment, MP: Mineral Products, PP: Paper & Paper Pulp,
SP: Power Service, ST: Automobile Service, SZ: Wastewater / Water Treatment, TL: Textile & Leather, TR: Transport

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WATER QUALITY
The laboratory of the CEA comes under the Environmental
Pollution Control Division. The main functions of the CEA
laboratory can be categorized into several sectors
1. Monitoring of the industrial waste- water for the processing/
renewal of the environmental protection licence
2. Collection of the baseline data of the surface water bodies
of the country.
3. Investigation of public complaints regarding the
discharge of industrial waste water and provide analytical
reports to the courts.
4. Regular monitoring of the industrial effluents specially in
industries located along the Kelani River
The laboratory has conducted various water quality monitoring Plate:105 A Water Quality Sampling Location in Kelani River
0 1 0 1
programmes in the past. Some of them are Kandy Lake water (06 57 N, 80 11 E)
quality monitoring / Beire Lake and St'Sebastian canal/
Maha Oya Water Quality Monitoring
Gregory Lake at Nuwera Eliya and the monitoring of surface
water and ground water quality of the dug wells and the This monitoring work was started in the year 2004 at eight
surface waters in North Western Province. locations along the Maha Oya (bridges at Kochchikade,
Badalgama, Kotadeniyawa, Giriualla, Allawwa, Karadena and
Water quality of the Kelani River and Maha Oya have been Hiriwaddunna). Monitoring concentrated on pollution indicative
carried out systematically and linked to the UNEPwater parameters such as physical parameters, chemical oxygen
programme demand, biochemical oxygen demand at five day intervals,
Kelani River Water Quality Monitoring. Micronutrients, trace metals and bacteriological properties.
This work started from 1995 with the help of a fund from
Netherlands fund, and coordinated by the Engineering Faculty According to the monitoring data Maha Oya is not heavily
of the Moratuwa University for the purpose of the water quality polluted with industrial waste. Water quality of the highly
modelling of the Kelani River. From year 2002 this programme urbanised and commercialised areas such as near the bridges
was extended to analysis of fourteen water quality parameters at Kotadeniyawa, Allawwa, Hiriwadunna, and Mawanella
(pH ,electrical conductivity ,turbidity, temperature, dissolved Indicate comparatively high levels of COD, BOD5,and
oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen microbiological contaminations..
demand, chloride ,dissolved chromium, dissolved lead , nitrate
nitrogen, phosphate, total coliform and faecal coliform) at
twelve selected locations (six locations from the river water
and six from its main tributaries - These were near bridges at
Thalduwa, Seethaweke, Hanwella Welivita ,Peliyagoda and
Victoria. The main tributaries are Eswathu Oya, Pugoda Ela,
Wak Oya, Pusseli Oya, Maha Oya and Raggahawatte canal
at a frequency of once in two weeks with the World Bank
funds .

The main theme of the work was to create awareness among


the public on the suitability of water for designated usage
(eg. drinking water with simple treatment, and bathing or
washing purposes). The analytical data along with the
Plate: 106 Water Quality Checking by CEA
indication of the suitability is indicated on a display board
located at each sampling location.The analytical results
revealed an increasing trend of the electrical conductivity at the
lower end of the river up to Welivita bridge which seriously
affected the supply of drinking water for the Colombo
Metropolitan area. This is due to the upstream intrusion of sea
water due to the lowering of the river bed caused by excessive
sand mining activities. This was shown during the early part
of the year. The relatively high levels of COD, BOD, and
extremely high count of total coliform and feacal colifiorm
under rainy weather condition was due to heavy surface
runoff. Dissolved heavy metals and nitrate nitrogen were
always reported at the lower end of the river specially near
bridges at Peliyagoda and Victoria.
Plate:107 CEA’s Mobile Laboratory

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AIR QUALITY
Following parameters were monitored in front of the Colombo
Fort Railway Station using continuous automated analyzers
during the year 1999. Hourly averages were compared with
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
25 National standard for one hour average=26 ppm

20 Max Avg
Ø Carbon Monoxide (CO)

ppm
15

Ø Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 10

Ø Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 5

Ø Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 0

Galle

Kaluthara

Kurunagala

Katugastota

Hambantota

Puttalama
Collombo

Negombo

Anuradapura
Ambewela
Ø Nitric Oxide (NO)

