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Chart:

POR-1a and POR-1b (Gamma Ray Environmental Corrections - Mud Weight and Borehole Size)

Applications:

To determine the approximate correction applied to HDS1 and CWR Gamma readings due to mud weight and borehole size.

Directions:

1. Find the chart for the correct tool size (4.75", 6.75", 8.0", or 9.5") and tool position (centered or eccentered).

2. Enter the chart on the Borehole Diameter axis at the correct borehole diameter.

3. Project vertically to the curve corresponding to the correct value of the mud weight, then project horizontally to the GRcor/GR axis and read off the correction factor.

4. Multiply the log value of the Gamma reading by the correction factor.

Example:

Assume that a Gamma log taken with a 6.75 inch collar centered in a 9 inch borehole reads 65 API and was drilled with a 12 lb/gal mud. The chart (third down on POR-1a) indicates that the correction factor is 1.12. The corrected reading is then 65*1.12 = 72.8

Notes:

1. Under the standard reference conditions for PathFinder Gamma Ray tools, the tool is centered in an 8.5 inch borehole, and both the tool and the borehole are filled with fresh water. In the field, however, the conditions are usually not standard, and the field logs are generally not presented with gamma ray values corrected for borehole size and mud weight.

2. Apply any potassium chloride (KCl) correction (charts POR-1c through POR-1j) before correcting for mud weight and borehole size.

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

correcting for mud weight and borehole size. LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

104

Gamma Ray Mud Weight and Borehole Size Corrections 4.75 inch and 6.75 inch Tools

2.5 2.3 4.75 in tool, centered 18 lb/gal 2.1 16 1.9 1.7 12 1.5 1.3
2.5
2.3
4.75
in tool, centered
18
lb/gal
2.1
16
1.9
1.7
12
1.5
1.3
8
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
GR cor /GR

Borehole Diameter (in)

2.00 4.75 in tool, eccentered 1.75 18 lb/gal 16 1.50 12 1.25 8 1.00 0.75
2.00
4.75
in tool, eccentered
1.75
18
lb/gal
16
1.50
12
1.25
8
1.00
0.75
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
GR cor /GR

Borehole Diameter (in)

3.0 6.75 in tool, centered 2.5 18 lb/gal 16 2.0 12 1.5 8 1.0 0.5
3.0
6.75 in tool, centered
2.5
18
lb/gal
16
2.0
12
1.5
8
1.0
0.5
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
GR cor /GR

Borehole Diameter (in)

2.00 6.75 in tool, eccentered 18 lb/gal 16 1.75 12 1.50 1.25 8 1.00 0.75
2.00
6.75 in tool, eccentered
18 lb/gal
16
1.75
12
1.50
1.25
8
1.00
0.75
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
GR cor /GR

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Borehole Diameter (in)

14 15 16 GR cor /GR LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 Borehole

POR-1a

GR cor /GR

Gamma Ray Mud Weight and Borehole Size Corrections 8.0 inch and 9.5 inch Tools

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

8.0 in tool, centered 18 lb/gal 16 12 8 10 11 12 13 14 15
8.0
in tool, centered
18 lb/gal
16
12
8
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (in)

2.50 8.0 in tool, eccentered 2.25 18 lb/gal 16 2.00 1.75 12 1.50 8 1.25
2.50
8.0
in tool, eccentered
2.25
18
lb/gal
16
2.00
1.75
12
1.50
8
1.25
1.00
0.75
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
GR cor /GR

Borehole Diameter (in)

4.0 9.5 in tool, centered 18 lb/gal 3.5 16 3.0 2.5 12 2.0 8 1.5
4.0
9.5
in tool, centered
18
lb/gal
3.5
16
3.0
2.5
12
2.0
8
1.5
1.0
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
GR cor /GR

Borehole Diameter (in)

3.0 9.5 in tool, eccentered 18 lb/gal 2.5 16 2.0 12 1.5 8 1.0 12
3.0
9.5
in tool, eccentered
18
lb/gal
2.5
16
2.0
12
1.5
8
1.0
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
GR cor /GR

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Borehole Diameter (in)

18 19 20 GR cor /GR LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 Borehole

POR-1b

Chart:

Applications:

Directions:

POR-1c through 1j (Gamma Ray Environmental Corrections - Potassium Mud)

To determine the approximate correction applied to HDS1 Gamma readings due to potassium chloride (KCl) in the drilling mud.

