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UNITS – 2

DYNAMIC POSITIONING;types and basic operations of a dp system,major components of the dp


system, dp rig vs moored rig, types of thruster used by dp vessels, basic layout of a power
distribution system onboard a dp vessel associated protection systems, power management system.
Watch circles-Drive-off;Drift-off

SUBSEA wellheads- Overview of wellhead components, tool description, wellhead sizing.

Dynamic positioning (DP) is a computer-controlled system to automatically maintain a vessel's


position and heading by using its own propellers and thrusters. Position reference sensors,
combined with wind sensors, motion sensors and gyrocompasses, provide information to the
computer pertaining to the vessel's position and the magnitude and direction of environmental
forces affecting its position. Examples of vessel types that employ DP include, but are not limited
to, ships and semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling units (MODU), oceanographic research
vessels, cable layer ships and cruise ships.
The computer program contains a mathematical model of the vessel that includes information
pertaining to the wind and current drag of the vessel and the location of the thrusters. This
knowledge, combined with the sensor information, allows the computer to calculate the required
steering angle and thruster output for each thruster. This allows operations at sea where mooring
or anchoring is not feasible due to deep water, congestion on the sea bottom (pipelines,
templates) or other problems.
Dynamic positioning may either be absolute in that the position is locked to a fixed point over the
bottom, or relative to a moving object like another ship or an underwater vehicle. One may also
position the ship at a favorable angle towards wind, waves and current, called weathervaning.
Dynamic positioning is used by much of the offshore oil industry, for example in the North
Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, West Africa, and off the coast of Brazil. There are currently
more than 1800 DP ships.[1]

Type of dp system;

1. Platform supply vessel (PSV) / Offshore Support Vessel (OSV)

Platform supply vessels are specially designed to supply to offshore platforms and
rigs, and are considered one of the most common types of vessels using the DP
system. These ships can range from 50 to 100 meters in length and are capable of
carrying out a diversity of tasks. They primarily support offshore platforms by means
of transporting necessary supplies to and from a platform and supply base ashore.
2. Diving Support (DSV’s) and ROV Support Vessels

Many DP vessels are specially designed for supporting commercial sub-sea


operations such as diving. Diving Support Vessels are thus used for this purpose.
Divers are required to carry out inspections or survey jobs, installations and
configurations of sub-sea equipment, monitoring an operation, and recovery of lost
or abandoned equipment. ROVs or Remotely Operated Vehicles are gradually
substituting the divers in most of the jobs, but there definitely are certain tasks that
cannot be carried out remotely as they require manual involvement.
3. Drill Ships

For shallow water and deep water drilling operations, it is vital for the vessel to keep
station (maintain her position within 1m) over the oil/gas well, such that the riser
connecting the vessel to the well is nearly upright and vertical. Drill Ships are
therefore fitted with dynamic positioning systems. The lower main riser angle is
continuously monitored and maintained up to accurate levels in order to avoid
unwanted disconnections. Presently, the DP rigs and vessels are configured in a
way to operate in water depths of up to 3000 m or more with the help of high tech
DGPS and Long Baseline (LBL) acoustic systems within the DP module.
4. Cable Lay and Repair Vessels

Modern day fibre-optic cables that are used to connect the world through the ‘World
wide web’ are more fragile than previously used thicker traditional cables; hence they
have more limitations and restrictions on loading and bending. To avoid heavy
losses structurally to these cables it is now very common to use DP vessels for the
cable laying and repairing jobs. Most of the modern cable laying ships are installed
with DP systems.
5. Pipe Laying Ships

Many pipe-lay operations are carried out by DP capable lay barges or pipe laying
ships. On the barge, the pipe is assembled or sometimes even constructed through
a number of phases of welding which are carried out in a linear pipe manufacturing
facility.

6. Dredgers

These days most of the newer generation dredgers now use DP methods to carry
out the dredging operations safely and accurately along analogous tracks.
As the tracks must be close to each other without substantial overlaps, using DP
system a high level of accuracy is achieved when dredging in restricted and confined
waters.

7. Crane Barge or Crane Vessel

Crane barges or crane vessels help in manufacturing and de-assembly operations


related to the oil and gas industries. These kinds of vessels are also utilized in
salvage and wreck removal operations. Many crane barges and construction vessels
these days are DP capable.
8. Rock Dumping Vessels

Rock dumping vessels are utilized so as to dump rock on the seabed as precisely in
a safe location as possible to provide protection to pipelines. These vessels are thus
fitted with DP systems, which enable a good track-speed control to facilitate even
rock distribution along a planned track. This type of vessel is also helpful in providing
sufficient protection against the risks of tidal erosion, which occur in high tidal stream
areas.

9. Passenger Vessels

Modern passenger vessels have shallow draught in order to allow safe access to a
greater range of cruising destinations and are so designed that they are now able to
carry more passengers than ever before, even with larger freeboards. This shallow-
draught and high-freeboard combination and configuration may lead to multiple ship
handling issues in tighter berthing locations.
DP thus provides the answer to manoeuvring, berthing and even anchoring of these
man-made lavish floating hotels to be much safer for the crew and passengers.

10. Specialist – Semi-submersible Heavy-Lift Vessels

Ships those are capable of carrying heavy equipment or lifts in general to the
remotest locations will often experience difficulty while loading and off-loading their
cargoes. Out of these, some of the vessels are mono-hulled or semi-
submersible and can immerse themselves to loading draught, thus allowing the
cargo to be floated on board.
A typical example of the cargo may be a drilling rig for transportation over a large
distance. DP fitted on these vessels can be used for position maintenance during the
loading and offloading operations.

11. Mobile Offshore Drilling Units / Ships (MODUs)

DP is, with the current scenario, the only option in deepwater offshore fields.

Even in shallower waters, the use of the DP system is increasingly being used for
the positioning of drilling rigs before anchoring. Specially, with the short duration
drilling, DP saves a lot of time.

12. Shuttle Tanker

A shuttle tanker, as the name suggests, is a ship designed for transportation of oil or
gas from an offshore oil field to wherever it may be required. It is highly sophisticated
and well equipped with loading and offloading equipment compatible with the oil field
infrastructures.
The position keeping for longer durations of the ships is generally carried out with the
help of Dynamic Positioning and is done with respect to the arrangement of the
installations or FPSOs. Well backed-up safety systems ensure that the potentially
flammable oil and natural gas are handled safely.

13. Floating Production, Storage and Offloading unit or FPSO Ships

Floating Production, Storage and Offloading unit is a floating vessel principally used
by the offshore industry for the processing and storage of oil and gas. The FPSO
vessels are designed to receive oil or gas which is produced from the nearby
platforms or sub-sea patterns, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be
offloaded onto a seagoing tanker or transported through a pipeline.
FPSO’s are normally converted oil or gas tankers or can be vessels built specially for
the usage and application. A vessel that is only used for oil storage purposes is
called a Floating Storage Unit (FSU).

14. Naval Vessels and Operations

A number of advanced nations are making good use of DP systems within their
naval, coast guard and auxiliary fleets.

Vessels used up for sea – mine countermeasures, amphibious landing, submarine


rescue and pollution control are all good examples of vessels with DP systems fitted
and for good use

As DP systems grow in importance, the


technology continues to improve
Apr 22, 2008 12:00 AM
LARRY PEARSON
Dynamic positioning may be the most important shipboard
navigation system since the compass.
A RADius 1000 Once used only on the largest offshore vessels working in the
distance- deepest parts of the Gulf of Mexico, these systems are now standard
measuring
transmitter on
on smaller OSV vessels. The main reason is that oil companies,
Seacor’s John G. contract drillers and other owner/operators of drilling rigs and
McCall.
Manufactured by
platforms insist that any vessel coming in close contact with their
Kongsberg, the structures must have DP systems.
RADius system DP is especially important for vessels approaching drilling rigs. While
uses radar
technology for drilling, these rigs must stay directly over a precise spot on the
close-in seabed. A collision or even a slight bump might invite disaster by
positioning
situations in
moving the drilling vessel off station, causing considerable
which GPS equipment damage and lost drilling time. Many of these rigs lease
signals may not for $500,000 a day or more.
be accurate.
(Photo courtesy
Gulf Craft) In a DP system, a computer coordinates the main engines, bow
thrusters, rudders and propellers to keep the vessel in position.
Inputs to the system come from wind sensors, gyrocompasses and special devices
such as vertical reference units.

DP systems are rated DP0, DP1, DP2 and DP3. The basic difference is system
redundancy. DP3 systems have the most redundancy and are reserved primarily for
drilling rigs. As a general rule, crew/supply vessels and shelf supply boats use DP1
systems, while deep-water supply vessels 220 feet and longer and construction
ships equipped with moonpools and ROVs have DP2 systems.

DP has become so important that existing vessels are being


retrofitted with DP systems. Many of them can be upgraded at a
fraction of the cost of vessel replacement. The laser head
DP systems typically use azimuthing thrusters with either variable- of an MDL
Fanbeam target-
speed, fixed-pitch propellers or fixed-speed, controllable-pitch positioning
propellers. The installation of a DP system normally would require system aboard
the crew
extensive design work and time-consuming dry-docking. boat Joyce
However, there is another way, according to Thrustmaster of Texas, McCall. (Photo
a manufacturer based in Houston. A packaged system using pre- courtesy Gulf
Craft)
engineered modules can convert an older OSV or barge to a vessel
able to command the day rates that are normally reserved for far
newer DP-equipped vessels.

The heart of the Thrustmaster system comprises deck-mounted, over-the-side


thrusters with deck-mounted self-contained power units, a DP sensor suite, and all
the interconnecting cables and interfaces. Often a vessel is completely renovated
while the DP system is installed.

Major components of a dp system


. Introduction to Dynamic Positioning

1.1. Dynamic Positioning Systems


For many offshore activities it is very important to keep a vessel at a fix position and heading.
Dynamic Positioning (DP) systems automatically control the position and heading of a vessel
by using thrusters that are constantly active and balance the environmental forces (wind,
waves, current etc). Environmental forces tend to move the vessel off the desire position
while the automatically controlled thrust balances those forces and keeps the vessel in
position.

DP systems automatically delivers thrust that balances external forces such as wind, wave,
current etc

The main components of any DP system are the positioning system, the DP computer and the
thrusters. The positioning system, usually a GPS, monitors the position of the vessel. When
the vessel moves off the intended position the DP computer will calculate the required thrust
which will then be applying by the thrusters in order to maintain the position of the vessel.

1.2. The use of DP systems


Dynamic positioning systems are typically used by offshore vessels for accurate
maneuvering, for maintaining a fixed position or for track keeping (pipe/cable laying). We
usually find DP systems on:

 Offshore drilling vessels (Drilling ships and Semi-submersibles). A Drilling vessel will use DP to
remain in a fix location while drilling in deep water.
 Offshore support vessels: Platform supply vessels (PSVs), Well intervention vessels, Diving
Support Vessels. Support vessel use DP to stay in a safe distance from offshore platforms and
drilling rigs.
 Pipe-laying and offshore construction vessels. Pipe-laying vessels use DP for position keeping
and track keeping.
 Dredging vessels. Suction Hopper dredgers, Rock-dumping vessels, Trenching vessels
 Shuttle Tankers. Shuttle tankers during offloading of FPSOs.

The first DP system was set in use in 1961 ('Eureka'). Nowadays, there are over 1000 DP-
capable vessels and DP is consider indispensable for deep-water operations.

Shuttle tanker offloading an FPSO

1.3. Pros and Cons of using Dynamic Positioning


Dynamic Positioning is not always the best of the most economical option. Mooring lines are
usually a better option for shallow water or for operation that do not require frequent
relocation of the vessel (e.g. drilling at shallow water, diving operations in shallow waters).
On the other hand DP is the best option for deep water operations, for congested seabeds and
in situations where to vessel needs to relocated frequently

Pros

 Quick and easy positioning and maneuverability of the vessel. No need for mooring lines, tugs
boats and time consuming anchor handling operations.
 Offshore operations can take place in ultra-deep waters were mooring lines are difficult to
installed.
 Easy to change location or weather vane in order to avoid the effects of bad weather. Quick
disconnect and sail away in case of emergency.
 Very safe when working in congested seabeds with many pipelines, mooring lines from other
vessels or subsea structures such as manifolds, wellheads, risers etc.

Cons:

 High Capital expenditure for designing and installing a DP systems. High CAPEX.
 High fuel consumption and increased maintenance cost. High OPEX.
 It poses limitations in very swallow waters and situations were diving operations must take place
close to the thrusters
 Potentially severe consequences in case of equipment failure during pipe-laying or during
operations near fixed platforms.

1.4. The components of a DP systems


There are 5 main component in a DP systems:

1. Control Systems. The DP control system calculates the offets between the measured values of
position and heading and the required values (setpoint values). Based on the calculated offsets
the control system calculated the forces that the thrusters must generate in order to reduce the
errors to zero.
2. Power generation
3. Thrusters and propulsion
4. Environmental reference
5. Position and Heading reference
1.5. How DP systems work
The video below explains where and how DP systems are used

1.6. Thrusters and propulsion


The initial design of a DP system sets the environmental conditions at which the vessel is
intended to work on DP. Based on this operational requirement the number, size and location
of thrusters is determined.

1.7. Weathervaning DP
Weathervaning DP is the use of dynamic positioning to keep the vessel at fixed position
while allowing the heading to change to get heading with the least environmental load. This
function is similar to single point mooring systems and results into minimum power
requirements.

ntroduced and tested already in the late 1980s by Pinkster and Davison. The basis of this
control
is that the vessel is freely weathervaning, similar to single point moored vessels. This type of
control is also called weathervaning DP. It must not be confused with the weathervaning
mode of
normal DP vessels, since bi-axial DP is a passive heading control

Dynamic positioning may either be absolute in that the position is locked to a fixed point over
the bottom, or relative to a moving object like another ship or an underwater vehicle. One
may also position the ship at a favorable angle towards wind, waves and current, called
weathervaning

DP rig vs MOORED rig

Usually the choice for which system to use is easy. In deepwater one would chose for a DP system
while in shallow water one would chose a mooring system.

So how does an operator come to a decision? A convincing argument can be made for both systems
as to which is better. In general economic terms, mooring holds the best economics in the shallower
water (up to about 5,500 ft) and more extensive, longer-term drilling plans. This would include
development drilling.

On the other side, DP holds stronger economics for exploratory drilling in ultra-deepwater. In fact, it
would be almost impossible, with today's technology, to drill in the ultra-deep without DP. However,
this is just one facet of the argument. With new emerging technologies which will be dealt with on this
website the decision gets tougher.
The choice between a DP or mooring system depends on a multitude of factors of which several will
be treated below.

Installation and Cost

 DP: The main cost for a DP system is the separate engine room, which is a regulatory
requirement. The separate engine room is needed to power the thrusters and to provide
backup in order to maintain position in the case of a fire or a flood, but this is more of a cost to
the total rig construction than to the system.

The costs also depend on the redundancy level of the system. The greater the redundancy level, DP
Class 3 being the highest, the more equipment needs to be installed. As can be seen in the figure
below a DP system can become quite complex and require a lot of room and equipment.

