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INTRODUCTION

It is initiated by the contraction of the ventricles of the heart. As the ventricles contract, it
ejects blood into the major arteries, resulting in flow from high pressure regions to low pressure
regions Blood pressure is force exerted by the blood against the wall of a vessel or heart
chamber; can be described with the more generic term hydrostatic pressure. It is taken in two
measurements: systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the highest
pressure attained in arteries during systole, and diastolic blood pressure is the lowest arterial
pressure during diastole. Blood pressure is determined by cardiac output (blood volume, and
vascular resistance. Blood pressure depends in part on the total volume of blood in the
cardiovascular system( Jenkins & Tortora , 2013). Flow between two points in the circulatory
system is directly proportional to the pressure difference between those points and inversely
proportional to the resistance. Resistance is directly proportional to the viscosity of a fluid and to
the length of the tube. It is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the tube’s radius, which
is the major variable controlling changes in resistance and, therefore, blood flow to each organ
(Widmaier, et al., 2018). Vascular resistance is opposition to blood flow due to friction between
blood and the walls of blood vessels. As vascular resistance increases, blood flow decreases.
An increase in vascular resistance increases blood pressure; a decrease in vascular resistance
has the opposite effect. Vascular resistance depends on the size of the blood vessel lumen,
blood viscosity, and the total blood vessel length ( Jenkins & Tortora , 2013).

The methods of getting the blood pressure are the palpatory methods and auscultatory method.
Palpatory methods inflate the cuff rapidly to 70 mmHg, and increase by 10 mm Hg increments
while palpating the radial pulse. Note the level of pressure at which the pulse disappears and
subsequently reappears during deflation will be systolic blood pressure. Auscultatory method
the cuff is inflated to a level above arterial pressure (as indicated by obliteration of the pulse). As
the cuff is gradually deflated, the pressure is noted at which sounds produced by the arterial
pulse waves (Korotkoff sounds) appear and disappear again as flow through the artery
resumes. The appearance of the first korotkoff sound is the maximum pressure generated
during each cardiac cycle: the systolic pressure. The level of pressure at which the sounds
disappear permanently, when the artery is no longer compressed and blood flow is completely
restored, is the resting pressure between cardiac contractions: the diastolic pressure.” As the
pressure is reduced during deflation of the occluding cuff, the korotkoff sounds change in quality
and intensity (Sahu & Bhaskaran, 2010).

The aim of this experiment is to enable the students to get the blood pressure using the two
methods and also show the various factors affecting blood pressure.

(Sahu & Bhaskaran, 2010)


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087253/

US national Library of medicine National Institutes of Health :Journal of Anaesthesiology


Clinical Pharmacology