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Integration of Educational Games.

While playing games is a great leisure activity that

people of all ages can enjoy, games can also be used for learning and educational

experiences. Some games have been found to improve cognitive functions like memory

and reasoning. Other games have the potential to reverse aging related brain function

problem such as short term memory loss. Game-based learning can also done as

collaborative between learners and educators. (Peters,2019)

The main motivation for the current review lies in the fact that games are already, to a

certain degree, integrated into educational systems to achieve a variety of learning

outcomes (Connolly, 2012), yet a comprehensive policy is still lacking. In this paper, the

first step was an attempt to conceptualize the terms “game” and “simulations”. Although

the two terms are neither wholly synonymous, or completely differentiated, in the main

body of this review, the focus will be on lumping them together and perceiving them as

points across a multidimensional continuum (Aldrich, 2009; Renken, 2016)

dditionally, this study concentrates on the positive effects of games and simulations on

learning outcomes, a finding that is compatible with previous reviews (e.g. Bellotti et

al., 2013; Lameras et al., 2016; Clark et al., 2015. This review confirms that games and

simulations contribute to cognitive learning outcomes, including knowledge acquisition,

conceptual application, content understanding, and action-directed learning.

The emphasis is on the positive effects, namely the development of social and soft skills,

emotional skills, the empowerment of collaboration with peers, and the promotion of

interaction and feedback, findings that are in line with past reviews (Shin et al., 2015;

Carenys & Moya, 2016).

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Behavioural objectives for higher education students refer to the enhancement of

teamwork and improvement in relational abilities (Ranchhod, 2014), as well as stronger

organisational skills, adaptability and the ability to resolve conflicts (Vos &

Brennan, 2010).

Simulation games are often seen as powerful tools in promoting teamwork and team

dynamics (Stanley & Latimer, 2011; Tiwari et al., 2014; Lin, 2016; Wang, 2016),

collaboration (Hanning, 2012), social and emotional skills (Ahmad et al., 2013), and other

soft skills, including project management, self-reflection, and leadership skills

(Siewiorek, 2012; Wang et al., 2016), which are acquired through a reality-based

scenarios with action-oriented activities (Geithner & Menzel, 2016).

In a Spanish management course, simulations enabled students to build pivotal

capacities, such as management abilities and team working to enable the success of

future managers (Arias Aranda et al., 2010). A computer simulation at a university in

Taiwan led to comparatively higher learning gains against traditional teaching through

collaborative laboratory activities (Shieh, 2010), by facilitating students to carry out more

active learning and improving their conceptual understanding. Simulation scenarios

provide improved social and communication skills, which lead to the enhancement of

student knowledge (Sarabia-Cobo et al., 2016).

Collaborative Learning

Collaborative or active learning is a methodology that transforms that traditional lecture

or teacher focused classroom into a student or learning centered room. Students work

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together to help each other understand content, solve problems or create projects and

products with the instructor working as a moderator or facilitator. Collaborative spaces in

education trickled down from corporate “flex/open workspaces.” They were designed

based on the understanding that interactivity and collaboration in small groups

produces stronger solutions that would have not been reached individually and

encourages sharing of research for enhanced learning. Further, it encourages trust

building, communication, practical learning/application, and acceptance and enhances

problem-solving skills.( 05/18/2016 | By Gina Sansivero)

Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn

something together. Unlike individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning

capitalize on one another's resources and skills (Source: Indian Journal of Health &

Wellbeing . 2017, Vol. 8 Issue 8, p789-791. 3p.Author(s): Bishnoi, Neha)

Collaborative and cooperative learning, often commonly known as “group work,” is

growing in favor among professors as an effective active learning tool. Aside from the

benefits of getting students involved in the education process, another reason for the

expanded role for group work in the classroom is the demand from students (and

their future employers) for opportunities to develop teamwork and interpersonal

communication skills. Others have highlighted the ways in which group work

promotes critical thinking and cross-cultural competencies. While most are also familiar

with common complaints about group work, when done well, activities like the think-pair-

share, in-class debates, or group projects can all help students understand the content

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and develop the skills they need to be successful. (Faculty Feature: Amanda

Hummon »Mar 20th, 2017 by)

Remediation

Remedial education (also known as developmental education, basic skills education,

compensatory education, preparatory education, and academic upgrading) is assigned

to assist students in order to achieve expected competencies in core academic skills

such as literacy and numeracy.

A remedial activity is one that is meant to improve a learning skill or rectify a problem

area. Remedial instruction involves using individualized teaching of students who are

experiencing difficulties in specific subject areas. Remedial instruction might be taught

individually or in groups and targets academic weaknesses that may hinder learning.

Remedial activities teach basic skills that are the foundation for learning a subject in

greater detail, and such skills must be learned before students can develop a detailed

understanding of the topic of study.