 Mooring: A mooring system is not inexpensive either. Costs include winches, piles or anchors,
chains, monitoring devices, as well as devices to locate and collect the anchors. Mechanical
devices usually are less expensive than electronic devices, and there is no need for the
additional engine room and fuel capacities. The installation of the mooring system is also an
easier task and can save a bit of money in installation time.
 Maintenance
 In terms of maintenance, however, mooring lines require inspection each time the
chain is hauled in and paid out, and adjustments are made during operation. This adds
some expense to the operating cost.
 Additionally, mooring equipment is traditionally easier to repair than components of
DP systems. A winch is much easier to fix than a thruster.

Operating comparisons
 The true economic difference between the two technologies begins to emerge once
operations begin. In operations, the two technologies fall into categories of active and passive
systems, which has a direct bearing on operating costs. DP is an active system, meaning that
it is constantly running. When operating in full DP, the engine that powers the thrusters must
remain in operation. Constant operation adds tremendous fuel costs to the operating
expenses of a rig.
 Mooring is a passive system. Once on line, the engines are not needed in constant operation.
This is one of the greatest arguments made by mooring advocates, with respect to cost.
 At the same time, DP does not require the use of heavy-duty anchor handling boats and
downtime to set anchors which can take quite some time in ultra-deep waters. The use of
these boats can also eat into the operating budget and they must be used each time the rig
moves location. This also brings up the availability of the vessels to handle anchors and the
increased risk of something going wrong during the mooring setup.
 So the main question is does the fuel cost equal out with the cost of contracting anchor
handling vessels? This question isn’t easy to answer for ultra-deep water since the cost of
mooring in these waters is not yet know with enough precision to make a statement about
this.
 However the change in fuell usage between a DP system and a moored system might not be
as big as expected. As one can see from the simulation done for a DP-based FPSO and
moored FPSO:


 So a comparison of fuel consumption between a passively moored FPSO and a Dynamic


Positioned FPSO is made. The arrangement of the two versions are show in pictures on the
right. The moored version of the FPSO has an internal turret with 3*3 chain mooring
arrangement. The DP version of the FPSO has a thruster layout consisting on 7 thruster units.
 The following simulations were carried out: DP station keeping simulations and Power use
and fuel consumption simulations.
 The analysis considers a typical annual scatter diagram of sea states for the Gulf of Mexico.
The results are summarized in the table below:

Option HFO HFO


Consumption/year cost Euro
millions
DP FPSO Annual average consumption 6930,7 1,7

Moored FPSO Annual average consumption of ship 6428,4 1,6


system = 2,5 MW
MDO eq
With process plant Gas Turbines 2*25MW 24737,2
30 MW load

 Resume and analysis:


 The results show that the DP FPSO concept requires about 7% extra fuel compared to the
moored FPSO concept (total for the ship), while it is 1.5% if the power of the "process plant"
for production is also considered.
 If we consider the “process plant” consumption as equivalent to the “seastead consumer
plant” (a very gross consideration for all lighting, HVAC,…) the expected difference between
the two options is only that 1,5%, which is very small and put the balance on the side of DP
system.
 Time comparisons
 This brings up the issue of time - setup and breakdown time and its associated cost for
mooring systems, versus no setup and breakdown time with DP. A DP vessel offers the
distinct advantage of being able to set position when it arrives on location and leave
immediately. In contrast, the typical time to set up a mooring array is several days. This is
what gives DP its advantage, one that compensates for the active system.
 However, hookup time for a moored vessel is not necessarily lost time.. For example, after
some anchors are deployed drilling can get underway

TYPE OF THRUSTER USED IN DP VESSELS

Thrusters
Manoeuvering devices designed to deliver side thrust or thrust through 360°. Thrusters are used
to allow ships to be more independent from tugs, give them more manoeuvrability for special
tasks, and in some cases give them a “take home” capability. There are three general types of
thrust devices: the lateral thruster or tunnel thruster, which consists of a propeller installed in a
athwartship tunnel; a jet thruster which consists of a pump taking suction from the keel and
discharge to either side; and azimuthal thruster, which can be rotated through 360°. A cycloidal
propulsor can be considered a type of azimuthal thruster.

Thrusters can enhance the manoeuverability of existing vessels, particularly at low speeds, and
provide a high level of redundancy. The main propulsion system based on thrusters can also provide
increased speed, or lower installed power and reduction in fuel consumption. The general
arrangement and hull form of new buildings incorporating thrusters can be modified significantly in
order to increase hydrodynamic efficiency. The other key advantage of thrusters is that they tend to
suffer less from vibration and noise and are therefore well suited for use on passenger vessels. Since
thrusters are steerable, using them may also eliminate the ship rudder.

- Azimuthing thruster – A propeller that can be rotated through 360° in the horizontal plane,
thus allowing the thrust to be generated in any desired direction.

- Continuous duty thruster – A thruster designed for continuous operation, such as dynamic
positioning thrusters, propulsion assistance, or main propulsion units.

- CRP thruster – An azimuthing thruster equipped with twin contra-rotating propellers.

- Intermittent duty thruster – A thruster which is designed for the operation at the peak power
or rpm levels, or both, for periods not exceeding 1 hour followed by periods at the continuous
rating of less, with total running time not exceeding 8 hours in 20 hours. Generally, such thrusters
are not meant to operate for more than 1000 hours per year.

- Jet thruster – A pump arranged to take suction from beneath or close to the keel and
to discharge to either side, to develop port or starboard thrust, or in many cases through 360°.
- Lateral thruster, transverse thruster, tunnel thruster – A propulsion device fitted to certain
types of ships to improve manoeuvrability. The thrust unit consists of a propeller mounted in an
athwartships tunnel and provided with some auxiliary drive such as an electric or hydraulic motor.
During operation, the water is forced through the tunnel to push the ship sideways either to port
or starboard as required. This type of thruster is usually installed at the bow (bow thruster), and
sometimes at the stern (stern thruster).

- Outboard thruster – In operation the stern-mounted outboard thruster is similar to


an outboard engine on a speedboat, and is capable of being lifted out of the water for
easy maintenance and to reduce drag while underway.

- Retractable thruster – A thruster able to be pulled up or in. A thruster able to be pulled up or


in to reduce drag when vessel is in a transit mode, or reduce depth of vessel when transiting or
operating in shallow water.

- Rim drive thruster – A revolutionary compact lateral thruster developed by two partnerships:
Rolls-Royce with Smartmotor from Trondheim, and Van der Velden® Marine Systems with
Combimac (The Netherlands). The electrical motor has the form of a thin ring. Its stator is
incorporated in the tunnel and its rotor carries propeller blades. Waterflow through the unit is
unobstructed since there is no gearbox in the tunnel, nor are struts needed to support a hub.
Together these factors give a high total efficiency and reduced noise and vibration.

- Swing-up azimuth thruster – A dual-function unit, supplementing an azimuthing function with


a tunnel thruster role when the unit is in the raised position and recessed within the hull. The
transverse tunnel-shaped recess is oversized to allow the thruster to rotate through 180° to
provide thrust to port or to starboard. In this way, the propeller thrust is always in the same
direction and therefore, the propeller blades can be designed with optimum camber and radial
pitch distribution.

- Titled thruster – Wärtsilä developed new type of steerable thruster with a downward tilted
propeller shaft. The 82° gearbox deflects the jet sufficiently downward to minimize hull-
interaction effects, thus improving thruster efficiency.

An example case has been analysed of a rig with 8 thruster units. The maximum increase
of available thrust of the rig in side way operation is about 35%. In forward operation the gain in
available thrust is 9%. The improved vessel performance is attributed to the significantly reduced
interaction losses with the hull and with other thruster units.

Marine Electrical Power


Distribution System
Marine Machinery, Engines & Controls / By sriram balu / Marine
Engineering
Introduction
Electricity has to be distributed with minimal losses after
generation. Unlike a shore based transmission system, where
the lengths of the conductors run throughout a country, a
shipboard electrical distribution system is short and simple. In
this article, the general layout of the main electrical distribution
system, along with the main switchboard and emergency
switchboard arrangements, will be discussed.

The Main Bus Bar


The main bus bar can be found inside the main switch board.
Onboard a merchant ship, the supply is usually 440 volts, 60
Hertz, however higher voltages of 6.6kV are possible on LNG
tankers, special purpose ships, and passenger vessels having
electrical propulsion. The rating of the main bus bar is decided
by the type of ship, the critical machinery on board required for
cargo operations, and the machinery required for normal sea
service.

If a ship is steam propelled, it might have steam turbine driven


alternators and a diesel driven alternator as a back-up. If the
propulsion is by electric motors, then the vessel might require
huge diesel driven generators which usually operate at 6.6kV.

Ship Type ——————————————————-Power


Requirement
A 10,000 dwt general cargo ship—————————–1 MW.
Tankers———————————————————- 1.5 to 5
MW.

Containerships (10000 TEU) (3.3kV)———————–8 MW

A Modern LNG carrier (Q-max/Q-flex) (6.6kV)————12 MW

The main bus bar has three heavy, thick bars of conductor
(usually copper), running horizontally throughout the length of
the main switch board. Each of the conductors is insulated
between each other and wherever it is supported or clamped to
the switchboard. The bus bar lies at the bottom most portion of
the switchboard such that it can be easily supported and
insulated. At times, there may be two divisions of the bus bar
which are connected to each other by either a circuit breaker or
a clamping (sliding contact) device.

The main switchboard is the main power distribution center of


the ship. Thus the main bus bars are contained within the
switchboard feeding various ship board auxiliaries. A ship may
contain two or more generators connected to the main bus bar
via the circuit breaker. Various protection for the generators like
overload, reverse power, etc. are connected to circuit breaker
such that the faulty generator is electrically isolated from the
main bus bar. From the main bus bar, the electrical power is
supplied to various ship board auxiliaries like pumps, blowers,
compressors, etc. The main switch board has various measuring
and monitoring devices like ammeters, voltmeters, frequency
meters, watt meters, synchroscope, and power factor meters.

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A generic layout of a shipboard distribution system is attached


here. Refer to the diagram below for the following explanation;
however this is just a simplified version of the main power
distribution. This may become complex as the size of the vessel
and amount of machinery increase in number.

The main switch board gets its supply from the main generators
located in the engine room. The distribution system can be divided
into Feeder side and the Load side. The feeders are the generators
and the loads are various ship board auxiliary machineries. The Load
side is further divided into Essential and Non-Essential services.
Essential services are very critical auxiliaries which are directly
affecting the safety of personnel, ship in terms of navigation and
propulsion. They include supply to navigational aids like radars,
communication equipment, navigational lights, and steering gear
motors. These essential services may be supplied directly from the
main switch board or via sectional boards or distribution boards.
Non-essential services are those that do not affect the safety of ship
and personnel. For example, air conditioning compressors and fans
are non-essential services as they don’t affect the safety of the ship
or personnel.

The operating voltage is stepped down to 220 volts and this


voltage is given to the 220 Volts auxiliaries’ panel. From this
panel, the supply goes for various lighting systems and other
sockets for accommodation and galley for domestic use.

Distribution Boards/Group Start


Panels
Shipboard machinery may not be connected to the main
switchboard directly. There are small motors and other devices
that consume very little power and thus they may be grouped
together. Instead of providing cables for every such individual
motor, a single cable is taken out from the main switch board,
supplying the distribution board which has a small bus bar
(equivalent to supply the motors). From this small bus bar, the
supply is provided for various starters of these motors via the
circuit breakers. In this way, the protection for the machinery is
also precise, as a small fault in such small motors will not
operate the protection devices on the main switch board.
Emergency Switch Board
As the name indicates, it supplies to equipment and machinery
that are essential during any emergency like fire, flooding, etc.
One important aspect about the emergency switch boards is
that it is located above the load water line or the upper most
continuous deck, where as the main generators and main
switchboards are located below the weather deck or the load
water line. Thus this ensures that the emergency supply is
maintained when the vessel is flooded with water to the
weather deck.

During normal operation, power is supplied from the main


generators to the main switch board. The emergency switch
board gets it supply from the main switch board. When the
main generators fail, the main switch board looses its supply
and this causes the emergency generator to start automatically,
which will supply the emergency switchboard that is connected
to various ship board auxiliaries. Thus critical equipment and
machinery (essential services) are supplied always to maintain
the safety of the ship and personnel.

Reference:
Marine Electricals By Janaka.

Power management syste


On marine vessels the Power Management System PMS is in charge of controlling the
electrical system. Its task is to make sure that the electrical system is safe and efficient. If
the power consumption is larger than the power production capacity, load shedding is used to
avoid blackout. Other features could be to automatic start and stop consumers (e.g., diesel
generators) as the load varies.[1]

Power Management System PMS Operation[edit]


Electrical energy in any combination of the Generators is implemented according to calculations
of the electric power tables of each vessel. PMS System decides which Generators combination
will be the best according to the Load Consumptions. The capacity of the Generators is such that
in the event of any one generating set will be stopped then it will still be possible to supply all
services necessary to provide normal operational conditions of propulsion and safety.
Furthermore, it will be sufficient to start the largest motor of the ship without causing any other
motor to stop or having any adverse effect on other equipment in operation. In general a PMS
Power Management System performs the following functions on a Ship:[2][3]

 Automatic Synchronizing
 Automatic Load Sharing
 Automatic Start/Stop/Stby Generators according to Load Demand
 Large Motors Automatic Blocking
 Load Analysis and Monitoring
 Three (3) Phase Management and Voltage Matching
 Redundant Power Distribution
 Frequency Control
 Blackout Start
 Selection of Generators Priority (first leading main, second and third stby generator in
sequence)
 Equal Load Division between generators
 Tripping of non-essential load groups (load shedding in two steps)
 Blocking of heavy consumers
 Operation of second generator in case first generator will be loaded 80% of its capacity
 Operation of standby generator, in case of malfunction in any one of the two generators
 Manual, secured, semi-automatic and automatic mode operation selection of generators
 Control selection for generators in engine control room

Power Management System PMS Benefits[edit]

 Diesel generator monitoring and control


 Diesel engine safety and start/stop
 Circuit breaker synchronize & connect
 Bus line voltage and frequency control
 Generator voltage and frequency control
 Generator load in KW and %
 Symmetric or asymmetric load sharing
 Load control with load shedding
 Separation of alarm, control and safety
 Single or multiple switchboard control
 Heavy consumers logic
 Automatic start and connect after blackout
 Automatic line frequency adjustment
 Control of diesel electric propulsion
 "Take me home mode", control of PTI with clutches etc.
 "One touch auto sequence", automatic mode control
Power Management System PMS Applications on Vessel Types[edit]

 Tanker (ship)
 Bulk Carrier
 General Cargo Ship
 Container Ship
 LNG carrier / LPG carrier / Gas carrier
 Cruise Ship
 Yachts

Watch Circle Assessment of Drilling


Risers during a Drift-Off and Drive-Off
Event of a Dynamically Positioned
Vessel
ABSTRACT

The primary objective of a Drift-Off assessment is to address the behavior of a drilling riser when all thrusters
lose power and are no longer capable of maintaining the drilling vessel on station. Whereas, the objective of the
Drive-Off assessment is to assess the behavior of the drilling riser system when the thrusters malfunction and
cause the drilling vessel to move away from station significantly. If any of these events occurs, an emergency
disconnect must be initiated between the LMRP and BOP, otherwise a failure may occur in the riser or wellhead
system.

