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Pr o b lem -s olvi ng T o o ls

• Brainstorming
Problem Definition • 6-3-5 Brain writing
• Affinity diagram

• Gathering data
Cause Finding • Analyzing data
• Search for root causes

Solution Finding and • Brainstorming


• How-how diagram
Implementation • Concept selection

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Br a i ns tor ming

Osborn's method:
Two principles contribute to "ideative efficacy:
• Defer judgment
• Reach for quantity
1. Go for quantity
2. Withhold criticism
3. Welcome wild ideas
4. Combine and improve ideas

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M e th ods to i m p r ovi ng b r a instormi ng se ssions

• Stick to the rules

• Pay attention to everyone’s ideas

• Include both individual and group approaches

• Take breaks

• Do not rush

• Stay persistent

• Facilitate the session

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C h a ll enges to e ffe c ti ve g r o up b r a instor ming

• Blocking

• Collaborative fixation

• Evaluation apprehension

• Personality characteristics

• Social matching

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6 - 3 -5 Br a i nw riting

• It is fundamental to assure that all participants share a deep


background knowledge on the topic of the brainwriting session.

• One of the main advantages of using 6-3-5 brainwriting is that it


is a very straightforward method and therefore is easy and quick
to learn.

• Issues in clarity of ideas.

• Stress due to time constraints might cause quality of ideas to


decrease.

• Risk of clash of similar ideas.

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Affi n i ty d i a g ram ( KJ M e thod)

• The affinity diagram is a business tool used to organize ideas and data.

• The tool is commonly used within project management and allows large numbers of ideas
stemming from brainstorming to be sorted into groups, based on their natural relationships, for
review and analysis.

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Affi n i ty d i a g ram ( KJ M e thod )

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C a u se F i n d ing

• Gathering Data:

Focus Group
Interviews Survey

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C a u se F i n d ing

• Analyzing data:

Check sheets Histogram Flowchart

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C a u se F i n d ing

• Search for root causes:

Interrelationship digraph
Why Why
Cause andDiagram
Effect Diagram
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C a u se F i n d ing

• Solution finding and implementation :

How How Diagram Force field


Concept analysis
selection

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T o o l s u s e d fo r Pl a n ning a n d Sch e dul ing

Work Breakdown Structure:

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T o o l s u s e d fo r Pl a n ning a n d Sch e dul ing

Gantt Chart:

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T o o l s u s e d fo r Pl a n ning a n d Sch e dul ing

Critical Path Method (CPM):


Steps:
• Determine activities that need to be accomplished
• Determine precedence relationships and completion times
• Construct network diagram
• Determine the critical path
• Determine early start and late start schedules

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C r i ti cal Pa th M e th od ( C PM )

• An activity carries the arrow symbol, . This represent a task or subproject that uses
time or resources.

• A node (an event), denoted by a circle , marks the start and completion of an activity,
which contain a number that helps to identify its location. For example activity A can be
drawn as:

A
1 2
3 days

• This means activity A starts at node 1 and finishes at node 2 and it will takes three days

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D e te rmini ng th e C r i ti cal Pa th

• Step 1: Make a forward pass through the network as follows: For each activity i
beginning at the Start node, compute:
– Earliest Start Time (ES) = the maximum of the earliest finish times of all activities
immediately preceding activity i. (This is 0 for an activity with no predecessors.). This is
the earliest time an activity can begin without violation of immediate predecessor
requirements.

– Earliest Finish Time (EF) = (Earliest Start Time) + (Time to complete activity i). This
represent the earliest time at which an activity can end.

The project completion time is the maximum of the Earliest Finish Times at the
Finish node.
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D e te rmini ng th e C r i ti cal Pa th

• Step 2: Make a backwards pass through the network as follows: Move


sequentially backwards from the Finish node to the Start node. At a given node,
j, consider all activities ending at node j. For each of these activities, (i,j),
compute:
– Latest Finish Time (LF) = the minimum of the latest start times beginning at node j.
(For node N, this is the project completion time.). This is the latest time an activity can
end without delaying the entire project.

– Latest Start Time (LS) = (Latest Finish Time) - (Time to complete activity (i,j)). This is
the latest time an activity can begin without delaying the entire project.

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D e te rmini ng th e C r i ti cal Pa th

• Step 3: Calculate the slack time for each activity by:

Slack = (Latest Start) - (Earliest Start), or

= (Latest Finish) - (Earliest Finish).

A critical path is a path of activities, from the Start node to the Finish node, with 0
slack times.

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Exa m p le
• Consider the following project:
Activity Predecessor time (days)
A -- 6
B -- 4 D
C A 3 2 5 5
D A 5 A 1 J
6
E A 1 E H 3
6
F B,C 4 1 C 3 4 7
G B,C 2 4 F 5
I 5
H E,F 6 B 4 K
I E,F 5 3 2 6
J D,H 3 G
K G,I 5

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Exa m p le

• Earliest/Latest Times
Activity time ES EF LS LF Slack
A 6 0 6 0 6 0 *critical
B 4 0 4 5 9 5
C 3 6 9 6 9 0*
D 5 6 11 15 20 9
E 1 6 7 12 13 6
F 4 9 13 9 13 0*
G 2 9 11 16 18 7
H 6 13 19 14 20 1
I 5 13 18 13 18 0*
J 3 19 22 20 23 1
K 5 18 23 18 23 0*
– The estimated project completion time is the Max EF at node 7 = 23.