In general, teachers provide remedial support for students with learning difficulties in
one or all of the basic subjects as necessary. Remedial teaching aims at helping pupils
to build a good foundation for subject learning and self-learning. It evaluates the
performances of pupils and the progress of learning.(Robin McDaniel, eHow Contributor
oct 2014)

"The practice of remedial education has been controversial among educators and
students because it hasn't been clear if it leads to student success," said Xianglei Chen,
a research education analyst at RTI and the lead author of the report. "Our new report
joins other studies that provide real evidence about potential benefits of enrolling in and
completing these courses, particularly for weakly prepared students."

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The report showed that students must complete remedial courses, not just enroll in
them, in order to reap the benefits. However, remedial course completion rates are not
as high as one would hope: just 49 percent of remedial coursetakers at public 2-year
institutions and 59 percent of remedial coursetakers at public 4-year institutions
completed all the remedial courses in which they enrolled.
The report also showed that completing remedial courses especially benefits weakly
prepared students; they earned more college credits and had a higher probability of
transferring to a 4-year school and attaining a bachelor's degree than their peers who
had a similar background and academic preparation but did not enroll in remedial
courses. Evidence of such benefits for remedial completers with moderate or strong
preparation is not strong, however.
"More research is needed to understand why moderately or strongly prepared students
end up in remedial classes after they arrive at college," Chen said. "Colleges could also
benefit from knowing more about the major obstacles that prevent students from
successfully completing remedial courses."( 6 September 2016.)

Students who have temporarily fallen behind in their studies or otherwise need short-
term support in their learning have the right to get remedial teaching. Remedial teaching
should be started immediately when the difficulties in learning or school attendance
have been noticed, so that the students would not stay behind permanently in their
studies. Remedial teaching can counteract difficulties beforehand. Remedial teaching
should be organized according to a plan and as often as is necessary.

Characteristic to remedial teaching are individually planned

 tasks,
 time management
 and guidance.

Diverse methods and materials are used in remedial teaching, with which new ways can
be found to approach the subject that is to be learned. In proactive remedial teaching
the new things that are to be learned are introduced beforehand. Remedial teaching can
also answer the need for support that arises from absences.

Schoolwork is planned in such a way that every student has a possibility to participate in
remedial teaching if need be. Remedial teaching is given either

 during the lessons to which the need for support is connected, or


 outside lessons.

Various flexible groups are used in remedial teaching.

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The initiative about giving remedial teaching is primarily done by the teacher. It can also
be done by the student or guardian. The task of each teacher is to monitor the learning
and growth of the student and the possible needs for support that may arise. Remedial
teaching is organized in mutual understanding with the student and the guardian. They
will be given information about the forms of remedial support and its importance to
learning and school attendance. Students are obligated to participate in the remedial
teaching that has been organized for them.

Remedial teaching is given at all levels of support.

What is a remedial instruction?


The Remedial Education Program is an instructional program designed for students in
grades 6-12 who have identified deficiencies in reading, writing, and math. This program
provides individualized basic skills instruction as mandated by Georgia Law in the
areas of reading, mathematics, and writing.
Objectives of Remedial Teaching

Each pupil is different in terms of learning ability, academic standards, classroom


learning and academic performance, and each has his own in learning. The aim of IRTP
is to provide learning support to pupils who lag far behind their counterparts in school
performance. By adapting school curricula and teaching strategies, teachers can
provide learning activities and practical experiences to students according to their
abilities and needs. They can also design individualized educational programmes with
intensive remedial support to help pupils consolidate their basic knowledge in different
subjects, master the learning methods, strengthen their confidence and enhance the
effectiveness of learning.

Throughout the teaching process, teachers should provide systematic training to


develop pupils' generic skills, including interpersonal relationship, communication,
problem-solving, self-management, self-learning, independent thinking, creativity and
the use of information technology. Such training can lay the foundation for pupils' life-
long learning, help them develop positive attitudes and values, as well as prepare them
for future studies and career.

Principles of Helping Pupils with Learning Difficulties

Teaching preparation

Before preparing for their lessons, remedial teachers should identify pupils' diverse
learning needs as soon as possible so that they may design appropriate teaching plans
to facilitate pupils' effective learning.

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Devise various learning activities

Since pupils have different characteristics in learning, teachers must devise different
learning activities with the same teaching objective to develop pupils' varied abilities and
skills in problem solving. It is more effective for teachers to adopt a series of relevant
and simple teaching activities than assigning one long teaching activity since pupils may
acquire the required knowledge and skills through diversified activities.

upils with learning difficulties are less competent in understanding written language.
Therefore, remedial teachers should give pupils short and clear instructions to avoid
confusion. They must explain clearly the arrangement of each learning activity. If
necessary, they may ask pupils to repeat the steps of activities so that every pupil may
understand the instructions.

Summarize the main points

At the course of teaching, teachers should always sum up the main points in teaching
and write the key phrases on the board to enhance pupils' audio and visual memories.
Teachers can guide their pupils to link up the knowledge they learn from class with their
life experiences so as to enhance the effectiveness of learning. Besides, guiding pupils
to repeat the main points in verbal or written form is also an effective way of learning.

