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Problem Set #5

Chapter 5

Problems: 24

Additional Problems

spherical harmonics, but they can be expressed as column matricies

é1 ù é0 ù

| a = ê ú and | b = ê ú

ë0 û ë1 û

matrices:

h é0 1ù h é0 iù h é1 0ù

Söx = ê ú; Söy = ê ú; Söz = ê ú

2 ë1 0û 2 ëi 0û 2 ë0 - 1û

(a) Show that the angular momentum commutation relations are satisfied for

these matrices.

ö and ö2 .

z S

2. Calculate the angles that a spin angular momentum vector for an individual

electron can make with the z axis.

3. Why is the s, p, d,… nomenclature, which was derived for the H atom, also valid

for many-electron atoms?

1 2

4. Consider the harmonic oscillator of mass m with potential energy V (x) = k x .

2

Using a trial ground-state wavefunction of the form ψ ( x;a ) = e Ða x 2

, use the

variational theorem to determine (a) the optimal value of α and (b) the

corresponding ground-state energy. (c) Compare your answer in (b) to the exact

ground-state energy E = 1/2 hv , where ν = k / m . What does this comparison

tell you about your optimal variational wavefunction?

2

6. Positronium consists if an electron and a positron (positive particle with the same

mass as the electron). (a) Calculate the wavelength of the radiation emitted when

the system goes from the n = 2 energy level to the n = 1 energy level. (b)

Calculate the ionization energy.

it were in a hydrogenic s orbital. Suppose that one takes the quantum number for

the outer electron to be 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively for Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs.

What value of Z must be given to account for the observed first ionization

energies of these atoms? Explain why they differ from unity.

9. In this problem, you will show that the electron probability density of the filled 2p

(n = 2, l = 1) subshell is spherically symmetrical and that therefore the total

angular momentum is zero. The angular distribution of the electron probability

density is simply the sum of the squares of the manitude of the angular part of the

wavefunctions for l = 1 and ml = -1, 0 and 1.

2 2 2

F (q ,f ) = Y1,- 1 (q ,f ) + Y1,0 (q ,f ) + Y1,1 (q ,f )

(c) Why does this result show that the electron probability density for the

filled n = 2, l = 1 subshell is spherically symmetrical?

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