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An Enlightenment to Machine Learning

Preamble
The concepts of artificial intelligence and machine learning always evoke the ancient
Greek myth of Pandora’s box. In the fairytale version of the story, Pandora is
portrayed as a curious woman who opened a sealed urn and inadvertently released
eternal misery on humankind.
In the original telling, Pandora was not an innocent girl who succumbed to the
temptation to open a forbidden jar. Instead, as the poet Hesiod tells us, Pandora was
made, not born.

Like the genie that escaped the lamp, the horse that fled the barn, the myth has
become a cliche. Now, let us explore the Machine Learning to get more fascinated!

Data Everywhere!
We are drowning in information and starving for knowledge.

Google
24 petabytes of data are processed per day.
Facebook
10 million photos are uploaded every hour.
Youtube
1 hour of video is uploaded every second.
Twitter
400 million tweets are posted per day.

With data increasing every day, we can believe that smart data analysis will become
more prevalent as a fundamental ingredient for technological progress.

Why Machine Learning?


We interact with Machine Learning models every single day without our knowledge.
Every time we Google something, or listen to a song or even take a photo, Machine
Learning is becoming a backbone process behind it by invariably learning and
improving from every interaction.
Machines can drive your car for you, detect eye diseases, unlock your phone with
face recognition, and the list never ends.
Let us get started with Machine Learning!

What is Machine Learning?

Definition

Machine Learning is the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn
without being explicitly programmed.

Machine learning is a tool for turning information into knowledge.

We are DATAFIED! Wherever we go, we leave a data trail. Data becomes fruitless
unless we discover the hidden patterns. Wondering how? Yes! Machine Learning is
a magic wand that turns information to knowledge, which will do wonders for
humankind.

Deep dive into the concepts to know more.


Traditional Learning vs. Machine
Learning

Traditional Learning

 Blends human-created rules with data to create answers to a problem.

Machine Learning

 Uses data and answers to uncover the rules that build a problem.

What Machine Learning does?


Do you want to predict a category?
 Machine Learning has Classification

Example
Predict if the stock price will increase or decrease.

Do you want to predict a quantity?

 Machine Learning has Regression

Example
Predict the age of a person based on their height, weight, and health factors.

What Machine Learning does?

Do you want to detect an anomaly?

 Machine Learning has Anomaly Detection

Example
Money withdrawal anomalies can be discovered.

Do you want to discover structure in unexplored data?

 Machine Learning has Clustering

Example
Finding a group of customers with similar behavior based on their buying data
history.


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Machine Learning Adventures


While a great deal of engrossment has been towards model building, model tuning,
and model evaluation, many individuals still find themselves asking basic inquisitive
questions like
What is the life cycle of Machine Learning?

This section of the course will aid in answering this question. Keep reading to know
more!
Big Picture
The big picture of Machine Learning process lies in the following 9 steps namely

1. Defining Project Objectives


2. Gathering Data
3. Exploratory Data Analysis(EDA) and Data Cleaning
4. Choosing a Model
5. Training
6. Evaluation
7. Hyperparameter Tuning
8. Interpret and Communicate
9. Deployment and Documentation

Defining Project Objectives


 The first step of the life cycle is to recognize the opportunity for tangible
improvement of activities, to enhance customer satisfaction, or to create value
otherwise.
 It is critical that you understand the problem you are trying to solve. In this stage, you
should also be identifying the central objectives of your project by identifying the
variables that need to be predicted.

Gathering Data
 Considered to be the primary step of Machine Learning process.
 The quality and quantity of data you gather in this step will determine how efficient
your model will be.

Some important things to remember while gathering data:

 Data can be collected from anywhere in any format.


 More training examples will aid the model to be more efficient.
 Make sure the number of samples for every class or topic is not overly imbalanced.
 Make sure that your samples adequately cover the space of possible inputs, not
only the common cases.

EDA and Data Cleaning


EDA

 Analyzing datasets to summarize their notable characteristics is called


Exploratory Data Analysis.
 Helps in performing investigations on data so as to discover hidden patterns,
anomalies etc.
 Aids in checking assumptions and hypothesis with the help of summary statistics.
Data Cleaning
 Data can have several shortcomings. To list a few are
1. Missing values
2. Duplicate data
3. Invalid data
 The process of detecting, correcting and ensuring that the given dataset is
error free, consistent enough to use is called Data Cleaning.