Enhance learning interest and motivation

Suffering from frequent frustrations in their work, pupils with learning difficulties may
gradually lose their interest in learning. Therefore, teachers should adapt the curriculum
to meet the needs of pupils. With less pupils in the IRTP, teachers can design
interesting activities coupled with reward scheme to stimulate pupils' interest. It is most
important to help pupils overcome their learning difficulties so that they may gain a
sense of achievement and recover their confidence and interest in learning.

Encourage pupils' active participation in class activities

Pupils with learning difficulties usually lack self-confidence and are more passive in
class. They seldom ask questions or express their views. Remedial teachers should
patiently encourage active participation in class. Pleasurable learning experiences may
help enhance pupils' interest in learning.

Focus on the learning process

Teaching should not only focus on the transmission of knowledge. It is also important
to see that pupils are benefited from the entire learning process. Teachers should
provide ample opportunities in class for pupils to practise and think what they have
learnt, and allow them to solve problems by different means. Teachers should also
carefully observe the performances of pupils and give them appropriate assistance,
feedback and encouragement so as to help them acquire the learning skills, solve their

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problems and understand their own capability, thus enhancing self-confidence and
improving their learning skills.

Show concern for the performances of individual pupils

Pupils may encounter different problems in their studies, therefore, teachers should
carefully observe the learning process of individual pupils in class. Whenever
necessary, they should provide individualized remedial teaching before and after class,
during recess or lunchtime, so that they can remove their learning obstacles as soon as
possible. When marking assignments, teachers should take note of the common errors
of pupils and deliver the correct concepts and knowledge to them promptly.

The Process of Remedial Teaching


Curriculum Adaptation

Remedial teachers should adapt the curriculum to accommodate the learning


characteristics and abilities of pupils. They should set some teaching objectives which
are easy to achieve to ensure that pupils may acquire the knowledge as desired after
the completion of each module.

Teaching should not be directed by textbooks which should not be taken as the school
curriculum. There is no need to cover all the contents in the textbooks as well. Schools
can classify the teaching content into core and non-core learning aspects according to
the teaching objectives and pupils abilities. Core learning aspects require in-depth
studies and application whereas materials in the non-core or advanced learning aspects
may be streamlined or appropriately selected for teaching.

Teachers are encouraged to adopt recommendations on cross-curricular teaching by


linking up related teaching areas flexibly so that more time can be spared for effective
activities and learning.

Teachers should make good use of all teaching materials. For example, they may select
and use the materials in textbooks to meet the teaching objectives, or compile their own
supplementary teaching materials. They may also design materials of different
standards. Materials from the internet, newspapers, magazines and references provided
by the Education Department may help teachers design interesting and enjoyable
activities to enhance pupils’effectiveness of learning.

Well-designed learning environment helps to maintain pupils’ attention and interest in


learning and facilitates the achievement of teaching aims. In this way, it is more easy to
achieve the aim of teaching. The teaching environment should be designed to support
remedial teaching and group activities. Seat arrangements of pupils should be flexible to
meet the specific teaching purposes of each learning activity. For example, teachers
and pupils may form of circle when holding discussions; and the two pupils or group
members involved may sit together during peer group or small group learning.

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( Ms.Jemi Sudhakar feb.12,2018)

Peer Tutoring

Remedial teachers may train up pupils who perform better in a certain subject to
become ‘little teachers’ and who will be responsible for helping schoolmates with
learning difficulties in group teaching and self-study sessions as well as outside class.
Peer support program me helps pupils reinforce their knowledge, and develop their
communication and cooperation skills as well as good interpersonal relationship. To
enhance the effectiveness of the program me, remedial teachers must provide training
to the pupils concerned beforehand and make regular reviews on its effectiveness.
Generally speaking, this program me is more suitable for pupils of higher grades. .(
Ms.Jemi Sudhakar feb.12,2018)

The research on peer tutoring is somewhat mixed but it seems that it is most effective
when students are paired correctly. For example, pairing up a low student with
another low student may often result in less learning because it could be compared
to “the blind leading the blind." Both students are struggling in this situation. Therefore,
any learning that takes place between these two peer tutors is likely to be unplanned or
accidental and therefore, not as effective.

However, when peer tutoring is used between two higher-functioning students,


who can work together on problem-solving and inductive reasoning, there are
usually better results. The average student struggles with something. So a peer who
is on their same level may be able to explain a concept in a different way than the other
student has heard from a textbook or their classroom teacher. Therefore, a peer who is
working with someone on their same level, is more likely to focus on important concepts
that the other classmate needs help with and may therefore improve the results.

When higher-level students work with lower or mid-range student peers, the

results seem to be the best. This is because the higher-level student has a sense of

mastery of important concepts that lower students need to achieve and they are more

apt to be able to guide them in the right direction over time. Even on a simple concept

and for a shorter period of time, peer-to-peer tutoring among high and lower range

students appears to be highly successful for the lower student due to the difference in

skill acquisition between the two, as well as the fact that often peers explain things in a

much more understandable way than they may have heard from their teachers or

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textbooks. Another reason peer tutoring often works better than direct instruction alone

is the comfort level at which students feel with their peers, as opposed to their teachers.

