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Measures of Relative Positions

𝑘(𝑛+1)𝑡ℎ
1. Quartiles 𝑄𝑘 = , where k = 1,2,3
4
𝑘(𝑛+1) 𝑡ℎ
2. Percentile 𝑃𝑘 = 100 , where k = 1,2,3,…,99

Example: Given the data

43 37 42 40 53 62 36 32 50 49 26 53
73 48 45 48 40 56 41 36 58 42 39 39
45

Solve for:

1. 𝑄1 4. 𝑃30
2. 𝑄2 5. 𝑃60
3. 𝑄3 6. 𝑃90

Sol.

26 32 36 36 37 39 39 40 40 41 42 42
43 45 45 48 48 49 50 53 53 56 58 62
73
1(25+1)
1. 𝑄1 = = 6.5 = 6𝑡ℎ + 0.5(7𝑡ℎ − 6𝑡ℎ) = 39 + 0.5(39 − 39) = 39
4
30(25+1)
2. 𝑃30 = = 7.8 = 7𝑡ℎ + 0.8(8𝑡ℎ − 7𝑡ℎ) = 39 + 0.8(40 − 39) = 39.8
100

Try to solve for 2,3,5 and 6

Normal Distribution forms a bell-shaped curved that is symmetric about a vertical line through the mean
of the data.

Properties:

1. The graph is symmetric about a vertical line through the mean of the distribution.
2. The mean, median and mode are equal
3. The y – value of each point on the curve is the percent of the data at the corresponding x – value
4. Areas under the curve that are symmetric about the mean are equal
5. The total area under the curve is 1.

Standard normal Distribution


𝑥−𝜇 𝑥−𝑥
𝑧= for population and 𝑧 = for sample
𝜎 𝑠
Probability – is the likelihood for the event to happen.

Example Find the area under the normal curve

1. 𝑧 > 1.39 3. (−0.44 < 𝑧 < 1.82) 5. 𝑧 < −2.55


2. 𝑧 < 1.92 4. (1 < 𝑧 < 1.92) 6. 𝑧 < 1.39

Prepared by: Jun Klein J. Teves


Sol. 1. z = 1.39 is equivalent to 0.4177 or 41.77%, so z > 1.39 is 0.5 – 0.4177 = 0.0823 or 8.23%

2. z = 1.92 is equivalent to 0.4767 so z < 1.92 is 0.5 + 0.4767 = 0.9767 or 97.67%

3. z = -0.44 and z = 1.82 is equivalent to 0.1700 and 0.4656 and between them is 0.1700 +
0.4656 = 0.6356 or 63.56%

4. z = 1 and z = 1.92 is 0.3413 and 0.4726 and between them is 0.4726 – 0.3413 = 0.1313

5. z = -2.55 is equivalent to 0.4946 and z < -2.55 is 0.5 – 0.4946 = 0.0054

6. z = 1.39 is equivalent to 0.4177 so z < 1.39 is 0.5 + 0.4177 = 0.9177

7. A soda machine dispenses soda into 12-ounce cups. Tests show that the actual amount of soda
dispensed is normally distributed, with a mean of 11.5 oz and a standard deviation of 0.2 oz
a. What percent of cups will receive less than 11.25 oz of soda?
11.25−11.5
𝑧= = −1.25 → 0.3944 so less than 11.25 is 0.5 – 0.3944 = 0.1056
0.2
b. What percent of cups will receive between 11.2 oz and 11.55 oz of soda?
11.2−11.5 11.55−11.5
𝑧= 0.2
= −1.5 → 0.4332 and 𝑧 = 0.2
= 0.25 → 0.0987
So, between them is 0.4332 + 0.0987 = 0.5319
c. If a cup is filled at random, what is the probability that the machine will overflow the cup?
The cup will overflow if it pours greater than 12 oz
12−11.5
𝑧= 0.2
= 2.5 → 0.4938 so greater than 12 is 0.5 – 0.4938 = 0.0062
d. If we have 1000 cups, how many of the cups will receive less than 11.25 oz of soda?
1000(0.1056) = 105.6 which is approx. 106
e. If we have 1000 cups, how many of the cups will overflow?
1000(0.0062) = 6.2 which is approx. 7

Prepared by: Jun Klein J. Teves