The purpose of the Drift-Off and Drive-Off assessment is to determine green, yellow, and red watch circles of
allowable vessel offset after which (Emergency Disconnect Sequence) EDS is initiated without damage to the
riser. After the vessel exceeds the green watch circle, the vessel is in a degrading status. After the yellow watch
circle is exceeded, preparations are made for EDS initiation. At the red alert, EDS is commenced.

The Drift-Off and Drive-Off response of a vessel is a function of the vessel characteristics and the environment.
The vessel response and EDS allow operators to assess the risk associated with a given environment.

The Drive-Off and Drift-Off analysis starts with the effort to determine offset and heading as functions of time
(trajectories) for the DP vessel in various Drive-Off and Drift-Off scenarios and environments.

Software and techniques have been developed to assist the DP vessel designer and operator to develop
appropriate watch circles and assess the associated risk in a given environment. The inhouse software DP-
SHIPMO is used to determine the vessel Drift-Off and Drive-Off response. Commercial software ABAQUS and in-
house software DERP are used to develop the riser response to the vessel Drift-Off and Drive-Off.

SUBSEA WELLHEADS SYSTEMS

The subsea wellhead system (Fig. 1) is a pressure-containing vessel that provides a means to
hang off and seal off casing used in drilling the well. The wellhead also provides a profile to latch
the subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack and drilling riser back to the floating drilling rig. In this
way, access to the wellbore is secure in a pressure-controlled environment. The subsea
wellhead system is located on the ocean floor, and must be installed remotely with running tools
and drillpipe.

Illustration of a typical subsea wellhead system with temporary abandonment cap installed.
This illustration also shows the wellhead configuration with a 30 × 20 × 13⅜ × 9⅝ × 7-in. casing
program.

Subsea wellhead system


The subsea wellhead inside diameter (ID) is designed with a landing shoulder located in the
bottom section of the wellhead body. Subsequent casing hangers land on the previous casing
hanger installed. Casing is suspended from each casing-hanger top, and accumulates on the
primary landing shoulder located in the ID of the subsea wellhead. Each casing hanger is sealed
off against the ID of the wellhead housing and the outside diameter (OD) of the hanger itself with
a seal assembly that incorporates a true metal-to-metal seal. This seal assembly provides a
pressure barrier between casing strings, which are suspended in the 18¾-in. wellhead.
Once drilling is complete, the wellhead will provide an interface for the production tubing string
and the subsea production tree, or, if required, a point to tie back to a platform. The design
objective of the subsea wellhead system is twofold:

 To provide the operator with the latest equipment technology, incorporating reliable solutions
for the well conditions to be encountered, as well as maximum strength and capacities.
 To provide a system that is easy to install, and requires a minimal amount of handling and rig
time.
A standard subsea wellhead system will typically consist of the following:

 Drilling guide base.


 Low-pressure housing.
 High-pressure wellhead housing (typically 18¾ in.).
 Casing hangers (various sizes, depending on casing program).
 Metal-to-metal annulus sealing assembly.
 Bore protectors and wear bushings.
 Running and test tools.
Drilling guide base
The drilling guide base (Fig. 2) provides a means for guiding and aligning the BOP onto the
wellhead. Guide wires from the rig are attached to the guideposts of the base, and the wires are
run subsea with the base to provide guidance from the rig down to the wellhead system.

Fig. 2—Illustration of typical guide bases, both guidelined and guidelineless. Each guide base
can incorporate customer-specified features, such as remote-retrievable capabilities and
special flow-by features.

Low-pressure housing
The low-pressure housing (typically 30 or 36 in.; see Fig. 3) provides a location point for the
drilling guide base, and provides an interface for the 18¾-in. high-pressure housing. It is
important for this first string to be jetted or cemented in place correctly, because this string is the
foundation for the rest of the well.

Fig. 3—Illustration of typical low-pressure wellhead housings. Each low-pressure housing can
also incorporate various features based on the particular application and drilling
environment.
High-pressure housing
The subsea high-pressure wellhead housing (typically 18¾ in.) is, effectively, a unitized wellhead
with no annulus access. It provides an interface between the subsea BOP stack and the subsea
well. The subsea wellhead is the male member to a large-bore connection, as shown in Fig.
4 (the female counterpart is the wellhead connector on the bottom of the BOP stack), that will be
made up in a remote subsea, ocean-floor environment. The 18¾-in. wellhead will house and
support each casing string by way of a mandrel-type casing hanger. The ID of the 18¾-in.
wellhead provides a metal-to-metal sealing surface for the seal assembly, when it is energized
around the casing hanger. The wellhead provides a primary landing shoulder in the bottom ID
area to support the combined casing loads, and will typically accommodate two or three casing
hangers and a tubing hanger. The minimum ID of the wellhead is designed to let a 17½-in.
drilling bit pass through.

Fig. 4—18¾-in. wellheads are manufactured with several different locking profiles to mate
with the wellhead connector located on the bottom of the BOP stack or subsea production
tree. The wellhead systems are usually rated for 10,000 or 15,000 psi and can be installed with
a standard lock ring or a rigid lockdown mechanism, which is the preferred choice for
deepwater operations.

Casing hangers
All subsea casing hangers are mandrel type, as shown in Fig. 5. The casing hanger provides a
metal-to-metal sealing area for a seal assembly to seal off the annulus between the casing
hanger and the wellhead. The casing weight is transferred into the wellhead by means of the
casing hanger/wellhead landing shoulder. Each casing hanger stacks on top of another, and all
casing loads are transferred through each hanger to the landing shoulder at the bottom of the
subsea wellhead. Each casing hanger incorporates flow-by slots to facilitate the passage of fluid
while running through the drilling riser and BOP stack, and during the cementing operation.

Fig. 5—Illustrations of the subsea casing hangers. Notice features to accommodate casing, a
seal assembly, and a running tool.
Metal-to metal annulus seal assembly
The seal assembly (Fig. 6) isolates the annulus between the casing hanger and the high-
pressure wellhead housing. The seal incorporates a metal-to-metal sealing system that today is
typically weight-set (torque-set seal assemblies were available in earlier subsea wellhead
systems). During the installation process, the seal is locked to the casing hanger to keep it in
place. If the well is placed into production, then an option to lock down the seal to the high-
pressure wellhead is available. This is to prevent the casing hanger and seal assembly from
being lifted because of thermal expansion of the casing down hole.

Fig. 6—Photo of the 18¾-in. seal assembly (left), and illustration of the metal-to-metal seal
that seals off the annulus between the casing hanger and the wellhead.

Bore protectors and wear bushings


Once the high-pressure wellhead housing and the BOP stack are installed, all drilling operations
will take place through the wellhead housing. The risk of mechanical damage during drilling
operations is relatively high, and the critical landing and sealing areas in the wellhead system
need to be protected with a removable bore protector and wear bushings, as shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7—Photos of the nominal bore protector, 13 3/8-in. wear bushing, and 95/8-in. wear bushing.
These wellhead components are run on a multipurpose tool.

Running and test tools


The standard subsea wellhead system will include typical running, retrieving, testing, and
reinstallation tools (see Fig. 8). These tools include:

Fig. 8—Illustration of the SS-15 Subsea Wellhead System running tool family.
Conductor wellhead running tool
The conductor wellhead running tool runs the conductor casing, conductor wellhead, and guide
base. This tool can be used for jetting in the conductor, or cementing the conductor into a
predrilled hole. The tool is a cam-actuated tool that minimizes any high torque that may be
encountered during operations.
High-pressure wellhead running tool
The high-pressure wellhead running tool operates just like the conductor wellhead running tool,
but it runs the high-pressure wellhead and 20-in. casing. It is a cam-actuated tool that minimizes
any high torque that may be encountered during operations.
Casing-hanger seal-assembly running tool
The casing-hanger seal-assembly running tool runs the casing, casing hanger, and seal
assembly in one trip. It also allows testing of the seal assembly (after installation) and the BOP
stack, and it has the additional benefit of bringing back the seal assembly, if debris is in the way
and the seal assembly cannot be installed.
Multipurpose tool and accessories
The multipurpose tool runs and retrieves the nominal bore protector and all wear bushings. A jet
sub and/or jet sub extension can be attached to the multipurpose tool so that wellhead washout
can occur during the retrieval process. The multipurpose tool also retrieves the seal assembly,
and becomes a mill-and-flush tool by attaching the mill-and-flush adapter.
BOP isolation test tool
The BOP isolation test tool allows testing of the BOP stack without allowing pressure to be
applied against the casing-hanger seal assembly. The BOP isolation test tool can land on the
casing hangers or wear bushings.
Seal-assembly running tool
The seal-assembly running tool is used in the event that a second seal assembly needs to be
run. The seal-assembly running tool is a weight-set tool, and, like the casing-hanger seal-
assembly running tool, it allows testing of the BOP stack and recovers the seal assembly if it
cannot be installed (because of debris in the sealing area of the annulus).

Big bore subsea wellhead systems


As the offshore oil and gas industry has continued to explore in progressively deeper waters, the
requirements for well components have changed, as a result of the challenges associated with
deepwater drilling. Ocean-floor conditions in deep and ultradeep water can be extremely mushy
and unconsolidated, which creates well-foundation problems that require development of new
well designs to overcome the conditions. Second, underground aquifers in deep water have been
observed in far greater frequency than in shallower waters, and it quickly became clear that
these zones would have to be isolated with a casing string. Cementing requirements changed,
and wellhead equipment designs would also have to change to accommodate the additional
requirements.
With subsea wellhead systems, conductor and intermediate casing strings can be reconfigured to
strengthen and stiffen the upper section of the well (for higher bending capacities), and overcome
the challenges of an unconsolidated ocean floor at the well site. Each “water flow” zone
encountered while drilling requires isolation with casing and, at the same time, consumes a
casing-hanger position in the wellhead. It became obvious that more casing strings and hangers
were required to reach the targeted depth than the existing wellhead-system designs would
accommodate.
The 18¾-in. Big Bore Subsea Wellhead System (Fig. 9) was designed for wells that will be
installed in unconsolidated ocean-floor conditions and penetrate shallow water-flow zones. These
well conditions require additional casing strings. The wellhead system incorporates an 18¾-in.
high-pressure wellhead housing designed for 15,000 psi and 7 million pounds end-load carrying
capacity. Unlike conventional subsea wellhead systems, the big-bore high-pressure wellhead
housing (Fig. 10) is run atop 22-in. pipe (as opposed to 20-in. pipe), and has a large minimum ID
bore to pass 18-in. casing. The wellhead system incorporates a rigid lockdown mechanism to
preload the connection between the high-pressure wellhead and the conductor wellhead. A
supplemental hanger adapter is installed in the 22-in. casing to provide a landing shoulder and
seal area for the 18-in. and 16-in. supplemental hangers and their testable, retrievable seal
assemblies.

Fig. 9—Illustration of the Big Bore Subsea Wellhead System with the 18-in. and 16-in.
supplementalcasing-hanger systems.

Fig. 10—Deepwater subsea wellhead, designed specifically to meet the requirements of


higher-strength and pressurized shallow-zone water flows associated with ultradeepwater
drilling in the Gulf of Mexico.
Optional 28-in., 26-in., and 24-in. supplemental casing-hanger systems can be incorporated into
the design to:

1. Accommodate a secondary conductor string.


2. Increase the overall bending capacity of the upper section of the well.
3. Provide an additional barrier for a water-flow zone.
All casing hangers and seal assemblies are run, set, and tested on drillpipe in a single trip. These
subsea wellhead systems can easily accommodate alternative casing programs, and can be
configured to address any deepwater (and shallow-water) drilling application.
The Difference Between a Wellhead and
Christmas Tree
 Published on March 6, 2015

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Meisa K.

Digital Marketing* SEO Specialist* Social Media Expert* Web Designer* Business Developer*

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Christmas Tree or Wellhead?


A Christmas Tree is an assembly of valves, spools, and fittings used for an oil well, gas well,
water injection well, water disposal well, gas injection well, condensate well, and other types
of wells. It is named for its resemblance to a decorate tree at Christmas.

Many times, the words Christmas Tree and Wellhead are used interchangeably; however, a
wellhead and Christmas tree are entirely separate paces of equipment. A wellhead must be
present in order to utilize a Christmas tree and is used without a Christmas tree during drilling
operations. Producing surface wells that require pumps (pump jacks, nodding donkeys, etc.)
frequently do not utilize any tree due to no pressure containment requirement.
Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades. They are frequently manufactured
from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than made from multiple flange valves.

The primary function of a tree is to control the flow into or out of the well, usually oil or gas.

A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, well
intervention means, pressure relief means (such as annulus vent), tree and well monitoring
points (such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, erosion, sand detection, flow rate, flow
composition, valve and choke position feedback, connection points for devices such as down
hole pressure and temperature transducer (DHPT).

What purpose does a tree serve?


•On producing wells, injection of chemicals or alcohols or oil distillates to prevent and or
solve production problems (such as blockages) may be used.

•A tree may also be used to control the injection of gas or water injection application on a
producing or non-producing well in order to sustain economic "production" volumes of gas
from other well(s) in the area (field).•The control system attached to the tree controls the
down hole safety valve (scssv,dhsv, sssv) while the tree acts as an attachment and conduit
means of the control system to the down hole safety valve.

As you can see even on this Christmas Tree Diagram there are five valves. The Kill Wing
valve, the Swab valve, the production wing valve, the upper master valve and lower master
valve. When the operator, well, and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas,
valves are opened and the release of the formation fluids is allowed to flow into and through
a pipeline. It is important to understand where these valves are located and what role they
play in getting gas from the well bore to the customer.

Parts Defined
•The two lower valves are called the master valves (upper and lower respectively) because
they lie in the flow path, which well fluids must take to get to surface.

•The lower master valve will normally be manually operated, while the upper master valve is
often hydraulically actuated.

•Hydraulic tree wing valves are usually built to be fail safe closed, meaning they require
active hydraulic pressure to stay open.

•The right hand valve is often called the flow wing valve or the production wing valve,
because it is in the flow path the hydrocarbons take to production facilities.

•The left hand valve is often called the kill wing valve. It is primarily used for injection of
fluids such as corrosion inhibitors or methanol to prevent hydrate formation.

•The valve at the top is called the swab valve and lies in the path used for well interventions
like wire line and coiled tubing. A ‘Choke’ is a device, either stationary or adjustable, used
to:
•control the gas flow, also known as volume

•or create downstream pressure, also known as back pressure.

Wellheads and Christmas Tree are not the same.


Wellhead systems are required to control pressure during drilling and production, and serve
as a point to suspend casing & tubing strings, as well as a connection to the surface
pressure-control equipment, i.e. blow out preventer (BOP) ( during drilling stage) and
christmas tree ( during production stage) . It also allows access to a live well (under pressure),
in a safe and controlled manner. A wellhead consists of heads, hangers, spools and a series
of seals.
Christmas Tree consists of chokes, valves and spools. The main purpose of christmas tree is
to control the flow of well fluids or gas during production. Additional functions of christmas
tree include pressure relief, chemical injection, a conduit for control systems to monitor and
control safety valves in down-hole.
Both, wellhead systems and christmas tree are manufactured in different sizes and
configuration, with various pressure and temperature rating, material class requirements and
completion capacity, i.e. single or multiple zone. Standard working pressure ratings
classification (in psi) is 2K, 3K, 5K, 10K, 15K and 20K. Wellhead systems and christmas tree
(BOP during drilling) are the most critical well component, as the act as a “gate” between
subsurface and surface.
Wellheads are divided by application and types.
 Land / Onshore
 Subsea
 Surface ( jack-up or platform)

UNIT-3OPEN WATER OPERATIONS; Remotely operated vehicles: wellheads components for open
water operations, Guidance systems; guideline less systems; mud mat, connector selection, Jetting structural
casing versus cementing in a drilled hole, operational procedure, special considerations, high currents, shallow
water, flows, drill with mud –“pump and dump” concept, special cementing operations

RISER SYSTEMS; Riser system components, buoyancy, riser tensioner & tensioning criteria, basic riser
analysis, riser operations, emergency disconnect, high current operations.