This also helps them to increase their social skills by working closely with other students

and develops rapport between peers in the classroom. Another factor that may

influence the results of peer tutoring is the fact that the higher student may inadvertently

‘teach’ the lower student how to study better. By discussing concepts that are difficult for

them, lower students may find their study skills improve after spending some time with

the higher-performing students. Sometimes, the difference between a high and low

student is their study skills. By using the higher students as a role model for better study

practices, this may improve their grades over time. Finally, peer tutoring helps kids

psychologically by increasing their self-esteem. This applies not only to the peer who is

more in the tutor role due to their higher ability level in certain skills, but also to the

lower student who is being tutored in the skill. You would think the opposite effect would

occur since the lower student feels less capable in this situation and is relying on the

skills of the higher student to teach them.( Deb Killion 2019)

Peer tutoring involves students helping each other learn and grow. The concept is

strongly endorsed by organizations such as the National Education Association and

the National Tutoring Association. Advantages of peer teaching include gains in

academic achievement and stronger peer relationships. On the flip side,

disadvantages of peer coaching are that peer tutoring can be ineffective and a

burden for teachers if the program is simply an attempt to do more with less in

response to budget cuts. Peer tutoring should supplement, not replace, quality

classroom instruction.

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it is invigorating to watch students teaching each other. Peer tutors learn by
teaching the material to a classmate or younger student. Peer tutors are
challenged to use and hone their creativity and critical thinking skills to help
tutees make sense of new material introduced by the teacher. Students being
tutored can ask questions to ensure understanding. For both students,
repetition aids retention. Peer tutoring increases motivation and improves the
overall academic performance of the class. If you are looking for a way to
combat boredom, absenteeism and truancy, peer tutoring is the answer.

Peer tutoring brings the classroom alive with energy and positive attitudes.
Students who receive peer tutoring are less likely to fear or detest certain
subjects. Peer tutors develop a sense of pride and self -worth knowing they’re
capable of making a positive difference in the life of another student. Peer
tutoring is also thought to increase self -confidence as tutors and tutees
discover they’re capable of mastering difficult assignments and abstract
concepts even without the help of the teacher.

By Dr. Mary Dowd ; Updated July 23, 2018

Attention Span

People with a short attention span may have trouble focusing on tasks for any length of
time without being easily distracted.

A short attention span can have several negative effects, including:

 poor performance at work or school

 inability to complete daily tasks

 missing important details or information

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 communication difficulties in relationships

 poor health related to neglect and inability to practice healthy habits

The most common signs and symptoms of a learning disability include:

 difficulty following directions

 poor memory

 poor reading and writing skills

 eye-hand coordination difficulties

 being easily distracted

Treatment for a short attention span depends on the underlying cause. For
instance, ADHD treatment may include a combination of medication and
behavioral therapy.

The following are some things you can do to help improve your focus.

Chew gum-Various studies have found that chewing gum improves attention and
performance at work. Chewing gum also appears to increase alertness and lower
stress. Allen AP, et al. (2015). While chewing gum may not have a long-lasting
effect on your ability to concentrate, it’s an easy way to improve your attention span
in a pinch.

Drink waterStaying hydrated is important for your body and mind. Dehydration can
worsen your ability to think. Adan A. (2013). This even includes mild dehydration
you may not even notice. Being dehydrated for just two hours can impair your
focus. Adan A. (2013).

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Exercise The benefits of exercise are endless and include improving your ability to
focus. Numerous studiesTrusted Source have shown that exercise improves
attention and focus in people with ADHD.To help improve your attention span,
consider taking a brisk walk for 30 minutes a day four or five times a week. Jeffrey
M. Halperin, Ph.D.2013

Keep yourself engaged

If you struggle to pay attention during meetings or lectures, try asking questions or
taking notes. Evidence shows that taking notes by hand is more effective in
improving attention and listening than using a laptop or other device, which can be
distracting.( Pam A. Mueller1 and Daniel M. Oppenheimer)

 Behavioral therapy refers to several types of therapy that treat mental health
conditions. It helps identify and change unhealthy or self-destructive behaviors.
There’s growing evidenceTrusted Source that cognitive behavioral therapy is an
effective way to treat inattention in people with ADHD.

Dependency

Ultimately we need to empower students so they know how to advocate for themselves.

We do this by offering them opportunities to be in charge of their learning while giving them

room to ask for help where needed. Explicitly teaching reflection and modeling the

behavior, is a positive way to ensure that all students do learn to ask for help when they

need it, but to try on their own first. After working alone, they should reach out to peers

and then beyond that the teacher is available for help and always will be. Usually if

students experience success on their own, they feel more confident. We need to make

sure they have these successful moments.

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many students ask teachers for help without even attempting a task on their own. But the

real problem isn’t students’ knee-jerk requests for help, but rather teachers obliging them.

Hence the term,learnedhelplessness. A key, then, to students unlearning helplessness is

teachers relearning helpfulness.

