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BIOLOGY

INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT

By:
STUDY OF ROUNAKCHATTERJEE
CANCER XII-B

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As a student of Class XII, I did this project as a part of my


studies entitled “Study of Cancer”. I owe a deep sense of
gratitude to my biology teacher Mrs. Lopamudra
Bhattacharjee, whose valuable advice, guidance helped me
in doing this project from conception to completion.
At the same time, I cannot forget to express my gratitude to
our school Principal for extending his generous, patronage
and constant encouragement.
Finally I am thankful to my parents for helping me
economically, and my friends for being a helping hand at
every step of this project.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that I, Rounak Chatterjee of


class XII of Sudhir Memorial Institute has
successfully completely the Biology
Investigatory Project as prescribed by the All
India Senior Secondary Certificate
Examination (AISSCE) for the academic year
2019-20.

DATE:

----------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

SIGNATURE OF INTERNAL SIGNATURE OF EXTERNAL

EXAMINER EXAMINER

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This is to certify that I, ____________ of class XII of Nehru Smaraka Vidyalaya has successfully
completely the __________ Investigatory Project as prescribed by the All India Senior Secondary
Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for the academic year 2017-18.

S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO

1, WHAT IS CANCER ACTUALLY? 5


2, COMMON TYPES OF CANCER 5
3, SIGN AND SYMPTOMS 6
4, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NORMAL CELL AND 7
CANCER CELL

5, HOW DOES CANCER CELLS ACTIVATE? 8


6, PREVENTION STEPS 9
7, DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER 10
8, MAIN CAUSES OF CANCER 11
9, TREATMENT OF CANCER 12
10, BIBLIOGRAPHY 15

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STUDY OF CANCER
1, What is Cancer actually?
Cancer is a disease involving abnormal cell growth with a
potential to invade to other parts of the body. In contrast benign
tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

They form a subset of neoplasm. A neoplasm or tumor is a group


of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often
form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely.

Cancer cells stealing energy from


normal healthy cells.

Cancer develops when the cell’s genetic


material gets damaged or mutated.

2, Common types of Cancer


Bladder Cancer

Breast Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Kidney Cancer

Lung Cancer

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Lymphoma- Non Hodge skin

Melanoma

Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Uterine Cancer

Brain Cancer

3, Signs and Symptoms


It produces no symptoms at the beginning of cancer, the actual
symptoms starts when there is a mass growth or Ulcerates.
People may become anxious or depressed post-diagnosis. The risk
of suicide in people with cancer is approximately double.

Mass effects from lung cancer can block the bronchus resulting in
cough or Pneumonia; Esophageal Cancer can cause narrowing of
the Esophagus, making it difficult or painful to swallow; and
Colorectal Cancer may lead to narrowing or blockages in the
Bowel, affecting bowel habits. Masses in breasts or testicles may
produce observable lumps. Ulceration can cause bleeding that, if
it occurs in the lung, will lead to coughing up blood, in the bowels

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to anemia or rectal bleeding, in the bladder to blood in the urine
and in the uterus to vaginal bleeding.

These are some local symptoms which can show up the growth of
cancer cells.

Ulcerates: Sore on the skin or a mucous


membrane accompanied by disintegration
of tissue. Results in complete loss of
epidermis.

4, Difference between Normal Cells and Cancer Cells

NORMAL CELLS CANCER CELLS


CELL REPRODUCTION

Cell reproduction is needed to These cells may have gene


replenish the cell population mutations or chromosome
that ages or becomes mutations that affect the
damaged or destroyed. reproductive properties the
Normal cells reproduce cells. They don’t experience
properly. biological aging and maintain
their ability to replicate and
grow.

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5, How Does Cancer cells activate?

It is well known that cancer is preceded by damaged DNA.


Because DNA is encoded with the instructions for cell behavior,
damaged DNA can alter cell processes including those that
regulate growth and division. This is supported by the fact that
tissues which have a high cell-division rate, such as bone and
lymph, are the most common sites for cancer.

Some genes, encoded on DNA, act as a switch that can be turned


on or off depending on cell needs. Free radicals have the ability to
break DNA strands which can result in some genes being
permanently switched on, such is the case with cancerous cell
growth. Although it is often taught that the DNA mutations that

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lead to cancer happen at random, research suggests there are
epigenetic triggers that may increase prevalence of DNA damage.

6, Prevention Steps:

DNA is vital for cell function and the body has mechanisms
by which it protects DNA from being damaged. One of the
most important mechanisms is the one responsible for the
production of antioxidants. A major step in the prevention
of DNA damage, and therefore cancer, would be to
optimize antioxidant activity. Research has suggested that
this can be achieved through the adoption of a diet that
incorporates antioxidant rich foods or extracts.

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Glutathione plays a major role in the antioxidant activities
of the body. Evidence shows that this molecule alone has
the ability to influence cancer risk in a directly correlative
manner. This means that by increasing your body’s supply
of glutathione, you are drastically improving its ability to
control free radicals before they damage cells. There are
several ways in which you can increase your supply of
glutathione.

7, Development of Cancer

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8, Main Causes of Cancer:
 Tobacco use is the cause of about 33% of cancer deaths.
 Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical
activity, excessive drinking of alcohol.
 Nearly 20% of cancer cause is due to hepatitis B, hepatitis C
and human papillomavirus.
 Approximately 5-10% of cancer is due to inherited genetic
defect from person’s parents.

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9, Treatment of Cancer:
SURGERY

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RADIATION THERAPY

CHEMOTHERAPY

IMMUNOTHERAPY

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THANK YOU!

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 www.google.com
 www.thoughtco.com
 www.cancer.net
 www.healthtap.com
 www.cancerresearchuk.org
 www.academia.edu
 www.quora.com

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