Remotely Operated Vehicle


Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are vehicles that are operated
underwater and remotely controlled from the surface.
ROV devices
Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) carrying video cameras have
been used for in situ studies of zooplankton abundance and
behavior. Gelatinous organisms are notoriously difficult to sample
using traditional methods, and an ROV carrying a video camera has
been successfully deployed for their study. ROVs are usually
restricted to small-scale, observational studies, but may be useful
for the location of zooplankton patches. Small imaging volume may
preclude the study of rarer taxa, and poor image quality may
preclude the study of smaller taxa. Zooplankton also exhibit
attraction/avoidance responses to the presence of ROV systems.
WELLHEADS Components FOR OPEN WATER OPERATION
The primary components of a wellhead system are:

 casing head
 casing spools
 casing hangers
 choke manifold
 packoffs (isolation) seals
 test plugs
 mudline suspension systems
 tubing heads
 tubing hangers
 tubing head adapted

Guidance system
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A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a


guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite,
or any other moving object. Guidance is the process of calculating the changes in position,
velocity, attitude, and/or rotation rates of a moving object required to follow a certain trajectory
and/or attitude profile based on information about the object's state of motion.[1][2][3]
A guidance system is usually part of a Guidance, navigation and control system, whereas
navigation refers to the systems necessary to calculate the current position and orientation based
on sensor data like those from compasses, GPS receivers, Loran-C, star trackers, inertial
measurement units, altimeters, etc. The output of the navigation system, the navigation solution,
is an input for the guidance system, among others like the environmental conditions (wind, water,
temperature, etc.) and the vehicle's characteristics (i.e. mass, control system availability, control
systems correlation to vector change, etc.). In general, the guidance system computes the
instructions for the control system, which comprises the object's actuators
(e.g., thrusters, reaction wheels, body flaps, etc.), which are able to manipulate the flight path
and orientation of the object without direct or continuous human control.

A guidance system has three major sub-sections: Inputs, Processing, and Outputs. The input
section includes sensors, course data, radio and satellite links, and other information sources.
The processing section, composed of one or more CPUs, integrates this data and determines
what actions, if any, are necessary to maintain or achieve a proper heading. This is then fed to
the outputs which can directly affect the system's course. The outputs may control speed by
interacting with devices such as turbines, and fuel pumps, or they may more directly alter course
by actuating ailerons, rudders, or other devices.

Description[edit]
Main articles: Missile guidance and Precision-guided munition § Types
Guidance systems consist of 3 essential parts: navigation which tracks current
location, guidance which leverages navigation data and target information to direct flight control
"where to go", and control which accepts guidance commands to effect change in aerodynamic
and/or engine controls.

Navigation is the art of determining where you are, a science that has seen tremendous focus in
1711 with the Longitude prize. Navigation aids either measure position from a fixed point of
reference (ex. landmark, north star, LORAN Beacon), relative position to a target (ex. radar,
infra-red, ...) or track movement from a known position/starting point (e.g. IMU). Today's complex
systems use multiple approaches to determine current position.

Guidance is the "driver" of a vehicle. It takes input from the navigation system (where am I) and
uses targeting information (where do I want to go) to send signals to the flight control system that
will allow the vehicle to reach its destination (within the operating constraints of the vehicle). The
"targets" for guidance systems are one or more state vectors (position and velocity) and can be
inertial or relative. During powered flight, guidance is continually calculating steering directions
for flight control. For example, the space shuttle targets an altitude, velocity vector, and gamma
to drive main engine cut off. Similarly, an Intercontinental ballistic missile also targets a vector.
The target vectors are developed to fulfill the mission and can be preplanned or dynamically
created.
Control. Flight control is accomplished either aerodynamically or through powered controls such
as engines. Guidance sends signals to flight control. A Digital Autopilot (DAP) is the interface
between guidance and control. Guidance and the DAP are responsible for calculating the precise
instruction for each flight control. The DAP provides feedback to guidance on the state of flight
controls.

MUD MAT

Mud Mats can be used for construction site access, agriculture, golf
courses, parks, and other soft or sensitive ground condition areas where
vehicle access is required. They can be unrolled on any muddy or swampy
ground and driven over without rutting, getting stuck or tracking mud off-
site.

Mud Mats consist of pocketed, double-wall, high-strength fabric with high


tensile reinforcing ribs confined within each sleeve which allows for easy
deployment and structural stability. Ground pressure from vehicle tires is
reduced up to 40 times, causing minimal ground disturbance.

Mats are available in 8’ x 15’ sections and weigh approximately 75 pounds,


making them portable and easy for two people to install. Set-up and
removal are as easy as rolling out and rolling up the mats. Larger areas are
not a problem, as the mats are designed to connect to one another, further
increasing the structural stability.

CONNECTOR SYSTEMS;

An electronic connector is an electro-mechanical device whose purpose is to quickly


and easily disconnect or interrupt a circuit path. Connectors come in a variety of
sizes, shapes, complexities and quality levels. Their function dictates their design
and different features are added to adjust the ease of connection, mating type,
durability, insulation between pins, etc. In addition, because many connectors must
perform their job in rugged conditions, their construction is often adjusted to provide
protection from vibrations, extreme temperatures, dirt, water, contaminants, and
more.

TYPES OF CONNECTORS
 Blind mate connectors ensure that even when your line of sight to the mating
connector is limited or when physical access to the mating connector area is
inhibited, you can still safely and easily mate them.
 D-sub connectors are named after their distinctive D-shaped metal shell, and they
are used in a variety of applications.
 Hot swap connectors allow technicians to safely add, remove, or replace
components under load without shutting down the entire system or risking damage to
the equipment.
 IP67 connectors prevent the ingress of dust or water, making them perfect for harsh
environments and rugged applications.
 Military connectors are designed to meet the military’s high standards in regard to
durability, reliability, and precision, and they serve specific functions within the
equipment of the armed forces.
 Modular connectors can be configured to fit a customer’s goals and an application’s
requirements by using pre-existing building blocks to arrange unique contact
arrangements.
 Power connectors deliver electronic devices electrical power from either an A/C or
D/C source. In addition to the power contacts, signal contact clusters are used for
system control and communication.
 Press-fit connectors are designed to press through a printed circuit board’s plated-
through holes (PTH) versus being soldered.
 Space connectors with their low outgassing, non-magnetism and extreme reliability,
can withstand the extremely harsh environmental conditions that characterize the
spaceflight environment.
USE & FUNCTION

Male connectors have pins that protrude out, while their female counterparts have
sockets that are recessed below the insulator face. When you bring two specially
designed connectors together, they “mate” and form a connection. To ensure that
they are mated correctly, many products are “polarized,” which means that they
contain a component that prevents two incorrectly oriented connectors from mating.

Connectors perform many functions in a variety of applications, from military and


space to medical equipment and consumer electronics. However, it all comes down
to this: they connect. They provide an inline disconnect within a circuit. They also
come in different sizes and shapes as needed, so anyone can find the perfect
connector for their needs. For example, you can choose the number of signal
contacts, the number of power contacts, and the configuration (board-to-board, wire-
to-wire, board-to-wire), amongst other details. Although most manufacturers produce
an extensive catalog of standard products, you can also find companies willing to
create custom connectors to fit your application’s specifications.

If you’re interested in purchasing high-quality, durable connectors, be sure to check


out the wide range of standard and custom products from Positronic. From D-subs
and blind mate connectors to cable assemblies and power connectors, we have it all.
To get started, please fill out our contact form online and we will respond as quickly
as possible.

JETTING OF STRUCTURAL CASING

Summary

Structural casing jetting operations have become commonplace in deepwater environments.


Having originated in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), structural casing is now jetted in most deepwater
basins in the world. Very little literature has been published regarding jetting practices. The lack
of published literature, combined with the complex mechanics and hydraulics of the process and
the lack of detailed-soil data at most locations, results in an operation that is heavily dependent
on the experience and expertise of the rig-site team. This paper reviews current deepwater
structural casing jetting job design and operational practices. Also included are several case
histories of jetting failures presented to share learnings with the industry and to stimulate the
sharing of learnings and practices.

Introduction

Structural casing (also known by some operators as conductor casing, surface casing, or surface
conductor) is defined as the first string of casing installed in the well construction process. By
definition, it provides structure and support for all the casing strings, the subsea Christmas tree,
and blowout preventer (BOP) stack. Structural casing must be able to resist bending moment
loads imposed on it by the mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) and by future production
workover operations. In certain areas with shallower water, the casing may also need to resist
loads imposed by trawler net entanglement. The casing must be installed reasonably
straight/vertical, usually with less than 1-degree angle, to avoid drillstring wear on wellhead and
BOP components.

Jetting of structural casing has become the preferred method of installation in most deepwater
environments where seafloor sediments allow the technique to be used. Operators have found
the technique to be faster than the historical method of drilling a rathole and cementing the
casing in place. Some deepwater basins, however, have harder seafloor sediments, boulders, or
rubble zones that prevent jetting from being an effective technique.

The history of jetting can be traced to the first floating rigs used in the U.S. GOM in the 1960's.
Minton (1967) describes the installation process used to install structural casing from the first
floating rigs developed in the early 1960's. One hundred feet of 29½ in. × 1.0 in. wall thickness
casing was set using a combined drive-jet process. The casing was connected to the drive-jet
bottomhole assembly (BHA) by means of a J-slot tool with a 3-ft stroke to allow driving action
with the BHA. The BHA consisted of 5½-in. drillpipe with two 22-in. leaded drill collars, weighing
a combined 60,000 lbm, to impart impact and add additional penetrative weight into the
sediments. Fig. 1 illustrates this assembly. Jetting occurred through a jet sub (no bit or motor)
and returns were taken outside of the structural casing. Fig. 2 depicts the process and shows
both fluid and jetted solids were forced to the mudline along the outside of the casing. Minton
alludes that, even from the early days of floating drilling, settling of structural pipe has been a
concern.

In the 1970's, development of tools such as the positive-displacement mud motor and the
wellhead-housing running tool allowed the jetting technique to evolve (Reimert 1975). Ports in
the wellhead-housing running tool allowed returns to be taken inside the casing rather than
outside the casing resulting in less soil disturbance. Positive displacement mud motors allowed
the rotation of bits in the jetting string and more efficient break-up and fluidization of the
sediments.

The jetting technique has spread to other geologic basins/geographical areas around the world.
Salies et al. (1999) state that jetting of 30 in. structural casing began in the Campos basin of
Brazil in 1993. The use of jetting to set structural pipe in the deepwater of West Africa countries
such as Angola, Nigeria, and Congo emerged in the middle-to-late 1990's. Operators in
deepwater basins off Trinidad, Canada, Australia, and southeast Asia have all adopted
structural-casing jetting as the preferred method.

Cementing in drill hole

Cement is used to hold casing in place and to prevent fluid migration between subsurface
formations. Cementing operations can be divided into two broad categories: primary cementing
and remedial cementing.

Primary cementing

The objective of primary cementing is to provide zonal isolation. Cementing is the process of
mixing a slurry of cement, cement additives and water and pumping it down through casing to
critical points in the annulus around the casing or in the open hole below the casing string. The
two principal functions of the cementing process are:

 To restrict fluid movement between the formations


 To bond and support the casing
If this is achieved effectively, other requirements imposed during the life of the well will be met,
including:

 Economic
 Liability
 Safety
 Government regulations
Zonal isolation
Zonal isolation is not directly related to production; however, this necessary task must be
performed effectively to allow production or stimulation operations to be conducted. The success
of a well depends on this primary operation. In addition to isolating oil-, gas-, and water-
producing zones, cement also aids in

 Protecting the casing from corrosion


 Preventing blowouts by quickly forming a seal
 Protecting the casing from shock loads in deeper drilling
 Sealing off zones of lost circulation or thief zones

Remedial cementing
Remedial cementing is usually done to correct problems associated with the primary cement job.
The most successful and economical approach to remedial cementing is to avoid it by thoroughly
planning, designing, and executing all drilling, primary cementing, and completion operations.
The need for remedial cementing to restore a well’s operation indicates that primary operational
planning and execution were ineffective, resulting in costly repair operations. Remedial
cementing operations consist of two broad categories:

 Squeeze cementing
 Plug cementing

Cement placement procedures


In general, there are five steps required to obtain successful cement placement and meet the
objectives previously outlined.

1. Analyze the well parameters; define the needs of the well, and then design placement
techniques and fluids to meet the needs for the life of the well. Fluid properties, fluid
mechanics, and chemistry influence the design used for a well.
2. Calculate fluid (slurry) composition and perform laboratory tests on the fluids designed
in Step 1 to see that they meet the needs.
3. Use necessary hardware to implement the design in Step 1; calculate volume of fluids
(slurry) to be pumped; and blend, mix, and pump fluids into the annulus.
4. Monitor the treatment in real time; compare with Step 1 and make changes as
necessary.
5. Evaluate the results; compare with the design in Step 1 and make changes as necessary
for future jobs.
Well parameters
Along with supporting the casing in the wellbore, the cement is designed to isolate zones,
meaning that it keeps each of the penetrated zones and their fluids from communicating with
other zones. To keep the zones isolated, it is critical to consider the wellbore and its properties
when designing a cement job.

Depth
The depth of the well affects the cement slurry design because it influences the following factors:
Amount of wellbore fluids involved Volume of wellbore fluids Friction pressures Hydrostatic
pressures Temperature
Wellbore depth also controls hole size and casing size. Extremely deep wells have their own
distinct design challenges because of:

 High temperatures
 High pressures
 Corrosive fluids
Wellbore geometry
The geometry of the wellbore is important in determining the amount of cement required for the
cementing operation. Hole dimensions can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

 Acoustic calipers
 Electric-log calipers
 Fluid calipers
Openhole geometry can indicate adverse (undesirable) conditions such as washouts. Wellbore
geometry and casing dimensions determine the annular volume and the amount of fluid
necessary.
The hole shape also determines the clearance between the casing and the wellbore. This
annular space influences the effectiveness of drilling-fluid displacement. A minimum annular
space of 0.75 to 1.5 in. (hole diameter 2 to 3 in. greater than casing diameter) is recommended.
Annular clearances that are smaller restrict the flow characteristics and generally make it more
difficult to displace fluids.
Another aspect of hole geometry is the deviation angle. The deviation angle influences the true
vertical depth and temperatures. Highly deviated wellbores can be challenging because the
casing is not as likely to be centered in the wellbore, and fluid displacement becomes difficult.
Problems created by geometry variations can be overcome by adding centralizers to the casing.
Centralizers help to center the casing within the hole, leaving equal annular space around the
casing.