David contributed some thoughts gleaned from two of his pieces. From When Helping
Students Hurts Students ( 2016)

We as educators must direct our genuine desire to help children toward providing them
resources and skills that enable them to help themselves. We must also then only help
students when they’ve used those resources and skills, and have proven–to themselves
as much as to us–that they really need our help. To do otherwise is to hurt students rather
than help them.

And from Ginsburg’s Hierarchy of Help:

Many students ask teachers for help without even attempting a task on their own. But the
real problem isn’t students’ knee-jerk requests for help, but rather teachers obliging them.
Hence the term,learnedhelplessness. A key, then, to students unlearning helplessness is
teachers relearning helpfulness.

This starts with a shift from teacher as fountain of information to teacher as facilitator of
learning. Provide students access to the resources they need to be successful, and
empower them with the skills they need to use those resources. In short, support self-
directed learning.

Today’s kids may be more helpless than at any time in history. They’re being sheltered
from hurt, shielded from risk, and are expected to do less on their own, lest they face the
horror of failure. And it’s not serving them well, as evidenced by reports of how badly they
fare once in college and/or employed.

You may not be able to do much to change their situation at home, but you’re in a great
position to make a difference in the one place where they spend the majority of their waking
hours: in school. And if you implement Starr’s and David’s strategies, you’ll soon see their
benefit to you as well!(feb2016)

everyday school tech of the modern era includes laptops, hand-held devices, tablets,
electronic whiteboards, sophisticated word processing apps, 3-D printing, and virtual
field trips.

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in spite of the apparent advantages of virtual trips and online encyclopedias, some
educators believe that too much tech is harmful to students. or children, there’s an even
more significant physical threat from too much technology: inactivity. According
to Athletico Physical Therapy, sitting for hours at a time can lead to all sorts of physical
problems. As classrooms become increasingly dependent on tech, students are at a
higher risk for a wide range of ailments.( Robyn D. Shulman, M.Ed.2019) In a classroom
situation full of screens, keyboards, video conferences, several audio input sources and
multiple visual ones, school-children are literally bombarded with stimuli day in and day
out.
Even the simple task of reading a book can involve two to three electronic devices,
peripherals, and keyboards. Some experts worry that modern classroom tech is working
to decrease the attention span of students significantly.
in order for dependent learners to become independent, they need to have cognitive
skills so that they can improve skills on their own.
What do you think this means?
"Culture of Poverty" (pg. 13)
- uses what the students know about their culture as a scaffold to "promote effective
information processing".
-Usually thought of as a way to motivate students and decrease behavioral issues, but
its ability to develop cognitive skills is ignored.
(Christian Young 2015)

Retention

It’s quite simple, really. It’s the process by which new information is transferred
from our short term to our long-term memory. In other words, it’s all about making
new knowledge stick. It’s not new science, either: Hermann Ebbinghaus was
describing the Learning Curve back in the late 19th century. He also described
the Forgetting Curve, which demonstrates how about 70% of any new
information is lost within 24 hours if we don’t make an effort to retain it.

Clearly, you don’t want your employees to forget all that exciting eLearning
content you’ve lovingly created a day after their training session. What

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knowledge retention strategies and solutions can you deploy to ensure high
learning retention rates after training?

Here are some tips and knowledge retention techniques you can build into
your eLearning program that will ensure your content is not just memorable, but
unforgettable. .( 17 Oct 2019 by Nikos Andriotis,)

1) Read Less, Remember More


Really effective eLearning should follow the dictum that Less is More. In
this case, try having bite-sized learning objectives – ones that are highly
focused on a clearly defined outcome.

2) You Can Tell Them A Story

Creating a narrative, with situations and characters that your employees will
relate to, helps to get across key learning objectives in an engaging, easy-to-
absorb way.

3) Test, quiz, ask!


One of the simplest knowledge retention techniques is to incorporate a quiz in
your learning content. It helps the learner keep track of their own progress and
lets them see what they have learned and retained. It also provides you with data
about how effective you’re learning module is, and whether it needs improving.

4) Active Participants Will Remember


Many traditional models of learning often view the learner as a passive
recipient of knowledge.Research shows that active learning increases
engagement and leads to much better retention of new knowledge. Use
interactive activities, scenarios, and simulations to really bring your trainees into
the learning environment. For even greater immersion, consider using Virtual
Reality activities, which will allow your learners to be truly active participants.
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5) Repeat to retain
Another simple way to boost learning retention is through good, old-fashioned
repetition. Now, that might sound boring, but it’s how you get your trainees to
reiterate which is important. Repeating new knowledge or tasks is crucial in
allowing the information to move into a learner’s long-term memory.

Simulations are great for embedding previously taught skills and allow your
trainees to get a real feel of how different skills can come together to address a
situation. By meshing skills together in this way, learning retention is an
attainable goal.

6) Apply the learning to the real world


The more abstract a concept is, the harder it is to keep it in mind. It’s useful
to create learning units that are directly applicable to your
trainees’ working lives. That way, they’ll see how what the training will have an
impact on what they do and learning retention is far more likely. You can boost
this and create active participants by getting learners to discover the usefulness
of the concepts they are studying for themselves.