Location
Concentration of Particulate Matter less than 10 microns in
diameter (PM10) was also monitored twice a week using high
volume sampler and daily averages (24 hour averages) were
compared with the standards stipulated by the United States'
Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), since Sri Lanka does
not have standards for Pm10. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
The same parameters were monitored in Galle, Kalutara, 0.12 National standard for one hour average=0.12 ppm
Kurunegala, Negombo, Katugastota, Ambewela, Hambantota, Max Avg
Puttalam and Anuradhapura for a period of one week at each
ppm
0.08

location. 0.04
Maximum value of hourly averages for each parameter was
reported, and the average of each parameter for the 0.00

Galle

Kaluthara

Kurunagala

Katugastota

Hambantota

Puttalama
Collombo

Negombo

Anuradapura
Ambewela
monitoring period at each monitoring location are summarized
in graphs.
Colombo City Location

Colombo's Ambient Air Quality is within the National Standards


with respect to Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide
(NO2). The daily average concentration of Particulate Matter
10 (PM10) exceeded the USEPA standards (i.e 150ìg/m3 )for
daily average of PM10 only one day out of 79 days of Sulphur Dioxide(SO2)
measurements made in 1999. Sri Lanka does not have
0.1 Max Avg
standards for PM10.The annual average of PM10 also has
National standard for one hour average=0.08 ppm
exceeded the annual standard for PM10 stipulated by the
ppm

0.05
USEPA (i.e 50m g/m3 ) . Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) concentration
slightly exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards 0
Galle

Kaluthara

Kurunagala

Katugastota

Hambantota

only for five hours in the year 1999. In general, the


Puttalama
Collombo

Negombo

Anuradapura
Ambewela

concentration of air pollutants is higher during working days


(Monday - Friday) than weekends. The diurnal pattern of
ambient air quality parameters such as CO, SO2, NOx, indicate Location

that mobile sources have made major contributions to air


pollution in the Colombo City.
Other Towns
The results indicate that the maximum values of one hour
averages reported for all the parameters are well below the Particulate Matter 10 (PM-10)
National Ambient Air Quality Standards in all five cities. The 160
USEPA standard for 24 hour average=150 µgm -3
concentrations of the pollutants are very low , and in general 120
Max Avg
-3

the values observed during weekdays are similar to values


µgm

80
observed during weekends.Even though air pollution is
40
well within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, diurnal
pattern of ambient air quality parameters such as CO, SO2, 0
Galle

Kaluthara

Kurunagala

Katugastota

Hambantota

Puttalama
Collombo

Negombo

Anuradapura
Ambewela

NOx, indicates that mobile sources have made major


contributions to air pollution in most of the above locations.
These findings show that prompt action is required with Location
special attention to vehicular emission control for the
Fig: 03. Air Quality Variation
management of Colombo's air quality.

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ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND AWARENESS
Mission of EE&A Division
“To create education and awareness for various target
groups among public to obtain their active participation for
the protection and conservation of healthy environment”
The Environment Education and Awareness Division of
Central Environmental Authority is responsible for creating
awareness and providing education for the public in order to
obtain their participation for environmental conservation.
Education and Awareness Division conducts the following
programs for various target groups among the public to
achieve this objective
1. Student programs
a) Pre-school program
b) Program for primary students (grade 1 to 5) Plate: 109. Group of an Environmental Pioneer Brigade
c) Program for secondary students(grade 6 to 13)
2. Youth environmental program for school leavers
3. Media programs
a) Print media
i) Environmental newsletter
ii) Text books on environment
iii) Educational material
iv) Posters
b) Electronic media
i) Radio programs
ii) Messages on television
iii) Environmental films, documentaries and CDs
iv) Information on Web-site
4. Other programs
a) Awareness and education programs for target groups
i) NGOs, CBOs, village environmental societies Plate: 110. A Dengue Prevention Program of CEA
ii) Teachers, Grama Niladaris
iii) Farmers, housewives etc.
iv) Tertiary education level (university students)
b) Environmental campaigns on environmental events
c) Campaigns on environmental issues
d) Implementation of eco-projects
e) Environmental competitions
f) Exhibitions
5. Information dissemination through Information Centre