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R e ve r se En g i neering a n d R e d esign

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Po p ul ar e xa m pl e:
• The US bomber aircraft (Aug. 6, 1945) - Soviet aircraft on Aug. 3, 1947 at the annual Tushino air
show. (https://canvas.instructure.com/courses/838884/pages/unit-3-lesson-6-reverse-
engineering)

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Ko l b ’s M o d el o f Exp e r i ential L e a rni ng

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R e ve r se En g i neering Pr o cess
1. Prediction:
– What is the purpose of this product?
– How does it work?
– What market was it designed to appeal to?
– List some of the design objectives for the product.
– List some of the constraints that may have influenced the design.
2. Observation:
– How do you think it works?
– How does it meet design objectives (overall)?
– Why is it designed the way it is?
3. Disassemble:
– How does it work?
– How is it made?
– How many parts?
– How many moving parts?
– Any surprises?
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R e ve r se En g i neering Pr o cess
4. Analyze:
– Carefully examine and analyze subsystems (i.e. structural, mechanical, and electrical).
– Develop annotated sketches that include measurements and notes on components, system design, safety,
and controls.
5. Test:
– Carefully reassemble the product.
– Operate the device and record observations about its performance in terms of functionality (operational and
ergonomic) and projected durability.
6. Documentation:
– Inferred design goals
– Inferred constraints
– Design (functionality, form (geometry), and materials)
– Schematic diagrams
– Lists (materials, components, critical components, flaws, successes, etc.)
– Identify any refinements that might enhance the product’s usefulness.
– Upgrades and changes
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Ad va n tages o f R e ve rse En g ineer ing

• Study products that are already open to the market

• Gain personal knowledge on the product and its technology

• Product compatibility with available technologies in the market

• Determine whether the product lives up to its standards as advertised

• Determine flaws in your product design compared to competitor ones

• Figuring out the reasons of product failure

• Improving manufacturing processes

• Creates healthy competition in the market

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C a s e Stu d i es o f M o d ern Pr o d uct
D e ve l opment Pr o c e ss
• Xerox Corporation: Total time to market (1996)

Define market Define product


Demonstrate
attack plan and & deliver Define product
product
Deliver product Delight customers
technology technology

Market and product


strategies vision

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C a s e Stu d i es o f M o d ern Pr o d uct
D e ve l opment Pr o c e ss
• Microsoft Corporation:

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C a s e Stu d i es o f M o d ern Pr o d uct
D e ve l opment Pr o c e ss
• Ford Motor:

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In d u strial d e s ign: D e si gn ED GE, Au sti n, T X
Pr o d uct d e s i gn fi r m

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R e s ear ch In te ns ive : R a ychem C o r porati on

• Longer product development cycle.

• Example: PolySwitch, an electrical


overload switch (1970, 1981…1990)

• How is such long-term product


forecasting and technology planning
done?

• What will the world look like in


decades?

• How could anyone in 1970 forecast the


need for a polymer overload switch?

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R e c ent c a s e s tu d y
• The secret behind Xiaomi's success in India:
https://www.rediff.com/business/report/pix-special-the-secret-behind-xiaomis-success-in-
india/20160915.htm
• Reliance Jio’s marketing strategy and success: Case study

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Pr o d uct Pl a n ning

• Identify the portfolio of the products:


– Investment involved

– Time to launch the product

– Targeted customer market

• Types of product development projects:


1. New product platforms:

2. Derivatives of existing product platforms:

3. Incremental improvements to existing products:

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Pr o d uct p l a nning p r o cess

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Pr o d uct p l a nning p r o cess

1. Identify Opportunities:
• Opportunities statement: Develop a new black and white (B&W), digital, networkable, document centre
platform for the office market, including scanning, storage, fax, distribution and printing capabilities.

2. Evaluate and prioritize projects:


• Competitive strategy : Technology, cost, customer focus, close market follow-up

• Market segmentation:

• Technological trajectories

• Product platforms

3. Allocate resources and plan timing:

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Al l o c ate r e s o urc es a n d p l a n ti m i ng

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Pr o j ec t T i m i ng

• Timing of product introduction

• Technology readiness

• Market readiness

• Competition

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Bu s i nes s Str a te gies R e l a ted to In n ova tion
a n d Pr o duc t D e ve lopment
• Boston Consulting Group

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Su m m ary

• Phases in Engineering Design Process

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Su m m ary
• The keys to creating a winning product are:
– Designing a quality product with the features and performance desired by its customers
at price they are willing to pay

– Reducing the cost to manufacture the product over its life cycle

– Minimizing the cost to develop the product

– Quickly bringing the product to market

– The organization of a product development team can have a major influence on how
effectively product development is carried out.

– Generally, a heavyweight matrix organization with appropriate management controls


works best

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Su m m ary

• Every product development process is different. Its depends on companies


technological and market environment.

• Engineers need to develop their own product development process in any


business they work and must continually strive to improve it.

• Reverse engineering and redesign is a forum for learning, experimenting and


living product design process.

• Handful of reverse engineering experience make you to understand how product


are executed within their “Black boxes”.

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THANK YOU!

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