7) You can even guide them through


Everyone has slightly different learning styles, and you’ve probably found that
some of your trainees aren’t that great at self-guided learning. This isn’t because
they’re poor learners – it’s just that the prospect of learning something new
without the aid of a guide can seem intimidating, and this automatically raises a
barrier to effective learning retention. This is often the case with older employees.
It’ll help to provide a focal point for the key learning objectives, with the
avatar acting as a guide, pointing out key features or asking relevant questions
that help the learner focus and absorb new concepts. Another alternative could
be an audio guide.

8) Review, summarize and demonstrate

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The last of our training retention tips again exploits the fact that active learning
participants retain information longer and better. Design your learning modules so that
they require your trainees to review and summarize what they have
learned. Encouraging critical thinking has been shown to increase learning retention
rates over time, as it fosters an active learning mindset in learners, leading to greater
engagement.
Add a review questionnaire at the end of learning modules alongside a quiz or test, or
have group training and feedback sessions, where participants have to summarize and
demonstrate what they have learned – after all, the best way to learn something is to
teach it.
Ultimately, the key to ensuring good learning retention is to exploit the way in which the
adult brain absorbs and holds on to information: Keep learning objectives clear, keep
learning sessions short, make an explicit link between what is being learned and real-
life context, and finally, get trainees to put that knowledge to use as soon as
possible.( 17 Oct 2019 by Nikos Andriotis,)

A recent research on human memory links sleep and memory in a powerful co-
relationship. Sleep improves retention and focusing capabilities. Taking a short
nap after learning or reading something challenging actually improves
memorization and recall (Bjork, 2001, ). When we sleep, the dendrites (brain
cells) grow and branch and connect to older dendrites, enhancing information
connectivity. When you give your brain a chance to connect new knowledge with
the prior experience, learning is “sedimented”. Which simply means, sleep
registers your training or learning material into long-term memory.

Another common and deceptively heroic habit, that we all are so proud of, is
multitasking.

But I thought multitasking got things done faster!

Still not convinced? Let’s examine the forgetting curve research by Hermann
Ebbinghaus – the German Experimental Psychologist. Notice these key
principles involved in the forgetting curve and how eLearning design can
overcome them:

1. The more meaningful the information is, the easier it is for humans to
remember it. If new information is not relevant or valuable to the existing

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lives of the learner, it is more likely to end up in “memory dump”. When
designing eLearning materials, it is important to understand the
background of the learner and their learning as well as performance
needs.

2. When there is more learning material involved, the amount of time it takes
to absorb information significantly increases. One habit to control is
providing too much information in too little time. Divide a large volume of
content into sections in eLearning. The more the content is divided into
shorter bursts of information, the more learners are motivated to complete
it in “steps”.

3. As a general rule, learners are able to relearn information more easily than
learning the subject matter for the first time. Relearning information
repeatedly also increases the time it takes to forget it. When designing
eLearning materials, repeat key information multiple times in various multi-
media formats. For example, introduce key points in bullet form in one
page. In the upcoming pages, add a short recall quiz in which learners sort
or re-arrange the points in the right order. Another good habit to adopt
when developing eLearning content, is to add a summary section in which
you repeat these points again. To reinforce reLearning further, mention
these key points at the beginning of the next section.

4. Learners are able to learn more effectively when information absorption is


spread out over a longer period of time, as opposed to having to learn it all
at once. Again, dividing and categorizing a large content into sections,
chapters and sub-chapters that is to be completed over the course of days
and not hours is an effective way to avoid the forgetting curve. By doing
this you not only help to prevent cognitive overload, but you also enable
your learners to absorb and retain information for a longer period of time.

5. Learners start to forget information immediately after the learning


experience. In fact, this is the time when forgetting occurs most rapidly.
However, forgetting will slow down over the course of time. A great way to

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overcome this unfortunate habit of the mind is to create hybrid or include
the blended learning approach in your courses if possible. Such learning
designs request for the learner’s participation in both the online and the
live classroom training environment. Based on the Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting
Curve, learners will have forgotten an average of 90% percent of what they
have learned within the first month. Inviting all participants a few weeks
post training and encouraging a discussion in which they talk about the
application of the training is an excellent way to prolong and refresh
their memory.

Tips to boost learning


The fundamental purpose of any online training or eLearning is to provide
opportunity to the learner to fully absorb new skills and knowledge and apply
them over the passage of time. Practice these tips to boost learning and its
application:

1. Encourage application of knowledge by integrating real-world scenarios or


simulations in your eLearning course.

2. Assess learning to determine progress after each chapter or if possible,


sub-chapter. Learning activities that encourage reflection through
synthesis of ideas are the best exercises to boost memory recall.

3. Request follow-up learning sessions for learners who are not performing
well in quizzes and tests. Depending on the subject-matter and the
timelines available, schedule this post training meeting within a couple of
weeks. Conduct an assessment towards the end of this follow-up session
to measure improvement.