Choosing a Model
 There are numerous models that researchers and Data scientists have created over
the years.
 Some are very well-suited for image data, while others are suited
for sequences, text-based data and many more.
 Choosing the right model for the problem will impact the efficiency of the model.

Training
 The next step of the Machine Learning process, often known as the the bulk of ML
is Training the model.
 This step is very similar to a person who is learning to drive for the first time. Though
at first they dont know any of pedals, switches, breaks but eventually after lots of
practice and feedbacks a licensed driver emerges.
 The data is split into Training Data and Testing Data.
 Model is trained with the training data using different ML algorithms by adjusting the
parameters in multiple iterations.
 Testing Data are put aside as unseen data to evaluate your models.

Evaluation
 Once training is complete, it’s time to see if the model is any good, using Evaluation.
 This is where that dataset that we set aside earlier comes into play(i.e) Testing Data.
 Evaluation allows us to test our model against data that has never been used for
training.
 This metric allows us to see how the model might perform against data that it has not
yet seen.
 This is meant to be representative of how the model might perform in the real world.

Hyperparameter tuning
 After the evaluation step, it's time to see if we can improve our training furthermore
by tuning different parameters that were implicitly assumed in the training process
and this process is called Hyperparameter Tuning.
 The tuned model is once again evaluated for model performance, and this cycle
continues until the final best performing model is chosen.
Interpret and Communicate
 The most challenging task of the ML project is explaining the model's output.
 Earlier days, Machine learning is considered to be a BlackBox because it was hard to
interpret their insights and values.
 The more interpretable your model is, then more it is easier to communicate your
model's importance to the stakeholders

Deployment and Documentation


 Model deployment often poses a problem because of the coding and data science
experience it requires and because the time-to-implementation of traditional data
science methods from the start of the cycle is prohibitively long.
 The trained model has to be deployed in a real-world system for it to be efficient to
humans.
 It can be deployed using any of the frameworks like FLASK, Cloud, Azure etc.
 Document your project well for your descendants to handle it.

Types of Machine Learning


The types of Machine Learning are as follows:

 Supervised Learning
 Unsupervised Learning
 Reinforcement Learning

Machine Learning is an umbrella term that covers 3 learning techniques. In this section, let

us unveil them to understand more about Machine Learning.

Supervised Learning
 Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an
input to an output based on example input-output pairs.
 It infers a function from labeled training data.
 Each training example is a pair consisting of an input object and a desired output
value.
 A supervised learning algorithm analyzes the training data and produces an inferred
function, which can be used for mapping new examples.

Applications

1. Spam Detection
2. Pattern Recognition
3. Speech Recognition
Unsupervised Learning
Unsupervised Learning helps in uncovering hidden patterns from unlabeled data.

Applications

1. Recommender Systems
2. Targetted Marketing
3. Customer Segmentation
4. Structure Discovery

Reinforcement Learning
Reinforcement Learning is a type of machine learning in which software agents
ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of
cumulative reward.

Applications

1. Genetics
2. Economics
3. Robot Navigation
Machine Learning in SDLC
Machine Learning in SDLC

The image depicted above illustrates how to integrate the process of Machine
Learning into the traditional Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

The three phases include:

1. Planning
2. Data Engineering
3. Modeling

Machine Learning Terminologies


Accuracy
Accuracy is the percentage of correct predictions made by the model.
Algorithm

 Machine learning algorithms are programs (math and logic) that adjust themselves to
perform better as they are exposed to more data.
 The learning part of machine learning means that those programs change how they
process data over time, much as humans change how they process data by learning.
 So a machine-learning algorithm is a program with a specific way to adjusting
its own parameters, given feedback on its previous performance making
predictions about a dataset.

Examples

 Linear regression
 Decision trees
 Support vector machines
 Neural networks

Machine Learning Terminologies


Categorical Variables

 Categorical variables are variables with a discrete set of possible values.


 They can be ordinal or nominal.

Classification
Classification aids in predicting the categorical output.

Clustering
Clustering is the unsupervised grouping of data into buckets.

Machine Learning Terminologies


Dimension
The dimension of data denotes the number of features in a dataset.

Feature
For a dataset, a feature represents the combination of attribute and value.

Feature Selection
Feature selection is the process of selecting relevant features from a dataset for
creating a Machine Learning model.
Machine Learning Terminologies
Hyperparameters
Hyperparameters are higher-level properties of a model, such as how fast it can
learn or the complexity of a model.