Awarded of Medals under Environmental Pioneer Program


Environmental pioneers qualify for a particular badge after
successful completion of activities identified for the badge.
These activities appear in the “teachers Book” prepared for Plate:111. Awareness and Education Programs for Divisional
the Environmental Pioneer Program. Environmental Officers

Plate: 108. Types of Medals Awarded to Pioneer Brigades Plate: 112 A Polythene Collection Program Conducted by CEA

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Bibliography

Ariyaratne, D.H., (1993), Gems of Sri Lanka, D H Ariyaratne

Biodiversity Conservation in Sri Lanka, (1999), Ministry of Forestry & Environments

Coastal Conservation Act- 1981

Natural Resources of Sri Lanka 2000, (2000), The National Science Foundation

Perera, K.R.D.S, (2000), Statistical Compendium on Natural Resources Management Sri Lanka -2000, Planning Division,
My. of Forestry & Environment

Ranaviraja,T. & Samarasingha, S.,(2000): Realization of ethnic harmony and economic growth through sustainable regional river
basin management. Twelfth Congress of the APD-IAHR, Bangkok, Thailand.

Seneviratna Anuradha (2002): The spring of Sinhala Civilization. Godage International Publishers (pvt) Ltd.

Silva, E.I.L (1996), Water Quality of Sri Lanka, Department of Environmental Science Institute of Fundamental - Studies

Scott (1989): Directory of Asian Wetlands ( pp583-629)

State of the Environment in Sri Lanka, (2000) Environmental Economics & Global Affairs Division and The Ministry
of Environment & Natural Resources

The National Atlas of Sri Lanka (1988), Survey Department of Sri Lanka

Wetland Atlas of Sri Lanka (1999), Wetland Conservation Project, Central Environmental Authority, Sri Lanka

