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GROUP MEMBER: STUDENT ID:

-AHMAD AFIF BIN ISMAIL 53106118370


-AFIQ AIMAN BIN ROSLY 53106118379
-AISHY RANIA SOFEA BINTI AZRUL 53106118009
-AQALILY SOFIENA BINTI ZURAYUSMADY 53106118111
-AISHAH HANIS BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN 53106118128

CLASS: 2 AEM 1
LECTURER: SIR MUHAMED ROIHAN BIN YUSOFF
TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT

Torchlight Torque wrench

Magneto
Chain
Torchlight

Ground Power & Engine Control System


SAFETY:

 Wear normal safety PPE: Overalls (uniform workshop; jackets) and
safety boots.

 Chain the ground power before start the process.

 Do not wear accessories such as watch and jewellery

 Use the correct tools when operate the engine to avoid damage on
component.
DEFECTS:

LEAKING
 Fuel can leak at the engine, from the tank or anywhere in between due to
fuel tank or fuel line rupture.

 A fuel leak from an engine can often be resolved by shutting down the
affected engine. A tank leak due to a rupture in the tank will result in the
loss of some or all the fuel in that tank. If a fuel line is ruptured, it could
result in some fuel being unusable.

 Must comply with the manufacturer's limitations and recommendations or


refer to the AMM.

 WARNING - the misidentification or mishandling of a fuel leak can


potentially lead to depletion of all fuel on board the aircraft.
DISCOLORATION
 Fretting and heat discolouration at the exhaust valve port and evidence of
exhaust by-products in cracks between cooling fins in the cylinder head
indicated that an overheating of the exhaust ear had been occurring for
some time prior to the failure of the cylinder.

 High operating temperatures in the exhaust ear resulted in an interdendritic


cracking of the exhaust valve guide and a subsequent failure of the exhaust
valve.

 Continued operation of the engine with failed valve components inside the
cylinder resulted in progressive breaching, and eventual overload failure,
of the cylinder head.
SCRATCHES

 A scratch is a mark of abrasion on a surface.

 Can be repair by polish, painting and filing.


PUNCTURE OR LEAK

 Definition : Total lost of the pipe wall extending over a small are
 Possible cause : Material defect and damage quoting

DENT
 Definition : A small , hollow mark in the surface of something cause by pressure or
being hit
CORROSIONS
 Definition : Defined as an act or process of gradual wearing away of a metal due to
chemical or electro-chemical reaction by its surroundings such that the metal is
converted into an oxide, salt or some other compound. A substance known as the rust
results from such a process. In other words, the corrosion indicates the deterioration
and loss of material due to chemical attack.

 Causes –
(i) Congested reinforcement in small concrete sections,

(ii) Excessive water-cement ratio,

(iii) Improper construction methods,

(iv) Inadequate design procedure,

(v) Incompetent supervising staff or contractor,

(vi) Initially rusted reinforcement before placing concrete,

(vii) Insufficient cover to steel from the exposed concrete surfaces,

(viii) Permeability of concrete which depends on various factors such as water-


cement ratio, size of aggregate, curing, grading of aggregates, etc.,

(ix) Poor workmanship,

(x) Presence of moisture in concrete,

(xi) Presence of salts,

(xii) Type of atmospheric conditions surrounding the region of concrete,


(xiii) Unequal distribution of oxygen over the steel surface,

(xiv) Weak and porous cover blocks which are tied directly to the reinforcement or
stirrups, etc.

Factors Influencing Corrosion:


The corrosion is influenced by the following factors:

(i) Blow holes, inclusions and trapped gases,

(ii) Chemical nature of the metal,

(iii) Distribution of secondary phases,

(iv) Eddy electric currents,

(v) Internal structure of metal,

(vi) Nature of engineering application,

(vii) Presence of dust, dirt or other foreign matter,

(viii) Surface film,

(ix) Working conditions or environment like temperature, concentration of stresses,


etc.

 Theories of Corrosion:
The various theories of corrosion have been developed.

But the four important theories of corrosion are as follows:

(1) Chemical action theory or direct corrosion

(2) Electrolytic theory or electro-chemical corrosion

(3) Galvanic action theory

(4) High-temperature oxidation.