Instance
An instance is a data point, row, or sample in a dataset.

Label
The label is the answer part of the observation in supervised learning.

Machine Learning Terminologies


Outlier
An outlier is an observation that deviates significantly from other observations in the
dataset.

Regression
Regression predicts the continuous form of output (For example, price, sales, and so
on).

Validation Set
The validation set is a set of observations used during model training to provide
feedback on how well the current parameters generalize beyond the training set.

Prelude
Let us now explore the following popular Machine Learning techniques:

 Classification
 Clustering
 Association Rule Mining
 Outlier Detection
 Regression

Classification
Definition
Classification is the process of identifying a category to which a new observation
belongs, based on a training set of data containing observations whose categories
are already known.

 It follows a two-step process, namely:


o Learning Step - Training phase where a model is constructed.
o Classification Step - Predicting the class labels and testing the same for
accuracy.
 Classification predicts the value of the categorical variables.

Classification Concept
Clustering
Clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects, such that objects in the same
cluster are similar to each other when compared to the objects in the other clusters.
 Distance measure plays a significant role in clustering.
 Clustering is an unsupervised learning method.
 The common distance measures used in various datasets are as follows.
Numeric Dataset

- Manhattan distance
- Minkowski distance
- Hamming distance

Non-Numeric Dataset

- Jaccard index
- Cosine Similarity
- Dice Coefficient
Association Rule Mining

Association Rule Mining aids in identifying the associations, correlations, and


frequent patterns in data.

The derived relationships are represented in the form of Association Rules.

Association Rule Mining with Apriori


Outlier Detection
Jiawei Han defines Outlier as
A data object that deviates significantly from the normal objects as if it were
generated by a different mechanism.

The types of Outlier are as follows:


 Global Outlier
Global Outlier significantly deviates from the entire dataset.
 Contextual Outlier
Contextual Outlier significantly deviates based on the context selected.
 Collective Outlier
Collective Outlier is a subset of data objects that collectively deviates from the
entire dataset.

Regression
 Regression analysis is a statistical method that aids in examining the relationship
between two or more variables of interest.
 Examines the influence of one or more independent variables on a dependent
variable.
 There are a variety of algorithms available in the Machine Learning world.
 This section will guide you through the commonly used Machine Learning
Algorithms.

Decision Tree
 A Decision Tree (DT) is a tree-like model of decisions and possible consequences,
chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility.
 Decision Trees are a non-parametric supervised learning method used for
classification and regression.

Naive Bayes
A Naive Bayes classifier is a probabilistic Machine Learning model that is used for
classification tasks. The crux of the classifier is based on the following Bayes
theorem formula.

P(A|B)=\dfrac{P(B|A)P(A)}{P(B)}P(A∣B)=P(B)P(B∣A)P(A)

Support Vector Machine


Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning algorithm. It is
used for classification or regression type of problems.
K-means Clustering
Random Forest
Linear Regression
Logistic Regression

____________ learning uses data and answers to uncover the rules that
build a problem.
Machine

Linear Regression helps in predicting the ____________ output.


Continuous

Which of the following machine learning models would you suggest to


predict a quantity?
Regression

Which of the following machine learning models would you suggest to


predict a category?
Classification

The field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being
explicitly programmed is ___________.
Machine Learning

The derived relationships from Association Rule Mining are represented in


the form of ___________.
Association Rules

____________ learning blends rules created by humans with data to


develop answers to a problem.
Traditional

_____________ learning draws inspiration from psychological behavior.


Reinforcement

_____________ is a tool for turning information into knowledge.


Machine Learning
_____________ aids in identifying the associations, correlations, and
frequent patterns in data.
Association Rule Mining

A marketing company wants to group its customers into various groups to


advertise accordingly. Which machine learning technique would you
suggest for the company?
Clustering

A credit card company receives thousands of applications for new credit


card issue with attributes like salary, debts etc. Which machine learning
technique would you suggest to categorize applications into good credit
and bad credit.
Classification

Which machine learning technique would you suggest to develop a


machine which detects the sudden increase or decrease in heartbeat?
Regression Analysis

Classification predicts ____________.


Categorical Variables

Which learning would you suggest the user for grouping customers into
distinct categories (Clustering)?
Unsupervised