4. Prevent cognitive overload by presenting information in “chunks”. Self-


paced learning for learners who struggle with knowledge absorption and
retention enhances their performance.

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Promoting knowledge retention
Ebbinghaus has definitely uncovered some secrets behind the human memory.
Using his research, eLearning developers can integrate features in their courses
that promote knowledge retention and absorption. eLearning material design can
be enhanced further by incorporating work-based scenarios and simulations.
Blended eLearning is effective when learning material is challenging or long.
Frequent assessments not only help gauge progress but also create a stronger
memory pattern. As training managers, inform your learners the importance of
sleep and avoiding multitasking for a more time-effective learning experience.
Use these tips in your next eLearning course to create memorable materials.

(07 May 2019 by John Laskaris,)

The human brain is wired to forget. Not all information is needed beyond
the immediate moment or situation. It’s up to instructional designers and
training facilitators to help learners maximize knowledge retention. Memory
is essentially the process of encoding (inputting), storing (organizing) and
recalling (accessing) information, and there are tactics that can be used in
deliverables to reinforce these functions.

Our brains work through cells and their connections to other cells. When
we have a new thought, like “pink elephants wearing tutus,” a neuron for
that thought forms and builds connections to other related neurons in the
brain. As the neurons connect, they are activated, and electricity zooms
across the neuron and reinforces it. But if no additional electricity zooms
across that neuron, the connecting dendrites start atrophying immediately,
and that neuron can disappear within 20 minutes of first forming.

We encode a lot of information, but a piece of information will have fewer


connections if we cannot attach it to existing brain structure. That is why a
proven method for teaching abstract concepts is to tie it to and build off of
more concrete or familiar concepts. One technique is to use examples or
analogies; for example, reinforcing a brain neuron strengthens it, like
adding strands into a rope where each strand thickens the whole and adds
strength to the final product.
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A piece of information will have fewer connections if we cannot attach it to existing brain structure.

Here are several techniques learning professionals can use to help


strengthen learning retention, with some examples specific to instructor-led
training (ILT), virtual ILT (VILT) and e-learning.

Actively Involve Learners.

Get learners actively participating by using group discussion, practice, or


teaching or sharing with colleagues.

 ILT: Have learners build their “what’s in it for me” (WIIFM) as a class and
teams build strategies or tools to use back on the job.
 VILT: Use breakout sessions for teams to create a presentation on a topic.
 E-learning: Create simulations where learners practice the same skills
they will use on the job.

Stimulate Multiple Senses.

Add images or visuals to the audio as well as elements like taste, touch or
smell, when possible. Match the learning environment to the working
environment, or help learners visualize successfully performing the task, a
common strategy among athletes that is making its way into the business
world.

 ILT: While learners are working in teams, play music that helps provide a
sense of time or energy to the room. Don’t just show a picture of an apple
for an analogy; put an apple on every table.
 VILT: Use vivid images to reinforce the message, not just words. Consider
mirroring the challenge of PechaKucha.
 E-learning: Consider adding more audio, such as music, sound effects
that deliver feedback or a narrated guided visualization.
Match the learning environment to the working environment, or help learners visualize successfully
performing the task.
Effectively Engage Emotions.

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The brain quickly prioritizes every new piece of information received: first
for safety or survival, second for emotion, and third for meaning. Emotional
messages last far longer than strictly informational messages.

 ILT: Use evocative images. For example, training guru Sivasailam


Thiagarajan leads an exercise in which he describes three patients in need
of care – two elderly and one who is helpless and requires extensive care –
and asks participants whom they would care for first. The third person is
rarely chosen, until he reveals the patient to be an infant.
 VILT: Training consultant Art Kohn asks participants to evaluate a series of
logos, either for the number of colors or the feelings they associate with the
company. Those who evaluate for emotion have greater retention rates.
 E-learning: Embed testimony or other videos that engage the learner and
evoke an emotional response.
Emotional messages last far longer than strictly informational messages.
Exploit Novelty.

People naturally pay attention to things that surprise them. A unique image
leaves a lasting impression.

 ILT: A great attention-grabber is when the presenter interacts with a


projected imager – for example, by using animation to create the illusion
that she is touching the letter C in “reactive” and dragging it to the front of
the word to form “creative.”
 VILT: Consider creating a surprise in an activity that can help challenge
learners’ assumptions. Thiagarajan calls these surprises jolts.
 E-learning: Break from the standard frame or activity. For example, make
each screen look and act more like a webpage or mobile image, and
provide intuitive navigation.

Use Spacing and Spaced Repetition.

Repeated recall of information improves retention to about 80 percent. One


technique is for learners to have a post-course discussion, such as a
conversation with their manager about how they intend to use new skills.

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 ILT: Ask learners to create questions (with answers) on index cards, and
go through some of the questions to close the day. Answer more questions
the next morning as a review.
 VILT: Include activities throughout the program for reflection and sharing,
and consider building into the activities the skills practiced earlier.
 E-learning: Use follow-up questions or activities to trigger recall. These
post-course boosts of learning are markedly successful in improving
retention.
Repeated recall of information improves retention to about 80 percent.
Create a Brain-Friendly Learning Environment.