Temperature
The temperatures of the wellbore are critical in the design of a cement job. There are basically
three different temperatures to consider:

 Bottomhole circulating temperature (BHCT)


 Bottomhole static temperature (BHST)
 Temperature differential (temperature difference between the top and bottom of cement
placement)
The BHCT is the temperature to which the cement will be exposed as it circulates past the
bottom of the casing. The BHCT controls the time that it takes for the cement to setup (thickening
time). BHCT can be measured using temperature probes that are circulated with the drilling fluid.
If actual wellbore temperature cannot be determined, the BHCT can be estimated using the
temperature schedules of American Petroleum Inst. (API) RP10B.1 The BHST considers a
motionless condition where no fluids are circulating and cooling the wellbore. BHST plays a vital
role in the strength development of the cured cement.
The temperature differential becomes a significant factor when the cement is placed over a large
interval and there are significant temperature differences between the top and bottom cement
locations. Because of the different temperatures, commonly, two different cement slurries may be
designed to better accommodate the difference in temperatures.
The bottomhole circulating temperature affects the following:

 Slurry thickening time


 Rheology
 Fluid loss
 Stability (settling)
 Set time
BHST affects compressive-strength development and cement integrity for the life of the well.
Knowing the actual temperature that the cement will encounter during placement allows
operators to optimize the slurry design. The tendency to overestimate the amount of materials
required to keep the cement in a fluid state for pumping and the amount of pumping time
required for a job often results in unnecessary cost and well-control problems. Most cement jobs
are completed in less than 90 minutes.
To optimize cost and displacement efficiency, the guidelines discussed next are recommended.

 Design the job on the basis of actual wellbore circulating temperatures.

 A downhole temperature subrecorder can be used to measure the circulating


temperature of the well. A subrecorder is a memory-recorder device that can either be
lowered by wireline or dropped into the drillpipe and measures the temperature
downhole during the circulating operation before cementing. The memory recorder is
then retrieved from the drillpipe and the BHCT is measured. This allows for accurate
determination of the downhole temperature.

 If determining the actual wellbore circulating temperature is not possible, use API RP10B
to estimate the BHCT.[1]
 Do not “pad” the actual downhole temperatures measured, and do not exceed the
amount of dispersants, retarders, etc. recommended for the temperature of the wellbore.
When determining the amount of retarder required for a specific application, consider the
rate at which the slurry will be heated.

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

A standard operating procedure (SOP) is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by


an organization to help workers carry out complex routine operations. SOPs aim to achieve
efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and
failure to comply with industry regulations.
The military (e.g. in the U.S. and UK) sometimes uses the ted "standard" can imply that only one
(standard) procedure is to be used across all units.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

HIGH CURRENT
High current refers to lots of electrons moving through a cross section of conductor
per second. That can happen at lower voltages when there is little
resistance. High voltage refers to lots of energy per electron pushing on the
electrons.

SHALLOW WATER

Definition of Shallow water:

Water of such depth that surface waves are noticeably affected by bottom
topography. Typically, this implies a water depth equivalent to less than half the
wavelength.. This is the common definition for Shallow water,
other definitions can be discussed in the article.

FLOWS

Flows are work items that are connected together in a defined sequence. These
work items can be jobs, other flows, or even applications.

Science[edit]

 Flow (fluid) or fluid dynamics, the motion of a gas or liquid


 Flow (geomorphology), a type of mass wasting or slope movement in geomorphology
 Flow (mathematics), a group action of the real numbers on a set
 Flow (psychology), a mental state of being fully immersed and focused
Computing[edit]
 Calligra Flow, free diagramming software
 Microsoft Flow, a workflow toolkit in Microsoft Dynamics
 Neos Flow, a free and open source web application framework written in PHP
 webMethods Flow, a graphical programming language
 FLOW (programming language), an educational programming language from the 1970.

DRILLED WITH MUD

Drilling mud
EXCAVATION

WRITTEN BY:

 The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica


See Article History
Drilling mud, also called drilling fluid, in petroleum engineering, a heavy, viscous
fluid mixture that is used in oil and gas drilling operations to carry rock cuttings to the
surface and also to lubricate and cool the drill bit. The drilling mud, by hydrostatic
pressure, also helps prevent the collapse of unstable strata into the borehole and the
intrusion of water from water-bearing strata that may be encountered.

The circulation of drilling mud during the drilling of an oil well.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Drilling muds are traditionally based on water, either fresh water, seawater, naturally
occurring brines, or prepared brines. Many muds are oil-based, using direct products
of petroleum refining such as diesel oil or mineral oil as the fluid matrix. In addition,
various so-called synthetic-based muds are prepared using highly refined
fluid compounds that are made to more-exacting property specifications than
traditional petroleum-based oils. In general, water-based muds are satisfactory for
the less-demanding drilling of conventional vertical wells at medium depths, whereas
oil-based muds are better for greater depths or in directional or horizontal drilling,
which place greater stress on the drilling apparatus. Synthetic-based muds were
developed in response to environmental concerns over oil-based fluids, though all
drilling muds are highly regulated in their composition, and in some cases specific
combinations are banned from use in certain environments.
A typical water-based drilling mud contains a clay, usually bentonite, to give it
enough viscosity to carry cutting chips to the surface, as well as a mineral such
as barite (barium sulfate) to increase the weight of the column enough to stabilize
the borehole. Smaller quantities of hundreds of other ingredients might be added,
such as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) to increase alkalinity and
decrease corrosion, salts such as potassium chloride to reduce infiltration of water
from the drilling fluid into the rock formation, and various petroleum-derived drilling
lubricants. Oil- and synthetic-based muds contain water (usually a brine), bentonite
and barite for viscosity and weight, and various emulsifiers and detergents for
lubricity.

PUMP AND DUMP CONCEPT


"Pump and dump" (P&D) is a form of securities fraud that involves artificially inflating the price
of an owned stock through false and misleading positive statements, in order to sell the cheaply
purchased stock at a higher price. Once the operators of the scheme "dump" sell their
overvalued shares, the price falls and investors lose their money. This is most common with
small cap cryptocurrencies[1] and very small corporations, i.e. "microcaps".[2]
While fraudsters in the past relied on cold calls, the Internet now offers a cheaper and easier way
of reaching large numbers of potential investors through spam email, bad data, social media, and
false information.[2]

What Is Pump-and-Dump?
Pump-and-dump is a scheme that attempts to boost the price of a stock
through recommendations based on false, misleading or greatly exaggerated
statements. The perpetrators of this scheme already have an established
position in the company's stock and sell their positions after the hype has led
to a higher share price. This practice is illegal based on securities law and can
lead to heavy fines.

The Basics of Pump-and-Dump


Pump-and-dump schemes were traditionally done through cold calling. But
with the advent of the internet, this illegal practice has become even more
prevalent. Fraudsters post messages online enticing investors to buy a stock
quickly, with claims to have inside information that a development will lead to
an upswing in the share's price. Once buyers jump in, the perpetrators sell
their shares, causing the price to drop dramatically. New investors then lose
their money.

These schemes usually target micro- and small-cap stocks, as they are the
easiest to manipulate. Due to the small float of these types of stocks, it does
not take a lot of new buyers to push a stock higher.

UNIT 4
BOP system;wellhead & LMRP connectors, RAM preventers, Annular preventers, Choke & kill line
valves, LMRP,landing and latching the BOP, control system, back -up system, BOP stack testing.

Deepwater casing & cemention;Review of conductor and surface casing design, casing design
process flow, casing seat selection, Kick tolerance, Burst,Collapse,Tensile and bucking criteria &
calculation, software assisted casing design, casing running, casing connections, cementing
procedures, casing and liner cementing; squeeze cementing, cementation hardware.

BOP SYSTEM-
A blowout preventer (BOP) is a large, specialized valve or similar mechanical device, used to
seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells to prevent blowouts, the uncontrolled release of crude
oil and/or natural gas from a well. They are usually installed in stacks of other valves.
Blowout preventers were developed to cope with extreme erratic pressures and uncontrolled flow
(formation kick) emanating from a well reservoir during drilling. Kicks can lead to a potentially
catastrophic event known as a blowout. In addition to controlling the downhole (occurring in the
drilled hole) pressure and the flow of oil and gas, blowout preventers are intended to prevent
tubing (e.g. drill pipe and well casing), tools and drilling fluid from being blown out of the wellbore
(also known as bore hole, the hole leading to the reservoir) when a blowout threatens. Blowout
preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig (the equipment system used to drill a wellbore)
and environment, and to the monitoring and maintenance of well integrity; thus blowout
preventers are intended to provide fail-safety to the systems that include them.
The term BOP (pronounced B-O-P, not "bop") is used in oilfield vernacular to refer to blowout
preventers. The abbreviated term preventer, usually prefaced by a type (e.g. ram preventer), is
used to refer to a single blowout preventer unit. A blowout preventer may also simply be referred
to by its type (e.g. ram).
The terms blowout preventer, blowout preventer stack and blowout preventer system are
commonly used interchangeably and in a general manner to describe an assembly of several
stacked blowout preventers of varying type and function, as well as auxiliary components. A
typical subsea deepwater blowout preventer system includes components such as electrical
and hydraulic lines, control pods, hydraulic accumulators, test valve, kill and choke lines and
valves, riser joint, hydraulic connectors, and a support frame.
Two categories of blowout preventer are most prevalent: ram and annular. BOP stacks frequently
utilize both types, typically with at least one annular BOP stacked above several ram BOPs.
(A related valve, called an inside blowout preventer, internal blowout preventer, or IBOP, is
positioned within, and restricts flow up, the drillpipe. This article does not address inside blowout
preventer use.)
Blowout preventers are used on land wells, offshore rigs, and subsea wells. Land and subsea
BOPs are secured to the top of the wellbore, known as the wellhead. BOPs on offshore rigs are
mounted below the rig deck. Subsea BOPs are connected to the offshore rig above by a drilling
riser that provides a continuous pathway for the drill string and fluids emanating from the
wellbore. In effect, a riser extends the wellbore to the rig. Unfortunately, blowout preventers do
not always function correctly. An example of this is the Deepwater Horizon blowout, where the
pipe line going through the BOP was slightly bent and the BOP failed to cut the pipe.

Use[edit]
Blowout preventers come in a variety of styles, sizes and pressure ratings. Several individual
units serving various functions are combined to compose a blowout preventer stack. Multiple
blowout preventers of the same type are frequently provided for redundancy, an important factor
in the effectiveness of fail-safe devices.
The primary functions of a blowout preventer system are to:

 Confine well fluid to the wellbore;


 Provide means to add fluid to the wellbore;
 Allow controlled volumes of fluid to be withdrawn from the wellbore.
Additionally, and in performing those primary functions, blowout preventer systems are used to:

 Regulate and monitor wellbore pressure;


 Center and hang off the drill string in the wellbore;
 Shut in the well (e.g. seal the void, annulus, between drillpipe and casing);
 “Kill” the well (prevent the flow of formation fluid, influx, from the reservoir into the wellbore) ;
 Seal the wellhead (close off the wellbore);
 Sever the casing or drill pipe (in case of emergencies).

Types[edit]
BOPs come in two basic types, ram and annular. Both are often used together in drilling rig BOP
stacks, typically with at least one annular BOP capping a stack of several ram BOPs.

Ram blowout preventer[edit]

A Patent Drawing of the Original Ram-type Blowout Preventer, by Cameron Iron Works (1922).

Blowout Preventer diagram showing different types of rams. (a) blind ram (b) pipe ram and (c) shear ram.

The ram BOP was invented by James Smither Abercrombie and Harry S. Cameron in 1922, and
was brought to market in 1924 by Cameron Iron Works.[2]
A ram-type BOP is similar in operation to a gate valve, but uses a pair of opposing steel
plungers, rams. The rams extend toward the center of the wellbore to restrict flow or retract open
in order to permit flow. The inner and top faces of the rams are fitted with packers (elastomeric
seals) that press against each other, against the wellbore, and around tubing running through the
wellbore. Outlets at the sides of the BOP housing (body) are used for connection to choke and
kill lines or valves.
Rams, or ram blocks, are of four common types: pipe, blind, shear, and blind shear.
Pipe rams close around a drill pipe, restricting flow in the annulus (ring-shaped space between
concentric objects) between the outside of the drill pipe and the wellbore, but do not obstruct flow
within the drill pipe. Variable-bore pipe rams can accommodate tubing in a wider range of outside
diameters than standard pipe rams, but typically with some loss of pressure capacity and
longevity. Pipe ram should not be closed if there is no pipe in the hole.
Blind rams (also known as sealing rams), which have no openings for tubing, can close off the
well when the well does not contain a drill string or other tubing, and seal it.
Patent Drawing of a Varco Shaffer Ram BOP Stack. A shear ram BOP has cut the drillstring and a pipe
ram has hung it off.

Schematic view of closing shear blades

Shear rams are designed to shear the pipe in the well and seal the wellbore simultaneously. It
has steel blades to shear the pipe and seals to seal the annulus after shearing the pipe.
Blind shear rams (also known as shear seal rams, or sealing shear rams) are intended to seal a
wellbore, even when the bore is occupied by a drill string, by cutting through the drill string as the
rams close off the well. The upper portion of the severed drill string is freed from the ram, while
the lower portion may be crimped and the “fish tail” captured to hang the drill string off the BOP.
In addition to the standard ram functions, variable-bore pipe rams are frequently used as test
rams in a modified blowout preventer device known as a stack test valve. Stack test valves are
positioned at the bottom of a BOP stack and resist downward pressure (unlike BOPs, which
resist upward pressures). By closing the test ram and a BOP ram around the drill string and
pressurizing the annulus, the BOP is pressure-tested for proper function.
Annular blowout preventer[edit]

Patent Drawing of Original Shaffer Spherical-type Blowout Preventer (1972)

Diagram of an Annular blowout preventer in open and fully closed configurations. The flexible annulus
(donut) in blue is forced into the drillpipe cavity by the hydraulic pistons.

The annular blowout preventer was invented by Granville Sloan Knox in 1946; a U.S. patent for it
was awarded in 1952.[3] Often around the rig it is called the "Hydril", after the name of one of the
manufacturers of such devices.
An annular-type blowout preventer can close around the drill string, casing or a non-cylindrical
object, such as the kelly. Drill pipe including the larger-diameter tool joints (threaded connectors)
can be "stripped" (i.e., moved vertically while pressure is contained below) through an annular
preventer by careful control of the hydraulic closing pressure. Annular blowout preventers are
also effective at maintaining a seal around the drillpipe even as it rotates during drilling.
Regulations typically require that an annular preventer be able to completely close a wellbore,
but annular preventers are generally not as effective as ram preventers in maintaining a seal on
an open hole. Annular BOPs are typically located at the top of a BOP stack, with one or two
annular preventers positioned above a series of several ram preventers.
An annular blowout preventer uses the principle of a wedge to shut in the wellbore. It has a
donut-like rubber seal, known as an elastomeric packing unit, reinforced with steel ribs. The
packing unit is situated in the BOP housing between the head and hydraulic piston. When the
piston is actuated, its upward thrust forces the packing unit to constrict, like a sphincter, sealing
the annulus or openhole. Annular preventers have only two moving parts, piston and packing
unit, making them simple and easy to maintain relative to ram preventers.
The original type of annular blowout preventer uses a “wedge-faced” (conical-faced) piston. As
the piston rises, vertical movement of the packing unit is restricted by the head and the sloped
face of the piston squeezes the packing unit inward, toward the center of the wellbore.