1. Find the chart for the correct tool size (4.75", 6.75", 8.0", or 9.5"), tool position (centered or eccentered), and mud weight (10, 12, 14, or 16 lb/gal). If you need corrections for a mud weight other than those given, find the corrections for the given mud weights and interpolate linearly to the needed mud weight.

2. Enter the chart on the Borehole Diameter axis at the correct borehole diameter.

3. Project vertically to the curve corresponding to the correct value of the KCl concentration, then project horizontally to the KCl Correction axis and read off the correction.

4. Subtract the correction from the log value of the Gamma reading

Example:

Assume that a Gamma log taken with a 4.75 inch collar eccentered in an 8 inch borehole reads 97 API and that the 12 lb/gal drilling mud was made with 10% KCl by weight. The chart (POR-1d, second down) indicates that the KCl correction is 18 API, so the corrected reading is 97 - 18 = 79 API.

Assume that a Gamma log taken with a 8.0 inch collar centered in a 12 inch borehole reads 135 API and that the 12.6 lb/gal drilling mud was made with 15% KCl by weight. The 12 lb/gal chart on POR-1g indicates an 79 API correction, and the 14 lb/gal chart on POR-1g indicates a 68 API correction for 14 lb/gal mud. The interpolated correction for 12.6 lb/gal is

Corection = 79 +

(12.6 - 12)

(14 - 12)

(68 - 79) = 76 API

The corrected log reading is then 135 - 76 = 59 API.

Notes:

1. KCl corrections must be applied before mud weight and hole size corrections.

2. If you have the potassium concentration in terms of pounds per barrel (ppb) KCl or mg/liter potassium ion (K+), use the following equations to convert to % KCl by weight:

(% KCI) = -0.000378*(ppb KCI) 2 + 0.2818*(ppb KCI) + 0.0247

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

(ppb KCI) = (mg/liter K + )/1500

KCI) + 0.0247 LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 (ppb KCI) = (mg/liter

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 4.75 inch Tool, Centered

140 10 lb/gal mud, centered tool 120 25% KCl 100 80 15% KCl 60 40
140
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool
120
25% KCl
100
80
15% KCl
60
40
20
5% KCl
0
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

120 12 lb/gal mud, centered tool 100 25% KCl 80 60 15% KCl 40 20
120
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool
100
25% KCl
80
60
15% KCl
40
20
5% KCl
0
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

100 90 14 lb/gal mud, centered tool 80 25% KCl 70 60 50 15% KCl
100
90
14 lb/gal mud, centered tool
80
25% KCl
70
60
50
15% KCl
40
30
20
5% KCl
10
0
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

80 16 lb/gal mud, centered tool 70 25% KCl 60 50 40 15% KCl 30
80
16 lb/gal mud, centered tool
70
25% KCl
60
50
40
15% KCl
30
20
5% KCl
10
0
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Borehole Diameter (inches)

Correction (API) LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 Borehole Diameter (inches) POR-1c

POR-1c

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 4.75 inch Tool, Eccentered

120 10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 100 25% KCl 80 60 15% KCl 40 20
120
10
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
100
25% KCl
80
60
15% KCl
40
20
5% KCl
0
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

90 12 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 80 25% KCl 70 60 50 40 15% KCl
90
12
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
80
25% KCl
70
60
50
40
15% KCl
30
20
5% KCl
10
0
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

80 14 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 70 25% KCl 60 50 40 15% KCl 30
80
14 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
70
25% KCl
60
50
40
15% KCl
30
20
5% KCl
10
0
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

70 16 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 60 25% KCl 50 40 30 15% KCl 20
70
16
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
60
25% KCl
50
40
30
15% KCl
20
10
5% KCl
0
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
KCl Correction (API)

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Borehole Diameter (inches)

Correction (API) LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 Borehole Diameter (inches) POR-1d

POR-1d

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 6.75 inch Tool, Centered

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

60 40 20 0 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 120 100 80 60
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Borehole Diameter (inches)
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches) 12 lb/gal mud, centered
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Borehole Diameter (inches)

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches) 14 lb/gal mud, centered
14 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
14
lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Borehole Diameter (inches)