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Annex:01
Photograph Copyright
Ajith R. Gunawardena
Plate: 01. Common Blue Bottle in Wasgamuwa National Plate: 84. A Rural Dwelling
Park Plate: 85. Rural Agricultural Community -
Plate: 03 Herd of Spotted Deer at Yala National Park Harvesting Paddy
Plate: 04. The Sambar in Horton Plains National Park Plate: 88. An Upcountry Soil Profile
Plate: 05 Flock of Painted Stock Udawalawa National Plate: 89. Walawe River
Park Plate: 90. Mahaweli River Near Wasgamuwa
Plate: 06. Tree Frog in Sinharaja World Heritage Site Plate: 91. Maha Oya near Kochchikade
Plate: 07 Grey Langue Plate: 92. A Stream Originating From Horton Plains
Plate: 10 Star Tortoise (Testudo elegans) one of the Plate: 93. Land Clearing for Vegetable Cultivation
Nationally Threatened species Plate: 94. Slash and Burn Cultivation Expecting Rain
Plate: 13 Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest - Kurunegala And All Cover page Photographs
Plate: 14 Revrine Forest Ma Oya River Banks at
Mawanella
Mr. K.C.A. Gunasekera
Plate: 15. Low land Tropical Rain Forest Kurulukele Forest
Plate: 63 . Gem Mining in Rivers
Plate: 16. Low land Dry Mixed Vegetation at Maduru Oya
Plate: 17. Tropical Savana Grasslands with Scattered Trees Plate: 67. Rose Quarts Deposit Madatugama
Plate: 26. Baker’s fall at Horton Plains Plate: 100. Kuda Gal-Amuna Across Manik Ganga
Plate: 27. A Typical Small Waterfall in the Hill Country Plate: 101. Chanal Construction of Kuda Gal Amuna Project
Plate: 31. A Small Waterfall Located Tea Estate Plate: 102. Express way Construction
Plate: 33. Coast for Drying Fish Plate: 104. A Land Filling Site
Plate: 34 . The Famous Arugambay beache Plate: 105. A Water Quality Sampling Location in Kelani
Plate: 35. Negombo Lagoon Mangrove River
Plate: 36. Fishing Boats at Tangalle Plate: 106. Water Quality Checking by CEA
Plate: 39. Small Scale Fishing Plate: 107. CEA’s Mobile Laboratory
Plate: 40. Udappu Coast Line Plate: 110. A Dengue Prevention Program of CEA
Plate: 41. Lagoon Near Potuvil Plate 109. Group of an Environmental Pioneer Brigade
Plate: 42. A Mangrove Ecosystem Plate: 111. Awareness and Education Programs for Divisional
Plate: 43. Bellanwila -Attidiya Marsh Environmental Officers
Plate: 44. Mahaveli River at Wasgamuwa National Park Plate: 112. Polythene Collection Program Conducted by CEA
Plate: 45. Mangrove(Nipa) at Kochchikade
Plate: 46. Randenigala Reservoir Dr. Manjula Senarachchi
Plate: 47. Parakkrama Samudraya - Polonnaruwa Plate: 04. The Sambar in Horton Plains National Park
Plate: 48. An Inland Water Hole - Horton Plains Plate: 09 . Indian Darter (Ahinga melanogaster)
Plate: 49. Inland Marshes of Lahugala National Park
Plate: 12 Pea Fowl Commonly seen in the Dry Zone
Plate: 50. Famous Temple of the Tooth Relic Kandy
Plate: 28. Dunhinda Fall
Plate: 51. Beautiful Frescos at Sigiriya
Plate: 52. Lord Buddha at Gal Viharaya Polonnaruwa Plate: 56. Ruwanweli Stupa Anuradhapura
Plate: 53. King Parakramabahu Polonnaruwa
Plate: 54. The Guard Stone “Muragala “ Dr. Jayampathi Samarakoon
Plate: 55. The Moonstone at Anuradapura Plate: 37. Negombo Lagoon
Plate: 57. A Hindu Kovil Plate: 69. Eco-tourism at Muthurajawela
Plate: 58. Kitulgala Cave - Remnants of Pre- historic Man
Plate: 59. Ritigala Archeological Site Dr. Ben Maathius
Plate: 60. A Church Plate: 98. A Tsunami Damaged site at Galle
Plate: 66 . Clay Mining Site at Bangadeniya Plate: 99. A Typical Tsunami Damaged - Coastline
Plate: 68 . Serpentine Soils at Usangoda
Plate: 70. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary Wildlfe Heritage Trust
Plate: 71. Maussakele Reservoir Plate: 08. Danio pathirana One of the Rare Endangered
Plate: 72. Lagoon at Pottuvil Endemic Fish
Plate: 73. Anawilundawa Sanctuary
Plate: 74 . Bundala National Park Natural Resources of Sri Lanka
Plate: 75 Rural Folk Chilaw Plate: 32. Diyaluma Fall
Plate: 76. Kurunegala Urban Environment Plate: 61. Entrance to a Gem Mining Pit
Plate: 77. A Rural Environment - Dry Zone
Plate: 86. Slope Clearing Leads to Soil Erosion
Plate: 78. A Fish Market Chilaw
Plate: 79. A Common Mode of Rural Transport
Sri Lanka Gem and Jewelry Authority
Plate: 80. Animal Husbandry in the Dry Zone
Plate: 81. Tea Plucking Community Plate: 62 . Sri Lankan Precious Stones
Plate: 82. A Village Fair
Plate: 83. Fishing Community

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Annex:02
Some Publications of Central Environmental Authority
(Sales)