LMRP-
The Lower Riser Package is a mechanical device to protect an oil well located underwater
(subsea) and used during an oil well intervention. The LRP is essentially a mini blow out
preventer (BOP). The lower riser package consists of a connector to the subsea oil well, a series
of safety valves and a connection point at the top for connection to the riser pipe. The riser pipe
is essentially a mini Marine riser and has a maximum inside diameter of 7 inches. A marine riser
has a maximum inside diameter of 19 inches.
The LRP is used within what is called a workover system. A workover system is basically a
series of valves and high strength pipe connecting a floating drilling rig to the subsea Christmas
tree.
This device is also known as a lower marine riser package (LMRP).[1]

LMRP Connector
Hydraulically operated connector that joins the LMRP to the top of the BOP stack

BP lastest plan plans is to cut away the existing, damaged riser at the head of the pipe outlet on
the sea floor and deploy a cap called a lower marine riser package (LMRP). BP will cut with
super sheers that weigh 46,000 pounds and resemble a giant garden tool. The company will also
use a powerful diamond-edged cutter the resembles a deli slicer to try to make a clean cut above
the blowout preventer, then will lower a cap over it with a rubber seal.

BP continues to drill two relief wells as part of a longer term plan to control the leak. The first
relief well has reached a depth of 12,090 feet, while the second relief well was at 8,576 feet
(June 1, 2010). The wells are expected to be completed in August. (msnbc, 6/1/2010)
Wellhead Connectors

The Oil States range of connectors is designed to


remotely connect the BOP stack onto the wellhead and to connect the LMRP onto the
BOP stack. They are robust, simple-to-operate devices, designed and built to withstand
the demanding loads that they will see throughout their long lifetime.

The connectors provide a rigid, pressure-tight, preloaded connection to the wellhead.


They are relatively easy to maintain as main parts are easily replaceable, if required.

CHOKE & KILL LINE

Kill line is the pumping outlet connected to Mud cross/drilling spool below BOP stack,
allow to pump fluid thru it to the annulus while killing/filling operations.

Choke line is a line connected to mud cross/ driiling spool below BOPs stack, lined
up to choke manifold. Its allow to divert the return from the well to the mud
system/poor boy/flare pit while killing opeartion and astablish choking pressure on
the well if required. OR

Kill line is the line connected from kill manifold to NRV. NRV is a non return valve

connected with inner manual gate valve and Gate Valve is coneect to Drilling spool.

the line which connect choke manifold to BOP is known as choke line for keeping
back pressure on formation throgh choke while killing well. or it also be used to direct
formation fluid away from rig in safe manners.

choke line

o n. [Drilling]
 A high-pressure pipe leading
from an outlet on the BOP
stack to
the backpressure choke and
associated manifold. During
well-control operations, the
fluid under pressure in the
wellbore flows out of the
well through the choke line
to the choke, reducing the
fluid pressure to
atmospheric pressure. In
floating offshore operations,
the choke and kill lines exit
the subsea BOP stack and
then run along the outside
of the drilling riser to the
surface. The volumetric and
frictional effects of these
long choke and kill lines
must be considered to
control the well properly.

kill line
English | Español

1. n. [Drilling]
A high-pressure pipe leading
from an outlet on the BOP stack
to the high-pressure rig pumps.
During normal well control
operations, kill fluid is pumped
through the drillstring and
annular fluid is taken out of the
well through the choke line to
the choke, which drops the fluid
pressure to atmospheric
pressure. If the drillpipe is
inaccessible, it may be
necessary to pump
heavy drilling fluid in the top of
the well, wait for the fluid to fall
under the force of gravity, and
then remove fluid from
the annulus. In such an
operation, while one high
pressure line would suffice, it is
more convenient to have two.
In addition, this provides a
measure of redundancy for the
operation. In floating offshore
operations, the choke and kill
lines exit the subsea BOP stack
and run along the outside of the
riser to the surface. The
volumetric and frictional effects
of these long choke and kill lines
must be taken into account to
properly control the well.

Landing The BOP Stack


Last Updated on Tue, 15 Jan 2019 | Drilling Procedures

1. Tension the guide lines for landing the BOP stack.


2. Run the TV camera or ROV. Focus on the lower extremities of the BOP stack.
3. Open the motion compensator.
4. Lower the BOP stack until the connector lands on the wellhead housing. Observe the landing
with the TV.
5. Latch the connector. With the Motion Compensator make a pick up test of 50,000lbs (15t)
above the stack weight to verify the connector is correctly locked down.
6. Adjust the riser tensioners to full working tension as per the rig operating manual and/or
riser analysis programme. During the life of the well, it may be necessary to vary the riser
tension due to an increase in mud weight or weather conditions.
7. Reduce the tension in the guide wires.
8. Install the choke and kill hoses to the terminal fittings on the slip joint.
9. Install the slip joint packing control lines.
10. By pumping down choke or kill line, test the wellhead connector and the casing against the
blind/shear rams to the pressure indicated in the drilling programme.
11. Install the diverter package and rotary table.

Control System
A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages,
commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems to
achieve desired results. In other words, the definition of a control system can
be simplified as a system, which controls other systems. As the human
civilization is being modernized day by day the demand for automation is
increasing accordingly. Automation highly requires control of devices.
In recent years, control systems have played a central role in
the development and advancement of modern technology and civilization.
Practically every aspect of our day-to-day life is affected less or more by some
control system. A bathroom toilet tank, a refrigerator, an air conditioner, a
geezer, an automatic iron, an automobile all are control system. These systems
are also used in industrial processes for more output. We find control systems
in the quality control of products, weapons system, transportation systems,
power system, space technology, robotics and many more.
Features of a Control System
The main feature of a control system is that there should be a clear
mathematical relationship between input and output of the system. When the
relation between input and output of the system can be represented by a
linear proportionality, the system is called a linear control system. Again
when the relationship between input and output cannot be represented by
single linear proportionality, rather the input and output are related by some
non-linear relation, the system is referred to as a non-linear control system.

Requirements of a Good Control System


Accuracy: Accuracy is the measurement tolerance of the instrument and
defines the limits of the errors made when the instrument is used in normal
operating conditions. Accuracy can be improved by using feedback elements.
To increase the accuracy of any control system error detector should be
present in the control system.
Sensitivity: The parameters of a control system are always changing with the
change in surrounding conditions, internal disturbance or any other
parameters. This change can be expressed in terms of sensitivity. Any control
system should be insensitive to such parameters but sensitive to input signals
only.
Noise: An undesired input signal is known as noise. A good control system
should be able to reduce the noise effect for better performance.
Stability: It is an important characteristic of the control system. For the
bounded input signal, the output must be bounded and if the input is zero
then output must be zero then such a control system is said to be a stable
system.
Bandwidth: An operating frequency range decides the bandwidth of the
control system. Bandwidth should be as large as possible for the frequency
response of good control system.
Speed: It is the time taken by the control system to achieve its stable output. A
good control system possesses high speed. The transient period for such
system is very small.
Oscillation: A small numbers of oscillation or constant oscillation of output
tend to indicate the system to be stable.
Types of Control Systems
There are various types of control systems, but all of them are created to
control outputs. The system used for controlling the position, velocity,
acceleration, temperature, pressure, voltage and current etc. are examples of
control systems.
Let us take an example of the simple temperature controller of the room, to
clear the concept. Suppose there is a simple heating element, which is heated
up as long as the electric power supply is switched on. As long as the power
supply switch of the heater is on the temperature of the room rises and after
achieving the desired temperature of the room, the power supply is switched
off. Again due to ambient temperature, the room temperature falls and then
manually the heater element is switched on to achieve the desired room
temperature again. In this way, one can manually control the room
temperature at the desired level. This is an example of manual control
system.
This system can further be improved by using timer switching arrangement of
the power supply where the supply to the heating element is switched on and
off in a predetermined interval to achieve desired temperature level of the
room. There is another improved way of controlling the temperature of the
room. Here one sensor measures the difference between actual temperature
and desired temperature. If there is any difference between them, the heating
element functions to reduce the difference and when the difference becomes
lower than a predetermined level, the heating elements stop functioning.

Both forms of the system are automatic control system. In former one, the
input of the system is entirely independent of the output of the system. The
temperature of the room (output) increases as long as the power supply
switch is kept on. That means heating element produces heat as long as the
power supply is kept on and final room temperature does not have any
control over the input power supply of the system. This system is referred as
open loop control system.
But in the latter case, the heating elements of the system function, depending
upon the difference between, actual temperature and desired temperature.
This difference is called the error of the system. This error signal is fed back to
the system to control the input. As the input to the output path and the error
feedback path create a closed loop, this type of control system is referred to as
a closed loop control system.
Hence, there are two main types of control system. They are as follow
1. Open loop control system
2. Closed loop control system
Open Loop Control System
A control system in which the control action is totally independent of output
of the system then it is called open loop control system. A manual control
system is also an open loop control system. The figure below shows a control
system block diagram of an open loop control system in which process output
is totally independent of the controller action.
Practical Examples of Open Loop Control System

1. Electric Hand Drier – Hot air (output) comes out as long as you keep
your hand under the machine, irrespective of how much your hand is
dried.
2. Automatic Washing Machine – This machine runs according to the pre-
set time irrespective of washing is completed or not.
3. Bread Toaster – This machine runs as per adjusted time irrespective of
toasting is completed or not.
4. Automatic Tea/Coffee Maker – These machines also function for pre
adjusted time only.
5. Timer Based Clothes Drier – This machine dries wet clothes for pre-
adjusted time, it does not matter how much the clothes are dried.
6. Light Switch – Lamps glow whenever light switch is on irrespective of
light is required or not.
7. Volume on Stereo System – Volume is adjusted manually irrespective of
output volume level.
Advantages of Open Loop Control System

1. Simple in construction and design.


2. Economical.
3. Easy to maintain.
4. Generally stable.
5. Convenient to use as output is difficult to measure.
Disadvantages of Open Loop Control System

1. They are inaccurate.


2. They are unreliable.
3. Any change in output cannot be corrected automatically.
Closed Loop Control System
Control system in which the output has an effect on the input quantity in such
a manner that the input quantity will adjust itself based on the output
generated is called closed loop control system. Open loop control system can
be converted in to closed loop control system by providing a feedback. This
feedback automatically makes the suitable changes in the output due to
external disturbance. In this way closed loop control system is called
automatic control system. Figure below shows the block diagram of closed
loop control system in which feedback is taken from output and fed in to
input.

Practical Examples of Closed Loop Control System

1. Automatic Electric Iron – Heating elements are controlled by output


temperature of the iron.
2. Servo Voltage Stabilizer – Voltage controller operates depending upon
output voltage of the system.
3. Water Level Controller – Input water is controlled by water level of the
reservoir.
4. Missile Launched and Auto Tracked by Radar – The direction of missile
is controlled by comparing the target and position of the missile.
5. An Air Conditioner – An air conditioner functions depending upon the
temperature of the room.
6. Cooling System in Car – It operates depending upon the temperature
which it controls.
Advantages of Closed Loop Control System

1. Closed loop control systems are more accurate even in the presence of
non-linearity.
2. Highly accurate as any error arising is corrected due to presence of
feedback signal.
3. Bandwidth range is large.
4. Facilitates automation.
5. The sensitivity of system may be made small to make system more
stable.
6. This system is less affected by noise.
Disadvantages of Closed Loop Control System

1. They are costlier.


2. They are complicated to design.
3. Required more maintenance.
4. Feedback leads to oscillatory response.
5. Overall gain is reduced due to presence of feedback.
6. Stability is the major problem and more care is needed to design a
stable closed loop system.
Comparison of Closed Loop And Open Loop Control System

Sr. Open loop control


Closed loop control system
No. system

The feedback element is The feedback element is always


1
absent. present.

An error detector is not An error detector is always


2
present. present.

3 It is stable one. It may become unstable.

4 Easy to construct. Complicated construction.

5 It is an economical. It is costly.

Having small
6 Having large bandwidth.
bandwidth.

7 It is inaccurate. It is accurate.

8 Less maintenance. More maintenance.

9 It is unreliable. It is reliable.

Examples: Hand drier, Examples: Servo voltage


10
tea maker stabilizer, perspiration

Select Language
Feedback Loop of Control System

A feedback is a common and powerful tool when designing a control system.


Feedback loop is the tool which take the system output into consideration and
enables the system to adjust its performance to meet a desired result of
system.
In any control system, the output is affected due to change in environmental
condition or any kind of disturbance. So one signal is taken from the output
and is fed back to the input. This signal is compared with a reference input
and the error signal is generated. This error signal is applied to controller and
output is corrected. Such a system is called feedback system. The figure below
shows the block diagram of a feedback system.

When the feedback signal is positive then system called positive feedback
system. For positive feedback system, the error signal is the addition of
reference input signal and a feedback signal. When the feedback signal is
negative then the system is called negative feedback system. For negative
feedback system, the error signal is given by the difference of reference input
signal and the feedback signal.
Effect of Feedback

Refer figure beside, which represents feedback system where


R = Input signal
E = Error signal
G = Forward path gain
H = Feedback
C = Output signal
B = Feedback signal

1. Error between system input and system output is reduced.


2. System gain is reduced by a factor 1/(1±GH).
3. Improvement in sensitivity.
4. Stability may be affected.
5. Improve the speed of response.

BACKUP SYSTEM

A system backup is the process of backing up the operating system, files and
system-specific useful/essential data. Backup is a process in which the state, files
and data of a computer system are duplicated to be used as a backup or data
substitute when the primary system data is corrupted, deleted or lost.

The most common backup types are a full backup, incremental backup and
differential backup. Other backup types include synthetic full backups and
mirroring. In the debate over cloud vs. local backup, there are some types of
backup that are better in certain locations.

Full backups

The most basic and complete type of backup operation is a full backup. As the name
implies, this type of backup makes a copy of all data to another set of media, such as
a disk or tape. The primary advantage to performing a full backup during every
operation is that a complete copy of all data is available with a single set of media.
This results in a minimal time to restore data, a metric known as a recovery time
objective. However, the disadvantages are that it takes longer to perform a full
backup than other types (sometimes by a factor of 10 or more), and it requires more
storage space.
Incremental backups

An incremental backup operation will result in copying only the data that has changed since
the last backup operation of any type. An organization typically uses the modified time stamp
on files and compares it to the time stamp of the last backup. Backup applications track and
record the date and time that backup operations occur in order to track files modified since
these operations.

Because an incremental backup will only copy data since the last backup of any type, an
organization may run it as often as desired, with only the most recent changes stored. The
benefit of an incremental backup is that it copies a smaller amount of data than a full. Thus,
these operations will complete faster, and require less media to store the backup.

Differential backups

A differential backup operation is similar to an incremental the first time it is performed, in


that it will copy all data changed from the previous backup. However, each time it is run
afterwards, it will continue to copy all data changed since the previous full backup. Thus, it
will store more data than an incremental on subsequent operations, although typically far less
than a full backup. Moreover, differential backups require more space and time to complete
than incremental backups, although less than full backups.

Mirror backups

A mirror backup is comparable to a full backup. According to a blog from backup


vendor Nakivo, "This backup type creates an exact copy of the source data set, but
only the latest data version is stored in the backup repository with no track of
different versions of the files." The backup is a mirror of the source data, thus the
name. All the different backed up files are stored separately, like they are in the
source.