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches) 16 lb/gal mud, centered
16 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
16 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Borehole Diameter (inches)

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches)

POR-1e

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 6.75 inch Tool, Eccentered

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

20 0 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40
10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Borehole Diameter (inches)

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches) 12 lb/gal mud, eccentered
12 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
12
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Borehole Diameter (inches)

14 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl
14
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches) 16 lb/gal mud,
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Borehole Diameter (inches)
16
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
(inches) 16 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11
5% KCl 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches)
5% KCl
8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Borehole Diameter (inches)

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

15% KCl 5% KCl 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Borehole Diameter (inches)

POR-1f

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 8.0 inch Tool, Centered

250

200

150

100

50

0

250

200

150

100

50

0

10 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5% KCl
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Borehole Diameter (inches) 12 lb/gal mud, centered
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 10 11 12 13
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

180 160 14 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 140 120 100 80 15% KCl
180
160
14
lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
140
120
100
80
15% KCl
60
40
5% KCl
20
0
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
KCl Correction (API)

Borehole Diameter (inches)

160 16 lb/gal mud, centered tool 140 25% KCl 120 100 80 15% KCl 60
160
16
lb/gal mud, centered tool
140
25% KCl
120
100
80
15% KCl
60
40
5% KCl
20
0
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
KCl Correction (API)

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Borehole Diameter (inches)

Correction (API) LWD Log Interpretation Charts PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 Borehole Diameter (inches) POR-1g

POR-1g

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 8.0 inch Tool, Eccentered

250

200

150

100

50

0

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl 15% KCl
25% KCl
15% KCl
10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
5% KCl 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5% KCl
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

12 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl 15% KCl
25% KCl
15% KCl
12 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
5% KCl 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5% KCl
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

14 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl
14
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
15% KCl
14 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
5% KCl 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5% KCl
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

140 16 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 120 25% KCl 100 80 15% KCl 60 40
140
16
lb/gal mud, eccentered tool
120
25% KCl
100
80
15% KCl
60
40
20
5% KCl
0
10 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
KCl Correction (API)

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

Borehole Diameter (inches)

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

Correction (API) LWD Log Interpretation Charts Borehole Diameter (inches) PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002 POR-1h

POR-1h

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 9.5 inch Tool, Centered

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

10 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool
25% KCl
15% KCl
10 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
5% KCl 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
5% KCl
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Borehole Diameter (inches)

12 lb/gal mud, centered tool

25% KCl 15% KCl
25% KCl
15% KCl
12 lb/gal mud, centered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl
5% KCl 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
5% KCl
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Borehole Diameter (inches)

300 14 lb/gal mud, centered tool 250 25% KCl 200 150 15% KCl 100 50
300
14
lb/gal mud, centered tool
250
25% KCl
200
150
15% KCl
100
50
5% KCl
0
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
KCl Correction (API)

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

250

200

150

100

50

0

Borehole Diameter (inches)

16 lb/gal mud, centered tool

25% KCl 15% KCl
25% KCl
15% KCl
5% KCl 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
5% KCl
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Borehole Diameter (inches)

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

15% KCl 5% KCl 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Borehole Diameter (inches)

POR-1i

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

KCl Correction (API)

HDS1 Gamma Ray Potassium Mud Corrections 9.5 inch Tool, Eccentered

LWD Log Interpretation Charts

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

250

200

150

100

50

0

10

lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl
25% KCl
250 200 150 100 50 0 10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5%
15% KCl
15% KCl
150 100 50 0 10 lb/gal mud, eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 12

5% KCl

12 13

14

15

16

17

18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

19

20

12

lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl
25% KCl
12 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl   5% KCl

15% KCl

15% KCl
12 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl   5% KCl
 

5% KCl

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

19

20

14

lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl
25% KCl
(inches) 19 20 14 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5%
15% KCl
15% KCl
19 20 14 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl

5% KCl

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

19

20

16

lb/gal mud, eccentered tool

25% KCl
25% KCl
(inches) 19 20 16 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5%
15% KCl
15% KCl
19 20 16 lb/ g al mud , eccentered tool 25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl

5% KCl

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Borehole Diameter (inches)

19

20

PathFinder Energy Services, Inc., 2002

25% KCl 15% KCl 5% KCl 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Borehole Diameter (inches)

POR-1j