Nos. Name of Publication


1. Towards Sustainable Growth Sri Lanka Experiences by K H J Wijedasa (1986)
2. Industrial Pollution Control Guidelines
No. 1 Natural Rubber Industry (1992)
No. 2 Concentrated Latex Industry (1992)
No. 3 Desiccated Coconut Industry (1992)
No. 4 Leather Industry (1992)
No. 5 Dairy Industry (1992)
No. 6 Textile Processing Industry (1992)
No. 7 Pesticide Formulating Industry (1992)
No. 8 Metal Finishing Industry (1992)
3. Environmental Index 1994 to 2003 (each)
4. Directory of Environmental Expertise in Sri Lanka 2004 (2004)
5. Union Catalogue of Environmental Books Vol. 1 - 1993 (1994)
6. Guidance for Implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process No. 1 & 2 (each)93/95
7. National Environmental Act (English) (1980)
8. National Environmental Act (Sinhala) (1980)
9. Review of Environmental Legislation in Sri Lanka (1994)
10. Wetland Site Report & Management Plans
1. Tabbowa Site Report (1992)
2. Anuradhapura Tank Site Report (1994)
3. Wetland Atlas (1999)
4. Senanayake Samudra Site Report (1992)
5. Mi Oya River Basin (1994)
6. Mundel Lake and Puttalam Corridor Channel (1994)
7. Colombo Flood Detention Areas (1995)
8. Koggala Lagoon (1995)
9. Kalametiya & Lunama Kalapuwas (1995)
10. Handapan & Bendiya Villus (1995)
11. Udawalawe Reservoir
(1995)
12. Horton Plains National Park
(1997)
13. Wetland summary report part I (Tamil)
(1999)
14. Wetland summary report part II (Tamil)
11. Man & Environment (Sinhala, English & Tamil) (1995)
12. Index to Environmental Legislations in Sri Lanka (1995)
13. Environmental Guidelines for Road & Rail Development in Sri Lanka (1997)
14. Environmental Guidelines for Agricultural Sector Projects in Sri Lanka (1997)
15. Environmental Quiess Programme (1998)
16. Natural Resources Management Guideline Books (Sinhala, Tamil, English) (1997)
17. Environmental Leaflets (1 to 6)
18. Environmental Pioneers Teachers guide (1992)
19. Institutional Networking National Wetland Steering Committee (2003)
20. Capacity Building for Community Based Environmental Management (2003)
21. Establishment of Visitor Centre (2003)
22. Lessons learned during 12 years of wetland work in Sri Lanka (Resettlement) (2003)
23. Lessons learned during 12 years of wetland work in Sri Lanka (West Processing) (2003)
24. Building Interactive Societal Terrain for En vironmental Management (2003)
25. Income Enhancement Related to Integrated Resources Management (2003)
26. Participatory Fishery Management Planning (2004)
27. Strategic Zoning (2004)
28. District Environmental Profiles
Printed Media: Hambantota, Matara, Galle, Kurunegala, Puttalama, (2000)
Digital Media: Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara, Kegalle, Ratnapura, Kandy, Nuwara Eliya,Matele,
Badulla, Monaragala, Ampara, Baticoloa, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa (2003)

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Annex:03

List of “A” Category Industries

1.Caustic soda manufacturing industries.