One of the benefits of mirror backup is a fast recovery time. It's also easy to access
individual backed up files.
BOP STACK TESTING

A BOP stack is one of two or more units which control well pressure, and contain the
wellhead and blowout preventers.
The equipment in the BOP stack provides the means to contain well pressures.
The BOP stack is used to contain abnormal pressures in the well bore while drilling the well.

1. n. [Drilling]

A set of two or more BOPs used to ensure pressure control of a well. A typical stack might consist of one to six
ram-type preventers and, optionally, one or two annular-type preventers. A typical stack configuration has the
ram preventers on the bottom and the annular preventers at the top. The configuration of the stack preventers is
optimized to provide maximum pressure integrity, safety and flexibility in the event of a well control incident. For
example, in a multiple ram configuration, one set of rams might be fitted to close on 5-in. diameter drillpipe,
another set configured for 4 1/2-in. drillpipe, a third fitted with blind rams to close on the openhole and a fourth
fitted with a shear ram that can cut and hang-off the drillpipe as a last resort. It is common to have an annular
preventer or two on the top of the stack since annulars can be closed over a wide range of tubular sizes and the
openhole, but are typically not rated for pressures as high as ram preventers. The BOP stack also includes
various spools, adapters and piping outlets to permit the circulation of wellbore fluids under pressure in the event
of a well control incident.

BOP testing procedures


image from cbc.ca
General BOP testing procedures
• Use water to test BOP’s. The reason is that water has less compressibility than mud.

• Make up testing assembly and set in into a wellhead profile. Ensure that the casing valve
must be left opened and there must be personnel monitoring the outlet of casing valve all time
while testing. You must ensure that personnel who monitor the outlet must stay for from the
BOP while it is being tested. The reason behind this step is to prevent pressure build up in the
casing if the test plug is leaking.

• Circulate through choke/kill lines, choke manifold, standpipe manifold, and valves to ensure
that all lines are full with water. This practice is for preventing pressure dropping off while
testing.

• Line up cement unit and rig team shut rams and valves as per each rig specific testing
sequence

• Pressure test must be low and high, respectively, and the pressure should be stabilized with
minimum bleed off at least 5 minutes. Ensure that pressure recording on a chart is recorded
correctly.
• Ensure that any equipment doest not pass a pressure test requirement must be reported to
supervisors.

• Continue pressure testing until all equipment is tested as per each rig specific.

• Rig down testing assembly.

BOP testing period

Function test BOP: Every week, personnel must perform function test BOP alternating
between remote panels.
Full BOP test:There are 3 categories that you should consider for full BOP test.
1. Prior to supping the well or the first time that BOP is installed on the well.

2. After repairing or disconnecting of any pressure sealing elements of BOP.

3. As per MMS, you can use BOP for 21 days (3 weeks) before you need to test it again. Or
you must follow the local regulations. For example, in the North Sea, they allow you only 14
days before next BOP test.

High pressure test for RAMS and auxiliary equipment

High pressure test to rated working pressure of RAMS BOP and auxiliary equipment OR
rated working pressure of your wellhead. Select the lower number. For example, you BOP is
rated for 10,000 psi and your wellhead is rated for 6500 psi. Your high pressure test for the
RAMS BOP and auxiliary equipment must be only 6500 psi.

High pressure test for Annular Preventer


High pressure test should apply to 70% of rated working pressure or RAMS test pressure.
Select the lower number. For example, you test your ram at 5,000 psi and the annular
working pressure is 6,500 psi. You need to test your annular to 3500 psi (70% of rams testing
pressure).

Low pressure test for both annular and RAMs preventer


200 – 300 psi should be applied for a low pressure test and the period is 5 minutes.

Casing design
To design a casing string, one must have knowledge of;

 Purpose of the well


 Geological cross section
 Available casing and bit sizes
 Cementing and drilling practices
 Rig performance
 Safety and environmental regulations
To arrive at the optimal solution, the design engineer must consider casing as a part of a whole
drilling system. A brief description of the elements involved in the design process is presented
next.

Design objective
The engineer responsible for developing the well plan and casing design is faced with a number
of tasks that can be briefly characterized.

 Ensure the well’s mechanical integrity by providing a design basis that accounts for all the
anticipated loads that can be encountered during the life of the well.
 Design strings to minimize well costs over the life of the well.
 Provide clear documentation of the design basis to operational personnel at the well site.
This will help prevent exceeding the design envelope by application of loads not considered
in the original design.
While the intention is to provide reliable well construction at a minimum cost, at times failures
occur. Most documented failures occur because the pipe was exposed to loads for which it was
not designed. These failures are called “off-design” failures. “On-design” failures are rather rare.
This implies that casing-design practices are mostly conservative. Many failures occur at
connections. This implies that either field makeup practices are not adequate, or the connection
design basis is not consistent with the pipe-body design basis.

Design method
The design process can be divided into two distinct phases.

Preliminary design
Typically the largest opportunities for saving money are present while performing this task. This
design phase includes:

 Data gathering and interpretation


 Determination of casing shoe depths and number of strings
 Selection of hole and casing sizes
 Mud-weight design
 Directional design
The quality of the gathered data will have a large impact on the appropriate choice of casing
sizes and shoe depths and whether the casing design objective is successfully met.

Detailed design
The detailed design phase includes selection of pipe weights and grades for each casing string.
The selection process consists of comparing pipe ratings with design loads and applying
minimum acceptable safety standards (i.e., design factors). A cost-effective design meets all the
design criteria with the least expensive available pipe.

Required information
The items listed next are a checklist, which is provided to aid the well planners/casing designers
in both the preliminary and detailed design.

 Formation properties: pore pressure; formation fracture pressure; formation strength


(borehole failure); temperature profile; location of squeezing salt and shale zones; location of
permeable zones; chemical stability/sensitive shales (mud type and exposure time); lost-
circulation zones, shallow gas; location of freshwater sands; and presence of H2S and/or
CO2.
 Directional data: surface location; geologic target(s); and well interference data.
 Minimum diameter requirements: minimum hole size required to meet drilling and production
objectives; logging tool outside diameter (OD); tubing size(s); packer and related equipment
requirements; subsurface safety valve OD (offshore well); and completion requirements.
 Production data: packer-fluid density; produced-fluid composition; and worst-case loads that
might occur during completion, production, and workover operations.
 Other: available inventory; regulatory requirements; and rig equipment limitations.

Preliminary design method

 The purpose of preliminary design is to establish:


 Casing and corresponding drill-bit sizes
 Casing setting depths
 The number of casing strings
Casing program (well plan) is obtained as a result of preliminary design. Casing program design
is accomplished in three major steps:

 Mud program is prepared


 The casing sizes and corresponding drill-bit sizes are determined
 The setting depths of individual casing strings are found
vMud program
The most important mud program parameter used in casing design is the “mud weight.” The
complete mud program is determined from:

 Pore pressure
 Formation strength (fracture and borehole stability)
 Lithology
 Hole cleaning and cuttings transport capability
 Potential formation damage, stability problems, and drilling rate
 Formation evaluation requirement
 Environmental and regulatory requirements
Back to top

Hole and pipe diameters


Hole and casing diameters are based on the requirements discussed next.
Production
The production equipment requirements include:

 Tubing
 Subsurface safety valve
 Submersible pump and gas lift mandrel size
 Completion requirements (e.g., gravel packing)
 Weighing the benefits of increased tubing performance of larger tubing against the higher
cost of larger casing over the life of the well
Evaluation
Evaluation requirements include logging interpretation and tool diameters.
Drilling
Drilling requirements include:

 A minimum bit diameter for adequate directional control and drilling performance
 Available downhole equipment
 Rig specifications
 Available blowout prevention (BOP) equipment
These requirements normally impact the final hole or casing diameter. Because of this, casing
sizes should be determined from the inside outward starting from the bottom of the hole. The
design sequence is, usually, as follows:

 Proper tubing size is selected, based upon reservoir inflow and tubing intake performance
 The required production casing size is determined, considering completion requirements
 The diameter of the drill bit is selected for drilling the production section of the hole,
considering drilling and cementing stipulations
 The smallest casing through which the drill bit will pass is determined
 The process is repeated
Large cost savings are possible by becoming more aggressive (using smaller clearances) during
this portion of the preliminary design phase. This has been one of the principal motivations in the
increased popularity of slimhole drilling. Typical casing and rock bit sizes are given in Table 1.
Table 1- Commonly Used Bit Sizes That Will Pass Through API Casing

Casing shoe depths and the number of strings


Following the selection of drillbit and casing sizes, the setting depth of individual casing strings
must be determined. In conventional rotary drilling operations, the setting depths are determined
principally by the mud weight and the fracture gradient, as schematically depicted in Fig.
1, which is sometimes called a well plan. Equivalent mud weight (EMW) is pressure divided by
true vertical depth and converted to units of lbm/gal. EMW equals actual mud weight when the
fluid column is uniform and static. Pore and fracture gradient lines must be drawn on a well-depth
vs. EMW chart. These are the solid lines in Fig. 1. Safety margins are introduced, and broken
lines are drawn, which establish the design ranges. The offset from the predicted pore pressure
and fracture gradient nominally accounts for kick tolerance and the increased equivalent
circulating density (ECD) during drilling. There are two possible ways to estimate setting depths
from this figure.

Fig. 1—Casing setting depths—bottom-up design.


Back to top
Bottom-up design
This is the standard method for casing seat selection. From Point A in Fig. 1 (the highest mud
weight required at the total depth), draw a vertical line upward to Point B. A protective 7 5/8-in.
casing string must be set at 12,000 ft, corresponding to Point B, to enable safe drilling on the
section AB. To determine the setting depth of the next casing, draw a horizontal line BC and then
a vertical line CD. In such a manner, Point D is determined for setting the 9 5/8-in. casing at 9,500
ft. The procedure is repeated for other casing strings, usually until a specified surface casing
depth is reached.
Top-down design
From the setting depth of the 16-in. surface casing (here assumed to be at 2,000 ft), draw a
vertical line from the fracture gradient dotted line, Point A, to the pore pressure dashed line, Point
B. This establishes the setting point of the 11¾-in. casing at about 9,800 ft. Draw a horizontal line
from Point B to the intersection with the dotted frac gradient line at Point C; then, draw a vertical
line to Point D at the pore pressure curve intersection. This establishes the 9 5/8-in. casing setting
depth. This process is repeated until bottom hole is reached.
There are several things to observe about these two methods. First, they do not necessarily give
the same setting depths. Second, they do not necessarily give the same number of strings. In the
top-down design, the bottomhole pressure is missed by a slight amount that requires a short 7-in.
liner section. This slight error can be fixed by resetting the surface casing depth. The top-down
method is more like actually drilling a well, in which the casing is set when necessary to protect
the previous casing shoe. This analysis can help anticipate the need for additional strings, given
that the pore pressure and fracture gradient curves have some uncertainty associated with them.
In practice, a number of regulatory requirements can affect shoe depth design. These factors are
discussed next.
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Hole stability
This can be a function of mud weight, deviation and stress at the wellbore wall, or can be
chemical in nature. Often, hole stability problems exhibit time-dependent behavior (making shoe
selection a function of penetration rate). The plastic flowing behavior of salt zones must also be
considered.
Differential sticking
The probability of becoming differentially stuck increases along with:

 An increase in differential pressure between the wellbore and formation


 An increase in permeability of the formation
 An Increase in fluid loss of the drilling fluid (i.e., thicker mudcake)
Zonal Isolation. Shallow freshwater sands must be isolated to prevent contamination. Lost-
circulation zones must be isolated before a higher-pressure formation is penetrated.
Back to top
Directional drilling concerns
A casing string is often run after an angle building section has been drilled. This avoids
keyseating problems in the curved portion of the wellbore because of the increased normal force
between the wall and the drillpipe.
Uncertainty in predicted formation properties
Exploration wells often require additional strings to compensate for the uncertainty in the pore
pressure and fracture gradient predictions.
Another approach that could be used for determining casing setting depths relies on plotting
formation and fracturing pressures vs. hole depth, rather than gradients, as shown in Fig.
2 and Fig. 1. This procedure, however, typically yields many strings, and is considered to be very
conservative.

Fig. 2—Casing setting depths—top-down design.


The problem of choosing the casing setting depths is more complicated in exploratory wells
because of shortage of information on geology, pore pressures, and fracture pressures. In such a
situation, a number of assumptions must be made. Commonly, the formation pressure gradient is
taken as 0.54 psi/ft for hole depths less then 8,000 ft and taken as 0.65 psi/ft for depths greater
than 8,000 ft. Overburden gradients are generally taken as 0.8 psi/ft at shallow depth and as 1.0
psi/ft for greater depths.
Back to top
TOC depths
Top-of-cement (TOC) depths for each casing string should be selected in the preliminary design
phase, because this selection will influence axial load distributions and external pressure profiles
used during the detailed design phase. TOC depths are typically based on:

 Zonal isolation
 Regulatory requirements
 Prior shoe depths
 Formation strength
 Buckling
 Annular pressure buildup(in subsea wells)
Buckling calculations are not performed until the detailed design phase. Hence, the TOC depth
may be adjusted, as a result of the buckling analysis, to help reduce buckling in some cases.
Directional plan
For casing design purposes, establishing a directional plan consists of determining the wellpath
from the surface to the geological targets. The directional plan influences all aspects of casing
design including:

 Mud weight and mud chemistry selection for hole stability


 Shoe seat selection
 Casing axial load profiles
 Casing wear
 Bending stresses
 Buckling
It is based on factors that include:

 Geological targets
 Surface location
 Interference from other wellbores
 Torque and drag considerations
 Casing wear considerations
 Bottomhole assembly [(BHA) an assembly of drill collars, stabilizers, and bits]
 Drill-bit performance in the local geological setting
To account for the variance from the planned build, drop, and turn rates, which occur because of
the BHAs used and operational practices employed, higher doglegs are often superimposed over
the wellbore. This increases the calculated bending stress in the detailed design phase.

Detailed design method


Load cases
In order to select appropriate weights, grades, and connections during the detailed design phase
using sound engineering judgment, design criteria must be established. These criteria normally
consist of load cases and their corresponding design factors that are compared to pipe ratings.
Load cases are typically placed into categories that include:

 Burst loads
 Drilling loads
 Production loads
 Collapse loads
 Axial loads
 Running and cementing loads
 Service loads
Design factors (DF)

....................(1)
where
DF = design factor (the minimum acceptable safety factor), and
SF = safety factor.
It follows that

....................(2)
Hence, by multiplying the load by the DF, a direct comparison can be made with the pipe rating.
As long as the rating is greater than or equal to the modified load (which we will call the design
load), the design criteria have been satisfied.

Casing Seat Selection


Last Updated on Sun, 24 Dec 2017 | Well Control

Selecting casing setting depths for each casing string to be run in a well is often the most critical
decision made in pre-planning; especially where abnormal pressures or weak, lost
circulation zones, are expected.
The key to satisfactory casing seat selection is the assessment of pore pressure (formation fluid
pressures) and fracture pressures throughout the well. Evidently, as the pore pressure in a
formation being drilled approaches the fracture pressure at the last casing seat then a further
string of casing is necessary.

Figure 1 illustrates this, with an idealised casing seat selection shown.

Figure 1 illustrates this, with an idealised casing seat selection shown.