Some methods to build positive neurotransmitters across modalities


include nature stimuli, humor and positive social interactions.

Simplify and Streamline Content.

Design learning around core messages that are chunked into logical flows.
Show how one “bite” relates to the next, helping learners build the
connections for easy recall.

Design learning around core messages that are chunked into logical flows.

Make Good Use of Images.

Eighty-three percent of our brain processes visual data. Diagrams help us


see relationships of data.

Increased retention is a result of aiding the human memory in its encoding,


storage and recall functions. By varying the methods with which and
environment where we deliver content, we can help their brains remember.
Spacing out recall activities over the days following learning is effective,
because sleep is where we organize and reinforce learning. Think about it
before you go to sleep tonight, and see what you recall tomorrow!

By varying the methods with which and environment where we deliver content, we can help their
brains remember.
May 21, 2018Terry Goins and Jane Fisher, CPLP5 min read

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Creativity

Creativity is a cluster of skills that are needed to produce ideas that are both original

and valuable (Sternberg, 2001), and Teaching Creatively has been defined as ‘teachers

using imaginative approaches to make learning more interesting, exciting and

effective’ (NACCCE, 1999. Teaching creatively requires both the ‘right’ set of skills and

dispositions. One way to teach more creatively is to look at teaching as a problem-

solving activity and to adopt a growth mindset (as defined by Dweck, 2007). But can

teachers learn to develop our creativity? The good news is that the so-called everyday

type of creativity can indeed be developed. On the condition that one is a) motivated, b)

has the right attitude, and c) uses some strategies.( Chaz Pugliese 2019)

Creativity is a valuable skill, and there are common strategies teachers can
use to help students develop it.( By Ben Johnson January 16, 2019) Creativity is
the most difficult thinking skill to acquire, and also the most sought -after. We
value it in our music, entertainment, technology, and other aspects of our
existence. We appreciate and yearn for it because it enriches our
understanding and can make life easier.

Creativity always starts with imagination, and history shows that many things
we imagine are later actually created. Gene Roddenberry imagined the Star
Trek flip communicators in 1966, and Motorola produced them in 1996. In the
mid 1800s, Augusta Ada King envisioned a language for computing machines
that didn’t even exist; today she is honored as the founder of modern
programing languages.( Naset publication January 25, 2019 )

When Benjamin Bloom identified what he called the taxonomy of the cognitive
domain, he ranked synthesis (creativity) as one of the most difficult skills to
master because a person has to use all of the other cognitive skills in the
creative process. Since, according to Bloom, creating is the highest order of

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thinking, it should be in the forefront of all learning environments and an end
goal. When students create what they imagine, they’re in the driver’s seat.

When designing learning experiences, teachers can plan and frame curriculum
and provide tools that give students options, voice, and choice in order to
enable them to be creative. In my work in schools, I’ve found four things that
successful teachers do to develop creativity in their students.

1. Set up learning activities that allow students to explore their creativity in


relevant, interesting, and worthwhile ways

2. Value creativity and celebrate and reward it.

3. Teach students the other skills they need to be creative.

4. Remove constraints for creativity and give the students space and a
framework in which they can be creative.

W E L E A R N B Y D O I N G . Imagination and creativity are the traits that fuel the


future. Both serve to inspire students and should be integrated into every part
of learning. In planning and designing learning for students, this we know:
Teaching students how to think is more important than teaching students what
to think. .( By Ben Johnson January 16, 2019)

During a TED talk, Sir Ken Robinson raised the utmost significance of creativity in
today’s education when he told “Creativity now is as important in education as
literacy, and we should treat it with the same status.” (Mar 12, 2016
youtube)

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Result based Outcomes

The outcome is that students are workplace ready and have expertise in their chosen
fields. For many students, CBE is a direct path to a successful career. Employees also
value CBE and according to a recent article on Western Governors University’s
(WGU) competency program graduates “98 percent of employers with WGU
graduates would hire more of our students” (JCUonline 2014).

Competency based Contents

Competency based learning or education (CBE) is not a new trend, but has received
much attention over the past few years as more institutions develop programs.
Like MOOCs, CBE has gained popularity with learners due to its flexible structure and
affordability. As the name suggests, these programs are based on the development of
competencies applicable to a particular career.

1. Flexible:

Competency based programs are very flexible as their structure depends on the
individual learner.

2. Self-paced:

The focus of CBE is on the final outcome and not the journey. This enables students
to control their pacing because they are not confined by a set learning process.

3. Engaging:

One of the strongest outcomes of competency based education is increased student


engagement.

4. Affordable:

The cost of competency based programs varies by institution, program and student
pace.

5. Skills-based:

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One of the key benefits of CBE is that learning centers on real-world skills and
competency development. Programs are designed around competencies that are
needed for a particular career ensuring that the material is relevant.

Written by Gil Gruber, Explorance. October 7, 2018

Problem solving based learning activities

Evaluation of competency based outcome

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