2.Soaps, detergents or any other cleansing preparations manufacturing industries where 25 or more workers are employed.
3.Acid (Inorganic or organic) manufacturing or repacking industries.
4.Chemical fertilizer manufacturing, formulating, processing or repacking Industries.
5.Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, pesticides manufacturing, formulating, or repacking industries.
6.Oil (mineral oil or petroleum) refineries.
7.Bulk petroleum Liquid storage facilities having a total capacity of 150 or more metric tons.
8.Dye and dye intermediate manufacturing or formulating industries
9.Paints (emulsion or enamel), inks, pigments, varnish, polish manufacturing or formulating industries.
10.Petrochemical (basic or intermediates) manufacturing or formulating industries.
11.Explosives manufacturing or formulating industries.
12.Match sticks manufacturing industries
13.Industrial gas manufacturing, processing or refilling industries excluding auto gas filling stations.
14.Asphalt processing plants
15.Industries involved in the manufacture of polymers or polymer based products (i.e. polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
polyurethane, polypropylene, polyester, nylon, polystyrene, resins, fibreglass or other man made fibers etc.)
16.Industries involved in the use of fibreglass as a raw material where 10 or more workers are employed.
17.Synthetic rubber, natural rubber manufacturing or processing or rubber based industries excluding industries which manufacture
100Kg or less per day of ribbed smoke rubber sheets.
18.All types of tyres, tubes manufacturing or tyre retreading industries.
19.Activated carbon, carbon black manufacturing or coconut shell burning industries having the total input capacity of 10,000 or more
coconut shells per batch within a single production cycle.
20.Battery manufacturing or reconditioning industries.
21.Any industry involved in the use of asbestos fibres as a raw material.
22.Industries involved in manufacturing, extracting or formulating pharmaceuticals or cosmetic products including intermediates.
23.Industries involved in manufacturing or extracting or formulating Ayurvedic, Indigenous medicinal products where 25 or more
workers are employed.
24.Printing presses with lead smelting.
25.Batik industries where 10 or more workers are employed.
26.Textile processing (i.e. bleaching, dyeing, printing) industries or garment washing industries.
27.Commercial laundries with dry cleaning operations using organic solvents where 10 or more workers are employed.
28.Tanneries
29.Leather finishing industries having effluent generating wet operations.
30.Jute processing industries.
31.Industries involved in bleaching or dyeing of natural fiber.
32.Power looms having 25 or more machines or power looms with sizing activities
33.Sugar factories or sugar refineries
34.Fermentation industries (Distilleries, breweries) or alcoholic beverages bottling plants.
35.Vegetable, fruit, meat, seafood, milk-processing industries where 25 or more workers are employed
36.Abattoirs
37.Plants (other than coconut) or animal oils/fats extracting industries.
38.Coconut oil extra traction industries where 25 or more workers are employed
39.Bakery products, biscuits, confectionery manufacturing industries where 25 or more workers are employed.
40.Instant tea or coffee processing industries
41.Non-alcoholic beverages manufacturing industries where 25 or more workers are employed.
42.Bottling plants having bottle washing operations using caustic soda
43.Desiccated coconut mills
44.Rice mills having wet process and having a production capacity of 5000 kilograms or more per day.
45.Poultry farms having 2500 or more birds.
46.Hatcheries
47.Piggery, cattle, goat farms having 50 or more animals.
48.Animal feed manufacturing industries having a capacity of 25 or more metric tons pr day.
49.Cigarettes or other tobacco products manufacturing industries where 50 or more workers are employed.
50.Zoological gardensSR
51.Electrical power generating utilities having a cumulative capacity of 300 KW or more excluding hydro or solar or wind power generation.
52.Surface treatment of metal or plastic industries including electroplating, galvanizing industries.
53.Iron and steel mills.
54.Foundries with cupola, arc furnaces or induction furnaces.
Cont..

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55.Non-ferrous metal processing industries such as lead, zinc, copper, aluminium smelting, secondary lead processing or recovery of
metals including silver recovery from photographic chemical solutions.
56.Cement industries (clinker grinding, manufacturing or repacking)
57.Concrete batching plants having a capacity of 50 or more cubic meters per day.
58.Glass or glass product manufacturing industries.
59.Lime kilns having a production capacity of 20 or more metric tons per day.
60.Ceramic industries where more than 25 or more workers are employed.
61.Processing of non-metallic minerals (i.e. limestone, shell, dolomite, apatite, rock phosphate, sand stone, feld-spar, quartz,
illmentie, rutile, zircon, mica, graphite, kaolin, etc.)
62.Granite crushing or processing industries having a total production capacity of 25 or more cubic meters per day.
63.Paper and Pulp Industries excluding hand made papers.
64.Any chemical manufacturing industry not elsewhere specified in this list.
65.Any common wastewater (industrial or sewage) treatment plants.
66.Incinerators have an input capacity of 5 or more metric tons per day and crematoriums.
67.All hazardous waste disposal sites.
68.Water treatment plants having 10,000 or more cubic meters per day.
69.Industries involved in chemical treatment and preservation of wood (excluding Boron treatment).
70.Saw mills having a milling capacity of 50 or more cubic meters per day.
71.Hotels, Guest Houses, rest Houses with 20 or more rooms.
72.Hostels having a boarding capacity of 200 or more boarders.
73.Any industry where 200 or more workers per shift are employed.
74.Mechanized mining activities with multi bore hole blasting with delay detonators.
75.Single bore hole blasting activities with production capacity having 600 or more cubic meters per month.
76.Granite boulders, making or processing industries.
77.Metal fabricating industries, machinery, machine tools, equipments manufacturing or assembling industries where 25 or more
workers are employed.
78.Automobile assembly industries.
79.Vehicle service stations or container yards having vehicle service activities
80.Any industry not indicated above which discharge 3 or more cubic meters of wastewater per day or using toxic chemical in its
process.

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