PRESSURE -►

Figure 1 - Casing Seat Selection

Casing is set at Depth 1, where pore pressure is and the fracture pressure is Fr Drilling continues
to Depth 2, where the pore pressure P2 has risen to almost equal the fracture pressure (F1) at the
first casing seat. Another casing string is therefore set at this depth, with fracture pressure (F2).
Drilling can thus continue to Depth 3, where pore pressure (P3) is almost equal to the fracture
pressure F2 at the previous casing seat.
Kick Tolerance Concept and Calculation
for Well Design
Kick tolerance is the maximum gas volume for a given degree of underbalance which
the circulation can be performed without exceeding the weakest formation in the
wellbore. This article is the extended version of Kick Tolerance Calculation which
will explain more on this topic. It is very critical that drilling personnel understand its
importance to well design and drilling operation.
There are two important factors used for determining the kick tolerance
• Kick Intensity – It is the different between the maximum anticipated formation pressure
and planned mud weight. For example, the planned mud weight is 13.0 ppg and the possible
kick pressure is 13.5 ppg. Therefore, the kick intensity is 0.5 ppg (13.5 – 13.0).
A zero kick intensity (swabbed kick scenario) should be used for a know area where you have
less uncertainty about an overpressure zone.

• Kick Volume – It is a gas influx entering into the wellbore from the formation. Gas kick is
always used for well control calculation because it is the worst case scenario. The kick
volume should be realistic figure which personal can detect the influx on the rig. In a larger
hole, it allows bigger influx volume than a small hole.
Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure (MAASP) and Kick Tolerance
Weakest formation point in the open hole is assumed to be at the shoe depth of the previous
casing. The well bore will be fractured if a summation of hydrostatic and surface pressure
exceeds the weakest pressure (Leak Off Test pressure). The maximum surface pressure
before breaking the formation is called “Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure”
(MASICP).
Make it simpler for your understanding. MASICP is the total of kick tolerance budget. It
consists of pressure from kick intensity and hydrostatic pressure loss due to gas.

Kick Tolerance Example Calculation


Previous casing shoe (9-5/8” casing) at 6,000’ MD/ 6,000’ TVD

Predicted formation pressure at TD (10,000’MD/10,000’TVD) = 14.0 ppg

Pore pressure uncertainty = 1.0 ppg

Planned mud weight = 14.5 ppg (0.754 psi/ft)

Gas gradient = 0.1 psi/ft

LOT = 16.0 ppg

Hole size = 8-1/2”

Drill Pipe = 5”

BHA + Drill Collar = 7”


Length of BHA+Drill Collar = 400 ft

Annular capacity between open hole and BHA = 0.0226 bbl/ft

Annular capacity between open hole and 5” DP = 0.0459 bbl/ft

Calculation Steps
Maximum anticipated pressure = 14.0 + 1 = 15.0 ppg

Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (LOT – MW) x 0.052 x Shoe
TVD

Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (16 – 14.5) x 0.052 x 6,000 = 468
psi
Kick Intensity = 15.0 – 14.5 = 0.5 ppg

Underbalance due to kick intensity = 0.5 x 0.052 x 10,000 = 260 psi

As you can see, when the well is in underbalance condition (260 psi), the shoe will not be
broken because the MASICP is more than underbalance pressure (468 > 260).

We know that 0.5 ppg kick intensity we will have 208 psi (468 – 260 = 208 psi) before shoe
broken.

It means that gas bubble can replace mud in equivalent to 208 psi before fracturing the shoe.
With this relationship, we can determine height of gas kick by the following equation.

Height of gas kick = remaining pressure, psi ÷ (mud gradient, psi/ft – gas gradient, psi/ft)

Height of gas kick = 208 ÷ (0.754 – 0.1) = 318 ft.

Determine gas kick volume base on height of gas kick


We need to separate into two cases and compare the smallest volume.

1st case – Gas at the bottom


Volume of gas kick = Annular capacity between open hole and BHA x Height of gas kick

Volume of gas kick (bbl) = 0.0226 bbl/ft x 318 ft = 7.2 bbl

2nd case – Gas right below casing shoe


For this case, we need to convert gas at the shoe to the bottom condition by applying Boyle’s
Laws.

Volume of gas kick = Annular capacity between open hole and 5” DP x Height of gas kick

Volume of gas kick (bbl) = 0.0459 bbl/ft x 318 ft = 14.6 bbl

Convert to the bottom hole condition


Volume at the bottom = (volume of gas kick at shoe x Leak off test) ÷ formation pressure

Leak off test = 0.052 x 16 x 6,000 = 4,992 psi

Formation pressure (gas kick condition) = 0.052 x 15 x 10,000 = 7,800 psi

Volume at the bottom = (14.6 x 4992) ÷ 7800 = 9.3 bbl

We can compare the kick volume from two cases like this.

1 st case : kick volume = 7.2 bbl

2nd case : kick volume = 9.3 bbl


The smallest number must be selected to represent maximum kick volume therefore kick
volume is 7.2 bbl.

STRENGTH OF CASING AND TUBING

most important mechanical properties of casing and tubing are burst strength, collapse
resistance and tensile strength. These properties are necessary to determine the strength of the
pipe and to design a casing string.

BURST

What is burst pressure?


Burst pressure is literally the pressure that a pressure vessel like pipe or tube can
handle before rupturing or “bursting”.
OR

Burst pressure refers to the internal pressure that causes a pipe to burst or fracture.

The nominal burst pressure is also calculated from the Barlow Equation. However,
factor S is selected as the minimum specified tensile strength of the pipe being used.

For Grade A pipe, the value of S is 48,000 psi and for Grade B, the value of S is
60,000 psi. The above values are used for both seamless and electric-resistance
welded pipe because these products are considered to be completely uniform in
strength around the circumference.

“Barlow Equation”:

P = 2St/D
P = Test Pressure
S = Specified yield strength of material normally, 60% of the yield
t = Wall thickness
D = Nominal outside diameter

Minimum Internal Yield Pressue (MIYP)


If casing is subjected to internal pressure higher than external, it is said that casing is exposed to
burst pressure loading. Burst pressure loading conditions occur during well control operations,
casing pressure integrity tests, pumping operations, and production operations. The MIYP of the
pipe body is determined by the internal yield pressure formula found in API Bull. 5C3, Formulas
and Calculations for Casing, Tubing, Drillpipe, and Line Pipe Properties.[1]

....................(1)
where
PB = minimum burst pressure, psi,
Yp = minimum yield strength, psi,
t = nominal wall thickness, in.,
and
D = nominal outside pipe diameter, in.
This equation, commonly known as the Barlow equation, calculates the internal pressure at
which the tangential (or hoop) stress at the inner wall of the pipe reaches the yield strength (YS)
of the material. The expression can be derived from the Lamé equation for tangential stress by
making the thin-wall assumption that D/t >> 1. Most casing used in the oilfield has a D/t ratio
between 10 and 35. The factor of 0.875 appearing in the equation represents the allowable
manufacturing tolerance of –12.5% on wall thickness specified in API Bull. 5C2, Performance
Properties of Casing, Tubing, and Drillpipe.[2] A pressure at MIYP does not mean the pipe will
have a burst or rupture failure which only occurs when the tangential stress exceeds the ultimate
tensile strength (UTS). So using a yield strength criterion as a measure of pipe internal pressure
resistance is inherently conservative. This is particularly true for lower-grade materials such H-
40, K-55, and N-80 whose UTS/YS ratio is significantly greater than that of higher-grade
materials such as P-110 and Q-125. The effect of axial loading on the internal pressure
resistance is discussed later.

Collapse strength
If external pressure exceeds internal pressure, the casing is subjected to collapse. Such
conditions may exist during cementing operations, trapped fluid expansion, or well evacuation.
Collapse strength is primarily a function of the material's yield strength and its slenderness
ratio, D/t. The collapse strength criteria, given in API Bull. 5C3, Formulas and Calculations for
Casing, Tubing, Drillpipe, and Line Pipe Properties,[1] consist of four collapse regimes
determined by yield strength and D/t . Each criterion is discussed next in order of increasing D/t.

Yield strength collapse


Yield strength collapse is based on yield at the inner wall using the Lamé thick wall elastic
solution. This criterion does not represent a "collapse" pressure at all. For thick wall pipes (D/t <
15±), the tangential stress exceeds the yield strength of the material before a collapse instability

failure occurs. ....................(2) Nominal dimensions are used in the


collapse equations. The applicable D/t ratios for yield strength collapse are shown in Table 1.

Table 1- Yield Collapse Pressure Formula Range

Plastic collapse
Plastic collapse is based on empirical data from 2,488 tests of K-55, N-80, and P-110 seamless
casing. No analytic expression has been derived that accurately models collapse behavior in this
regime. Regression analysis results in a 95% confidence level that 99.5% of all pipes
manufactured to American Petroleum Institute (API) specifications will fail at a collapse pressure
higher than the plastic collapse pressure. The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic range of
collapse is calculated by Eq. 3.
....................(3)
The factors A, B, and C and applicable D/t range for the plastic collapse formula are shown
in Table 2.

Table 2- Formula Factors and D/t Ranges for Plastic Collapse

Transition collapse
Transition collapse is obtained by a numerical curve fit between the plastic and elastic regimes.
The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic-to-elastic transition zone, PT, is calculated
with Eq. 4.

....................(4)
The factors F and G and applicable D/t range for the transition collapse pressure formula, are
shown in Table 3.

Table 3- Formula Factors and D/t Range for Transition Collapse

Elastic collapse
Elastic Collapse is based on theoretical elastic instability failure; this criterion is independent of
yield strength and applicable to thin-wall pipe (D/t >
25±). The minimum collapse pressure for the elastic range of collapse is calculated with Eq.

5. ....................(5) The applicable D/t range for elastic collapse is


shown in Table 4.

Table 4- D/t Range for Elastic Collapse


Most oilfield tubulars experience collapse in the "plastic" and "transition" regimes. Many
manufacturers market "high collapse" casing, which they claim has collapse performance
properties that exceed the ratings calculated with the formulae in API Bull. 5C3, Formulas and
Calculations for Casing, Tubing, Drillpipe, and Line Pipe Properties.[1] This improved
performance is achieved principally by using better manufacturing practices and stricter quality
assurance programs to reduce ovality, residual stress, and eccentricity. High collapse casing was
initially developed for use in the deeper sections of high-pressure wells. The use of high collapse
casing has gained wide acceptance in the industry, but its use remains controversial among
some operators. Unfortunately, all manufacturers ’ claims have not been substantiated with the
appropriate level of qualification testing. If high collapse casing is deemed necessary in a design,
appropriate expert advice should be obtained to evaluate the manufacturer’ s qualification test
data such as lengths to diameter ratio, testing conditions (end constraints), and the number of
tests performed.

Equivalent internal pressure


If the pipe is subjected to both external and internal pressures, the equivalent external pressure
is calculated as

....................(6)
where
pe = equivalent external pressure,
po = external pressure,
pi = internal pressure,
and
Δ p = po – p i .
To provide a more intuitive understanding of the sense of this relationship, Eq. 6 can be rewritten
as

....................(7)
where
D = nominal outside diameter,
and
d = nominal inside diameter.
In Eq. 7, we can see the internal pressure applied to the internal diameter and the external
pressure applied to the external diameter. The "equivalent" pressure applied to the external
diameter is the difference of these two terms.

Axial strength
The axial strength of the pipe body is determined by the pipe body yield strength formula found in
API Bull. 5C3, Formulas and Calculations for Casing, Tubing, Drillpipe, and Line Pipe
Properties.[1]

....................(8)
where
Fy = pipe body axial strength (units of force),
Yp = minimum yield strength,
D = nominal outer diameter,
and
d = nominal inner diameter.
Axial strength is the product of the cross-sectional area (based on nominal dimensions) and the
yield strength.

Combined stress effects


All the pipe-strength equations previously given are based on a uniaxial stress state (i.e., a state
in which only one of the three principal stresses is nonzero). This idealized situation never occurs
in oilfield applications because pipe in a wellbore is always subjected to combined loading
conditions. The fundamental basis of casing design is that if stresses in the pipe wall exceed
the yield strength of the material, a failure condition exists. Hence, the yield strength is a
measure of the maximum allowable stress. To evaluate the pipe strength under combined
loading conditions, the uniaxial yield strength is compared to the yielding condition. Perhaps the
most widely accepted yielding criterion is based on the maximum distortion energy theory, which
is known as the Huber-Hencky-Mises yield condition or simply the von Mises stress, triaxal
stress, or equivalent stress.[3] Triaxial stress (equivalent stress) is not a true stress. It is a
theoretical value that allows a generalized three-dimensional (3D) stress state to be compared
with a uniaxial failure criterion (the yield strength). In other words, if the triaxial stress exceeds
the yield strength, a yield failure is indicated. The triaxial safety factor is the ratio of the material’s
yield strength to the triaxial stress. The yielding criterion is stated

as ....................(9) where
Yp = minimum yield stress, psi,
σVME = triaxial stress, psi,
σz = axial stress, psi,
σϴ = tangential or hoop stress, psi,
and
σr = radial stress, psi.
The calculated axial stress, σz, at any point along the cross-sectional area should include the
effects of:

 Self-weight
 Buoyancy
 Pressure loads
 Bending
 Shock loads
 Frictional drag
 Point loads
 Temperature loads
 Buckling loads
Except for bending/buckling loads, axial loads are normally considered to be constant over the
entire cross-sectional area.
The tangential and radial stresses are calculated with the Lamé equations for thick-wall cylinders.

....................(10)
and

....................(11)
where
pi = internal pressure,
po = external pressure,
ri = inner wall radius,
ro = outer wall radius,
and
r = radius at which the stress occurs.
The absolute value of σϴ is always greatest at the inner wall of the pipe and that for burst and
collapse loads, where | pi – po| >> 0, then| σϴ| >> | σr| . For any pi and po combination, the sum of
the tangential and radial stresses is constant at all points in the casing wall. Substituting Eq.

10 and Eq. 11 into Eq. 9, after rearrangements, yields ....................(12) in

which and

where
D = outside pipe diameter,
and
t = wall thickness.
COLLAPSE

What is collapse pressure?


The pressure at which a tube, or vessel, will catastrophically deform as a result of
differential pressure acting from outside to inside of the vessel or tube.
The collapse-pressure rating of perfectly round tubing is relatively high.

TENSILE

Tensile strength is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or
a structural beam to the point where it breaks.
The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can take before
failure, for example breaking.
There are three typical definitions of tensile strength:

 Yield strength - The stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation. This is
not a sharply defined point. Yield strength is the stress which will cause a permanent
deformation of 0.2% of the original dimension.

 Ultimate strength - The maximum stress a material can withstand.

 Breaking strength - The stress coordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture.

figure 1: "Engineering" stress–strain (σ–ε) curve typical of aluminum


1. Ultimate strength
2. Yield strength
3. Proportional limit stress
4. Fracture
5. Offset strain (typically 0.2%)

RUNNING CASING

Running casing is the process of screwing together pieces of pipe on a rig floor and lowering
them into a hole.
During running casing, the pipes are fitted together and lowered into the hole.
A steel casing is lowered into the open hole - the action is called running casing - and cement
slurry is pumped down the hole.
Running casing is the process of screwing together pieces of pipe on a rig floor and lowering them
into a hole.

run